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CD4 Cells
By Afsath Jameela

CD4 Cells
Treatment centers need consulting rooms, offices, waiting rooms and secure storage for valuable drugs. They also require basic facilities to test for anemia, pregnancy, renal function, white blood cell counts and other factors that may affect treatment.
In developed countries, decisions about when to start treatment are based on the results of clinical tests called the CD4 test and the viral load test. Ideally these tests should be used everywhere, but in many parts of the world they are currently unavailable, as they require expensive equipment, electricity and trained technicians. In theory, decisions about when to start treatment may be based on symptoms alone. However in practice some treatment programmers provide medication only to people who have had a CD4 count.
There are two primary types of T-cells.
1. CD4 Cells-These cells have molecules called CD4 on its surface. These "helper" cells initiate the body's response to invading micro-organisms such as viruses.
2.CD8 Cells-These types of T-cells have a molecule called CD8 on their surface. CD8 cells destroy cells that have been infected with foreign invading micro-organisms. CD8 cells also produce antiviral substances (antibodies) that help fight off the foreign invader.
3.Normal values-In a healthy adult, a normal CD4 count can vary a great deal but is typically 600 to 1200 cells per cubic millimeter of blood
Between 600 and 350- In an HIV+ person, this range is considered "very good".
HIV medications are typically not be indicated.
Between 350 and 200-The immune system is weakened and therefore the HIV+ person may be at increased risk for infection and illness.
Function of T helper cells: Antigen presenting cells present antigen on their Class II MHC molecules. Helper T cells recognize these, with the help of their expression of CD4 co-receptor. The activation of a resting helper T cell causes it to release cytokines and other stimulatory signals. The importance of CD4 T cells is demonstrated with infection.
It has been proposed that during the non-symptomatic phase of infection, the virus has a relatively low affinity towards T cells (and has a higher affinity for macrophages), resulting in a slow kill rate of CD4+ T cells by the immune system. This is initially compensated for via the production of new helper T cells from thymus. Once the virus becomes T-tropic, it begins to infect CD4+ T cells far more efficiently, and

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Professor Patel is also the co-Director of the Centre for the Control of Chronic Conditions at Public Health Foundation of India (PHFI).
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Mentally challenged woman raped by two
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‘Over 300 persons with mental illness wandering in Kanyakumari district ’
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: Though the year-old Haemophilia Treatment Centre at the District Hospital, Aluva, is a major relief for the patients with the genetic blood disorder, it still lacks infrastructural facilities.</p...
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Mentally unstable man axes his parents and daughter to death in Ahmedabad - Mid Day: Columnists
Ahmedabad: A 27-year-old mentally unstable man from Malarpur village of Kheralu taluka in Mehsana district allegedly hacked his three-year-old daugther and his parents to death with an axe on Tuesday night, police sources said here today. According Kheralu taluka police inspector S H Bava, the accused man, who has been identified as Nagji was Thakor was nabbed by the local police early today morning. However, during the struggle to overpower him, Thakor attacked and injured two policmen as well as one of his neighbours, the police official said. According to the police official, Thakor, who was diagnosed with a mental illness, had been undergoing treatment since the last couple of years. Thakor, who used to work at a factory in Palanpur reached his home in Malarpur village a few days ago after his illness worsened, the police official said. &quot;When everyone was asleep in his house, he suddenly woke up at around 2 am and attacked his daughter Dharti with his axe. After his wife Daxaben tried to stop him, he ...
'India's reformer-in-chief' Modi leads four Indians in Time 100 (Roundup) - All News-IANS Stories
Headed by Prime Minister Narendra Modi, whom President Barack Obama calls "India's reformer-in-chief", four people of Indian origin figure in the Time magazine's list of the World's 100 most influential people this year.
Argentine teacher stabbed to death in front of toddlers - Zee News : World
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THIS WEEK’S QUESTIONS - The Hindu: Today's Paper
THIS WEEK’S QUESTIONS
Argentine Teacher Stabbed to Death in Front of Toddlers - newindianexpress.com
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Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients to get psychologist support - Hindu: Mangalore
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'Anti-semitism' hits Stanford - Telegraph: International
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Muneer’s Janasabha from April 18 - The Hindu: Today's Paper
Muneer’s Janasabha from April 18

the immune system is overwhelmed.
At this point, functional CD4+ T cell levels begin to decrease, eventually to a point where the CD4+ T cell population is too small to recognize the full range antigens that could potentially be detected. The lack of full antigen cover results in the core symptoms of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).CD4 T cell depletion during AIDS allows various pathogens to escape T cell recognition, thus allowing opportunistic infections that would normally elicit a helper T cell response to bypass the immune system. While these complete bypass situations only occur when the helper T cell response is absolutely necessary for infection clearance, most infections increase in severity and/or duration because the immune system's helper T cells provide a weaker contribution to a less efficient immune response.
Two components of the immune system are particularly affected in AIDS, due to its CD4+ T cell dependency:
CD8+ T cells are not stimulated as effectively during the AIDS period of infection, making AIDS patients very susceptible to most viruses, including itself. This decline in killing of CD4+ T cells results in the virus being produced for a longer period (the infected CD4+ T cells are not killed as quickly), increasing the proliferation of the virus, and accelerating the development of the disease.
Antibody class switching declines significantly once helper T cell function fails. The immune system loses its ability to improve the affinity of their antibodies, and are unable to generate B cells that can produce antibody groups such as IgG and IgA. These effects are primarily due to the loss of any helper T cell that can interact with the B lymphocyte correctly. Another symptom of AIDS is the reduction in antibody levels due to a decrease in Th2 cytokines (and less interactions by helper T cells). All of these complications result in an increased susceptibility to aggressive bacterial infections, especially in areas of the body not accessible by IgM antibodies.
If the patient does not respond to Treatment they will succumb usually to either cancers or infections; the immune system finally reaches a point where it is no longer coordinated or stimulated enough to deal with the disease.

 Keywords:  HIV,AIDS,HIV Cure,HIV Treatment,HIV Infection,HIV Dating,HIV Positive,HIV Symptoms.


Afsath Jameela is a successful lady writer from Kairo. She right now living in UK.

Drug use patterns associated with risk of non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy among HIV-positive illicit drug users in a Canadian setting: a longitudinal analysis
Conclusions: Periods of heroin and cocaine injection appeared to have the most deleterious impact upon antiretroviral adherence. The findings point to the need for improved access to treatment for heroin use disorder, particularly methadone, and highlight the need to identify strategies to support ART adherence among cocaine injectors. (Source: BMC Infectious Diseases)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Indiana Sees Jump In New HIV Cases In Rural Outbreak
April 17 (Reuters) - An HIV outbreak in southeastern Indiana related to abuse of intravenous prescription drugs has jumped by 24 cases in the past week, an increase attributed to offering more testing resources, state health officials said on Friday. The outbreak centered in rural Scott County near the border with Kentucky has reached 130 cases, including 10 preliminary positive tests, up from 106 a week ago, health officials said. Scott County, about 30 miles north of Louisville, Kentucky, has been the center of the outbreak, the biggest in the state's history. A needle exchange program started April 4 for Scott County residents has so far distributed 5,322 clean syringes to 86 people and collected 1,400 used syringes, health officials said. Although Indiana bans needle exchanges, Gov...
Cytochrome P450 2B6 genetic variants are associated with plasma nevirapine levels and clinical response in HIV-1 infected Kenyan women: a prospective cohort study.
CONCLUSIONS: CYP2B6 516G&gt;T and CYP2B6 983T&gt;C genotypes were strongly associated with plasma nevirapine concentration, which predicted immunologic response in women on nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy. These data support continued work on the potential utility of human genetic testing to inform nevirapine dosage optimization for individual patients. PMID: 25878720 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Therapy)
Nigeria: Achieving an End to the Aids Epidemic - Laying the Groundwork
[Guardian] CONTINUED FROM TUESDAY, APRIL 14, 2015 (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Kenya: 17 Per Cent Aids Deaths in Kenya Occur Among Youth, Says NACC
[The Star] Seventeen per cent of Aids-related deaths every year occur among adolescents and youth, the National Aids Control Council has said. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Zimbabwe: Harare Records 10,000 Cases of STIs in Three Months
[New Zimbabwe] HARARE recorded 10,128 cases of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI) between January and March this year, National Aids Council (NAC) Harare province coordinator, Adonijah Muzondiona has said. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
[Correspondence] HIV incidence and mortality in China
We read with interest, the Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) by Christopher Murray and colleagues1 reporting global, regional, and national estimates of HIV/AIDS incidence and mortality for 1990?2013, which included an estimate of 35?665 new HIV cases and 12?145 deaths in China in 2013. This number of deaths is almost a third lower than the 19?716 deaths reported for the same year by the National Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention (NCAIDS) within the Chinese Center For Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (Source: LANCET)
Alcohol Use and Associated Sexual and Substance Use Behaviors Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Moscow, Russia
This study explored relationships between alcohol use and behavioral risks for HIV transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Moscow, Russia. Alcohol use disorder identification test (AUDIT) scores for 1367 MSM participating in a cross-sectional survey and HIV testing were categorized to: ?abstinence/low use?, ?hazardous use?, ?harmful use/dependency?. Multiple logistic regression models compared dependent variables for sexual and drug use behaviors across alcohol use strata. Hazardous and harmful/dependent alcohol use were significantly associated with high-risk sexual behaviors and drug use. Harmful use/dependency was associated with an increased odds of having more than five male sex partners (last 12 months; adjusted odds ratios?AOR 1.69; 95 % CI 1.25?2.27)...
Rwanda: Gasabo District Gets New HIV Clinic, Laboratory
[New Times] The AIDS Healthcare Foundation (AHF) - Rwanda yesterday inaugurated a new HIV clinic and laboratory at Kabuye Health Centre in Gasabo District. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: The Case for Keeping Viral Hepatitis in the SDGs
[SciDev.Net] Globally, viral hepatitis kills an estimated 1.5 million people each year - a death toll comparable to HIV/AIDS. The chronic disease caused by hepatitis B and C viruses accounts for 78 per cent of all cases of liver cancer, which is the second most common cause of cancer deaths after lung cancer. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Botswana: ACHAP Track Record Speaks Volumes
[Botswana Daily News] Gaborone -The African Comprehensive HIV/AIDS Partnerships (ACHAP) prides itself on various achievements and looks forward to continuous partnerships with the government and other stakeholders in the fight against HIIV/AIDS and Tuberculosis. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Epidemiology and management of antiretroviral-associated cardiovascular disease.
Authors: Chastain DB, Henderson H, Stover KR Abstract Risk and manifestations of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) will continue to evolve as improved treatments and life expectancy of these patients increases. Although initiation of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy has been shown to reduce this risk, some ARV medications may induce metabolic abnormalities, further compounding the risk of CVD. In this patient population, both pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic strategies should be employed to treat and reduce further risk of CVD. This review summarizes epidemiology data of the risk factors and development of CVD in HIV and provides recommendations to manage CVD in HIV-infected patients. PMID: 25866592 [PubMed] (Source: Open A...
Kenya: 17 Per Cent Youth Have HIV, Says NACC
[The Star] Seventeen per cent of AIDs related deaths every year occur among adolescents and youth, the National Aids Control Council has said. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Kenya: Wanted - Anti-HIV Messaging for the Age of Social Media
[The Star] THE National Aids Control Council says 17 per cent of Aids-related deaths occur among adolescents and youth. This is a distressing statistic and strikes right at the heart of the nation's future. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Number of Drinks to ?Feel a Buzz? by HIV Status and Viral Load in Men
Abstract The impact of HIV and its treatment on the effects of alcohol remain unclear. Blood alcohol concentrations have been noted to be higher in HIV infected individuals prior to antiretroviral initiation. Our goal was to compare number of drinks to ?feel a buzz or high? among HIV infected and uninfected men, stratified by viral load (VL) suppression. Data includes 1478 HIV infected and 1170 uninfected men in the veterans aging cohort study who endorsed current drinking. Mean (SD) number of drinks to feel a buzz was 3.1 (1.7) overall. In multivariable analyses, HIV infected men reported a lower mean number of drinks to feel a buzz compared to uninfected men (coef = ?14 for VL &lt; 500; ?34 for VL ? 500; p ? .05). Men with HIV, especially those with a det...
Antiretroviral Drug Diversion Links Social Vulnerability to Poor Medication Adherence in Substance Abusing Populations
This study applies the Gelberg?Andersen behavioral model of health care utilization for vulnerable populations to understand how social vulnerability is linked to ARV diversion and adherence. Cross-sectional data were collected from a targeted sample of vulnerable people living with HIV in South Florida between 2010 and 2012 (n = 503). Structured interviews collected quantitative data on ARV diversion, access and utilization of care, and ARV adherence. Logistic regression was used to estimate the goodness-of-fit of additive models that test domain fit. Linear regression was used to estimate the effects of social vulnerability and ARV diversion on ARV adherence. The best fitting model to predict ARV diversion identifies having a low monthly income and unstable HIV care as salient enabli...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Comparison of Sexual Risk, HIV/STI Prevalence and Intervention Exposure Among Men Who Have Sex with Men and Women (MSMW) and Men Who Have Sex with Men Only (MSMO) in India: Implications for HIV Prevention
Abstract Using data from a cross-sectional bio-behavioral survey conducted among men who have sex with men (n = 3833) in India, we examined differences related to HIV-related sexual risk, HIV/STI prevalence and intervention exposures between men who have sex with men and women (MSMW, 35 % of the sample) and men who have sex with men only (MSMO). Among MSMW, 93 % reported having female regular partners, 14 % had female paid partners, and all types of male partners (regular 55 %; casual 77.1 %; paying 47 %; paid 19 %). Logistic regression revealed that MSMW had higher odds of being aged 26 years and above (AOR 4.45, 95 % CI 3.66?5.42), lower odds of inconsistently using condoms with male partners (AOR 0.82, 95 % CI 0.67?0.98) and lower odds of having kothi (feminine/...
Novel Approaches for Visualizing and Analyzing Dose-Timing Data from Electronic Drug Monitors, or ?How the ?Broken Window? Theory Pertains to ART Adherence?

Sweating on the palm and sole: physiological and clinical relevance
Abstract In mammals, sweating is a multifunctional response that aids in locomotion, thermal regulation, self-protection, and communication of psychological state. Humans possess three types of sweat glands (apocrine, eccrine, and apoeccrine) that are differentially distributed on the body surface and make unique contributions to these distinct functions of the sweating response. In humans, eccrine glands, which are widely distributed on hairy skin, play an important role in thermoregulation. They are also found on the glabrous skin of the palm and sole, where they are not usually activated by heat, but rather by deep respiration, mental stress, and local tactile stimulation. Sweating on the palm and sole, so-called ?emotional sweating?, acts to prevent slippage while gras...
Highlights from this issue
Last month we re-introduced Clinical Roundup1 &ndash; a regular update on key research findings of relevance to our clinical readers. I'm delighted to introduce the next edition, which takes a tour of HPV vaccination, rectal chlamydia in women, and the targeting of diagnosis during primary HIV infection.2 The authors are early career specialists in STI and HIV &ndash; Lewis Haddow works in a specialist centre, while Sophie Forsyth has recently moved to Derby where she works in both HIV and STI in a smaller centre. We are delighted with the response to Clinical Roundup, which is an important opportunity to engage with the priorities and preoccupations of our clinical readers within a journal which brings cutting edge research to practitioners. Have you looked at our Blogs recently? At http:...
Launching a new era for behavioural surveillance
Despite systems to monitor the incidence of disease dating from the mid-1800s,1 behavioural surveillance is in relative infancy. The first systematic data on human sexual behaviour, the Kinsey Reports, were published in the late 1940s/early 1950s, but it was not until 40&nbsp;years later that national systematic efforts to collect data on sexual behaviours were undertaken. Great Britain's National Surveys of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (NATSAL) and the National Health and Social Life Survey in the USA were both launched in the early 1990s in response to the emerging HIV/AIDS epidemic, and both were accompanied by significant debate about public funding of research on the still taboo subject of sexual behaviour. Today, taboos have loosened and systematic collection of data on sexual beh...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Men who have sex with men in southern Vietnam report high levels of substance use and sexual risk behaviours but underutilise HIV testing services: a cross-sectional study
Conclusions Due to the scarcity of effective MSM-targeted prevention programmes, it is likely that substance use, risky sexual behaviours and low testing uptake may substantially contribute to the spread of HIV among Vietnamese MSM sampled. Harm reduction programmes targeting MSM, and in particular injecting MSM, should be rolled-out in this province. (Source: Sexually Transmitted Infections)
Factors associated with recent previous HIV testing among a sample of recently HIV-diagnosed gay men in Australia: a cross-sectional study
Conclusions Gay community plays a key role in the response to HIV in Australia. Building a sense of community through programmes that support social engagement between gay men may support earlier and more frequent testing. (Source: Sexually Transmitted Infections)
STI/HIV test result disclosure between female sex workers and their primary, non-commercial male partners in two Mexico-US border cities: a prospective study
Conclusions STI/HIV test result disclosure was highly prevalent within FSWs&rsquo; primary partnerships, suggesting couples-based STI/HIV testing with facilitated disclosure may be feasible for these and potentially other high-risk, socially marginalised couples. (Source: Sexually Transmitted Infections)
Gay and bisexual men engage in fewer risky sexual behaviors while traveling internationally: a cross-sectional study in San Francisco
Conclusions MSM engaged in proportionately fewer sexual activities which present a high HIV transmission risk when travelling internationally, namely unprotected receptive and insertive anal intercourse and particularly with HIV serodiscordant partners. The lower sexual risk-taking during international travel was robust to controlling for many factors, including self-reported HIV serostatus, age, relationship status and type of partnership. These findings suggest that when travelling internationally, MSM may experience behavioural disinhibition to a lesser extent than had been described previously. (Source: Sexually Transmitted Infections)
Clinical round-up
HPV vaccination As we write, the Food and Drug Administration (USA) has approved the use of the 9-valent human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine. Questions remain, however, about who to vaccinate. Should we be vaccinating boys/men, and how old is too old to be vaccinated? Skinner et al1 go some way to answering the second question with their interim analysis. The VIVIANE study is a multicentre double-blinded randomised controlled trial looking at the efficacy of the bivalent HPV 16/18 vaccine in women &gt;25&nbsp;years. (The PATRICIA study previously looked at this vaccine in women &lt;25&nbsp;years).2 In total, 15% of women included in the trial had prior exposure to HPV, and primary endpoints were persistent HPV 16/18 infection at 6&nbsp;months or CIN1 or greater associated with these subtyp...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Trends in prevalence of selected opportunistic infections associated with HIV/AIDS in Uganda
Background: After more than a decade of establishing and expanding access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), empirical evidence on its impact on trends of opportunistic infections (OIs) associated with the deadly human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in resource poor settings is scarce. The primary objective of this study was to assess the effect of HAART coverage on trends of five most common OIs in Uganda. Methods: Observational data from January 2002 to December 2013 for 5972 HIV positive individuals attending the AIDS Support Organisation (TASO) HIV/AIDS care programme in Uganda were extracted and analysed. Trends were analysed using autoregressive moving average time series and mixed effects linear regression models adjusting for all available potential confounders. Results...
Adorable video: Baby hears mom for the first time
With new hearing aids, little Elijah can now respond to the sounds all around him, including his mother's voice (Source: Health News: CBSNews.com)
AIDS Infonet
Provides HIV/AIDS information in non-technical language in various languages. (Source: PHPartners.org)
Conference on Social Work and HIV/AIDS
May 21-24, 2015, New Orleans, LA. The theme of the conference is "Staying Relevant in an Era of Great Change - Challenges and Opportunities for HIV/AIDS Social Work." (Source: PHPartners.org)
United States Conference on AIDS (USCA)
September 10-13, 2015, Washington, DC. AIDS-related gathering that will bring together workers from all fronts of the HIV/ AIDS epidemic - from case managers and physicians, to public health workers and advocates, people living with HIV/AIDS to policy-makers - to build national support networks, exchange the latest information and learn cutting-edge tools to address the challenges of HIV/AIDS. (Source: PHPartners.org)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Satisfaction with service needs among people living with multiple sclerosis
CONCLUSIONS: The results indicated that younger and mildly affected participants were least satisfied. Other areas of unmet need included transportation for the people more severely affected by MS and financial assistance to help people purchase mobility aids. Content Type Journal ArticlePages -DOI 10.3233/NRE-151204Authors Marita McCabe, Institute for Health and Ageing, Australian Catholic University, Level 5, 215 Spring St., Melbourne, VIC, Australia Journal NeuroRehabilitationOnline ISSN 1878-6448Print ISSN 1053-8135 (Source: NeuroRehabilitation)
Liberia: Grand Gedeh County Advances Strategy On HIV/TB
[FrontPageAfrica] Zwedru -A two day dialogue as part of a nationwide consultation organized by the Liberia Coordinating Mechanism (LCM) of the Global Fund has taken place in Zwedru, Grand Gedeh County bringing together over 25 representatives of civil society organizations, Muslim and Christian leaders, as well as, traditional leaders, health and medical practitioners to identity priority for HIV and TB program in the country. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: Global Recession Linked to Rising HIV Deaths, Study Finds
[FrontPageAfrica] Rising unemployment is linked to higher death rates from HIV, according to research published in the Journal of Global Health. The study, which looked at the effects of the global recession on HIV mortality, also found that increased public health spending helps to reduce deaths from the disease. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Tanzania: Make Regular Visits to Clinics, Pregnant Women Urged
[Daily News] Tabora -PREGNANT women in Tabora Region have been advised to maintain regular visits to maternal health clinics as a strategy to prevent their expected babies from HIV/AIDS infections. (Source: AllAfrica News: Pregnancy and Childbirth)
Namibia: MP Proposes HIV Grants
[New Era] Nudo MP Asser Mbai wants the government to financially assist all persons who are on anti-retroviral (ARV) treatment to help avoid that they take medication on empty stomachs. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Watch Deaf Infant Hear His Mom for the First Time
Hearing aids allow an infant to clearly hear his mother's voice for the first time. (Source: ABC News: Health)
Kenya: Lead Fight Against HIV-Aids Scourge, First Lady Tells Student Leaders
[The Star] Lead the fight against deadly diseases such as HIV/Aids and avoid all activities that promote their spread, First Lady Margaret Kenyatta has told young leaders. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: An Open Global Fund Means Closing the Implementer Level Data Gap At Country Level
[GFO] The Global Fund is one of the more transparent global health institutions despite dropping 6 places in the International Aid Transparency Initiative (IATI) ranking for the periods 2012 - 2014. It affords the public considerable access to data on grant funding flows and programme results. Such transparency reflects the Fund's responsibility to its donors, who together contribute around $4 billion annually to the response to AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria in more than 110 countries. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: Innovative Partnership Launches PR Management Dashboard
[GFO] New dashboard helps Global Fund principal recipients identify problems and progress with grant implementation (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: Aidspan Produces New Guide to the Global Fund's Risk Management Policy
[GFO] In November 2014, at its 32nd meeting, the Global Fund Board adopted a new risk management policy that sought to outline in comprehensive detail the shared responsibility within the organization to nurture a culture that encourages prudent risk-taking within the context of maximizing impact of investments in the fight against the three diseases. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Swaziland: In Swaziland, Progress Towards Malaria Elimination
[GFO] New national strategic plan could make southern African nation first on continent to achieve elimination (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Patient positioning for Direct Laryngoscopy ? A national survey of 320 UK ENT Consultant Surgeons
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Clinical Otolaryngology)
Shared decision-making in epilepsy management
Publication date: Available online 8 April 2015 Source:Epilepsy &amp; Behavior Author(s): W.O. Pickrell , G. Elwyn , P.E.M. Smith Policy makers, clinicians, and patients increasingly recognize the need for greater patient involvement in clinical decision-making. Shared decision-making helps address these concerns by providing a framework for clinicians and patients to make decisions together using the best evidence. Shared decision-making is applicable to situations where several acceptable options exist (clinical equipoise). Such situations occur commonly in epilepsy, for example, in decisions regarding the choice of medication, treatment in pregnancy, and medication withdrawal. A talk model is a way of implementing shared decision-making during consultations, and decision aids are ...
Long-term Outcomes of Cytomegalovirus Retinitis in the Era of Modern Antiretroviral Therapy
To describe the long-term outcomes of patients with cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis and AIDS in the modern era of combination antiretroviral therapy. (Source: Ophthalmology)
Temporal trends of time to antiretroviral treatment initiation, interruption and modification: examination of patients diagnosed with advanced HIV in Australia.
CONCLUSIONS: Recent HIV diagnoses are initiating therapy earlier in all diagnosis CD4 cell count groups, potentially lowering community viral load compared to earlier time periods. We found a marked reduction in the hazard of first treatment interruption, and found no difference in rates of major modification to ART by HIV presentation status in recent periods. PMID: 25865372 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Watch: See a 9-Week-Old Baby Hear His Mother Clearly for the First Time
Elijah Cook was given hearing aids after being born with hearing loss. (Source: ABC News: Health)
Effectiveness of a Federal Healthy Start Program on HIV/AIDS Risk Reduction among Women in Hillsborough County, Florida.
CONCLUSIONS: Lessons learned from the CHHS Project can be used to develop effective and comprehensive models for addressing the HIV epidemic. PMID: 25871995 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Southern Medical Journal)
Whitescarver steps down as director of NIH?s Office of AIDS Research
He led the office since 2000. (Source: National Institutes of Health (NIH) News Releases)
Inflammation and HIV Transmission in Sub-Saharan Africa
Abstract While the per-contact risk of sexual HIV transmission is relatively low, it is fourfold higher in sub-Saharan Africa, and this may partly explain the major global disparities that exist in HIV prevalence. Genital immune parameters are key determinants of HIV transmission risk, including epithelial integrity and the presence of highly HIV-susceptible intraepithelial or submucosal CD4+ T cell target cells. Biological parameters that may enhance mucosal HIV susceptibility in highly HIV-affected regions of sub-Saharan Africa include increased levels of mucosal inflammation, which can affect both epithelial integrity and target cell availability, as well as the increased mucosal surface area that is afforded by an intact foreskin, contraceptive choices, and intravaginal practi...
Implementation Research for the Prevention of Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission in Sub-Saharan Africa: Existing Evidence, Current Gaps, and New Opportunities
Abstract Tremendous gains have been made in the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) in sub-Saharan Africa. Ambitious goals for the ?virtual elimination? of pediatric HIV appear increasingly feasible, driven by new scientific advances, forward-thinking health policy, and substantial donor investment. To fulfill this promise, however, rapid and effective implementation of evidence-based practices must be brought to scale across a diversity of settings. The discipline of implementation research can facilitate this translation from policy into practice; however, to date, its core principles and frameworks have been inconsistently applied in the field. We reviewed the recent developments in implementation research across each of the four ?prongs? of a compreh...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
A Mixed-Methods Study Supporting a Model of Chinese Parental HIV Disclosure
Abstract Parents who are HIV-positive confront difficult decisions regarding whether, when, and how to disclose their HIV status to their children. In China, a setting of acute HIV stigma where family harmony is culturally valued, limited research has been conducted on parental disclosure. We aimed to develop a model of parental disclosure that accounts for the cultural context in China based on a mixed-methods study. In our individual, in-depth interviews (N = 24) as well as survey data (N = 84) collected from parents living with HIV in Shanghai and Beijing, we found the primary barriers to disclosure were stigma, fear of exposing the mode by which they acquired HIV, psychologically burdening the child, rejection by the child, and negative social consequences for the fami...
HIV Clinics Lower Financial Risk and Improve RevenueHIV Clinics Lower Financial Risk and Improve Revenue
This intervention, conducted at HIV clinics, has significantly improved retention in HIV care. JAIDS: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
Updated HIV Surveillance Among Persons Who Inject Drugs (through 2013)
This slide series presents HIV surveillance data for the United States and 6 dependent areas among persons who inject drugs (PWID). (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
Malawi: Teachers Urged to Mitigate HIV/Aids Impact
[Malawi News Agency] Zomba -Minister of Education, Science and Technology, Dr Emmanuel Fabiano has reminded teachers of their responsibility and capacity in mitigating the spread and impact of HIV/AIDS at grass root level. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
CCG becomes first in the country to ration access to hearing aids
North Staffordshire Clinical Commissioning Group (CCG) has restricted access to NHS funded hearing aids Hide related content:&nbsp; Show related content read more (Source: Management in Practice)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Lyle Micheli: 40 years at the Boston Marathon finish line
From marathon volunteer to injury prevention pioneer?it?s all part of Dr. Lyle Micheli?s mission to keep runners and athletes of all types on the field. Sore quads. That?s one of Lyle Micheli?s memories from the 1975 Boston Marathon. But Dr. Micheli, Director of Boston Children?s Sports Medicine, wasn?t sore from running. As a medical volunteer at what was a ?very informal? event in 1975, Micheli spent the day ducking and ?limboing? under the ropes marking the last feet of the 26.2-mile run and making sure the athletes were OK to proceed beyond the finish area. Since that day, running has gained tremendous popularity. The Boston Marathon has increased from a mere 1,000 runners in 1975 to 30,000 in 2015. Micheli has been at the finish line year after year as a way ...
South Africa: Deputy Minister Mduduzi Manana Visits Mthashana TVET College for Higher Education Aids Programme
[SA Govt] The Deputy Minister of Higher Education and Training, Mr Mduduzi Manana, MP will visit the Mthashana TVET College on Monday, 20 April 2015 for the First Things First Higher Education AIDS (HEIADS) Programme. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: Discrimination, Stigmatisation, Major Hindrances to Combating HIV/Aids
[Independent (Lagos)] A medical researcher, Prof. Oni Idigbe, has identified stigmatisation and discrimination against people living with HIV/AIDS as the major hindrances to combating the disease. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Ethiopia: Thousands of Students Reached With Life-Saving HIV Information
[Key Correspondents] A higher education project known as TemariNet is working to address HIV and unintended pregnancy in universities and colleges across Ethiopia. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: New Approach Against HIV Virus 'Holds Promise'
[New Times] The first human trial of a new type of HIV therapy suggests it could be a promising weapon in the fight against the virus. A report in the journal 'Nature' shows that infusions of so-called 'broadly neutralising antibodies' could suppress the amount of HIV in a patient's blood. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Uganda: ARVs for HIV Negative People
[Independent (Kampala)] Should Health ministry approve PrEPs for people at high risk of infection? (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Kenya: Kenya Struggles to End Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission
[Capital FM] Nairobi -Jokes on lists of shame and visas into heaven punctuated the opening day of the Elimination of Mother to Child Transmission of HIV and Keeping Mothers Alive in Kenya Stocktaking Meeting. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Job opportunity with SIC
SIC is hiring for the role of Executive Director Location: Tanzania or USA, work from home Term: 2-year, full time or part time contract Context: Support for International Change (SIC) is a nongovernmental organization that seeks to limit the impact of HIV/AIDS in underserved communities in Tanzania and to train future leaders in global health and development. Our work in Tanzania focuses on community-based approaches to addressing HIV in rural and underserved areas. We support our community-based program and achieve our leadership development goals through a program of local and international volunteers in Tanzania. Our focus is to adequately train and support volunteers and to pair them with local counterparts to ensure that their contributions to communities are effective and rewarding....
Perception of health professionals about the prevention of the AIDS epidemic in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil (1986-2006)
Socio-historical research whose aim was to know the perception of health professionals about AIDS epidemic prevention from 1986 to 2006. They worked in a reference hospital for infectious and contagious diseases. The data was collected from March to October 2011, using the oral story technique, and the subjects were twenty-three health professionals who looked after people suffering from Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome during the above mentioned period. The content analysis described by Bardin was used and two categories came up: the need for preventive strategies and the lack of using condoms. The results showed that the health professionals' perception about AIDS prevention was bad due to: the media fragility, the health professionals' actions regarding preventive strategies and the ...
Assessing the effectiveness of decision aids for decision making in prostate cancer testing: a systematic review
ConclusionsDecision aids increase patient knowledge and confidence in decision making about prostate cancer testing. Further research into effective methods of implementation is needed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. (Source: Psycho-Oncology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Challenges to successful implementation of HIV and AIDS-related health policies in Cartagena, Colombia
This study focused on Cartagena ? one of Colombia's largest cities and an international touristic hub ? that presents one of the highest HIV prevalences in the country, to investigate whether the national plan accounts for local specificities and what are the barriers to local implementation. Based on the Contextual Interaction Theory (CIT), this qualitative research relied upon 27 interviews and 13 life stories of local inhabitants and stakeholders, collected in a first fieldwork in 2006?2007. A follow-up data collection took place in 2013 with 10 participants: key policymakers and implementers, NGO representatives and local inhabitants. Barriers identified by the participants included: local population's understandings and beliefs on condom use; stigma and discrimination; lack of c...
Service delivery interventions to improve adolescents? linkage, retention and adherence to antiretroviral therapy and HIV care
ConclusionsThis review identified limited evidence on the effectiveness of service delivery interventions to support adolescents? linkage from HIV diagnosis to ART initiation, retention on ART and adherence to ART. Although recommendations are qualified because of the small numbers of studies and limited methodological quality, offering individual and group education and counselling, financial incentives, increasing clinic accessibility, and provision of specific adolescent?tailored services appear promising interventions and warrant further investigation.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Tropical Medicine and International Health)
Urine lipoarabinomannan to monitor antituberculosis therapy response and predict mortality in an HIV-endemic region: a prospective cohort study
Conclusions Rapid urine LAM testing may be a valuable tool to monitor anti-TB therapy response and to assess prognosis of patients being treated for pulmonary TB in HIV-endemic regions. (Source: BMJ Open)
The role of volunteer support in the community for adults with hearing loss and hearing aids
Hearing aids remain the most common treatment option offered for people affected by hearing loss. However approximately 40% of people fitted with hearing aids stop using them over time [1]. This may be due to lack of support, such as emotional and psychological support for adjustment to hearing loss [2] or practical help and assistance with hearing aid use and maintenance [3]. In the UK, volunteers who often have hearing loss and wear hearing aids themselves, have supported National Health Service (NHS) patients? use of hearing aids; however the nature and impact of the support provided to date has not been investigated in detail. (Source: Patient Education and Counseling)
Cytochrome P450 2B6 genetic variants are associated with plasma nevirapine levels and clinical response in HIV-1 infected Kenyan women: a prospective cohort study
Conclusions: CYP2B6 516G>T and CYP2B6 983T>C genotypes were strongly associated with plasma nevirapine concentration, which predicted immunologic response in women on nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy. These data support continued work on the potential utility of human genetic testing to inform nevirapine dosage optimization for individual patients. (Source: AIDS Research and Therapy)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Retention of Adult Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis 2008?2013
Conclusions: Retention at 36 months on treatment averages 65%?70%. There are several important gaps in the evidence base, which could be filled by further research, especially in terms of geographic coverage and duration of follow-up. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Who Knows Their Partner's HIV Status? Results From a Nationally Representative Survey in Uganda
Conclusions: Respondents may be reporting the HIV status of their partners based on their own HIV status. Campaigns to inform people about the prevalence of serodiscordance in conjunction with further promotion of couple counseling may help increase the proportion of Ugandans who know their own HIV status and that of their partners. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Knowledge and Attitudes of Doctors Toward People Living With HIV/AIDS in Saudi Arabia
Conclusions: Evidence of poor knowledge of HIV suggests the need for further training of health workers on HIV transmission mode. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Africa: Champions Come Together to Announce Strengthened Efforts for an Aids-Free Generation in Africa
[UNAIDS] Johannesburg -The Champions for an AIDS-Free Generation gathered together today to announce new efforts to ensure that all children in Africa are born free from HIV and that children living with HIV have access to life-saving treatment. Since young people continue to be deeply affected by the epidemic, the Champions also announced that they will add adolescents and HIV to their portfolio of work. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
South Africa: Taxi Drivers Rave About Outreach TB, HIV Services
[Health-e] Sandile Ngcobo's day starts at 4am. By the time his 16-hour shift as a Pietermaritzburg taxi driver is over, local clinics are closed and that is why Ngcobo says he welcomed the chance to test for HIV and tuberculosis (TB) at work. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Nigeria: HIV/Aids Anti-Discrimination Law and Essence of Implementation
[Guardian] After several years in the parliament, the HIV/AIDS Anti-Discrimination bill 2014 eventually scaled through and was subsequently passed to President Goodluck Jonathan. Without much pressures, he signed the bill into law. Now, stakeholders, very grateful for the law, demand the commencement of the implementation phase. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Mozambique: High HIV Prevalence Among Miners and Truck Drivers
[AIM] Maputo -More than one in every five migrant mineworkers in Maputo province is infected with the HIV virus that causes AIDS, according to a study on the sexual behavior of Mozambican workers in the South African mines and long range truck drivers, published in Maputo last week. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Six questions about HIV/AIDS that deserve more attention
(Cell Press) As HIV investigators work to control and eradicate the virus worldwide, certain myths or misconceptions about the disease have been embraced, whereas other concepts with merit have been left relatively unexplored, argues American HIV/AIDS researcher Jay Levy, M.D., in a Trends in Molecular Medicine commentary. He calls on fellow researchers to continue questioning and not to lose sight of alternative strategies that could ultimately lead to a sustainable, long-term solution to HIV infection. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)
Sodium chloride compared to talc as processing aid has similar impact on volatile compounds but more favourable on ortho?diphenols in virgin olive oil
The possibility of improvement of olive paste extractability by addition of talc or NaCl (1%, 2% and 3% mass ratio in olive paste), or their combinations (?talc 1.5% + NaCl 1.5%?; ?talc 1% + NaCl 2%?; ?talc 2% + NaCl 1%?), was investigated on a laboratory scale. Volatiles in oil samples were determined by headspace solid?phase microextraction with GC?MS, while ortho?diphenols by solid phase extraction and UV?VIS spectrophotometer. Significantly higher extractability of oil (from 25 to 29% compared to control, P &lt; 0.05) was obtained by 3% of talc or NaCl and their combinations in mass ratio 1:2 or 2:1. At 3% addition level, no significant decrease of C6 aldehydes was observed, while significant increase of C6 alcohols (talc or salt) as well as of C5 compounds and terp...
Gender Expression and Risk of HIV Infection Among Black South African Men Who Have Sex with Men
Abstract To explore demographic, behavioral and psychosocial risk factors for HIV infection in South African MSM we recruited 480 MSM (aged 18 and 44 years) using respondent-driven sampling. Data were collected through individual computer-assisted face-to-face interviews. Participants were tested for HIV. RDS-adjusted HIV prevalence is 30.1 % (unadjusted 35.6 %). Few participants had ever engaged in both receptive and insertive anal sex; sex with women was frequently reported. Independent demographic and behavioral correlates of HIV infection include age, education, number of male sexual partners, ever having been forced to have sex, and ever having engaged in transactional sex; engagement in sex with women was a protective factor. Psychosocial risk factors independently associ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
The Potential of the CNS as a Reservoir for HIV-1 Infection: Implications for HIV Eradication
Abstract The ability of HIV-1 to establish latent infection is a key obstacle to its eradication despite the existence of effective antiretroviral drugs. The brain has been postulated as a reservoir for latent infection, but its role in HIV persistence remains unclear. In this review, we discuss the evidence surrounding the role of the central nervous system (CNS) as a viral reservoir and the potential challenges this might present in eradicating HIV. The strategies for eradication of HIV and their application to latent CNS infection are explored. Finally, we outline new developments in drug delivery and new therapeutic modalities designed to target HIV infection in the CNS. (Source: Current HIV/AIDS Reports)
Southern Africa: the Highest Priority Region for HIV Prevention and Care Interventions
Abstract The global HIV pandemic began to expand rapidly in southern Africa a decade later than was noted in central Africa, Europe, the Caribbean, and North America. Multiple factors played a role in this rapid expansion which led Southern Africa to become the most heavily afflicted region for HIV/AIDS globally. In this issue of Current HIV/AIDS Reports, investigators with active research interests in the region have reviewed key elements of the causes of and responses to the epidemic. Putative causes of the high HIV prevalence in the region are discussed, including host and viral biology, human behavior, politics and policy, structural factors, health services, health workforce, migration, traditional healers? role, and other issues. Regional epidemiological trends are describ...
Cancer Treatment in Patients With HIV Infection and Non-AIDS-Defining Cancers: A Survey of US Oncologists.
CONCLUSION: Provider-level factors are associated with delivery of nonstandard cancer treatment to HIV-infected patients. Policy change, provider education, and multidisciplinary collaboration are needed to improve access to cancer treatment. PMID: 25873060 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: JOP)
Interrater Agreement Between Visual Analysts of Single-Case Data: A Meta-Analysis.
Authors: Ninci J, Vannest KJ, Willson V, Zhang N Abstract Visual analysis is the most widely applied method of data interpretation for single-case research as it encompasses multifaceted considerations relevant to evaluating behavior change. However, a previous research synthesis found low levels of interrater agreement between visually analyzed ratings of graphed data across all variables under analysis. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the peer-reviewed literature to date for potential moderators affecting the proportion of interrater agreement between visual analysts. Nineteen articles with 32 effects were assembled. Potential moderators evaluated included (a) design families, (b) rater expertise, (c) the provision of contextual information for graphs, (d) the u...
Extended proximal femoral osteotomy: technical tip
Abstract Extended proximal femoral osteotomy is a well-established technique in complex primary and revision hip surgery. It is commonly indicated for extraction of well-fixed femoral components either cemented or uncemented. Some of the problems encountered during this procedure are gaining an accurate reduction in the osteotomized fragment and a stable reduction and fixation. Here, we present a modification to the standard surgical technique which aids in anatomical reduction and enhances the stability of the reduced fragment. We make the distal transverse cut oblique rather than vertical. This modification allows for a more stable and anatomical reduction in the osteotomy. Our experience with this modified technique demonstrated 100 % union of the osteotomy. (Source: Europ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Towards an HIV cure based on targeted killing of infected cells: different approaches against acute versus chronic infection
We present perspectives for complementing cART with targeted cytotoxic therapy, whereby HIV infection is either eradicated or fully controlled, thereby eliminating the need for lifelong cART. (Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS)
Animal models in HIV-1 protection and therapy
Purpose of review: The purpose of this review is to highlight major advances in the development and use of animal models for HIV-1 research during the last year. Recent findings: Animal model research during the last year has focused on the development and refinement of models; use of these models to explore key questions about HIV entry, immune control, and persistence; and key discoveries with these models testing therapeutic and vaccine concepts. Some of the greatest breakthroughs have been in understanding early events surrounding transmission, the effectiveness of broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies as passive prophylaxis, and some new ideas in the area of eliminating the viral reservoir in established infection. Summary: Despite the lack of a flawless HIV-1 infection and...
Antibodies for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1
This article describes recent studies of antibody responses that protect against vertical HIV-1 transmission. Studies have shown that maternal neutralization breadth is not a critical factor in MTCT, yet the ability of maternal plasma to neutralize autologous virus variants may be important in infant protection. There is also new evidence that infants mount robust and durable antibody responses to HIV-1 envelope following vaccination and can develop broad neutralization during infection. Finally, passive immunization of infants with highly potent and broad neutralizing antibodies may be an effective strategy to protect infants against infection with postnatally transmitted variants. Summary: Defining the characteristics of maternal and infant antibody responses that protect against MTCT wi...
Antibodies for HIV prevention in young women
Purpose of review: Young women in sub-Saharan Africa bear a disproportionate HIV burden. They urgently require new HIV prevention approaches that they can use. This review provides an overview of the use of antiretrovirals for HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP), highlighting some of the challenges with this technology and explores the potential role of mAbs for HIV prevention in women. Recent findings: Recent findings on the initial steps in viral entry and establishment of a productive local infectious nidus in the vaginal epithelium has provided important clues for HIV prevention in the female genital tract. Topical and oral formulations of antiretroviral drugs have been shown to prevent HIV infection in women with varying levels of success, depending principally on adherence. Further, s...
Vectored antibody gene delivery for the prevention or treatment of HIV infection
Purpose of review: To discuss recent progress in the use of vectors to produce antibodies in vivo as an alternative form of HIV prophylaxis or therapy. Instead of passive transfer of monoclonal antibody proteins, a transgene encoding an antibody is delivered to cells by the vector, resulting in expression and secretion by the host cell. This review will emphasize adeno-associated virus (AAV)-based strategies and summarize the evidence in support of this strategy as an alternative to traditional vaccines. We will highlight the major findings in the field and discuss the impact that this approach could have on the prevention, treatment and possibly eradication of HIV in patients. Recent findings: In this emerging field, the emphasis has been on the use of vectors delivering antibodies as an ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Broadly neutralizing antibody and the HIV reservoir in acute HIV infection: a strategy toward HIV remission?
This article discusses the effects of early ART and bNAbs on HIV reservoirs and proposes research strategies in acute HIV infection aiming at HIV reservoir reduction and HIV remission. (Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS)
History of passive antibody administration for prevention and treatment of infectious diseases
We describe the history of passive immunization to provide context for the series of articles to follow. The history of passive immunization with antibodies to prevent or treat infectious diseases is a story of different eras. There was an extraordinary era of discovery and clinical implementation before the chemical nature of antibodies was even known. This empirical process provided the resources and reagents used to describe and characterize humoral immunity, better define the chemical properties and structure of antibodies, and extend the clinical use of immunoglobulin products to treat or prevent multiple viral and bacterial diseases over the ensuing several decades. The next distinct era came with the discovery of processes to produce monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), and development of ...
HIV broadly neutralizing antibody targets
Purpose of review: To provide an update on neutralizing antibody targets in the context of the recent HIV-1 envelope trimer structure, describe new antibody isolation technologies, and discuss the implications of these data for HIV-1 prevention and therapy. Recent findings: Recent advances in B-cell technologies have dramatically expanded the number of antibodies isolated from HIV-infected donors with broadly neutralizing plasma activity. These, together with the first high-resolution crystal and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures of a cleaved, prefusion HIV-1 trimer, have defined new regions susceptible to neutralization. This year, three epitopes in the gp120?gp41 interface were structurally characterized, highlighting the importance of prefusion gp41 as a target. Similar to...
Monoclonal antibodies to host cellular receptors for the treatment and prevention of HIV-1 infection
Purpose of review: Clinically relevant monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to host cellular receptors have been generated to both the CD4 receptor and the CCR5 coreceptor, cell surface proteins critical for HIV-1 entry. Ibalizumab is a novel humanized mAb that binds to a conformational epitope on CD4 and blocks entry of HIV-1. It has broad and potent antiviral activity in vitro and in vivo. PRO 140 is a humanized mAb that binds to the CCR5 coreceptor and inhibits CCR5-tropic HIV-1 by interfering with viral entry. Antiviral activity has been demonstrated both in vitro against R5 viruses and in vivo in HIV-1-infected individuals harboring CCR5-tropic virus. Recent findings: Both antibodies have been administered intravenously in early-phase clinical trials, and current emphasis is on the development...
Antibody engineering for increased potency, breadth and half-life
This article will discuss recent antibody engineering efforts to improve the breadth and potency of anti-HIV-1 antibodies. The polyreactivity of engineered HIV-1 bNAbs and the effect on serum half-life will be explored along with strategies to overcome problems introduced by engineering antibodies. Finally, advances in creating bispecific anti-HIV-1 reagents are discussed. (Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Prospects for engineering HIV-specific antibodies for enhanced effector function and half-life
Purpose of review: A wealth of recent animal model data suggests that as exciting possibilities for the use of antibodies in passive immunotherapy strategies continue to develop, it will be important to broadly consider how antibodies achieve anti-HIV-1 effect in vivo. Recent findings: Beyond neutralization breadth and potency, substantial evidence from natural infection, vaccination, and studies in animal models points to a critical role for antibody Fc receptor (FcR) engagement in reducing risk of infection, decreasing postinfection viremia, and delaying viral rebound. Supporting these findings in the setting of HIV, the clinical maturation of recombinant antibody therapeutics has reinforced the importance of Fc-driven activity in vivo across many disease settings, as well as opportunely...
Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS)
Systematic review of stigma reducing interventions for African/Black diasporic women.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that there are limited interventions designed to address multiple forms of stigma, including gender and racial discrimination, experienced by HIV-positive African/Black diasporic women. PMID: 25862565 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Liberia: Sail Concludes Training for Rights Advocates
[NEWS] Stop AIDS in Liberia (SAIL) in collaboration with Actionaid Liberia has concluded a two-day capacity building engagement with the Independent National Commission on Hunan Rights and representatives of various civil society organizations. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Uganda: Aine's Story - Addressing Stigma and Ignorance About HIV
[Key Correspondents] Aine, 28, lives in Biharwe village in Mbarara district in western Uganda, and is just one of many people who almost lost his life to HIV due to a lack of information about the virus. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Botswana: Court to Decide on the Right of Foreign Inmates to Free ARVs
[Botswana Daily News] Gaborone -Justice Terrence Rannowane of Gaborone High Court wil, on April 29, deliver a ruling in the case in which the Attorney Generals (AGs) wants the court to grant a stay of execution order in relation to a ruling that directed government to provide free ARV to foreign prison inmates. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
South Africa: Sex in Mother City Under Spotlight
[Health-e] Almost a quarter of Capetonians admit to starting a new relationship while still being in a relationship with someone else, according to a new study looking at sex in the Mother City. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Cameroon: CEMAC Stakeholders Discuss HIV/Aids Stigmatisation
[Cameroon Tribune] They met in Yaounde on April 10, 2015, to share best practices on protecting people living with AIDS. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
NIH, South African Medical Research Council award $8 million in HIV, TB grants
(NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases) NIH and the South African Medical Research Council are awarding 31 grants to US and South African scientists to support research targeting HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and HIV-related co-morbidities and cancers. The awards, which total $8 million in first-year funding, are the first to be issued through the South Africa-US Program for Collaborative Biomedical Research. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)
Social and psychosocial factors associated with high-risk sexual behaviour among university students in the United Kingdom: a web-survey
In the UK there are limited data about university students&rsquo; risky sexual behaviour. A cross-sectional web-survey was conducted to investigate factors associated with high-risk sex among students at two UK universities. High-risk sex was reported by 25% of 1108. High personal sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk perception and permissive attitudes towards casual sex were associated with high-risk sex for both men (odds ratio [OR]: 12.12; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.10&ndash;35.81; OR: 2.49; 95%CI: 1.11&ndash;5.56, respectively) and women (OR: 22.31; 95% CI: 9.34&ndash;53.26; OR: 3.02; 95% CI: 1.82&ndash;5.01, respectively). For men, drinking alcohol (OR: 17.67; 95% CI: 1.90&ndash;164.23) and for women age and frequent drinking (OR: 2.02; 95% CI: 1.05&ndash;3.89; OR: 1.89; 95%...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
High-risk human papillomavirus in HIV-infected women undergoing cervical cancer screening in Lilongwe, Malawi: a pilot study
Rates of abnormal visual inspection with acetic acid and prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) subtypes have not been well characterized in HIV-infected women in Malawi. We performed a prospective cohort study of visual inspection with acetic acid (N = 440) in HIV-infected women aged 25--59 years, with a nested study of HPV subtypes in first 300 women enrolled. Of 440 women screened, 9.5% (N = 42) had abnormal visual inspection with acetic acid with 69.0% (N = 29) having advanced disease not amenable to cryotherapy. Of 294 women with HPV results, 39% (N = 114) of women were positive for high-risk HPV infection. Only lower CD4 count (287 cells/mm3 versus 339 cells/mm3, p = 0.03) and high-risk HPV (66.7% versus 35.6%, p &lt; 0.01) were associated with abnormal visual inspection ...
Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis, Mycoplasma genitalium and Ureaplasma urealyticum in men with urethritis attending an urban sexual health clinic
We conducted a study to determine the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis (TV), Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) and Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) in men with urethritis, attending an urban sexual health clinic, in order to inform screening and treatment policies. Men attending an urban sexual health clinic between June 2011 and January 2012 were evaluated. Urine samples were collected from men with urethritis and tested for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) and TV using transcription-mediated amplification and for MG and UU using polymerase chain reaction. Eighty-three samples were analysed. The prevalence of CT was 33.7% (28/83), GC was 16.8% (14/83), TV was 3.6% (3/83), MG was 12.0% (10/83) and UU was 4.8% (4/83). Fifteen men had recurrent urethritis. Of these, three were f...
Serum ferritin in HIV-positive patients is related to immune deficiency and inflammatory activity
To analyse the prevalence of high ferritin levels in asymptomatic HIV patients and its related factors we conducted a cross-sectional study of a cohort of HIV outpatients in regular follow-up. Epidemiological, clinical, analytical and therapeutic data were collected. Patients completed a questionnaire about cardiovascular risk factors and underwent a physical examination and a 12-h fasting blood analysis. High ferritin levels were defined as a plasma ferritin level &gt;200 &micro;g/L in women and &gt;300 &micro;g/L in men. A total of 571 patients (78.1% men) were included. Median age was 43.2 years, HIV sexual transmission 68.5%, median CD4 count 474 cells/&micro;L, 36.3% AIDS cases, 86.2% on antiretroviral therapy and 74.8% of them with undetectable viral load; 14.6% metabolic syndrome cr...
Young people's comparative recognition and recall of an Australian Government Sexual Health Campaign
In 2009, the Australian Government&rsquo;s National Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention Program launched a multi-million dollar sexual health campaign targeting young people. We assessed campaign recognition among a community sample of young people. Individuals aged 16&ndash;29 years self-completed a questionnaire at a music festival. Participants were asked whether they recognised the campaign image and attempted to match the correct campaign message. Recognition of two concurrent campaigns, GlaxoSmithKline&rsquo;s The Facts genital herpes campaign (targeting young women) and the Drama Downunder campaign (targeting gay men) were assessed simultaneously. Among 471 participants, just 29% recognised the National Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention Program campaign. This compared ...
Case finding advantage of HIV rapid tests in community settings: men who have sex with men in 12 programme areas in China, 2011
We sought to describe the advantage of rapid tests over ELISA tests in community-based screening for HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM) in urban areas of China. Data of 31,406 screening tests conducted over six months in 2011 among MSM across 12 areas were analyzed to compare the differences between those receiving rapid testing and ELISA. Rapid tests accounted for 45.8% of these screening tests. The rate of being screened positive was 7.2% among rapid tests and 5.3% for ELISA tests ( 2 = 49.161, p &lt; 0.001). This advantage of rapid test in HIV case finding persisted even when socio-demographic, behavioural, screening recruitment channel and city were controlled for in logistic regression (exp[beta] = 1.42, p &lt; 0.001, 95% CI = 1.27,1.59). MSM who received rapid tests, c...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Spectrum of mucocutaneous manifestations in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients and its correlation with CD4 lymphocyte count
In this study, 100 HIV-positive cases (63 men, 37 women) with skin findings were included. The mean CD4 T cell count was 253 cells/mm3. A total of 235 dermatological manifestations were seen. The common infectious dermatoses were candidiasis (21%), Staphylococcal skin infections (20%), dermatophytoses (14%) and herpes zoster (6%). Among the non-infectious dermatoses were papular pruritic eruptions (20%), xerosis/ichthyosis (20%) and seborrhoeic dermatitis (16%). Statistically significant association (p &lt; 0.05) with CD4 T cell count was seen in pyodermas, dermatophytoses and papular pruritic eruptions. Adverse drug reactions, diffuse hair loss, straightening of hairs and pigmentary changes were also noted. Although there was an absence of Kaposi&rsquo;s sarcoma in our study, a case of ve...
Vaginal douching and sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers: a cross-sectional study in three provinces in China
Though vaginal douching is a common practice among female sex workers that could increase the risk of HIV and adverse reproductive health outcomes, it has drawn limited attention. From November 2010 to January 2011, a convenience sample of female sex workers was recruited in three cities in China. Face-to-face interviews were conducted to gather socio-demographic and behavioural information. Blood samples were collected for syphilis serological tests. Endo-cervical swabs were collected and tested for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis by polymerase chain reaction. A logistic regression model was used to determine factors associated with vaginal douching and the association between vaginal douching and sexually transmitted infection. A total of 1032 eligible female sex workers ...
Outreach sexual infection screening and postal tests in men who have sex with men: are they comparable to clinic screening?
We report the results of a pilot outreach sexually transmitted infection service using nurse-delivered screening and self-sampled postal testing at a sex on premises venue with comparison made against a sexual health clinic service. Thirty men were included in each group. Users of the nurse-delivered and postal services were older (nurse service median age 57.5 years vs. postal kit service 47 years vs. clinic 35.5 years, p &le; 0.001). Outreach groups were less likely to have undertaken sexually transmitted infection testing previously than the clinic group (53.3% and 60% vs. 93.3%, p &le; 0.001). Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae testing uptake was comparable across groups (nurse outreach 86.6%, &lsquo;do it yourself&rsquo; postal kit 100% vs. clinic 100%, p = 0.032), but up...
Behcet's disease diagnosed after acute HIV infection: viral replication activating underlying autoimmunity?
We describe a patient who presented with systemic vasculitis with skin and mucous membrane ulcerations in the setting of acute HIV infection, who was eventually diagnosed with Beh&ccedil;et&rsquo;s disease, demonstrating a possible link between acute HIV infection, immune activation and development of autoimmunity. (Source: International Journal of STD and AIDS)
Parenteral antiretroviral formulations are still urgently needed: a case report and commentary
This case report highlights a challenging clinical dilemma to administer antiretroviral therapy in a critically-ill human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient who presented with multiple opportunistic infections and a non-functional gastrointestinal tract. The need for parenteral antiretroviral drug options is discussed and investigational drugs are briefly reviewed. (Source: International Journal of STD and AIDS)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Atypical presentations of genital herpes simplex virus in HIV-1 and HIV-2 effectively treated by imiquimod
We report two cases with hypertrophic presentations which were effectively treated with imiquimod, one of which is the first reported case occurring in a patient with HIV-2. (Source: International Journal of STD and AIDS)
The role of quantitative ADME proteomics to support construction of physiologically based pharmacokinetic models for use in small molecule drug development
Pharmacokinetics (PK) refers to the time course of drug concentrations in the body and since knowledge of PK aids understanding of drug efficacy and safety, numerous PK studies are performed in animals and humans during the drug development process. In vitro to in vivo extrapolation and physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling are tools that integrate data from various in silico, in vitro, and in vivo sources to deliver mechanistic quantitative simulations of in vivo PK. PBPK models are used to predict human PK and to evaluate the effects of intrinsic factors such as organ dysfunction, age, and genetics as well as extrinsic factors such as co?administered drugs. In recent years, the use of PBPK within the industry has greatly increased. However, insufficient data on how the ...
Author's Response to Sanchez et al entitled ?On the importance of training aids and the definition of an explosive odor signature: Commentary on Kranz et al.?
What follows is our response to the letter to the editor from C.L. Sanchez, P.A. Prada and K.G. Furton. We address their claims and concerns with regards to our publication ?On the smell of Composition C-4?, followed by some concluding remarks. (Source: Forensic Science International)
Provision of onsite HIV services in substance use disorder treatment programs: A longitudinal analysis
This study uses two waves of nationally representative data of 265 privately-funded SUD treatment programs in the U.S. to examine organizational and patient characteristics associated with offering a dedicated HIV/AIDS treatment track, onsite HIV/AIDS support groups, and onsite HIV testing. (Source: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment)
Development of a collaborative professional group for HIV pharmacists: experience from the Canadian HIV/AIDS Pharmacists Network
(Source: International Journal of Pharmacy Practice)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Influence of Interpretation Aids on Attentional Capture, Visual Processing, and Understanding of Front-of-Package Nutrition Labels
To study the influence of 2 interpretational aids of front-of-package (FOP) nutrition labels (color code and text descriptors) on attentional capture and consumers? understanding of nutritional information. (Source: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior)
Condom use in HIV/AIDS patients in Ethiopia
Shewamene Z, Legesse B, Tsega B, Bhagavathula AS, Endale A (Source: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management)
PrEP Works and Is a Valuable Addition to the HIV Prevention Toolkit
At the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care 2014 national conference in Miami, Florida, we participated in a number of panels, presentations, and discussions about preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to prevent HIV infection. We were pleased to see the recent JANAC article, ?Considerations for Implementing Oral Preexposure Prophylaxis: A Literature Review? (Sowicz, Teitelman, Coleman, & Brawner, 2014). We fully support the authors? observation that nurses will play a critical role in PrEP implementation. (Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)
Year of Ethics
The National Nurses Week theme for 2015 is Ethical Practice. Quality Care. On behalf of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care (ANAC) Board of Directors, I would like to extend a special thank you to ANAC members for your continued dedication to and caring for people living with and at risk for HIV disease. ANAC nurses deserve special recognition for long-standing efforts to deliver compassionate quality care while embodying the principles of ethical practice in our profession. As ANAC members, we are proud to acknowledge that a focus on ethics has always been a cornerstone of HIV nursing care. (Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)
Predatory Publishing and You
? like all predators they are looking for feeding grounds.Robert D. Hare (BrainyQuote, n.d.) (Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Cover 1
(Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)
Editorial Board
(Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)
Table of Contents
(Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)
Board of Directors
(Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)
Genomic analysis of xCT-mediated regulatory network: identification of novel targets against AIDS-associated lymphoma.
Authors: Dai L, Cao Y, Chen Y, Kaleeba JA, Zabaleta J, Qin Z Abstract Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiological agent of primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), a rapidly progressing malignancy mostly arising in HIV-infected patients. Even under conventional chemotherapy, PEL continues to portend nearly 100% mortality within several months, which urgently requires novel therapeutic strategies. We have previously demonstrated that targeting xCT, an amino acid transporter for cystine/glutamate exchange, induces significant PEL cell apoptosis through regulation of multiple host and viral factors. More importantly, one of xCT selective inhibitors, Sulfasalazine (SASP), effectively prevents PEL tumor progression in an immune-deficient xenograft model. In the current stu...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Repeated HIV Voluntary Counseling and Testing Increased Risk Behaviors Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in China: A Prospective Cohort Study
Abstract High risk MSM are recommended to take up HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) once every 6 months. 809 HIV-negative MSM in Beijing, China entered the 18-month prospective cohort study; 228 joined an extended study at month 21. The majority (92.5 %) of the participants had taken up four rounds of VCT over the study period. HIV prevalence at months 0, 6, 12, 18 and 21 ranged from 2.5 to 6.3 %; HIV incidences for the four intervals between the five visits ranged from 5.00 to 14.28 per 100-person year. Despite experiencing repeated VCT, high levels of risk behaviors were reported at month 21. 18 % of the participants interviewed at month 21 self-reported increased in UAI and other risk behaviors, comparing recent and pre-baseline experiences. HIV transmission an...
Venues for Meeting Sex Partners and Partner HIV Risk Characteristics: HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN064) Women?s HIV Seroincidence Study (ISIS)
Abstract Identifying venues where women meet sexual partners, particular partners who increase women?s risk of acquiring HIV, could inform prevention efforts. We categorized venues where women enrolled in HPTN 064 reported meeting their last three sex partners as: (1) Formal, (2) Public, (3) Private, and (4) Virtual spaces. We used multinomial logistic regression to assess the association between these venues and women?s individual characteristics and reports of their partners? HIV risk characteristics. The 2099 women reported meeting 3991 partners, 51 % at Public, 30 % Private, 17 % Formal and 3 % at Virtual venues. Women meeting partners at Formal venues reported more education and condom use than women meeting partners at other venues. Fewer partners met through F...
STI/HIV Sexual Risk Behavior and Prevalent STI Among Incarcerated African American Men in Committed Partnerships: The Significance of Poverty, Mood Disorders, and Substance Use
Abstract African Americans face disproportionate sexually transmitted infection including HIV (STI/HIV), with those passing through a correctional facility at heightened risk. There is a need to identify modifiable STI/HIV risk factors among incarcerated African Americans. Project DISRUPT is a cohort study of incarcerated African American men recruited from September 2011 through January 2014 from prisons in North Carolina who were in committed partnerships with women at prison entry (N = 207). During the baseline (in-prison) study visit, participants responded to a risk behavior survey and provided a urine specimen, which was tested for STIs. Substantial proportions reported multiple partnerships (42 %), concurrent partnerships (33 %), and buying sex (11 %) in the 6 months ...
HIV Vaccine Research: The Challenge and the Way Forward.
Authors: Wang HB, Mo QH, Yang Z Abstract Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a worldwide epidemic, with over 35 million people infected currently. Therefore, the development of a safe and effective HIV-1 vaccine is on top of the global health priority. In the past few years, there have been many promising advances in the prevention of HIV/AIDS, among which the RV144 Thai trial has been encouraging and suggests optimization of the current vaccine strategies or search for novel strategies. Here we reviewed the brief history of HIV-1 vaccine, analyzed key challenges existing now, and illustrated future research priority/directions for a therapeutic or prophylactic HIV-1 vaccine, with the hope of accelerating the speed of vaccine development. ...
Women's Health is Everyone's Health
This report complements the UN Secretary-General's global review of progress on gender equality, which was also released this spring. Together, these reports measure how women's and girls' lives have changed -- for better or worse -- in the 20 years since the historic UN Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing. For the optimist in me, the Full Participation report contains a lot to celebrate. I was especially interested to see the gains and gaps in women's health -- since health is an essential prerequisite to a full and productive life. The data tells us that in all of human history, there has never been a better time to be born female. Women are living longer, healthier lives than ever before. In the 20 years since the Beijing Conference, the number of women dying in pregnancy or c...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
HIV: New Antibody Therapy Shows Promise in PatientsHIV: New Antibody Therapy Shows Promise in Patients
A broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibody, 3BNC117, lowered viral load for weeks, suggesting a novel route to prevention and treatment. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Hiv-Aids Headlines)
Developmental Change in the Effects of Sexual Partner and Relationship Characteristics on Sexual Risk Behavior in Young Men Who Have Sex with Men
Abstract Young men who have sex with men are substantially impacted by HIV/AIDS, and most new infections occur in serious romantic dyads. Young people experience substantial psychosocial and neurocognitive change between adolescence and emerging adulthood which impacts engagement in risk behaviors. We aimed to examine developmental change in the association between sexual partnership characteristics and condomless anal intercourse (CAI). Data were taken from an analytic sample of 114 young adult MSM from a longitudinal study of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender youth with 4-year follow-up. Rates of CAI were approximately 12 times higher in serious compared to casual partnerships, but this effect diminished in size over time. Partner age differences and violence were associate...
Low vision aid?A ray of hope for irreversible visual loss in the pediatric age group
Conclusion LVA is essential and effective in improving VA and QOL in children with LV. (Source: Taiwan Journal of Ophthalmology)
The physicochemical and environmental factors affecting the distribution of Anopheles merus along the Kenyan coast
Conclusions: Different physicochemical parameters and environmental parameters affect the occurrence of An. merus. In this study, higher temperatures accelerate the growth of the larvae and aids in growth of micro-organisms and algae which are food sources for the larvae. Saline waters favour the growth and development of An. merus larvae; they are also able to develop in a range of saline waters. Conductivity, total dissolved solids and canopy coverage are among the important factors influencing the development and abundance of An. merus larvae in their habitats. Habitat type also influences the abundance of An. merus larvae. They mainly prefer to breed in pools and ponds, but not swamps, hoof prints and wells. (Source: Parasites and Vectors)
Histoplasmosis Infections Worldwide: Thinking Outside of the Ohio River Valley
Abstract In the USA, histoplasmosis is generally thought to occur mainly in the Ohio and Mississippi river valleys, and the classic map of histoplasmosis distribution reflecting this is second nature to many US physicians. With the advent of the HIV pandemic, reports of patients with progressive disseminated histoplasmosis and AIDS came from regions of known endemicity, as well as from regions not thought to be endemic for histoplasmosis throughout the world. In addition, our expanding armamentarium of immunosuppressive medications and biologics has increased the diagnosis of histoplasmosis worldwide. While our knowledge of areas in which histoplasmosis is endemic has improved, it is still incomplete. Our contention is that physicians should consider histoplasmosis with the right ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
New Fact Sheet: HIV and Injection Drug Use
HIV and Injection Drug Use fact sheet is about the high risk of HIV transmission among people who inject drugs. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
Update on the Epidemiology and Prevention of HIV/AIDS in the USA
We describe the epidemiology of HIV disease in the USA and the HIV continuum of care based on data collected primarily through HIV surveillance systems led by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention including HIV incidence, prevalence, comorbidities, and death. Populations and geographic regions disparately impacted by HIV are also highlighted. The HIV prevention armamentarium is also described including behavioral approaches to prevention, the emerging availability of biomedical prevention interventions such as pre-exposure prophylaxis, and structural and population-level interventions including treatment as prevention. Finally, gaps in our understanding of the epidemic are underscored and suggestions for future epidemiologic research are proposed. (Source: Current Epidemiology Rep...
The latest health food fads revealed but which ones REALLY work? 
Dietitian Sophie Claessens picks the 'miracle' foods from the fads as she examines the latest 'superfoods' promising 'detox', weight loss aids and better heart health. (Source: the Mail online | Health)
Charcoal to detox, freekah for heart health and bone broth to lower your blood pressure: The latest health food fads revealed...but which ones REALLY work? 
Dietitian Sophie Claessens picks the 'miracle' foods from the fads as she examines the latest 'superfoods' promising 'detox', weight loss aids and better heart health. (Source: the Mail online | Health)
Engagement of Traditional Healers and Birth Attendants as a Controversial Proposal to Extend the HIV Health Workforce
Abstract ?Medical pluralism? is the use of multiple health systems and is common among people living with HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa. Healers and traditional birth attendants (TBAs) often are a patient?s first and/or preferred line of treatment; this often results in delayed, interrupted, or abandoned diagnosis and therapy. Literature from the study of medical pluralism suggests that HIV care and treatment programs are infrequently and inconsistently engaging healers around the world. Mistrust and misunderstanding among patients, clinical providers, and traditional practitioners make the development of effective partnerships difficult, particularly regarding early HIV diagnosis and antiretroviral therapy. We provide recommendations for the development of successful colla...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Neuropathology of HAND With Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy: Encephalitis and Neurodegeneration Reconsidered
Abstract HIV-1 infiltrates the central nervous system (CNS) during the initial infection and thereafter plays a persistent role in producing CNS dysfunction as the disease progresses. HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are highly prevalent in HIV-infected patient populations, including currently infected patients with good access to suppressive antiretroviral therapy (cART). cART decreased the severity of CNS dysfunction dramatically and, in doing so, upended the neuropathological foundation of HAND pathophysiology. It is clear that the working concept of pathophysiology prior to cART, which was driven by inflammation, encephalitis, and neurodegeneration, needs to be replaced. The NeuroAIDS field is reluctant to take that important step. This review explores the fact t...
Cerebrospinal Fluid HIV Escape from Antiretroviral Therapy
Abstract CNS infection is a nearly constant facet of systemic CNS infection and is generally well controlled by suppressive systemic antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, there are instances when HIV can be detected in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) despite suppression of plasma viruses below the clinical limits of measurement. We review three types of CSF viral escape: asymptomatic, neuro-symptomatic, and secondary. The first, asymptomatic CSF escape, is seemingly benign and characterized by lack of discernable neurological deterioration or subsequent CNS disease progression. Neuro-symptomatic CSF escape is an uncommon, but important, entity characterized by new or progressive CNS disease that is critical to recognize clinically because of its management implications. Finally, se...
Ureaplasma: Current perspectives
P Kokkayil, B DhawanIndian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2015 33(2):205-214Ureaplasma species are the most prevalent genital Mycoplasma isolated from the urogenital tract of both men and women. Ureaplasma has 14 known serotypes and is divided into two biovars- Ureaplasma parvum and Ureaplasma urealyticum. The organism has several genes coding for surface proteins, the most important being the gene encoding the Multiple Banded Antigen (MBA). The C-terminal domain of MBA is antigenic and elicits a host antibody response. Other virulence factors include phospholipases A and C, IgA protease and urease. Besides genital tract infections and infertility, Ureaplasma is also associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and diseases in the newborn (chronic lung disease and retinopathy of prematurity...
Plasma Cytokine Levels and Risk of HIV Type 1 (HIV-1) Transmission and Acquisition: A Nested Case-Control Study Among HIV-1-Serodiscordant Couples
Conclusions.&nbsp;Immune activation, as measured by levels of cytokine markers, particularly elevated levels of IL-10 and CXCL1, are associated with increased HIV-1 susceptibility and infectiousness. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Differences in HIV Type 1 Neutralization Breadth in 2 Geographically Distinct Cohorts in Africa
To investigate whether distinct populations have differing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) neutralizing antibody responses, we compared 20 women from Tanzania's HIV Superinfection Study (HISIS) cohort, who were infected multiple HIV subtypes, and 22 women from the Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa (CAPRISA) cohort, who were infected exclusively with HIV subtype C. By 2 years after infection, 35% of HISIS subjects developed neutralization breadth, compared with 9% of CAPRISA subjects (P = .0131). Cumulative viral loads between 3 and 12 months were higher in the HISIS group (P = .046) and strongly associated with breadth (P &lt; .0001). While viral load was the strongest predictor, other factors may play a role, as the odds of developing breadth remained hig...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Prothymosin {alpha} Variants Isolated From CD8+ T Cells and Cervicovaginal Fluid Suppress HIV-1 Replication Through Type I Interferon Induction
Soluble factors from CD8+ T cells and cervicovaginal mucosa of women are recognized as important in controlling human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and transmission. Previously, we have shown the strong anti-HIV-1 activity of prothymosin &alpha; (ProT&alpha;) derived from CD8+ T cells. ProT&alpha; is a small acidic protein with wide cell distribution, to which several functions have been ascribed, depending on its intracellular or extracellular localization. To date, activities of ProT&alpha; have been attributed to a single protein known as isoform 2. Here we report the isolation and identification of 2 new ProT&alpha; variants from CD8+ T cells and cervicovaginal lavage with potent anti-HIV-1 activity. The first is a splice variant of the ProT&alpha; gene, known as isof...
Use of Boosted Protease Inhibitors Reduces Kaposi Sarcoma Incidence Among Male Veterans With HIV Infection
Conclusions.&nbsp;Lower KS incidence was observed with longer BPI use, after accounting for potential IRIS and other factors. Future research should evaluate newer cART regimens and long-term benefits of PI-based cART on KS in other cohorts and prospective studies. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Myocardial Infarction Among Danish HIV-Infected Individuals: Population-Attributable Fractions Associated With Smoking
Conclusions.&nbsp;Smoking is associated with a higher risk of MI in the HIV-infected population than in the general population. Approximately 3 of 4 MIs among HIV-infected individuals are associated with ever smoking compared with only 1 of 4 MIs among population controls. Smoking cessation could potentially prevent more than 40% of MIs among HIV-infected individuals, and smoking cessation should be a primary focus in modern HIV care. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Editorial Commentary: Myocardial Infarction in HIV-Infected Persons: Time to Focus on the Silent Elephant in the Room?
(Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Antiretroviral Treatment Failure, Drug Resistance, and Subtype Diversity in the Only Pediatric HIV Clinic in Rhode Island
Conclusions.&nbsp;We report high HIV type 1 diversity, extensive drug resistance among ART-experienced children, and horizontal transmission of resistance in the Rhode Island pediatric HIV clinic. As HIV-infected children mature into adulthood, close monitoring of ART, adherence, and diagnosis disclosure are essential to optimize patient care. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Pyrenochaeta romeroi causing subcutaneous phaeohyphomycotic cyst in A diabetic female
We present a rare case of subcutaneous phaeohyphomycotic cyst in a diabetic female caused by Pyrenochaeta romeroi. (Source: Medical Mycology Case Reports)
The Potential Role of Employment on Neurocognitive Reserve in Adults with HIV: A Review of the Literature
The benefits of employment are enormous; when employed, people naturally: (a) engage socially with the public and colleagues/co-workers, (b) learn new skills to increase job productivity and competence, (c) establish routines that can prevent lethargy and boredom and may regulate sleep and healthy behaviors, (d) are provided purposeful and meaningful activity that may prevent depression, and (e) gain income to pursue cognitively stimulating interests. All of these and other employment influences can provide an enriched personal and social environment that stimulates positive neuroplasticity and promotes neurocognitive reserve, which are particularly relevant to adults with HIV because (a) approximately 50% of adults with HIV experience observable cognitive impairments that can adversely af...
Strategies to Improve HIV Testing in African Americans
Only 17% of Miami-Dade County residents are African American, yet this population accounts for 59% of the county?s HIV-related mortality. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend annual testing for persons at increased risk for HIV, but 40% of African Americans have never been tested. OraQuick®, the first FDA-approved home-based HIV rapid test (HBHRT), has the potential to increase testing rates; however, there are concerns about HBHRT in vulnerable populations. We conducted focus groups in an underserved Miami neighborhood to obtain community input regarding HBHRT as a potential mechanism to increase HIV testing in African Americans. (Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)
Forum on the brain and hearing aids.
Conclusion: Benefits from hearing aids and auditory training entail higher-level cortical/cognitive processing involved in categorizing and remembering sound. New approaches to predicting, designing and evaluating technological and behavioral interventions will need to consider the brain and not just the ears of listeners. PMID: 25863869 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Audiology)
About cognitive outcome measures at ecological signal-to-noise ratios and cognitive-driven hearing aid signal processing.
Conclusion: Two experiments indicate that it is possible to show improved memory with an experimental noise reduction algorithm at ecological signal-to-noise ratios and that it is possible to replicate these findings in a new language. The literature indicates that attention-controlled hearing aids may be developed in the future. PMID: 25863715 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Audiology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
HIV immunotherapy treatment shows promise
Treatment using human antibodies helps fight the AIDS virus in study (Source: Health News: CBSNews.com)
Time for U.S. Parents to Reconsider the Acceptability of Infant Male Circumcision
Do the benefits of male circumcision outweigh the risks? The U.S. Centers for Disease Control -- echoing the 2012 policy statement of the American Academy of Pediatrics -- have recently suggested that they do. What many Americans are not aware of, however, is the fact that the United States is not just unusual, but actually unique among developed nations in finding such widespread medical support for infant male circumcision. This support originated in the late 1800s, when doctors promoted the operation as a "cure" for masturbation; today it comes primarily from doctors' trade associations -- such as the AAP -- that protect financial and other interests of physicians who continue to perform such surgeries. Doctors in peer nations, by contrast, along with the medical associations that repre...
Trial brings researchers closer to an antibody treatment for HIV
Although an effective therapy is still some years off, trial using high doses of antibody reduced HIV levels in patients? blood systems 300-foldResearchers are a step closer towards an antibody treatment for HIV, after trials of an experimental therapy reduced the amount of virus in patients? blood.A small trial in 17 HIV patients found that high doses of an antibody could slash levels of virus in patients? bodies, though scientists warned that an effective therapy was still years off. Continue reading... (Source: Guardian Unlimited Science)
Nigeria: Exclusive - How Sexual Abuse By Male Police Officers Fuels HIV Among Female Colleagues - Report
[Premium Times] The prevalence of HIV/AIDS is by far higher among female police personnel in Nigeria than among their male counterparts, and the lead cause is sexual exploitation by male officers who deliberately toughen police routines to make the women vulnerable to sexual abuse, an internal police assessment has found. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Disclosing haemophilia at school: strategies employed by mothers of children with haemophilia in Japan
ConclusionFor children with haemophilia to feel safe attending school, public schools must establish care management and anti?discrimination systems for children with chronic diseases, thus assuring parents of their children's welfare at school. (Source: Haemophilia)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Prediction of HIV Virologic Failure Among Adolescents Using the Pediatric Symptom Checklist
Abstract Psychosocial dysfunction is a risk factor for treatment non-adherence among children and adolescents. A previous study showed that high scores on the Pediatric Symptom Checklist (PSC) were associated with a history of HIV virologic failure. We assessed whether high scores on the PSC could predict virologic failure in HIV-infected youth. Caregivers of 234 adolescents between the ages of 10 and 16 years were asked to complete a PSC at baseline. Elevated PSC scores were associated with virologic failure in the subsequent 6 months. PSC scores may help guide resource utilization when viral load monitoring is limited. (Source: AIDS and Behavior)
Predictors of HIV Disclosure in Infected Persons Presenting to Establish Care
Abstract Persons receiving effective HIV treatment experience longevity and improvement in quality of life. For those infected, social support is associated with improved medication adherence. Disclosure of infection status is likely a prerequisite for social support. However, little research describes patterns of HIV disclosure by infected persons. We retrospectively evaluated factors associated with disclosure among patients initiating HIV care at a university-based clinic from 2007 to 2012. Of 490 persons initiating care, 13 % had not disclosed their HIV infection to anyone. Black race significantly predicted non-disclosure and persons living with a significant other or friends were more likely to have disclosed their HIV infection versus those living alone. CD4 + T lymphocy...
Adherence to Tobacco Dependence Treatment Among HIV-Infected Smokers
This study?s purpose was to examine participant responsiveness and tobacco dependence treatment adherence and their influences on tobacco abstinence among HIV-infected patients. This non-randomized study included HIV-infected smokers 18 years of age or older, who smoked at least 5 cigarettes per day, and had an interest in quitting smoking in the next 30 days. HIV-infected smokers (n = 247) received a 12-week tobacco dependence treatment intervention that included pharmacotherapy and telephone counseling. Younger age and non-White race were associated with lower adherence to pharmacotherapy. Younger age, non-White race, and increased monthly binge drinking were associated with lower adherence to telephone counseling. High participant responsiveness was associated with adherence to ph...
Quality of Care and Service Expansion for HIV Care and Treatment
Abstract The last two decades have seen exceptional development of antiretroviral treatment programs throughout the world. Over 14 million persons are accessing antiretroviral treatment (ART) treatment as of early 2015, and life expectancy has risen markedly in the most-affected populations. However, large patient numbers threaten to overwhelm already over-burdened health care systems and retention in care remains suboptimal. Developing innovative strategies to alleviate these burdens and retain patients in care remains a challenge. Furthermore, despite this expansion, large populations of HIV-infected persons remain undiagnosed and are unwilling or unable to access care and treatment programs. Marginalized and high-risk populations are particularly in danger of remaining outside ...
Sustained High HIV Incidence in Young Women in Southern Africa: Social, Behavioral, and Structural Factors and Emerging Intervention Approaches
Abstract Young women in southern Africa experience some of the highest incidence rates of HIV infection in the world. Across southern Africa, HIV prevalence among women increases rapidly between the teenage years and young adulthood. Adult HIV prevalence is 16.8 % in South Africa, 23 % in Botswana, 23 % in Lesotho, and 26.5 % in Swaziland. Existing research has illuminated some of the key social, behavioral, and structural factors associated with young women?s disproportionate HIV risk, including gendered social norms that advantage male power in sexual relationships and age disparities in relationships between younger women and older male partners. Important structural factors include the region?s history of labor migration and legacy of family disruption, and entrenched ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Human Papilloma Virus and Cervical Cancer Education Needs among HIV-Positive Haitian Women in Miami
Haitian immigrant women, the largest growing Black ethnic group in Miami, experience the highest rates of cervical cancer and account for one of the largest populations diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in South Florida. Using community-based participatory research methods, we conducted a pilot study to examine human papilloma virus (HPV)/cervical cancer knowledge and identify intervention preferences among HIV positive Haitian women. (Source: Womens Health Issues)
DNA-Based Authentication of Botanicals and Plant-Derived Dietary Supplements: Where Have We Been and Where Are We Going?
Planta MedDOI: 10.1055/s-0035-1545843Herbal medicines and botanicals have long been used as sole or additional medical aids worldwide. Currently, billions of dollars are spent on botanicals and related products, but minimal regulation exists regarding their purity, integrity, and efficacy. Cases of adulteration and contamination have led to severe illness and even death in some cases. Identifying the plant material in botanicals and phytomedicines using organoleptic means or through microscopic observation of plant parts is not trivial, and plants are often misidentified. Recently, DNA-based methods have been applied to these products because DNA is not changed by growth conditions unlike the chemical constituents of many active pharmaceutical agents. In recent years, DNA barcoding methods...
Severe morbidity after antiretroviral (ART) initiation: active surveillance in HIV care programs, the IeDEA West Africa collaboration
Background: The causes of severe morbidity in health facilities implementing Antiretroviral Treatment (ART) programmes are poorly documented in sub-Saharan Africa. We aimed to describe severe morbidity among HIV-infected patients after ART initiation, based on data from an active surveillance system established within a network of specialized care facilities in West African cities. Methods: Within the International epidemiological Database to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) - West Africa collaboration, we conducted a prospective, multicenter data collection that involved two facilities in Abidjan, Côte d?Ivoire and one in Cotonou, Benin. Among HIV-infected adults receiving ART, events were recorded using a standardized form. A simple case-definition of severe morbidity (death, hospitalization, fe...
Long lasting control of viral rebound with a new drug ABX464 targeting Rev &#8211; mediated viral RNA biogenesis
Conclusions: ABX464 represents a novel class of anti-HIV molecules with unique properties. ABX464 has a long lasting effect in humanized mice and neutralizes the expression of HIV-1 proviral genome of infected immune cells including reservoirs and it is therefore a promising drug toward a functional cure of HIV. (Source: Retrovirology)
Drug susceptibility to etravirine and darunavir among Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-derived pseudoviruses in treatment-experienced patients with HIV/AIDS in South Korea
Conclusions: Etravirine and darunavir have been used in HAART since 2010 in South Korea. Therefore, these antiretroviral drugs together with other newly introduced antiretroviral drugs are interesting for the optimal treatment of patients with treatment failure. This study may help to find a more effective HAART in the case of HIV-1 infected patients that have difficulty being treated. (Source: Virology Journal)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Antibody Holds Promise as Weapon Against HIV
Treatment would complement existing medications, researchers say Source: HealthDay Related MedlinePlus Page: HIV/AIDS (Source: MedlinePlus Health News)
In first human study, new antibody therapy shows promise in suppressing HIV infection
In the first results to emerge from HIV patient trials of a new generation of so-called broadly neutralizing antibodies, Rockefeller University researchers have found the experimental therapy can dramatically reduce the amount of virus present in a patient?s blood. The work, reported this week in Nature, brings fresh optimism to the field of HIV immunotherapy and suggests new strategies for fighting or even preventing HIV infection. More &#187; (Source: The Rockefeller University Newswire)
SAARC nations pledge to free region of AIDS by 2030
Nadda said another important aspect of the declaration was that the region decided to become polio free and eradicate it completely. (Source: The Economic Times)
Patients With HIV Retained in Care and Virally SuppressedPatients With HIV Retained in Care and Virally Suppressed
This study estimates the proportion of patients retained in care and virally suppressed in New York. JAIDS: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
Vascular endothelial growth factor-expressing neural stem cell for the treatment of neuropathic pain
In this study, our goal was to verify the therapeutic effect of SV-VEGF-NSCs by transplanting the cells in a sciatic nerve injury model. We compared the amount of VEGF secreted from DsRed-NSCs (control) or SV-VEGF-NSCs and observed that SV-VEGF-NSCs have a much higher expression level of VEGF. We next investigated whether transplantation with SV-VEGF-NSCs aids functional recovery and pain reduction. We confirmed that transplantation with SV-VEGF-NSCs enhances functional recovery, pain reduction, and remyelination as well as the number of blood vessels compared with the control groups. Our results show that VEGF aids functional recovery and pain reduction in a sciatic nerve injury model. (Source: NeuroReport)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Africa: Co-Infections and Co-Morbidities Framework Approved
[GFO] The Board approved a recommendation submitted by the Strategy and Investment for Impact Committee to allow countries to use some of their allocations to fund interventions in response to co-infections that can exacerbate HIV, TB or malaria. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: Global Fund At Eye of Perfect Storm in Financial Markets in 2014
[GFO] Losses due to currency exchange fluctuations hovering around $300 million (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: Maturity and Systems Theme of 33rd Board Meeting
[GFO] Governance reform and eliminating the funding gap remain elusive (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Kenya: Sex Workers Unite to Defy Stigma
[Key Correspondents] The day the military raided Amina Danait's* village in Muguru na Nyori will forever remain etched in her mind. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Zimbabwe: 14 Districts Identified as Potential HIV Hotspots
[New Zimbabwe] THE World Food Programme (WFP) has identified 14 more districts as potential hotspots for new HIV infections in addition to the traditional high prevalence regions of Matabeleland North and South. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Alzheimer's: A Women's Health Issue
Two-thirds of the 5 million Americans living with Alzheimer's disease are female. A woman at age 60 is twice as likely to be diagnosed with Alzheimer's as with breast cancer. Even after factoring in that women on average live longer than men, scientists don't fully understand why this most common form of dementia strikes women more often than men. Congresswoman Speier and Cynthia Guzman who was diagnosed with early-onset Alzheimer's on her 63rd birthday. Perhaps worse is that many don't know they have the disease. The Alzheimer's Association just uncovered that only 45 percent of those with the disease or their caretakers are told by their doctors of the diagnosis. There is no known cure for this cruel, unforgiving disease that kills nerve cells in the brain and robs a person of the abi...
Physical Medicine Interventions to Avoid Acute Respiratory Failure and Invasive Airway Tubes
This article describes the use of physical medicine noninvasive inspiratory and expiratory muscle aids to prevent ventilatory/respiratory failure and to permit the extubation and tracheostomy tube decannulation of patients with little or no autonomous ability to breathe (ie, those who cannot be weaned from ventilator support). Noninvasive airway pressure aids can provide continuous ventilatory support and effective cough flows for patients with severely dysfunctional respiratory muscles. (Source: PMandR)
Macrophage activation syndrome in the course of monogenic autoinflammatory disorders
Abstract An overwhelming activation of cytotoxic T cells and well-differentiated macrophages leading to systemic overload of inflammatory mediators characterizes the so-called macrophage activation syndrome (MAS); this potentially life-threatening clinical entity may derive from several genetic defects involved in granule-mediated cytotoxicity but has been largely observed in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis, many rheumatologic diseases, infections, and malignancies. The occurrence of MAS in the natural history or as the revealing clue of monogenic autoinflammatory disorders (AIDs), rare conditions caused by disrupted innate immunity pathways with overblown release of proinflammatory cytokines, has been only reported in few isolated patients with cryopyrin-associated pe...
Study on new BaCe0.7In0.3O3???Gd0.1Ce0.9O2?? composite electrolytes for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells
Publication date: 5 August 2015 Source:Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 639 Author(s): Fengguang Liu , Junjie Dang , Jie Hou , Jing Qian , Zhiwen Zhu , Zhongtao Wang , Wei Liu New mixed ionic conductors, BaCe0.7In0.3O3? ? ?Gd0.1Ce0.9O2? ? (BCI?GDC, weight ratio, 3:7, 5:5 and 7:3), were synthesized via a one-step citric acid?nitrate gel combustion method as electrolyte materials for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). X-ray diffraction patterns of BCI?GDC indicated that there was no impurity phase formed after sintering at high temperature up to 1400°C. Scanning electron microscopic study of BCI?GDC depicted dense grain morphology. Single fuel cells were prepared and the corresponding electrochemical performances were tested. The sintering temperature of the dense comp...
On the importance of training aids and the definition of an explosive odor signature: Commentary on Kranz et al
The recent article by Kranz et al. (Forensic Science International, 2014, vol. 236, 157-163) presents a misleading interpretation on the use of headspace volatiles from plasticized explosives, specifically 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (2E1H), as a routine training aid material for explosive detection canines. It is the intent of this commentary to highlight several limitations concerning the authors? results related to the setup and execution of the canine field trial used in the study from which the authors? conclusions are based. (Source: Forensic Science International)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Perceived social support affects disease coping among people living with HIV: a study in Tehran, Iran
Conclusions Patients who implement strategies to cope with HIV/AIDS have received more informational and emotional support. This study recommends that the delivery of informational support in a comprehensive package can practically target the current demands of our patients; while thorough investigation of potential effects on disease coping, response to treatment, and compliance can aid us in the design of interventions to target stigma at societal level. (Source: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease)
A Sound Therapy-Based Intervention to Expand the Auditory Dynamic Range for Loudness among Persons with Sensorineural Hearing Losses: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial
Semin Hear 2015; 36: 077-110DOI: 10.1055/s-0035-1546958The primary aim of this research was to evaluate the validity, efficacy, and generalization of principles underlying a sound therapy?based treatment for promoting expansion of the auditory dynamic range (DR) for loudness. The basic sound therapy principles, originally devised for treatment of hyperacusis among patients with tinnitus, were evaluated in this study in a target sample of unsuccessfully fit and/or problematic prospective hearing aid users with diminished DRs (owing to their elevated audiometric thresholds and reduced sound tolerance). Secondary aims included: (1) delineation of the treatment contributions from the counseling and sound therapy components to the full-treatment protocol and, in turn, the isolated treatment e...
Timely Surgical Follow-up for Melanoma Among Medicare Beneficiaries
The incidence of melanoma is increasing worldwide and is rising faster than that of any other cancer in white individuals. Early detection of and treatment aids in identifying less advanced tumors plus prompt surgical treatment could alleviate stress and anxiety. The study by Lott et al in this issue of JAMA Dermatology provides the first population-based look at delay of surgery for melanoma among Medicare beneficiaries. The authors demonstrate that 1 in 5 patients with a new diagnosis of melanoma experience delays in reexcision/definitive excision of longer than 1.5 months, and 8.1% experience delays of longer than 3 months. This delay is minimized when dermatologists perform the biopsy and surgical procedure, suggesting increased efficiency when coordinating care within the same special...
The Complex Interaction Between Methamphetamine Abuse and HIV-1 Pathogenesis
Abstract The global HIV/AIDS pandemic has claimed the lives of an estimated 35 million people. A significant barrier for combating this global pandemic is substance use since it is associated with HIV transmission, delayed diagnosis/initiation of therapy, and poor adherence to therapy. Clinical studies also suggest a link between substance use and HIV-disease progression/AIDS-associated mortality. Methamphetamine (METH) use is one of the fastest-growing substance use problems in the world. METH use enhances high-risk sexual behaviors, therefore increases the likelihood of HIV-1 acquisition. METH use is also associated with higher viral loads, immune dysfunction, and antiretroviral resistance. Moreover, METH use has also been correlated with rapid progression to AIDS. However, dire...
Updated HHS Adult and Adolescent Antiretroviral Treatment Guidelines Released
The HHS Panel on Antiretroviral Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents announces the release of the updated Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in HIV-1-Infected Adults and Adolescents. Key updates to the guidelines include additions and changes to the following guideline sections: What to Start: Significant changes to the list of Recommended, Alternative, and Other regimens for treatment-naive patients prompted by recent findings from clinical trials and cohort studies, as well as experience in clinical practice. Addition of a new table to assist clinicians in selecting an initial ARV regimen based on specific clinical scenarios and ARV-related considerations. Management of the Treatment-Experienced Patient: Expanded information on the management of patients f...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
CDC Leading New Efforts to Fight HIV Among Gay, Bisexual Men and Transgender People
"The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention will lead new programs totaling more than $185 million in HIV prevention funding for men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender people, with a particular focus on addressing the needs of MSM of color. The multi-faceted strategy will respond to the severe burden of HIV among MSM and transgender men and women through three new programs enabling health departments and local HIV prevention partners to deliver the most effective HIV prevention tools." &nbsp; To learn more, view the CDC press release. (Source: AIDSinfo At-a-Glance: Offering Information on HIV/AIDS Treatment, Prevention, and Research, A Service of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS))
Rapidly Progressive Dementia and Myoclonus with Elevated CSF IgG Index in Young Adult Immigrants: Treatable, but Not Always with Immunosuppression (I4-2A)
CONCLUSIONS: Young adults with RPD, myoclonus, and elevated CSF IgG index may have SSPE. Upbringing in areas in which measles eradication had not yet been achieved can be an important diagnostic clue. EEG and measles antibodies in serum and CSF are useful, readily available diagnostic studies. Reports of accelerated disease course associated with steroids, pregnancy, and HIV/AIDS in patients with SSPE support the hypothesis that empiric immunosuppression could have worsened the outcome in these two patients.Disclosure: Dr. Jay has nothing to disclose. Dr. Zimmermann has nothing to disclose. Dr. DaSilva has nothing to disclose. (Source: Neurology)
The Changing Epidemiology of Stroke in Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). (I7-1A)
Conclusions:There is an increased frequency of AIDS among stroke patients, possibly due to the increased detection of AIDS. In the HAART era, the median age of incident stroke in AIDS has increased. Whether HAART can reduce the incidence and improve survival of stroke needs to be explored.Disclosure: Dr. Kucab has received personal compensation for activities with Bayer HealthCare as an advisory board participant. Dr. Bhattacharya has nothing to disclose. (Source: Neurology)
Etiologies of New Onset Seizure in HIV-infected Zambian Adults (I7-3A)
Conclusions: Seizures in HIV-infected adults in Zambia are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Multiple infectious etiologies and/or metabolic abnormalities account for the majority of cases.Disclosure: Dr. Siddiqi has nothing to disclose. Dr. Elafros has nothing to disclose. Dr. Sikazwe has nothing to disclose. Dr. Bositis has nothing to disclose. Dr. Koralnik has received personal compensation for activities with Johnson & Johnson as a scientific advisory board member. Dr. Koralnik has received personal compensation in an editorial capacity for Annals of Neurology. Dr. Koralnik has received royalt Dr. Potchen has received personal compensation for activities as a medical expert witness. Dr. Theodore held stock and/or stock options in General Electric. Dr. Kalungwana ...
The Changing Epidemiology of Stroke in Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). (P1.089)
Conclusions:There is an increased frequency of AIDS among stroke patients, possibly due to the increased detection of AIDS. In the HAART era, the median age of incident stroke in AIDS has increased. Whether HAART can reduce the incidence and improve survival of stroke needs to be explored.Disclosure: Dr. Kucab has received personal compensation for activities with Bayer HealthCare as an advisory board participant. Dr. Bhattacharya has nothing to disclose. (Source: Neurology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Frequency of HIV-associated neurological disorders over four years of follow-up: results from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (P2.315)
Conclusion: HAND is still common in HIV+ individuals in the cART era. However, for the majority of HIV+ individuals on cART with systemic virological suppression, the diagnosis of HAND is not a progressive clinical condition over four years of follow-up. Future studies should evaluate longitudinal changes in HAND over a longer period of time. Study Supported by: AI035042Disclosure: Dr. Sacktor has nothing to disclose. Dr. Reynolds has nothing to disclose. Dr. Skolasky has nothing to disclose. Dr. Munro has nothing to disclose. Dr. Becker has nothing to disclose. Dr. Martin has nothing to disclose. Dr. Ragin has nothing to disclose. Dr. Levine has nothing to disclose. Dr. Miller has nothing to disclose. (Source: Neurology)
CMV Transverse Myelitis Presenting as Partial Brown-Sequard Syndrome (P2.319)
BACKGROUND: CMV infection affecting the CNS is most frequently seen in immunocompromised patients such as those with advanced HIV infection. It can also cause transverse myelitis, which produces symptoms of paraplegia, urinary retention and sensory deficits. However, its presentation as Brown-Sequard syndrome is extremely rare. OBSERVATION: 53-year-old man, newly diagnosed with AIDS (CD4 count 25 cells/mm3) and started on HAART therapy 12 days prior to admission, presented with 1 week history of left leg weakness and right leg numbness. His physical exam was significant for left lower extremity weakness in pyramidal pattern (4/5), left patellar and ankle hyper-reflexia and left Babinski sign. He also displayed decreased sensation to pain and temperature on his right lower extremity extendi...
Rapidly Progressive Dementia and Myoclonus with Elevated CSF IgG Index in Young Adult Immigrants: Treatable, but Not Always with Immunosuppression (P2.322)
CONCLUSIONS: Young adults with RPD, myoclonus, and elevated CSF IgG index may have SSPE. Upbringing in areas in which measles eradication had not yet been achieved can be an important diagnostic clue. EEG and measles antibodies in serum and CSF are useful, readily available diagnostic studies. Reports of accelerated disease course associated with steroids, pregnancy, and HIV/AIDS in patients with SSPE support the hypothesis that empiric immunosuppression could have worsened the outcome in these two patients.Disclosure: Dr. Jay has nothing to disclose. Dr. Zimmermann has nothing to disclose. Dr. DaSilva has nothing to disclose. (Source: Neurology)
Etiologies of New Onset Seizure in HIV-infected Zambian Adults (P5.045)
Conclusions: Seizures in HIV-infected adults in Zambia are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Multiple infectious etiologies and/or metabolic abnormalities account for the majority of cases.Disclosure: Dr. Siddiqi has nothing to disclose. Dr. Elafros has nothing to disclose. Dr. Sikazwe has nothing to disclose. Dr. Bositis has nothing to disclose. Dr. Koralnik has received personal compensation for activities with Johnson & Johnson as a scientific advisory board member. Dr. Koralnik has received personal compensation in an editorial capacity for Annals of Neurology. Dr. Koralnik has received royalt Dr. Potchen has received personal compensation for activities as a medical expert witness. Dr. Theodore held stock and/or stock options in General Electric. Dr. Kalungwana ...
Varicella-Zoster Hemorrhagic Encephalitis in an AIDS patient (P6.013)
CONCLUSIONS: We describe a patient with AIDS and VZV encephalitis in the absence of cutaneous eruptions or trigeminal compromise. HIV is known to cause vasculitis and could coexist with VZV. It is important to recognize that VZV infection is a cause of small or large vessel vasculopathy which may cause focal demyelination at the the gray-white matter junction mimicking JC viral lesions. The case highlights VZV encephalitis as an entity that could lead to devastating complications, including inflammatories vasculopathy with either ischemic or hemorrhagic sequelae.Disclosure: Dr. Vela-Duarte has nothing to disclose. Dr. Pasquale has nothing to disclose. Dr. Flaster has nothing to disclose. (Source: Neurology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Differentiating vertical misalignment using different head positions: a reappraisal (S26.003)
CONCLUSIONS:In contrast to prior studies, the upright supine test in our skew population showed a 25[percnt] sensitivity, and ocular torsion increased in the supine position.Disclosure: Dr. Lemos has nothing to disclose. Dr. Subei has nothing to disclose. Dr. Sousa has nothing to disclose. Dr. Coelho has nothing to disclose. Dr. Cunha has nothing to disclose. Dr. Glisson has received personal compensation for activities with Biogen Idec and Lundbeck. Dr. Eggenberger has received personal compensation for activities with Biogen Idec, Genzyme, Questcor, Novartis, Acorda, Prime Pharma, Allergan, Inc. and Teva. Dr. Eggenberger has received research support from Teva, Allergan, Inc., Serono, and Berlex. (Source: Neurology)
Lucy Montoro Rehabilitation Network mobile unit: an alternative public healthcare policy.
CONCLUSION: Data on patients' profiles were made available through services provided by the MU - including the average index of 1.85 devices delivered to each patient and demand projections - which can be used in the planning of public policies. The MU made rehabilitation services more accessible, trained professionals, raised awareness on the correct delivery and use of assistive devices, and identified and organized people's demand in each region. Implications for Rehabilitation Delivering prostheses, orthoses and other mobility aids fulfills the rights of persons with disabilities to personal mobility with the greatest possible independence, as foreseen by the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, increasing their participation in society on an equal basis with others. ...
Promoting Shared Decision Making in Disorders of Sex Development (DSD): Decision Aids and Support Tools
Horm Metab ResDOI: 10.1055/s-0035-1545302Specific complaints and grievances from adult patients with disorders of sex development (DSD), and their advocates, center around the lack of information or misinformation they were given about their condition and feeling stigmatized and shamed by the secrecy surrounding their condition and its management. Many also attribute poor sexual function to damaging genital surgery and/or repeated, insensitive genital examinations. These reports suggest the need to reconsider the decision-making process for the treatment of children born with DSD. This paper proposes that shared decision making, an important concept in adult health care, be operationalized for the major decisions commonly encountered in DSD care and facilitated through the utilization of d...
Updated Trends in HIV Infection, Stage 3 (AIDS) Slide Set
This slide set presents data on trends (1985-2013) in diagnoses of HIV infection that have been classified as stage 3 (AIDS). (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
MSM Surveillance Slide Set
This slide set presents the latest (2013) HIV surveillance data on males with diagnosed HIV infection attributed to male-to-male sexual contact. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
A Troubling Potential Link Between Sleep Aids And Mental Illness
In today's "always on," high-stress world, it has become commonplace to turn to over-the-counter sleep aids for a little help with drifting off into dreamland at night. However, that habit, if made a consistent one, could lead to potentially serious damage when it comes to ones mental health. A new study zeroing in on anticholinergic drugs -- a category that includes common non-prescription sleeping aids and antihistamines like Benadryl -- found that the long-term use of such medications in higher doses can lead to an increased risk of developing dementia, including Alzheimer's disease, in the future. It's the first study of its kind to prove this dose-response effect, meaning that the higher, cumulative consumption of the drug, the higher the likelihood of a person developing dementia la...
?Mad*Pow designing solutions to health care?s problems
When Mad*Pow heard that medication adherence for patients with HIV was a problem, executives figured the solution lied in design. The Boston design firm ? in partnership with the Center for Disease Control, health consulting firm John Snow Inc. and non-profit AIDS organizations ? subsequently designed and developed an app to help patients take their medication. ?HIV medication can make you feel terrible. (We?re) making a connection between adherence and (positive outcomes),? said Amy? (Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Physician Practices headlines)
Threats to identity: lipodystrophy and identity changes in people with HIV/AIDS (PWA).
CONCLUSIONS: The study highlights how complex, cyclical and dynamic are the effects that HIV status can have on the sick person: they are no longer only clinical, but also psychological and psychosocial. PMID: 25835763 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Acta Bio-Medica : Atenei Parmensis)
The Influence of a Peer-Based HIV Prevention Intervention on Conversation About HIV Prevention Among People Who Inject Drugs in Baltimore, Maryland
Abstract STEP into Action assessed the efficacy of a peer-based HIV prevention intervention in reducing HIV risk behaviors among people who inject drugs (PWIDs) in Baltimore. This analysis examined the effect of the intervention on the change in frequency of conversation about HIV prevention topics over time. 114 participants were randomized into an experimental and 113 into a control group. Data was collected prospectively at 6, 12, and 18 months. The experimental group talked more frequently about HIV prevention topics compared to the control group at 6-month visit. At 18 months relative risk ratios (RRR) remained statistically significant for conversation about the danger of needle sharing (RRR = 3.21) and condom use (RRR = 2.81). The intervention resulted in an increased...
Understanding Consistent Condom Use Among Homeless Men Who Have Sex with Women and Engage in Multiple Sexual Partnerships: A Path Analysis
This study identified 182 homeless men who engaged in multiple sexual partnerships from a representative sample of homeless men, who self-identified as heterosexual, using meal line services in Downtown Los Angeles? Skid Row area. Information such as participants? condom use psychosocial correlates, sexual risk behaviors, and social network characteristics were collected. Results suggested that condom efficacy is a potential intervening mechanism through which condom attitudes (? = ?0.199; p = 0.005) and depression (? = ?0.156; p = 0.029) are associated with an individual?s consistent condom use. Having more network members with whom participants talked about HIV prevention (? = 0.051; p = 0.006) was also found to be associated with an individual?s consistent con...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Relationship Between Family Economic Resources, Psychosocial Well-being, and Educational Preferences of AIDS-Orphaned Children in Southern Uganda: Baseline Findings
This study examines the relationship between economic resources, psychosocial well-being, and educational preferences of AIDS-orphaned children in southern Uganda. We use baseline data from a sample of 1410 AIDS-orphaned children (defined as children who have lost one or both biological parents to AIDS) enrolled in the Bridges to the Future study, a National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) funded study. Analyses from both bivariate and multiple regression analyses indicate the following: 1) despite the well-documented economic and psychosocial challenges AIDS-orphaned children face, many of these children have high educational plans and aspirations; 2) educational aspirations differ by orphanhood status (double orphan vs. single orphan); 3) regardless of orphanhood ...
Transitions in the communication experiences of tracheostomised patients in intensive care: a qualitative descriptive study
ConclusionThe importance of patients experiencing caring and understanding despite their difficult situation constitutes the core finding. The findings suggest that participants went through different transitions. Some reached the end of their transition, experiencing increased stability. Relevance to clinical practiceDespite challenges with communication, participants reported that caring and safety provided by health care professionals were significant experiences. They viewed nonverbal communication as being very important. (Source: Journal of Clinical Nursing)
Hearing Care for Older Adults: Beyond the Audiology Clinic.
Conclusion: Further work is needed to develop new interventions for older people with impaired hearing and to increase collaboration with general practitioners as well as other health-care professionals. PMID: 25856775 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Audiology)
Shared decision-making in epilepsy management.
Authors: Pickrell WO, Elwyn G, Smith PE Abstract Policy makers, clinicians, and patients increasingly recognize the need for greater patient involvement in clinical decision-making. Shared decision-making helps address these concerns by providing a framework for clinicians and patients to make decisions together using the best evidence. Shared decision-making is applicable to situations where several acceptable options exist (clinical equipoise). Such situations occur commonly in epilepsy, for example, in decisions regarding the choice of medication, treatment in pregnancy, and medication withdrawal. A talk model is a way of implementing shared decision-making during consultations, and decision aids are useful tools to assist in the process. Although there is limited evidence avail...
Factors influencing implementation dose and fidelity thereof and related student outcomes of an evidence-based national HIV prevention program
Conclusions: Both implementation dose and implementation fidelity are related to student outcomes. Teachers at risk for limited implementation can be identified pre-intervention, thus opening the possibility for focused pre-intervention training. (Source: Implementation Science)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Liberia: Traditional Leaders Advocate for Inclusion
[NEWS] Heads of female and male traditional leaders in Bong County have called for inclusion of the traditional community into training programs intended to help eradicate HIV and AIDS, TB and Malaria undermining the country's health sector. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Dolutegravir Remains Superior to Boosted Darunavir for HIV-1Dolutegravir Remains Superior to Boosted Darunavir for HIV-1
Once-daily dolutegravir maintains its higher virological response rates over those of ritonavir-boosted darunavir in treatment-naïve adults with HIV-1 infection, according to 96-week results from the FLAMINGO study. Reuters Health Information (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)
Africa: HIV/Aids - Uganda in Africa's Top 3 for New Infections
[Observer] National rates of new HIV cases remain substantially high, keeping Uganda off the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/Aids (UNAIDS) target of having zero new infections by end of 2015. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Liberia: Unprecedented Killers, Health Official Describes HIV, TB
[FrontPageAfrica] Sinoe County -The Sinoe County, Acting County Health Officer (CHO) Mr. Samson Q. Wiah has called for joint efforts from government, civil society, community leaders and international partners to fight HIV and Tuberculosis (TB) in the country. Mr. Wiah said, it is about time that Liberians see HIV and AIDS and TB as unprecedented elements which are seeking to destroy human existence. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
IHS: Office of Direct Service and Contracting Tribes; National Indian Health Outreach and Education II
The Indian Health Services (IHS) is accepting competitive applications for two awards under the National Indian Health Outreach and Education (NIHOE): the Behavioral Health - Methamphetamine and Suicide Prevention Intervention (MSPI) outreach and education award and the Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) outreach and education award. (Source: Federal Register updates via the Rural Assistance Center)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
The doctor who fights public health crises
The Ebola outbreak that has infected thousands of people in western Africa is a top concern of Dr. Anthony Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases at the National Institutes of Health. Contributor Scott Simon of NPR sat down with Dr. Fauci for some questions and answers ? about fighting AIDS, Ebola and other public health crises. (Source: Health News: CBSNews.com)
High performance screen printed Pb(Zr0.46Ti0.54)O3?Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3?Pb(Ni1/3Nb2/3)O3 thick films by one-step co-firing method
Publication date: 1 August 2015 Source:Materials Letters, Volume 152 Author(s): Mingyang Wang , Weibing Ma , Nan Chen , Yaoxian Guo , Jianqiang Ma , Zhihao Zhao High performance screen-printed PNN?PZN?PZT thick films have been successfully prepared using a new one-step co-firing method at relatively low sintering temperature, leaving out preceding binder removal and subsequent electrode-made processes. And the dependence of microstructure, densification and electrical properties on the content of sintering aids has been investigated. The specimens with 1wt% sintering aids sintered at 850°C exhibits markedly enhanced piezoelectric and dielectric properties: d 33=202 pC/N, ? 33 T /? 0=987, tan ?=1.8%, Tc=295°C, and Pr=14.02?C/cm2. Furthermore, there is no obvious Ag diffusion int...
Incarceration and injection drug use in Baltimore, Maryland
ConclusionsIn the United States, incarceration of people who had previously stopped injecting drugs appears to be associated with an increased risk of subsequent injecting. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Addiction)
Fibrinogen as a Biomarker in Vascular Disease and its Prognostic Impact During Venous and Arterial Thrombolysis
Fibrinogen is a large complex glycoprotein that is aids in the formation of blood clots. As an acute phase protein, fibrinogen has clinical application as a biomarker in the management of patient with venous and arterial disease. High levels are associated with inflammation and the risk of cardiovascular disease. During venous and arterial thrombolysis therapy, fibrinogen levels have prognostic significance regarding risk of bleeding. In this review, the application of fibrinogen as a biomarker in care of the vascular surgery patient is detailed. (Source: Seminars in Vascular Surgery)
Direct synthesis of hydrogen peroxide using Au?Pd supported and ion-exchanged heteropolyacids precipitated with various metal ions
We report the preparation and testing of Au?Pd catalysts prepared by ion exchange and impregnation methods with insoluble heteropolyacids as the support. The heteropolyacids contain a range of counter ions including Cs+, Rb+, K+ and Ag+. The catalysts containing Cs and Rb prepared by ion exchange were shown to be extremely active for H2O2 synthesis using reaction conditions that are not particularly conducive to H2O2 synthesis but are reaction conditions that are dictated by potential applications, such as water as a solvent and ambient temperature. Graphical abstract (Source: Catalysis Today)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Mitochondria in autoinflammation: cause, mediator or bystander?
Publication date: Available online 4 April 2015 Source:Trends in Endocrinology &amp; Metabolism Author(s): Robert van der Burgh , Marianne Boes People suffering from autoinflammatory disease (AID) have recurring sterile inflammation due to dysregulated inflammasome activation. Although certain genes have been associated with several AIDs, the molecular underpinnings of seemingly spontaneous inflammation are not well understood. Emerging data now suggest that mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and autophagy might drive key signaling pathways towards activation of the inflammasome. In this review, we discuss recent findings and highlight common features between different AIDs and mitochondrial (dys)function. Although it is still early to identify cl...
UCLA research links HIV to age-accelerating cellular changes
People undergoing treatment for HIV-1 have an increased risk for earlier onset of age-related illnesses such as some cancers, renal and kidney disease, frailty, osteoporosis and neurocognitive disease. But is it because of the virus that causes AIDS or the treatment? To answer that question, researchers at the UCLA AIDS Institute and Center for AIDS Research and the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study investigated whether the virus induces age-associated epigenetic changes ? that is, changes to the DNA that in turn lead to changes in expression of gene levels without changing the inherited genetic code. These changes affect biological processes and can be brought on by environmental factors or by the aging process itself. In a study published online in the peer-reviewed journal PLOS ONE, ...
Exposing the gaps in awareness, knowledge and estimation of risk for anal cancer in men who have sex with men living with HIV: a cross-sectional survey in Australia.
CONCLUSIONS: This survey of MSM living with HIV demonstrated limited awareness, knowledge level and estimation of risk for anal cancer. Further educational and public health initiatives are urgently needed to improve knowledge and understanding of anal cancer risk in MSM living with HIV. PMID: 25828269 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Female Condom Use and Adoption Among Men and Women in a General Low-Income Urban U.S. Population
Abstract HIV prevention is increasingly focused on antiretroviral treatment of infected or uninfected persons. However, barrier methods like male condoms (MC) and female condoms (FC) remain necessary to achieve broad reductions in HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). Evidence grows suggesting that removal of basic obstacles could result in greater FC use and reduced unprotected sex in the general population. We conducted four annual cross-sectional surveys (2009?2012) of urban residents (N = 1614) in low-income neighborhoods of a northeastern U.S. city where prevalence of HIV and other STIs is high. Findings indicate slow FC uptake but also heterosexual men?s willingness to use them. Factors associated with men?s and women?s FC use included positive FC a...
Analysis of nanowire transistor based nitrogen dioxide gas sensor ? A simulation study
Publication date: Available online 30 March 2015 Source:Sensing and Bio-Sensing Research Author(s): Gaurav Saxena , Roy Paily Sensors sensitivity, selectivity and stability has always been a prime design concern for gas sensors designers. Modeling and simulation of gas sensors aids the designers in improving their performance. In this paper, different routes for the modeling and simulation of a semiconducting gas sensor is presented. Subsequently, by employing one of the route, the response of Zinc Oxide nanowire transistor towards nitrogen dioxide ambient is simulated. In addition to the sensing mechanism, simulation study of gas species desorption by applying a recovery voltage is also presented. (Source: Sensing and Bio Sensing Research)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Imaging Infection
Thoracic imaging is widely used to detect lower respiratory tract infections, identify their complications, and aid in differentiating infectious from noninfectious thoracic disease. Less commonly, the combination of imaging findings and a clinical setting can favor infection with a specific organism. This confluence can occur in cases of bronchiectatic nontuberculous mycobacterial infections in immune-competent hosts, invasive fungal disease among neutropenic patients, Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia in patients with AIDS, and in cytomegalovirus infections in patients with recent hematopoietic cell transplantation. These specific diagnoses often depend on computed tomography scanning rather than chest radiography alone. (Source: Clinics in Chest Medicine)
Ras/MEK/MAPK-mediated regulation of heparin sulfate proteoglycans promotes retinal fate in the drosophila eye-antennal disc.
This study identifies a novel mode by which the Ras/MEK/MAPK pathway regulates regional-fate specification via HSPGs during development. PMID: 25848695 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Developmental Biology)
Mitochondria in autoinflammation: cause, mediator or bystander?
Authors: van der Burgh R, Boes M Abstract People suffering from autoinflammatory disease (AID) have recurring sterile inflammation due to dysregulated inflammasome activation. Although certain genes have been associated with several AIDs, the molecular underpinnings of seemingly spontaneous inflammation are not well understood. Emerging data now suggest that mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and autophagy might drive key signaling pathways towards activation of the inflammasome. In this review, we discuss recent findings and highlight common features between different AIDs and mitochondrial (dys)function. Although it is still early to identify clear therapeutic targets, the emerging paradigms in inflammation and mitochondrial biology show that ...
Nanotopography aids transdermal drug delivery
Technique increases skin?s permeability to high molecular weight therapeutics. (Source: Nanotechweb.org News)
Announcements: National Youth HIV and AIDS Awareness Day ? April 10, 2015
(Source: CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
HIV-Infected People Often Do Well After Kidney Transplant
Refuting common wisdom, research shows that these patients fared better than those with hepatitis C Source: HealthDay Related MedlinePlus Pages: HIV/AIDS, Hepatitis C, Kidney Transplantation (Source: MedlinePlus Health News)
HIV among People Aged 50 and Over
described the burden of HIV on this population in the United States and what CDC is doing about it. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
A Clever Trick Aids Memory
To improve recall of words and faces, try associating them with locations -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com (Source: Scientific American - Official RSS Feed)
Only Farage can save our precious bodily fluids from HIV
Nigel Farage is like a host who charges guests for using too much loo roll. Continue reading... (Source: Guardian Unlimited Science)
Africa: OIG Releases First "Annual Opinion" On the Global Fund Secretariat
[GFO] Says organizational maturity has improved, but further enhancements are required (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Africa: Global Fund Board Approves Final Targets to Complete the Corporate KPI Framework
[GFO] Updated performance targets for key performance indicators related to alignment with national reporting systems, human rights protection and the quality of management and leadership approved (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: Global Fund in Three-Pronged Approach to Resource Mobilization
[GFO] Next replenishment will kick off with pre-meeting in Japan in December 2015 (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: Incentive Funding Awards Reduced to Find Money to Cover Gaps in Countries With Shortened Grant Durations, Trp Says
[GFO] Because of the gaps, will the Fund have any resources to finance unfunded quality demand? (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: Code of Ethical Conduct for Governance Officials Adopted
[GFO] "Best interests of the Fund must take priority" (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: OIG Releases Annual Report for 2014 and an Update On Agreed Management Actions
[GFO] Secretariat issues report on recoveries (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Malawi: Miaa for Couple-Counseling and Testing
[Malawi News Agency] Ntchisi -Couple counseling and testing can contribute towards reducing the spread of HIV and AIDS as it encourages couples to discuss risk concerns, hear information and messages together thereby enhancing likelihood of shared understanding of HIV and AIDS prevention strategies, says Malawi Interfaith AIDS Association (MIAA). (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
UCLA research links HIV to age-accelerating cellular changes
(University of California - Los Angeles Health Sciences) People undergoing treatment for HIV-1 have an increased risk for earlier onset of age-related illnesses such as some cancers, renal and kidney disease, frailty, osteoporosis and neurocognitive disease. But is it because of the virus that causes AIDS or the treatment? New research suggests that HIV itself accelerates these aging related changes by more than 14 years. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
HIV: Low Risk for Drug Resistance From PrEP HIV: Low Risk for Drug Resistance From PrEP
Resistance that arises in individuals who are receiving preexposure prophylaxis is largely the result of an emtricitabine-selected mutation. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)
An Electronic Daily Diary Study of Anal Intercourse in Drug-Using Women
Abstract Women (N = 138) with histories of illicit drug use were recruited into an electronic diary study that used Android smartphones for data collection. The diary was to be completed each day for 12 weeks using an ?app? created in HTML5 and accessed over the Internet via smartphone. Data collection included information on sexual behaviors with up to 10 partners per day and contextual factors surrounding sexual behavior such as drug use before/after, type of sexual behavior (oral, vaginal, anal), and other activities such as using condoms for vaginal and anal intercourse and use of sexual lubricants. The sample was predominantly African American (58 %); 20 % Latina, 20 % White and 2 % reported as Other. Most women reported either less than a high school education (33...
Sexual Behavior, Risk Compensation, and HIV Prevention Strategies Among Participants in the San Francisco PrEP Demonstration Project: A Qualitative Analysis of Counseling Notes
Abstract Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a viable HIV prevention strategy but risk compensation could undermine potential benefits. There are limited data that examine this phenomenon outside of clinical trials. We conducted a qualitative analysis of counseling notes from the San Francisco site of the US PrEP demonstration project to assess how men who have sex with men used PrEP as a prevention strategy and its impact on their sexual practices. Four major themes emerged from our analysis of 130 distinct notes associated with 26 participants. Prevention strategy decision-making was dynamic, often influenced by the context and perceived risk of a sexual encounter. Counselors noted that participants used PrEP in conjunction with other health promotion strategies like condoms, ask...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Behavioral Intervention Improves Treatment Outcomes Among HIV-Infected Individuals Who Have Delayed, Declined, or Discontinued Antiretroviral Therapy: A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Novel Intervention
This study examined a new culturally targeted multi-component intervention to address emotional, attitudinal, and social/structural barriers to ART initiation and HIV care. Participants (N = 95) were African American/Black and Latino adults with CD4 &lt; 500 cells/mm3 not taking ART, randomized 1:1 to intervention or control arms, the latter receiving treatment as usual. Primary endpoints were adherence, evaluated via ART concentrations in hair samples, and HIV viral load suppression. The intervention was feasible and acceptable. Eight months post-baseline, intervention participants tended to be more likely to evidence ?good? (that is, 7 days/week) adherence (60 vs. 26.7 %; p = 0.087; OR = 3.95), and had lower viral load levels than controls (t(22) = 2.29, p = 0.032; OR ...
Perceptions of the effects of armed conflict on maternal and reproductive health services and outcomes in Burundi and Northern Uganda: a qualitative study
Conclusions: The effects of armed conflict on MRH services and outcomes are substantial. The mechanisms through which armed conflict leads to poor access and quality of MRH services vary from one setting to another. All these issues need to be considered in the design and implementation of interventions to improve MRH in these settings. (Source: BMC International Health and Human Rights)
Coagulation of methylated arsenic from drinking water: Influence of methyl substitution
In this study, the removal of monomethylarsenate (MMA) and dimethylarsenate (DMA) from drinking water by coagulation was investigated from the viewpoint of methyl substitution. Results indicated that FeCl3 was more efficient than AlCl3 and polyaluminum chloride (PACl) in methylated As removal. For the initial arsenic concentration of 200?g/L, an FeCl3 dosage of 0.2mmol Fe/L was sufficient to attain about 95% removal of MMA, while a dosage of 0.6mmol Fe/L achieved about 57% removal of DMA. Arsenic removal efficiency was negatively correlated with the degree of methyl substitution. With the increase in methyl group number, the quantity of negatively charged arsenic species decreased and molecular size increased, leading to the decrease of methylated As removal by coagulation. Adsorption on ...
Gastrointestinal cryptococcoma ? Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome or cryptococcal relapse in a patient with AIDS?
We present the case of an HIV-infected patient on ART, with a history of cryptococcal meningitis who presented with subacute, worsening abdominal pain during immune recovery. This evolved into chronic abdominal pain, with thickened bowel, and abdominal lymphadenopathy, while receiving empiric tuberculosis treatment. At 6-months, he developed intestinal perforation due to a histologically confirmed cryptococcoma. (Source: Medical Mycology Case Reports)
Bone density and fractures in HIV-infected postmenopausal women: A systematic review
With the development of effective antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV-infected women are living longer and transitioning through menopause. The purpose of our study was to systematically examine the evidence that menopause is an additional risk predictor for osteoporosis and fractures in HIV-infected women. Electronic databases were searched for studies of low bone density or fractures in HIV-infected postmenopausal women. Studies that met the inclusion criteria (n = 10) were appraised using a validated quality assessment tool. (Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Medical treatment decision making after total avulsion brachial plexus injury: a qualitative study.
CONCLUSIONS Patients with panplexus avulsion injuries are missing opportunities for reconstruction and often not considering the long-term outcomes of surgery. As more Americans gain health insurance coverage, it is very likely that the number of patients able to pursue reconstruction will increase. The authors recommend implementing clinical pathways to help patients meet critical points in care within the ideal timeframe and using a patient- and family-centered care approach combined with patient decision aids to foster shared decision making, increase access to information, and improve patient satisfaction with decisions. These measures could greatly benefit patients with BPI while reducing costs, improving efficiency, and generating better outcomes. PMID: 25839930 [PubMed - as supp...
HIV spreads like internet malware and should be treated earlier
A new model for HIV progression finds that it spreads in a similar way to some computer worms and predicts that early treatment is key to staving off AIDS. HIV specialists and network security experts noticed that the spread of HIV through the body using two methods -- via the bloodstream and directly between cells -- was similar to how some computer worms spread through both the internet and local networks respectively to infect as many computers as possible. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)
Researchers dramatically improve ART adherence for minority persons living with HIV/AIDS
Up to 60% of persons living with HIV (PLHA) in the U.S. are neither taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) nor well engaged in HIV primary care, with racial/ethnic minorities more likely to experience barriers to engagement along this HIV continuum of care than their White counterparts. In fact, only 30% of persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) in the United States have achieved "viral suppression," the ultimate goal of HIV treatment. Indeed, PLHA poorly engaged in HIV primary care and/or who are not on ART are at elevated risk for a host of poor outcomes, including more frequent hospitalizations, lower quality of life, and even earlier mortality, and also run a greater risk of transmitting HIV to their partners. Further, poor engagement in HIV care and lack of ART initiation with good adherenc...
HIV spreads like computer worms, say scientists
New model equates spread of worm across local networks and internet with progress of Aids virus through the body, suggesting early treatment is vital Continue reading... (Source: Guardian Unlimited Science)
Africa: "Finally, the Global Fund Is Focused On Human Beings" - Dybul Delivers Executive Director's Report
[GFO] Travels to six countries in Q1 demonstrate breadth of impact of new funding model, ED says (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Uganda: Women and Girls Bear Burden of HIV Caregiving
[Key Correspondents] Most societies in Uganda rely on women and girls to be voluntary caregivers for relatives when they are sick, as well as occupational caregivers for the community. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: Global Fund Board Selects New Chair and Vice-Chair
[Global Fund] Geneva -The Board of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria selected Norbert Hauser, a former Member of Parliament and international auditor from Germany, as its new Chair and also named Aida Kurtovic of Bosnia and Herzegovina as Vice-Chair. Both began serving a two-year term today. (Source: AllAfrica News: Malaria)
Africa: Hauser and Kurtovic the New 'Dream Team' Leading Global Fund Board
[GFO] The pair will serve two years, presiding over the next financial replenishment and an evolution of the allocations methodology (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
India to add more AIDS, TB drugs to essential medicines list: sources
MUMBAI (Reuters) - India is likely to add more HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis drugs to its list of essential medicines that are subject to price caps, people directly involved in the process said, in a move to improve affordability of drugs to treat the deadly diseases. (Source: Reuters: Health)
India to add more AIDS, TB drugs in essential medicines list: Sources
The AIDS and TB medicines would join a list of nearly 400 essential drugs under price control in India. (Source: The Economic Times Healthcare and Biotech News)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Mozambique: Governor Calls for Improved Messages Against HIV/Aids
[AIM] Maputo -The governor of Maputo province, Raimundo Diomba, on Tuesday urged activists involved in the fight against HIV/AIDS to improve their methods of educating the various segments of the population, and making them aware of the threat. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
HIV spreads like internet malware and should be treated earlier
(University College London) A new model for HIV progression finds that it spreads in a similar way to some computer worms and predicts that early treatment is key to staving off AIDS.HIV specialists and network security experts at UCL noticed that the spread of HIV through the body using two methods -- via the bloodstream and directly between cells -- was similar to how some computer worms spread through both the internet and local networks respectively to infect as many computers as possible. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)
Group support psychotherapy for depression treatment in people with HIV/AIDS in northern Uganda: a single-centre randomised controlled trial
Publication date: Available online 31 March 2015 Source:The Lancet HIV Author(s): Etheldreda Nakimuli-Mpungu , Kizito Wamala , James Okello , Stephen Alderman , Raymond Odokonyero , Ramin Mojtabai , Edward J Mills , Steve Kanters , Jean B Nachega , Seggane Musisi Background Group support psychotherapy (GSP) is a culturally sensitive intervention that aims to treat depression by enhancing social support, teaching coping skills, and income-generating skills. We compared GSP with group HIV education (GHE) for treatment of depression in people with HIV in Uganda. Methods In this open-label randomised controlled trial, we included men and women with HIV, aged 19 years or older, who met the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview criteria for major depression from an urban HIV care cent...
HIV knowledge among male labor migrants in China
Conclusion: Labor migrants are a high risk population for HIV infection. Their lack of HIV knowledge is a serious concern because they are a vulnerable group for infection and their sexual behaviors are spreading HIV to other members of the population and across geographic areas. (Source: BMC Public Health)
Influences of Social Determinants of Health on African Americans Living with HIV in the Rural Southeast: A Qualitative Meta-synthesis
Social determinants of health influence health outcomes and contribute to health disparities in diverse populations. A meta-synthesis was conducted to provide emic perspectives of the experiences of African Americans living with HIV in the rural, southeastern United States. Analysis of qualitative literature revealed patterns among social determinants of health as upstream factors contributing to health care barriers, poor health outcomes, decreased quality of life, and health disparities. The purpose of our meta-synthesis was the illumination and synthesis of themes describing characteristics of social determinants of health in selected qualitative articles. (Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
The effect of relationship characteristics on HIV risk behaviors and prevention strategies in young gay and bisexual men
We examined whether relationship status, relationship ideation, and sexual agreements affected HIV/sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention strategies and high-risk behaviors in young men who have sex with men (MSM). Using an online survey, we found that partnered MSM more commonly used condoms with casual partners and knew the reported HIV status of all their partners compared to single MSM (p < 0.05). Men scoring high in relationship exclusivity reported higher condom use with casual partners compared to men scoring lower (p < 0.05). (Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)
In vivo biochemical analyses reveal distinct roles of {beta}-importins and eEF1A in tRNA subcellular traffic [Research Papers]
Bidirectional tRNA movement between the nucleus and the cytoplasm serves multiple biological functions. To gain a biochemical understanding of the mechanisms for tRNA subcellular dynamics, we developed in vivo &beta;-importin complex coimmunoprecipitation (co-IP) assays using budding yeast. Our studies provide the first in vivo biochemical evidence that two &beta;-importin family members, Los1 (exportin-t) and Msn5 (exportin-5), serve overlapping but distinct roles in tRNA nuclear export. Los1 assembles complexes with RanGTP and tRNA. Both intron-containing pre-tRNAs and spliced tRNAs, regardless of whether they are aminoacylated, assemble into Los1&ndash;RanGTP complexes, documenting that Los1 participates in both primary nuclear export and re-export of tRNAs to the cytoplasm. In contrast...
DNA test colours in BRCA1 gene
Rolling circle amplification aids femtomolar sensitivity for gene linked with breast cancer (Source: Chemistry World | Latest News)
Hybrid Spreading Mechanisms and T Cell Activation Shape the Dynamics of HIV-1 Infection
This study suggests that hybrid spreading is a fundamental feature of HIV infection, and provides the mathematical framework incorporating this feature with which to evaluate future therapeutic strategies. (Source: PLoS Computational Biology)
Comparison of Clinical Features, Virulence, and Relapse among Mycobacterium avium Complex Species.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that specific MAC species have varying degrees of virulence and classifying MAC isolates into distinct species aids in identifying which patients are at a higher risk of clinical relapse. PMID: 25835090 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Normal flora and bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy: an overview.
Authors: Redelinghuys MJ, Ehlers MM, Dreyer AW, Kock MM Abstract The female genital tract is an intricate, yet balanced ecosystem that hosts a variety of different residential microflora. The physiological changes that occur during pregnancy may disrupt this balanced ecosystem and predispose women to a potentially pathogenic microbiota. Bacteria that are associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV) are opportunistic pathogens that frequently form part of this microbiota. The overgrowth of and infections with these bacteria are linked to poor obstetric outcomes and increased transmission of other reproductive tract infections (RTIs). These infections increase women's susceptibility of acquiring HIV, the rates of HIV shedding and the development of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AI...
Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Lipoatrophy in Patients with HIV Infection in Nigeria.
Conclusion. Lipoatrophy is frequently encountered in patients with HIV infection in Nigeria, with HAART use conferring an added factor in its development. There is need for more physician and patient awareness of this condition. PMID: 25821597 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Predictors of Mortality among Adult Antiretroviral Therapy Users in Southeastern Ethiopia: Retrospective Cohort Study.
Conclusion. The overall mortality incidence rate was high and majority of the death had occurred in the first year of ART initiation. Intensifying and strengthening early ART initiation, improving nutritional status, prevention and control of TB, and other opportunistic infections are recommended interventions. PMID: 25821596 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Option B+ and HIV Infection Among Antenatal PatientsOption B+ and HIV Infection Among Antenatal Patients
How useful would Option B+ be for pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Cameroon? Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
HIV among People Aged 50 and Over
described the burden of HIV on this population in the United States and what CDC is doing about it. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
HIV among Asians
describes the burden of HIV on Asians in the United States and what CDC is doing about it. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
Liberia: Free Methodist Church Aids Ebola Orphans, Survivors
[FrontPageAfrica] The outbreak of the deadly Ebola Disease in March 2014 and its devastating effect continues to create hardship in every sector of Liberia. Amid protest before the General Ministry last month by Ebola survivors and orphans of the Taffi Dollar Children Welfare Center, to draw government's attention to their plight, the Free Methodist World Mission Church has come in to identify with the two groups. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
HIV among Asians
describes the burden of HIV on Asians in the United States and what CDC is doing about it. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
Morocco: In Morocco, Inspiring Others With Harm Reduction Work Among Injecting Drug Users
[GFO] The country is a regional role model for an innovative approach to the twin threat of HIV infection and intravenous drug use (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: Athena Network Flags Gender Challenges in Global Fund Concept Notes
[GFO] The Global Fund's efforts to put women and girls at the center of its interventions in HIV, TB and malaria have yet to bear significant fruit at the country level, according to the ATHENA Network. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
North Africa: Aidspan Releases Mena Report
[GFO] Aidspan on Thursday released its first-ever regional report: a snapshot of 10 countries in the Middle East and North Africa region as classified by the Global Fund. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: Progress Reported On Community, Rights and Gender Initiatives
[GFO] Work started on obtaining key population size estimates in 16 countries (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: In Unfunded Quality Demand Register, Some Insight Into Program Gaps for Key Populations
[GFO] The $2 billion register so far includes $44 million in key population-specific programs (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: Aidspan Finds Elements of Improved Participation By Key Populations in CCMS in Southern Africa
[GFO] Communication and technical barriers continue to hamper their participation (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: Training in Eeca to Encourage Better Targeting of Women With Global Fund Interventions
[GFO] The Eurasian Women's Network on AIDS carried out the training for representatives from 11 countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Africa: It's Time to Change the Approach to Capacity-Building On Supply Chain Management
[GFO] Access to essential medicines remains a challenge in most developing countries and is among the Millennium Development Goal targets. Over the past decade, international organizations including the Global Fund, the World Bank, USAID have invested in improving access to essential medicines. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
HIV Therapy-The State of ART.
Authors: Looney D, Ma A, Johns S Abstract HIV Attachment. In this cross section, HIV is shown at the top and a target cell is shown at the bottom in blues. HIV envelope protein (A) has bound to the receptor CD4 (B) and then to coreceptor CCR5 (C), causing a change in conformation that inserts fusion peptides into the cellular membrane Antiretroviral therapy changed the face of HIV/AIDS from that of soon and certain death to that of a chronic disease in the years following introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy in 1995-1996 (initially termed HAART, but now most often abbreviated to ART since not all combinations of regimens are equally active). Since then, many new agents have been developed and introduced in response to problems of resistance, toxicity, and tolerabili...
Kenya: Stop Criminalising Women Who Pass HIV to Baby - Court
[Thomson Reuters Foundation] Nairobi -Human rights groups have welcomed moves to change a Kenyan law passed to curb the spread of HIV/AIDS, which criminalises pregnant women who pass HIV/AIDS to their babies, saying it discouraged people from finding out their status. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Malawi: Prophets in Karonga Disappoint a Network of Religious Leaders Living With HIV/Aids
[Malawi News Agency] Karonga -The Malawi Network of Religious Leaders living with or personally affected by HIV/AIDS (MANERELA) has expressed disappointment over some people calling themselves prophets in Karonga District who ask those living with HIV/AIDS to stop taking the antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) after praying for them. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Uganda: HIV-Related Cardiovascular Diseases Worry Medics
[Observer] There is growing concern among scientists that inflammation caused by HIV and the side effects of some antiretroviral drugs, especially protease inhibitors, are increasing cardiovascular risk among people living with HIV. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Lesbians Receiving Unequal Treatment from Cuban Health Services
Two women hugging at a Day Against Homophobia in Havana organised by the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transsexual (LGBT) community. Credit: Jorge Luis Baños/IPSBy Ivet GonzálezHAVANA, Apr 1 2015 (IPS)In addition to other forms of discrimination, lesbian and bisexual women in Cuba face unequal treatment from public health services. Their specific sexual and reproductive health needs are ignored, and they are invisible in prevention and treatment campaigns for women.Many lesbian and bisexual women are afraid of gynaecological instruments and procedures which they experience as particularly distasteful given their sexual orientation. Many are unaware of their risks of contracting sexually transmitted infections (STI) and postpone attending gynaecology appointments in order to avoid questions ...
Sudan: Three-Year Programme to Combat HIV-Aids in Sudan
[Radio Dabanga] Khartoum -The Sudanese federal Ministry of Health has announced a three-year plan to combat the spread of HIV/AIDS in the country. According to Tareg Mohamed Abdallah, director of the Ministry's HIV/AIDS department, 52,000 HIV/AIDS cases have been recorded. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
MinXray supplies DR unit to Nigeria AIDS program
Portable x-ray equipment developer MinXray has installed its CMDR-2S portable (more) (Source: AuntMinnie.com Headlines)
Cytisine Versus Nicotine for Smoking Cessation
ABSTRACT: Cytisine and varenicline are partial receptor agonists that inhibit the attachment of nicotine to receptors. Both are effective aids to smoking cessation. Varenicline is commonly used for this purpose in the United States and worldwide. Cytisine has been available for smoking cessation for more than 40 years, largely in Eastern Europe, and is not available in the United States. Cytisine is less expensive than varenicline and other nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). Placebo-controlled trials and several systematic reviews indicate that cytisine almost doubles the chances of quitting smoking at 6 months. No trials have compared the effectiveness of cytisine for smoking cessation with NRT. This open-label noninferiority trial was designed to determine whether cytisine was as effect...
Health Care and Speech Differences
I found the article ?Hospital to Pay $70,000 to Patient Denied Interpreter? (February 2015) quite compelling. It particularly reminded me of an experience regarding the importance of effective communication for patients in hospitals, while my father was hospitalized in Florida last year. He has hearing loss and wears hearing aids, but did not require a sign language interpreter. My family and I experienced difficulty understanding crucial information regarding my father?s health from a doctor who had noticeable ?speech difference.? (Source: The ASHA Leader Online)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
The role of intravitreal chemotherapy for retinoblastoma
Fairooz P Manjandavida, Carol L ShieldsIndian Journal of Ophthalmology 2015 63(2):141-145Targeted therapy in retinoblastoma (RB) is widely accepted as the current management tool with an aim of increasing drug availability at the tumor location. Inevitably the effect is several times higher compared to systemic delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs and carries less systemic toxicity. Despite tremendous advancement in saving life, eye salvage in advanced RB especially with active vitreous seeds remains a challenge. The hypoxic environment of the vitreous and reduced vitreous concentration of the drugs delivered makes these tumor seeds resistant to chemotherapy. Direct delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs into the vitreous cavity aids to overcome these challenges and is progressively being accept...
Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in preventable mortality in urban areas of 33 Spanish cities, 1996&#8211;2007 (MEDEA project)
Conclusions: Preventable mortality decreased between the 1996?2001 and 2002?2007 periods, more markedly in men than in women. There were socioeconomic inequalities in mortality in most cities analysed, associating a higher risk of death with higher levels of deprivation. Inequalities have remained over the two periods analysed. This study makes it possible to identify those areas where excess preventable mortality was associated with more deprived zones. It is in these deprived zones where actions to reduce and monitor health inequalities should be put into place. Primary healthcare may play an important role in this process. (Source: International Journal for Equity in Health)
Use of a Web-Based Survey to Facilitate Shared Decision Making for Patients Eligible for Cancer Screening
Conclusion A web-based questionnaire provides an efficient means to identify patients eligible for cancer screening decisions and to offer them DAs before an appointment. Pre-visit use of DAs along with reports giving feedback to patients and clinicians provides an opportunity for SDM to occur at the visit. (Source: The Patient - Patient-Centered Outcomes Research)
Mp42-19 decision aids for localized prostate cancer treatment choice: systematic review and meta-analysis
Patients diagnosed with localized prostate cancer need to make critical treatment decisions that are sensitive to their values and preferences. The role of decision-aids in facilitating these decisions is unknown. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of decision aids for localized prostate cancer. (Source: The Journal of Urology)
Mp23-17 lack of an experienced bedside assistant may adversely affect outcomes during robotic prostatectomy
Robotic prostatectomy (RALP) has become the most common surgical method to treat prostate cancer in North America. Unlike in open surgery, the operating surgeon is at the robotic console separated from his/her assistant, thereby having less influence on the assistant's actions. The assistant aids the surgeon in a variety of important ways, such as by placing surgical clips for hemostasis, maintaining visibility by clearing the surgical field of blood, retraction of tissues, and passing different instruments and sutures. (Source: The Journal of Urology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Mp77-16 the use of decisional aids for prostate cancer screening: a meta-analysis
Prostate cancer screening guidelines (PCSG) have recently changed due to similar mortality in screened versus unscreened groups in two large randomized controlled trials. Most PCSG's promote shared decision-making. Decisional aids (DA) are interventions used to improve shared decision making while decreasing decisional conflict/anxiety. The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that examined the effectiveness of using decisional aids in prostate cancer (PC) screening. (Source: The Journal of Urology)
Mp1-04 evaluation of genomic signatures in intermediate to high risk men treated with radical prostatectomy but without additional therapy upon psa rise
Radical prostatectomy (RP) is a primary treatment option for men with intermediate and high risk prostate cancer. Though many will be effectively cured with local therapy alone, these men are by definition at higher risk of adverse pathologic findings and clinical disease recurrence. Several genomic tests are currently on the market for use as risk stratification and prognostic aids. Here we evaluate four previously validated genomic signatures in a natural history cohort of at risk men who received no additional treatment until the time of metastatic progression. (Source: The Journal of Urology)
Effectiveness of eye armor during blast loading.
Authors: Bailoor S, Bhardwaj R, Nguyen TD Abstract Ocular trauma is one of the most common types of combat injuries resulting from the interaction of military personnel with improvised explosive devices. Ocular blast injury mechanisms are complex, and trauma may occur through various injury mechanisms. However, primary blast injuries (PBI) are an important cause of ocular trauma that may go unnoticed and result in significant damage to internal ocular tissues and visual impairment. Further, the effectiveness of commonly employed eye armor, designed for ballistic and laser protection, in lessening the severity of adverse blast overpressures (BOP) is unknown. In this paper, we employed a three-dimensional (3D) fluid-structure interaction computational model for assessing effectivenes...
Assessing implementation fidelity of a community-based infant and young child feeding intervention in Ethiopia identifies delivery challenges that limit reach to communities: a mixed-method process evaluation study
Conclusions: There is evidence of strong fidelity in training and delivery of program tools and messages at higher FLW levels, but gaps in the reach of these to community volunteers and mothers and variability between regions could limit the potential for impact. Strengthening the linkages between HEWs and volunteers further can help to reach the target households and deliver IYCF results at scale. (Source: BMC Public Health)
Nucleic Acids Delivery Systems:A Challenge for Pharmaceutical Technologists.
Authors: Silva AC, Lopes CM, Lobo JM, Amaral MH Abstract Nucleic acids (NA) therapies, including therapy with genes, aptamers or antisense oligonucleotides, have been showing promising results, especially in the treatment of severe diseases (e.g. cancer and AIDS). Nevertheless, the full success of medical treatments requires an efficient reaching of the therapeutic target and also the safety and effectiveness of the pharmaceutical system. NA are not very efficient when administered alone, which means that the use of appropriate methods for in vivo transfection of these molecules into targeted cells is fundamental. Examples of these techniques are the use of viral and non-viral vectors to transfer the NA to the cells nucleus. Despite viral vectors have been demonstrating superior ef...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
The protease inhibitor atazanavir blocks hERG K(+) channels expressed in HEK293 cells and obstructs hERG protein transport to cell membrane.
CONCLUSION: ATV directly blocks hERG K(+) channels via binding to the residues Y652 and F656 in the S6 domain, and indirectly obstructs the transport of the hERG protein to the cell membrane. PMID: 25832426 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica)
[Surgical treatment of skeletal metastases].
This article presents the principles of the diagnostics, provides aids for estimation of the prognosis and danger of fractures and discusses the various surgical treatment procedures for skeletal metastases with the accompanying advantages and disadvantages. PMID: 25835208 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Der Unfallchirurg)
Podrid's Real?World ECGs: A Master's Approach to the Art and Practice of Clinical ECG interpretation. Volume 4A, Arrhythmias: Core Cases Philip Podrid, MD; Rajeev Malhotra, MD, MS; Rahul Kakkar, MD; and Peter A. Noseworthy, MD, Cardiotext Publishing, Minneapolis, ISBN: 978?1?935395?02?7, 368 pages, Publisher's list price: $89.00
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved (Source: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology : PACE)
Comparison of Pharmacy-Based Measures of Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy as Predictors of Virological Failure
Abstract We compared multiple pharmacy refill-based adherence indicators for antiretroviral therapy, as well as thresholds for defining non-adherent behavior, based on ability to predict virological failure. A total of 29,937 pharmacy visits with corresponding viral load assessments were contributed by 8,695 patients attending a large clinic in Johannesburg, South Africa. Indicators based on pill coverage and timing of refill pickup performed comparably using the strictest thresholds for adherence [100 % pill coverage: odds ratio (OR) (95 % confidence interval (CI)) : 1.26 (1.15, 1.39); prescription picked up on or before scheduled refill date: 1.27 (1.16,1.38)]. For both types of indicators, the association between non-adherence and virological failure increased as the thresho...
Factors Associated with a Delay in Seeking HIV/AIDS Treatment in São Paulo, Brazil
Abstract This quantitative cross-sectional study of HIV/AIDS patients (N = 1,520) in São Paulo evaluated factors associated with a delay in seeking care. Analysis included Chi square tests and multiple logistic regression. Care was sought at the AIDS stage in 56.7 % (861) of patients, and 48.2 % (732) had a CD4 count ?350 cells/mm3; 9 % (136) delayed seeking care for 6 months or more after a positive HIV test. Women sought medical care earlier after testing (odds ratio (OR) = 1.79; P = 0.0227), but were already symptomatic (OR = 1.90; P = 0.0004). Partners of seropositive patients (OR = 3.92; P = 0.0000) also sought care symptomatic. Reasons for late presentation for care were non-acceptance of HIV diagnosis (OR = 24.56; P = 0.0000), treatment refusal (OR...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Adherence to Antiretroviral Medications Among Persons Who Inject Drugs in Transitional, Low and Middle Income Countries: An International Systematic Review
Abstract Adherence to antiretroviral (ART) medication is vital to reducing morbidity and mortality among HIV positive persons. People who inject drugs (PWID) are at high risk for HIV infection in transitional/low/middle income countries (TLMIC). We conducted a systematic review of studies reporting adherence to ART among persons with active injection drug use and/or histories of injection drug use in TLMIC. Meta-regression was performed to examine relationships between location, adherence measurements, and follow-up period. Fifteen studies were included from seven countries. Adherence levels ranged from 33 to 97 %; mean weighted adherence was 72 %. ART adherence was associated with different methods of measuring adherence and studies conducted in Eastern Europe and East Asia. T...
Previously Undiagnosed HIV Infections Identified Through Cluster Investigation, North Carolina, 2002?2007
Abstract During cluster investigation, index patients name social contacts that are not sex or drug-sharing partners. The likelihood of identifying new HIV infections among social contacts is unknown. We hypothesized greater odds of identifying new infections among social contacts identified by men who report sex with men (MSM). We reviewed North Carolina HIV diagnoses during 2002?2005 and used logistic regression to compare testing results among social contacts of MSM, men who report sex with women only (MSW) and women. HIV was newly diagnosed among 54/601 (9.0 %) social contacts tested named by MSM, 16/522 (3.1 %) named by MSW, and 23/639 (3.6 %) named by women. Compared with those named by MSW, odds of new HIV diagnosis were greater among MSM social contacts (adjusted odd...
Explaining Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence Success Among HIV-Infected Children in Rural Uganda: A Qualitative Study
Abstract High adherence is critical for achieving clinical benefits of HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) and particularly challenging for children. We conducted 35 qualitative interviews with caregivers of HIV-infected Ugandan children who were followed in a longitudinal study of real-time ART adherence monitoring; 18 participants had undetectable HIV RNA, while 17 had detectable virus. Interviews blinded to viral suppression status elicited information on adherence experiences, barriers and facilitators to adherence, and social support. Using an inductive content analytic approach, we identified ?lack of resources,? ?Lazarus effect,? ?caregiver?s sense of obligation and commitment,? and ?child?s personal responsibility? as categories of influence on adherence...
Health Literacy in HIV Treatment: Accurate Understanding of Key Biological Treatment Principles is Not Required for Good ART Adherence
Abstract Findings on the relationship between health literacy and outcomes in HIV have been inconsistent. Health literacy has previously been operationalized as general functional literacy, but has not included content knowledge about HIV disease and treatment. Semi-structured interviews with people living with HIV in 2 U.S. cities, including questions about the etiology, pathophysiology and treatment of HIV. We compared responses to biomedical conceptions. The 32 respondents were demographically diverse. Although most understood that HIV degrades the immune system, none could explain the nature of a virus, or the mechanism of antiretroviral (ARV) drug action. Fewer than half accurately reported that it is desirable to have a high CD4+ cell count and low viral load. A minority un...
Using pictograms to assist caregivers in liquid medication administration: a systematic review
The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of pictorial aids used to assist caregivers in the administration of liquid medications. MethodsMEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ScienceDirect, Scopus and the Cochrane Library were searched for articles published up to February 2015. Studies that used pictorial aids with liquid medications and measured at least one of the following outcomes were included: dosing accuracy, comprehension of medication instructions, recall of information and adherence of caregivers. Two authors independently selected studies, extracted data and assessed methodological quality of studies using the Cochrane Collaboration's tool. Results and discussionFive experimental studies (four hospital based and one community based) with a total of 962 participants w...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Not All RCTs Are Created Equal: Lessons From Early AIDS Trials.
Authors: Dawson L PMID: 25856601 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The American Journal of Bioethics : AJOB)
Examining the ethics of clinical use of unproven interventions outside of clinical trials during the ebola epidemic.
Authors: Shah SK, Wendler D, Danis M Abstract The recent Ebola outbreak in West Africa began in the spring of 2014 and has since caused the deaths of over 6,000 people. Since there are no approved treatments or prevention modalities specifically targeted at Ebola Virus Disease (EVD), debate has focused on whether unproven interventions should be offered to Ebola patients outside of clinical trials. Those engaged in the debate have responded rapidly to a complex and evolving crisis, however, and this debate has not provided much opportunity for in-depth analysis. Additionally, the existing literature on access to unproven therapies has focused on contexts like HIV/AIDS and oncology, which are very different than the Ebola epidemic. In this paper, we examine the ethical issues surrou...
Enrolment trends in a comprehensive HIV programme in rural north-central Nigeria: improved care indices, but declining quality of clinical data over time.
CONCLUSION: Expanded testing in a comprehensive HIV programme in rural Nigeria brought persons to care at earlier stages of illness. Yet, as clinical services expanded, data collection quality declined. The paradox of successful scaling up HIV services but deteriorating quality of data underscores the importance of data management training and quality improvement efforts. PMID: 25822098 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pathogens and Global Health)
Telaprevir Linked to Temporary Drop in Kidney FunctionTelaprevir Linked to Temporary Drop in Kidney Function
Using the protease inhibitor telaprevir may cause a temporary drop in kidney function in patients co-infected with HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV), according to a small study. Reuters Health Information (Source: Medscape Nephrology Headlines)
Neurological complications of HIV infection in pre-HAART and HAART era: a retrospective study
We describe the outcome of HIV-infected patients followed at a single center for AIDS-related neurological syndromes in the 16 years following the introduction of HAART, and compare the findings with those in patients admitted up to 1996. We have conducted a retrospective study of patients with HIV infection or AIDS (based on WHO criteria and classified according to the 1993 CDC criteria) admitted during 20 years (January 1992 to March 2012) to the Infectious Diseases Unit of the University of Verona for the presence of focal or widespread CNS lesion on neuroimaging. Clinical history, CD4 cell count, HIV-RNA level, neurological examination, imaging, cerebrospinal fluid examination and eventual cerebral biopsy results were reviewed as well as the final neurological diagnosis and the treat...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
HIV outbreak spurs needle exchange reprieve in Indiana
Needle exchange programmes are illegal in Indiana, but will be allowed to open for 30 days while the US state tries to tackle a HIV epidemic (Source: New Scientist - HIV and AIDS)
Funding Announcement PS15-1509:
Health Department Demonstration Projects for Comprehensive Prevention, Care, Behavioral Health, and Social Services for Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) of Color at Risk for and Living with HIV Infection (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
Funding Announcement PS15-1510
Training and Technical Assistance for Health Department Demonstration Projects for Comprehensive Prevention, Care, Behavioral Health, and Social Services for Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) of Color At Risk for and Living with HIV (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
Funding Announcement PS15-1509:
Health Department Demonstration Projects for Comprehensive Prevention, Care, Behavioral Health, and Social Services for Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) of Color at Risk for and Living with HIV Infection (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
Funding Announcement PS15-1510
Training and Technical Assistance for Health Department Demonstration Projects for Comprehensive Prevention, Care, Behavioral Health, and Social Services for Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) of Color At Risk for and Living with HIV (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Liberia: LCM, Citizens Dialogue On TB, HIV
[NEWS] The Liberia Coordinating Mechanism (LCM) Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) in the country has concluded a two-day dialogue with citizens in River Cess County on TB and HIV prioritization. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Liberia: Tuberculosis Incident Rate On Increase in Liberia
[FrontPageAfrica] Monrovia -While all attention has been on the outbreak of Ebola in Liberia, there is increase in other diseases especially in rural counties in the country. To identify priorities for Liberia to effectively respond to TB and HIV in the next three years, the people of River Cess County have concluded a two-day dialogue, as part of an ongoing nationwide consultation organized by the Liberia Coordinating Mechanism (LCM) of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) in the country, with support from (Source: AllAfrica News: Tuberculosis)
National Public Heath Week is April 6-12, 2015: National Themes
This report discusses consumption and the change for this particular study over a period of five years (2007 to 2012). Connect with others around public health, virtually, during APHA&#8217;s fifth annual NPHW Twitter Chat on April 8 at 11:00-12:00 pm Pacific. Follow  @NPHW to learn more. Thursday, April 9: Building Broader Connections. A network of partners and connections is needed in their areas to make the U.S. the Healthiest Nation in One Generation. For example, reducing death and injury attributable to motor vehicles has required an all-hands-on-deck approach. Check out the National Highway Safety Traffic Administration&#8217;s campaign to get &#8216;tweens to buckle up, Never Give Up Until They Buckle Up. Friday, April 10: Building on 20 Years of Success. 2015 marks the 20th anniv...
Uganda: AIDS Commission Launches Resource Center
[Independent (Kampala)] Despite all government interventions into averting HIV/AIDS in the country, Uganda is still rated among the top three countries in Africa with the highest prevalence whereby on a daily basis, close to 380 acquire the disease. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Tanzania: How New Initiative Speeds Up HIV/Aids Battle in Two Regions
[Daily News] WAR against HIV/AIDS is waged worldwide with different stakeholders as well as unequal levels of intervention. Ariel Glaser Pediatric AIDS Health Initiative (AGPAHI) is one of players and Staff Writer DEUS NGOWI who was in the Lake Zone recently writes in regard to efforts undertaken by the nongovernmental organisation... (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Kenya court urges change to law criminalizing women who pass HIV to baby
NAIROBI (Thomson Reuters Foundation) - Human rights groups have welcomed moves to change a Kenyan law passed to curb the spread of HIV/AIDS, which criminalizes pregnant women who pass HIV/AIDS to their babies, saying it discouraged people from finding out their status. (Source: Reuters: Health)
Kenya: HIV-Aids Stigma 'High' in the Workplace
[The Star] People living with HIV and Aids are facing increasing hostility in the public and private sectors. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Zambia: Pres. Lungu Pleads for Aids Patients in China
[Zambia Reports] President Edgar Lungu has pleaded the case for Zambians suffering from HIV/AIDS who are being deported back home by the Chinese government. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Liberia: TB, HIV Intervention Dialogue Begins
[NEWS] The Liberia Coordinating Mechanism (LCM), an institution overseeing the implementation of the Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) project in Liberia has begun a two-week nationwide consultation on the interventions of Tuberculosis and HIV. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: Strengthening the HIV/Aids Intervention Programmes in Nigeria
[Independent (Lagos)] Nigeria, with an estimated population of 160 million, ranks second to South Africa in the factsheet on countries with people living with HIV and AIDS worldwide, representing nine percent of the global burden of the disease. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Angola: Minister On Negative Impact of HIV/Aids
[ANGOP] Luanda -The President of the National Council for Children, João Baptista Kussumua, Monday in Luanda highlighted the need to work on reducing impact of HIV/AIDS on people's lives and economy of the countries, especially the African region. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Toxoplasma chorioretinitis diagnosed by histopathology in a patient with aids
Conclusion: This case reminds the clinician to consider a broad differential diagnosis for retinal necrosis in immunocompromised hosts and, when serologic and anterior chamber samples are negative, to consider diagnostic vitrectomy for polymerase chain reaction and histopathologic examination. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Analysis of Nanowire Transistor Based Nitrogen Dioxide Gas Sensor-A Simulation Study
Publication date: Available online 30 March 2015 Source:Sensing and Bio-Sensing Research Author(s): Gaurav Saxena , Roy Paily Sensors sensitivity, selectivity and stability has always been a prime design concern for gas sensors designers. Modeling and simulation of gas sensors aids the designers in improving their performance. In this paper, different routes for the modeling and simulation of a semiconducting gas sensor is presented. Subsequently, by employing one of the route, the response of Zinc Oxide nanowire transistor towards nitrogen dioxide ambient is simulated. In addition to the sensing mechanism, simulation study of gas species desorption by applying a recovery voltage is also presented. (Source: Sensing and Bio Sensing Research)
Gender differences in HIV risk behaviors in individuals recently released from prison: results of a pilot study
Conclusions: Women had higher rates of HIV risk behaviors compared with men post-release. Gender specific interventions may be useful in reducing risky drug-related and sex-related behaviors in the period immediately following release. (Source: Health and Justice)
Facial dystonia ? A rare initial presentation of acquired immune deficiency syndrome
Publication date: Available online 31 March 2015 Source:HIV &amp; AIDS Review Author(s): Arpit Saxena , A.V. Ramesh , Poonam Raj Mehra , Manoj S Movement disorders could be a neurological complication of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and may sometimes represent the initial manifestation of HIV (Human Immune Deficiency Virus) infection. Presented here is an unusual case of facial dystonia ? as a presenting symptom of HIV. In this case no separate aetiology for facial dystonia other than HIV infection could be found. (Source: HIV and AIDS Review)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Ontogenetic variation of essential oil content and constituents in tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.)
In conclusion, ontogenetic stages significantly affect the EO content of tansy, and change the major EO components (trans-thujone, camphor, and trans-chrysanthenyl acetate) depending on the predominant component at the particular plant growth stage. This aids to produce plant material with the promising required oil composition to meet the needs of pharmaceutical industries. Graphical abstract (Source: Journal of Applied Research on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants)
Protocol for a pre-implementation and post-implementation study on shared decision-making in the surgical treatment of women with early-stage breast cancer
We present the protocol of a study to &beta; test a patient decision aid and optimise strategies for the implementation of SDM regarding the treatment of early-stage breast cancer in the actual clinical setting. Methods/design This paper concerns a pre-implementation and post-implementation study, lasting from October 2014 to June 2015. The intervention consists of implementing SDM using a patient decision aid. The intervention will be evaluated using qualitative and quantitative measures, acquired prior to, during and after the implementation of SDM. Outcome measures are knowledge about treatment, perceived SDM and decisional conflict. We will also conduct face-to-face interviews with a sample of these patients and their care providers, to assess their experiences with the implementation...
Association Between Vision Impairment and Health Among a National Cohort of 87 134 Thai Adults
This study analyzes a cohort of 87 134 Thai adults, reporting odds ratios (ORs) and calculating population attributable fractions (PAFs). PAF estimates the proportion of the disease or condition that would not occur if no one in the population had the risk factor. Approximately 28% and 8% reported having refractive errors and vision impairment not correctable by visual aids. Both types of vision impairment were positively associated with poor self-assessed health (adjusted ORs = 1.23 to 2.03) and poor psychological health (adjusted ORs = 1.13 to 1.63). PAFs show that refractive errors explain 6.1% of poor self-assessed health, 3.5% of poor psychological health, and 2.2% of falls in the last year. PAFs for vision impairment not correctable by visual aids explain 7.5%, 4.7%, and 3.1%, respec...
An Assessment of Felt Needs and Expectations of People Living With HIV/AIDS Seeking Treatment at NGOs in Delhi, India
This study included 100 PLHAs admitted at 3 care homes run by nongovernmental organizations in New Delhi. As many as 22% of the patients had been diagnosed with pulmonary Koch&rsquo;s. Unemployment rates were found to increase after disease onset. Majority were satisfied with the medical treatment and overall care provided at these centers. About 25% expressed that they would like the government to provide them with suitable jobs. Less than one third (30%) of the PLHAs expressed satisfaction with their family life whereas the rest yearned for love and acceptance from society. Study findings highlight the important role of nongovernmental organizations and stresses on the need for a holistic approach toward the care of these people. (Source: Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health)
HIV/AIDS-Related Knowledge and Its Association With Socioeconomic Status Among Women: Results of Lebanese Survey for Family Health (PAPFAM) 2004
This article assesses the association of women&rsquo;s HIV/AIDS knowledge of transmission and prevention with socioeconomic status (SES). Data from the 2004 Lebanese PAPFAM (Pan-Arab Project for Family Health) survey were used. The survey was based on a representative household sample (n = 5532 households; n = 3315 women) of ever-married women aged 15 to 55 years. Adjusted analysis revolved around multivariate logistic regression models. 18% of women were knowledgeable of HIV/AIDS transmission methods and 21% of prevention methods. Income and education were significantly related to women&rsquo;s transmission and prevention knowledge. Significant differences were also found by region and media exposure. Women in the richest income quintile were 4 times (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.43-6...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Knowledge and Perceptions of HIV-Infected Patients Regarding HIV Transmission and Treatment in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Patient education concerning HIV and antiretroviral (ARV) medications is important for optimal outcomes. The authors assessed the knowledge and perceptions of HIV-infected patients in an ARV education program in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Of 185 patients, 64 (35%) receiving ARV medications, nearly 80% correctly answered questions regarding HIV. Correct responses were associated with higher education (P &lt; .05) and longer duration of HIV diagnosis (P &lt; .05). A lack of knowledge was observed in 40% of respondents who believed HIV and AIDS were the same and 70% of respondents who believed ARV medications cured HIV. Greater embarrassment of living with HIV was associated with female gender (P &lt; .05) and lower education (P &lt; .05). Patients were concerned over ARV medication use (27%)...
Trends and Barriers to HIV Testing Among Tuberculosis Patients in Prey Kabas Operational District, Takeo Province, Cambodia
Data for this study were obtained from 2375 tuberculosis (TB) patients registered during 2007-2009 and 43 health providers to examine the trend of TB patient referral for HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) testing and to investigate provider-associated barriers to the referral in Prey Kabas operational district, Takeo province, Cambodia. Referral rate for HIV testing was 4.4% (30/684) in 2007, 15.4% (116/751) in 2008, and 30.1% (283/940) in 2009, with a significant upward trend over the period of time (P = .009). The main barriers perceived by health providers were poor knowledge about TB/HIV, lack of communication skills, absence of any target plan for TB patient referral for HIV testing, and fear associated with informing positive test results to the TB patients and the associated stigma...
Determinants of Public Phobia About Infectious Diseases in South Korea: Effect of Health Communication and Gender Difference
This study investigated the individual and social determinants of the public&rsquo;s phobia of infectious diseases in South Korea, where collective action was recently fueled by the public phobia over mad cow disease (bovine spongiform encephalopathy [BSE]). Gender-specific multivariate regression was used to compare the public perception of BSE and highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). The analysis results differentiated between the determinants of the phobia for the 2 diseases, BSE and HPAI (N = 1002). As with HIV/AIDS and leprosy, the public fear of HPAI was expressed as a disease phobia that seeks to ensure the social exclusion of infection sources, whereas the fear of BSE was influenced by social and communication factors. Therefore, BSE, unlike previous HPAI, can be rapidly ampli...
The Effect of Comprehensive Sexual Education Program on Sexual Health Knowledge and Sexual Attitude Among College Students in Southwest China
The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a comprehensive sexual education program for college students in Southwest China (a) improved sexual health knowledge in reproduction, contraception, condom use, sexually transmitted diseases, and HIV; (b) increased accepting attitudes toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transsexual individuals; and (c) altered participants&rsquo; attitudes toward premarital sex and monogamy. The program used diverse teaching methods, providing 6 sessions over a period of 9 weeks about sexual health knowledge and sexual attitudes to college students (age 18-26 years) in Southwest China. Sexual health knowledge and sexual attitudes of 80 comprehensive sexual education class students (education group) and 92 general mental health education class students (cont...
Safer Sex Negotiation and Its Association With Condom Use Among Clients of Female Sex Workers in Bangladesh
This study examines safer sex negotiation and its association with condom use among clients of female sex workers (FSWs) in Bangladesh. Data were collected from 484 FSWs living in Dhaka city following a convenient sampling procedure. Overall, 47% of the clients were suggested to use condom during last sexual intercourse and 21% did so. Both bivariate and multivariable binary logistic regression analyses yielded significantly increased risk of negotiation for safer sex with clients among FSWs with higher education. The power bargaining significantly (P &lt; .001) increased the risk of condom use by 2.15 times (95% confidence interval = 1.28-3.59). The odds of condom use were significantly higher among the FSWs with higher education, unmarried, hotel-based, and among those with higher level ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Retention in Care and Factors Affecting It Among People Living With HIV/AIDS in Changsha City, China
In conclusion, the intervention to improve retention in care for PLWHA in Changsha is warranted, especially for those who have lower education level, for those who have higher baseline CD4 count, and for those who have not initiated antiretroviral therapy. (Source: Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health)
Impaired renal function and associated risk factors in newly diagnosed HIV-infected adults in Gulu Hospital, Northern Uganda
Background: Screening for renal diseases should be performed at the time of diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Despite the high prevalence of HIV/AIDS in Northern Uganda, little is known about the status of renal function and its correlates in the newly diagnosed HIV-infected individuals in this resource limited region. We aimed to determine the status of renal function and factors associated with impaired renal function in newly diagnosed HIV-infected adults in Northern Uganda. Methods: This was a seven month cross-sectional hospital-based study, involving newly diagnosed HIV-infected patients, 18 years and older. Patients with history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension and renal disease were excluded. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated usi...
HIV specific responses induced in nonhuman primates with ANRS HIV-Lipo-5 vaccine combined with rMVA-HIV prime or boost immunizations.
Authors: Dereuddre-Bosquet N, Baron ML, Contreras V, Gosse L, Mangeot I, Martinon F, Yousfi R, Clayette P, Levy Y, Le Grand R, Vaccine Research Institute Abstract We evaluated the immunogenicity of a prime/boost vaccine strategy combining 5 lipopeptides (HIV-Lipo-5) and a recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (rMVA-HIV) in cynomolgus macaques. Both of these vaccine components deliver HIV LAI Gag, Pol, and Nef antigens. Systemic and local safety was excellent in all groups. Immunization with HIV-Lipo-5 alone induced significant serum anti-HIV antibody titers which were not modified by rMVA-HIV immunization. However, induction of T-cell responses, as measured by IFN? and IL-2 producing cells upon short-term stimulation with HIV peptide pools, required combined immunization with...
Clinician-Patient Risk Discussion for Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease Prevention Importance to Implementation of the 2013 ACC/AHA Guidelines
Successful implementation of the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association cholesterol guidelines hinges on a clear understanding of the clinician-patient risk discussion (CPRD). This is a dialogue between the clinician and patient about potential for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk reduction benefits, adverse effects, drug-drug interactions, and patient preferences. Designed especially for primary prevention patients, this process of shared decision making establishes the appropriateness of a statin for a specific patient. CPRD respects the autonomy of an individual striving to make an informed choice aligned with personal values and preferences. Dedicating sufficient time to high-quality CPRD offers an opportunity to strengthen clinician-patient relations...
Quantitative immunocytochemistry at the ultrastructural level: a stereology-based approach to molecular nanomorphomics
Abstract Biological systems span multiple levels of structural organisation from the macroscopic, via the microscopic, to the nanoscale. Therefore, comprehensive investigation of systems biology requires application of imaging modalities that reveal structure at multiple resolution scales. Nanomorphomics is the part of morphomics devoted to the systematic study of functional morphology at the nanoscale and an important element of its achievement is the combination of immunolabelling and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The ultimate goal of quantitative immunocytochemistry is to estimate numbers of target molecules (usually peptides, proteins or protein complexes) in biological systems and to map their spatial distributions within them. Immunogold cytochemistry utilises tar...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
International Conference on HIV/AIDS, STDs & STIs
November 30 - December 2, 2015, Atlanta, GA. The theme of the conference is "Raising Global Awareness on STD/AIDS and Fighting the Stigma Surrounding the Disease". (Source: PHPartners.org)
Rwanda: New Study Gives Hope to HIV Treatment, Prevention
[New Times] The risk of contracting HIV from a recently infected person may not be as high as previously believed, a new study in the journal PLOS Medicine has revealed. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Kenya: KNUT's Fury Over Aids Report
[The Star] Knut yesterday criticised the national Aids agency over its report that blames sexual immorality for the increase of the number of teachers suffering from HIV-Aids. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Liberia: Liberia Begins Consultation to Prioritize TB, HIV Interventions
[FrontPageAfrica] Monrovia -The Liberia Coordinating Mechanism (LCM) which oversees the implementation of Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) projects in Liberia and make critical decisions on technical, as well as, programmatic issues have commenced a 2- week national consultation, in collaboration with the National AIDS Commission (NAC), National AIDS and STIs Control Program (NACP), the National Leprosy and Tuberculosis Program and partners. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Liberia: LCC Urged to Lead in Breaking Barriers to Unity, Peace
[LINA] Liberian Council of Churches HIV/AIDS Program Coordinator, Ms. Christine Dolo, has called on Christian leaders to lead efforts to break the barriers hindering unity and peace among Liberian churches. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Chocolate accelerates weight loss: Research claims it lowers cholesterol and aids sleep
CAN you indulge your sweet tooth and lose weight? If it's chocolate that you crave than the answer seems to be yes. (Source: Daily Express - Health)
Zimbabwe: Implement HIV Remedies - Expert
[The Herald] African nations should move towards implementation of interventions that have already been proved to work while awaiting a vaccine or cure for HIV and Aids, a senior HIV and Aids advocate has said. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Zimbabwe: France Keen to Invest in Health Sector
[The Herald] France has assured Zimbabwe of its continued support towards the country's health system and strengthening HIV and Aids programmes. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Doctor faked AIDS vaccine research just to get federal money -- vaccine fraud happens more often then you might think
(NaturalNews) A former Iowa State University scientist who was indicted for faking the results of vaccine trials has pleaded guilty to misconduct, according to new reports. Dr. Dong Pyou Han admitted in a resignation letter that he is "very ashamed" of himself for lying about the... (Source: NaturalNews.com)
Induction of hyaluronan production by oncogenic KSHV and the contribution to viral pathogenesis in AIDS patients
1) KSHV de novo infection induces HA production from primary endothelial cells through upregulation of HA synthase gene 1 (Has1) and a multifunctional glycoprotein, CD147.2) KSHV-induced HA production requires viral latent protein, LANA (in particular functional domain A) and MAPK/ERK signaling activities.3) HA production is necessary for KSHV/LANA-induced primary endothelial cell invasion, a hallmark feature for KS development.4) KSHV+ group has higher levels of HA and Has1 activities in their plasma than the KSHV- group of cohort HIV-infected patients. (Source: Cancer Letters)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Zimbabwe: Zim Praised for Proper Aids Grant Use
[New Zimbabwe] ZIMBABWE is one the countries in the world which have put HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria grants into good use, a top Global Fund official has commended. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
P7 Investigating the role of the novel cytokine IL-35 in the regulation of anti-tumour immunity against head and neck cancer
Cancer cells have the ability to induce immune tolerance, in order to escape the host?s immune cells, which aids in tumour survival. The mechanism by which immune tolerance occurs is not completely known; however, it has been suggested that cytokines produced by cancer cells may serve a key role. Interleukin (IL)-35 is a novel immune suppression cytokine forming part of the IL-12 family and is a heterodimeric secreting protein composed of two subunits: Epstein-Barr virus-Induced gene 3 (EBI3) and IL-12p35. (Source: Oral Oncology)
Disclosure of HIV seropositive status to sexual partners and its associated factors among patients attending antiretroviral treatment clinic follow up at Mekelle Hospital, Ethiopia: a cross sectional study
Conclusions: A HIV positive status disclosure to a sexual partner in this study was lower than what was reported in other studies in Ethiopia. The duration of HIV related care follow up, knowing partners HIV status and prior discussion were the main factors which affect the practice of HIV positive status disclosure to their sexual partners. (Source: BMC Research Notes)
Benzer Pharmacy Hits the Streets in the Fight Against AIDS
Raising hope to help thousands of men, women, and children living with HIV/AIDS at the AIDS Walk Orlando 2015(PRWeb March 28, 2015)Read the full story at http://www.prweb.com/releases/2015/03/prweb12608838.htm (Source: PRWeb: Medical Pharmaceuticals)
Safety and immunogenicity of the M72/AS01 candidate tuberculosis vaccine in HIV-infected adults on combination antiretroviral therapy: a phase I/II, randomized trial: Erratum
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Antiretroviral nanoparticles: the future is now: authors? response to editorial comments
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Immortal time bias: authors? reply
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Transmitted antiretroviral resistance in a large HIV directorate 2011?2014: a response
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Immortal time bias
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Is statin preventing cancer in HIV-1 infected individuals? An inappropriate methodology is a more likely explanation: authors? reply
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Is statin preventing cancer in HIV-1 infected individuals? An inappropriate methodology is a more likely explanation
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Switch to maraviroc/raltegravir dual therapy leads to an unfavorable immune profile with low-level HIV viremia
Immunovirological consequences of a switch to a maraviroc/raltegravir dual therapy were analyzed in 16 HIV-infected patients with persistent viral load below 50?copies/ml. At 26-week postswitch, the CD4+/CD8+ ratio decreased and the CD8+ T-cell activation increased. A decrease in classical monocytes was associated with a shift toward a proinflammatory monocyte profile and negatively correlated with ultrasensitive viral load. Thus, this therapeutic switch induced a proinflammatory profile probably driven by a slight loss of virus control. (Source: AIDS)
Plasma levels of cytokines and chemokines and the risk of mortality in HIV-infected individuals: a case?control analysis nested in a large clinical trial
Conclusion: Whereas plasma levels of interleukin-6 are the most informative biomarker of cytokine dysregulation associated with all-cause mortality in individuals with HIV-1 infection, assessment of plasma levels of CXCL8 might provide information about causes of mortality and possibly SNAEs. (Source: AIDS)
State-level structural sexual stigma and HIV prevention in a national online sample of HIV-uninfected MSM in the United States
Conclusion: MSM living in more stigmatizing environments had decreased use of antiretroviral-based HIV-prevention strategies compared to those in less stigmatizing environments. Legal reforms protecting sexual minorities should be evaluated as structural interventions that could reduce HIV risk among MSM. (Source: AIDS)
Effect of cytomegalovirus infection on breastfeeding transmission of HIV and on the health of infants born to HIV-infected mothers
Conclusion: Most breastfed infants of HIV-infected mothers in this resource-limited setting are infected with CMV by 24 weeks of age. Early CMV infection may be a risk factor for subsequent infant HIV infection through breastfeeding, pointing to the need for comprehensive approaches in order to achieve elimination of breastfeeding transmission of HIV. (Source: AIDS)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Hair concentrations of antiretrovirals predict viral suppression in HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding Ugandan women
Conclusion: Antiretroviral hair concentrations represent an innovative tool that strongly predicts viral suppression among HIV-infected childbearing women during the critical periods of delivery and breastfeeding. (Source: AIDS)
The impact of adherence to preexposure prophylaxis on the risk of HIV infection among people who inject drugs
We examined adherence by age group and sex and used logistic regression to evaluate demographics and risk behaviors as predictors of adherence and Cox regression to assess the impact of adherence on the risk of HIV infection. Results: A total of 2413 people enrolled and contributed 9665 person-years of follow-up (mean 4.0 years, maximum 6.9 years). The risk of HIV infection decreased as adherence improved, from 48.9% overall to 83.5% for those with at least 97.5% adherence. In multivariable analysis, men were less adherent than women (P?=?0.006) and participants 20?29 years old (P? (Source: AIDS)
HIV-infection impact on clinical?biological features and outcome of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with R-CHOP in the combination antiretroviral therapy era
Conclusion: In the cART era, HIV-related DLBCL still presents more aggressive features than HIV-unrelated DLBCL, and has a worse OS despite having a similar DFS. Prevention of HIV-related complications is essential to achieve outcomes comparable with HIV-uninfected patients with DLBCL. (Source: AIDS)
Pregnancy is associated with elevation of liver enzymes in HIV-positive women on antiretroviral therapy
The objective of this study is to assess whether pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of liver enzyme elevation (LEE) and severe LEE in HIV-positive women on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Design: Two observational studies: the UK Collaborative HIV Cohort (UK CHIC) study and the UK and Ireland National Study of HIV in Pregnancy and Childhood (NSHPC). Methods: Combined data from UK CHIC and NSHPC were used to identify factors associated with LEE (grade 1?4) and severe LEE (grade 3?4). Women starting ART in 2000?2012 were included irrespective of pregnancy status. Cox proportional hazards were used to assess fixed and time-dependent covariates including pregnancy status, CD4+ cell count, drug regimen and hepatitis B virus/hepatitis C virus (HBV/HCV) coinfection. Results: One-q...
Impact of nucleic acid testing relative to antigen/antibody combination immunoassay on the detection of acute HIV infection
Conclusion: The incorporation of pooled NAT into the HIV testing algorithm in high-risk populations may be beneficial in the long term. The addition of pooled NAT testing resulted in an increase in screening costs of 22% to identify AHI: from $8.33 per screened patient to $10.16. Risk factors of the testing population should be considered prior to NAT implementation given the additional testing complexity and costs. (Source: AIDS)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Cross-reactivity between darunavir and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in HIV-infected patients
Conclusion: Although DRV allergy is uncommon, making cross-reactivity with TMP-SMX a rare clinical problem, it appears to exist more often in the background of a TMP-SMX allergy. (Source: AIDS)
High level of APOBEC3F/3G editing in HIV-2 DNA vif and pol sequences from antiretroviral-naive patients
Conclusion: We showed for the first time a high level of APOBEC3F/3G editing in HIV-2 sequences from antiretroviral-naive patients. Our study reported a group effect with a significantly higher level of APOBEC3F/3G editing in HIV-2 group B than in group A sequences. (Source: AIDS)
Associations of common variants in the BST2 region with HIV-1 acquisition in African American and European American people who inject drugs
Conclusion: Our findings support BST2 as a genetic susceptibility factor for HIV-1 acquisition: identifying a novel SNP association for rs13189798 and linking the previously reported regulatory SNP rs12609479 to HIV-1 acquisition. (Source: AIDS)
Cell-to-cell contact facilitates HIV transmission from lymphocytes to astrocytes via CXCR4
Conclusion: Cell-to-cell transmission was mediated by a unique mechanism by which immature viral particles initiated a fusion process in a CXCR4-dependent, CD4-independent manner. These observations have important implications for developing approaches to prevent formation of HIV reservoirs in the brain. (Source: AIDS)
Mozambique: Study Shows Dismally Low Rate of Contraceptive Use
[AIM] Maputo -The vast majority of young Mozambican women do not use contraception, and are thus exposed to the risk of sexually transmitted diseases (including HIV-AIDS) and unwanted pregnancies. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Polymorphisms in the IFN?, IL-10, and TGF? Genes May Be Associated with HIV-1 Infection.
Conclusions. The results suggest that the presence of the IFN+874A allele confers susceptibility to HIV-1 infection and a decrease in the number of CD4+ T lymphocytes. In addition, the genotype associated with high serum levels of TGF? may be associated with an increase in plasma viral load. PMID: 25802474 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Disease Markers)
Hypertension ? an emerging cardiovascular risk factor in HIV infection
The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors for hypertension in a population of HIV-infected patients at an HIV/AIDS clinic in southern Brazil. (Source: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension)
Acoustic topological insulator could hide submarines
Hearing aids could benefit from lattices of rotating cylinders (Source: PhysicsWeb News)
Mae-Wan Ho: No Boundary Really Between Genetic and Epigenetic
As co-founder and director of ISIS (Institute of Science in Society), the UK-based organization focused on reclaiming science for the public good, Mae-Wan Ho, a geneticist, has for many years questioned the engineering of our food supply and addressed other biotechnology issues. She has also been one of neo-Darwinism's most effective critics. Oxford University physiologist Denis Noble has cited the early work of Mae-Wan Ho and physicist and theoretical biologist Peter Saunders as partly inspiring his much discussed paper on replacing neo-Darwinism published recently in the Journal of Experimental Biology. Noble wrote the following: "In certain respects, my article reflects some of the points made over 30 years ago by Ho and Saunders (Ho and Saunders, 1979) who wrote: 'The intrinsic dy...
Namibia: Men in Oshana Encouraged to Get Circumcised
[New Era] Health directorate of Oshana region warned in December that circumcision should not be confused or misunderstood as the cure for HIV/AIDS, but merely a deterent. The directorate is encouraging men to get circumcised because circumcision lowers the chance of getting the HIV virus. The Oshakati Intermediate Hospital has an ongoing circumcision campaign but the health director said the number of men who come forward is not overwhelming. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Prenatal Diagnosis of Musculoskeletal Conditions.
Authors: Oetgen ME, Kelly SM, Sellier LS, Du Plessis A Abstract Ultrasonography is a safe, cost-effective tool used to prenatally detect common musculoskeletal conditions, including clubfoot, skeletal dysplasias, limb-length discrepancies, spinal abnormalities, and hand and other upper extremity deformities. With increased detection of such abnormalities, prenatal parental counseling by orthopaedic surgeons is being requested more frequently. Counseling is important for family education on prognosis and treatment options. A thorough understanding of the common musculoskeletal conditions diagnosed on prenatal ultrasonography, classification of these conditions, and the correlations of these classifications to postnatal severity allows the orthopaedic surgeon to conduct well-informed...
Experiences of coercion to sterilize and forced sterilization among women living with HIV in Latin America.
CONCLUSIONS: The experiences of WLHIV indicate that HIV-related stigma and discrimination by healthcare providers is a primary driver of coercive and forced sterilization. WLHIV are particularly vulnerable when seeking maternal health services. Health worker training on HIV and reproductive rights, improving counselling on HIV and sexual and reproductive health for WLHIV, providing State mechanisms to investigate and sanction coercive and forced sterilization, and strengthening civil society to increase WLHIV's capacity to resist coercion to sterilize can contribute to preventing coercive and forced sterilization. Improved access to judicial and non-judicial mechanisms to procure justice for women who have experienced reproductive rights violations is also needed. PMID: 25808633 [PubMe...
What are the constraints and opportunities for HIVST scale-up in Africa? Evidence from Kenya, Malawi and South Africa.
CONCLUSIONS: Stakeholders in three HIV endemic sub-Saharan countries felt that HIVST will be an important complement to existing community and facility-based testing approaches if accompanied by the same essential components of any HIV testing service, including access to accurate information and linkages to care. While there is an increasingly positive global policy environment regarding HIVST, several implementation and social challenges limit scale-up. There is a need for further research to provide contextual and operational evidence that addresses concerns and contributes to normative WHO guidance. PMID: 25797344 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Pulmonary Cryptococcosis in HIV? sero?negative patients: case series from India
Summary Pulmonary cryptococcosis is likely to be misdiagnosed due to relatively non?specific clinical and radiological features. It is more frequently associated with immuno?suppressed conditions especially acquired immuno?deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). Four cases of pulmonary cryptococcosis were diagnosed over a period of eleven years. All patients in this case series were human immune?deficiency virus (HIV)?negative. The predisposing factors in these patients were diabetes mellitus (DM), acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), post?partum and pregnancy in one each of the patients. Relapse was seen in two cases. All the patients survived due to strict follow?up. Pulmonary cryptococcosis is common in non?AIDS patients and it warrants rapid diagnos...
Why Are We Not Screening for Anal Cancer RoutinelyWhy Are We Not Screening for Anal Cancer Routinely
Anal cancer is now the most common non-AIDS-defining malignancy in those living with HIV, but screening is rarely done. Why the reluctance? BMC Public Health (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
[Perspectives] Sheena McCormack: helping to prepare the world for PrEP
As a clinician who has witnessed the devastating impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic since the 1980s, Sheena McCormack is enthusiastic about her latest project, the UK Medical Research Council (MRC) PROUD study. As lead investigator, she has been investigating the effect of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to protect against HIV infection in high-risk men who have sex with men (MSM). PROUD has shown that PrEP reduces new HIV infections by 86%. ?These results show that MSM who know they are at high risk of HIV are willing to take PrEP and it works incredibly well at preventing HIV infection in the real world?, says McCormack, who works at University College London and is a Professor of Clinical Epidemiology at Imperial College London. (Source: LANCET)
? Manejar la Situacion ?: Partner Notification, Partner Management, and Conceptual Frameworks for HIV/STI Control Among MSM in Peru
Abstract Previous analyses of partner notification (PN) have addressed individual, interpersonal, social, and structural issues influencing PN outcomes but have paid less attention to the conceptual framework of PN itself. We conducted 18 individual interviews and 8 group discussions, in a two-stage qualitative research process, to explore the meanings and contexts of PN for sexually transmitted infections (STI) among men who have sex with men (MSM) and men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) in Lima, Peru. Participants described PN as the open disclosure of private, potentially stigmatizing information that could strengthen or disrupt a partnership, structured by the tension between concealment and revelation. In addition to informing partners of an STI diagnosis, the act of ...
Uganda: Bunyoro in New Drive Against HIV
[Observer] She smiles and jokes as she welcomes visitors to her two-room rented house in Kinubbi slum in Hoima municipality. Patience Aikoru, living with HIV, is a mother of three healthy babies. She is testimony that one can have a positive life after contracting HIV, the virus, which causes Aids. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Zolpidem and Eszopiclone prime ?1?2?2 GABAA receptors for longer duration activity
CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONSAs the derived mechanism successfully simulated the effects of eszopiclone and zolpidem on ensemble currents, we propose it as a definitive mechanism accounting for the effects of both drugs. Our findings reveal that eszopiclone and zolpidem enhance GABAAR currents via a mechanism that differs from that proposed for benzodiazepines. (Source: British Journal of Pharmacology)
Zimbabwe: Govt, Private Sector Join Hands to Fight TB, HIV
[The Herald] Government has launched a strategic public-private sector partnership framework to strengthen the country's response for TB and HIV prevention, treatment, care and support. In a speech read on his behalf by Lands and Rural Resettlement Minister Dr Douglas Mombeshora, Minister of Health and Child Care Dr David Parirenyatwa said the engagement of the private sector was critical in the fight against TB and HIV. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Angola: "Vem Comigo" Project on Awareness About HIV/Aids Danger
[ANGOP] Luanda -The National Association of Angolan Disabled People (Anda) Thursday in the municipality of Cacuaco, Luanda, started an awareness-raising programme on danger related to HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and other sexually transmitted diseases, under the fifth phase of "Vem Comigo"Project. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
NYU developing HIV antibodies and RNA test in a single POC
(New York University) NYU College of Dentistry has received a sub-award in the amount of $335,000 from a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase II grant from NIH to complete the development of a fully automated self-confirming assay that can simultaneously detect HIV/AIDS antibodies and viral RNA from the AIDS virus in a single specimen. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
The effects of HAART on the expression of MUC1 and P65 in a cervical cancer cell line, HCS-2
In conclusion, the drugs used, especially the PI showed some anticancer effects by facilitating cell death through decreased gene and protein expression of MUC1 and P65 and present promising agents for cancer treatment. (Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy)
Immediate, Non Submerged Root Analog Zirconia Implant in Single Rooted Tooth Replacement: Case Report with 2 years Follow Up
This report demonstrates the clinical use of a modified, truly anatomic, root analogue zirconia implant for immediate replacement of a right mandibular first premolar. A 22-year-old female patient with chronic apical periodontitis of the right mandibular first premolar was referred and the tooth was carefully extracted. A truly anatomical, root identical, roughened zirconia implant modified by macro-retentions was manufactured and placed into the extraction socket by tapping 3 days later. After 4 months a composite crown was cemented in place. No complications occurred during the healing period. A good functional and aesthetic result was achieved with minimal bone resorption and soft tissue recession at 18 months follow-up. This report describes the successful clinical use of an immedia...
Traumatic Revictimization of Men Who Have Sex With Men Living With HIV/AIDS
In this study, we contribute to the literature by exploring associations between multiple types of childhood and adult abuse experiences (physical, sexual, and psychological; perpetrated by partners and non-partner), rather than examining sexual victimization alone. A sample of 166 HIV-positive MSM attending primary HIV health care clinics in Seattle, Washington, completed a one-time questionnaire. Results of regression analyses revealed associations between experiencing CSA and adult sexual abuse, and experiencing childhood physical abuse and adult physical and sexual abuse. Childhood psychological abuse was associated with adult physical and psychological abuse and partner psychological abuse. At higher frequencies, childhood psychological abuse was associated with all forms of adult abu...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Sexual Behaviours of Homosexual and Bisexual Men in France: A Generational Approach
Discussion While the increased frequency of first intercourse with a man over successive generations since the 1970s may be related to reduced social pressure for heterosexuality, there is evidence that sexual norms among MSM are widespread, with practices spreading across age groups and generations. Although AIDS profoundly affected sexual practices in the 1980s, further AIDS-related events (discovery of HIV antiretroviral drugs and their use in prevention) do not appear to have accentuated ongoing trends in sexual practices. (Source: PLoS One)
Gastrointestinal cryptococcoma-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome or cryptococcal relapse in a patient with AIDS?
We present the case of an HIV-infected patient on ART, with a history of cryptococcal meningitis who presented with subacute, worsening abdominal pain during immune recovery. This evolved into chronic abdominal pain, with thickened bowel, and abdominal lymphadenopathy, while receiving empiric tuberculosis treatment. At 6-months, he developed intestinal perforation due to a histologically confirmed cryptococcoma. (Source: Medical Mycology Case Reports)
The ethics of talking about &#8216;HIV cure&#8217;
DiscussionAlthough this research field is largely in a pre-clinical phase, talk about curing HIV has become a regular feature in the global mass media. This paper explores the language of HIV cure from philosophical, ethical and historical perspectives. Examination of currently influential definitions of ?functional? and ?sterilizing? HIV cure reveal that these conceptualizations are more complicated than they seem. Cure is often understood in narrowly biomedical terms in isolation from the social and psychological dimensions of illness. Contemporary notions of HIV cure also inherit some of the epistemic problems traditionally associated with cures for other health conditions, such as cancer. Efforts to gain greater conceptual clarity about cure lead to the normative question of ho...
CYP2B6*6, CYP2B6*18, Body weight and sex are predictors of efavirenz pharmacokinetics and treatment response: population pharmacokinetic modeling in an HIV/AIDS and TB cohort in Zimbabwe
Conclusion: This study showed that screening for CYP2B6 functional variants has a high predictability for efavirenz plasma levels and could be used in prescribing optimal and safe EFV doses. (Source: BMC Clinical Pharmacology)
FDA Updates Abacavir and Lamivudine Labeling
"On March 23, 2015, FDA approved revisions to the Epivir (lamivudine) and Ziagen (abacavir sulfate) labels to each provide for once-daily dosing in pediatric patients 3 months of age and older in combination with other antiretroviral agents for the treatment of HIV-1 infection." &nbsp; The updated labeling for both drugs will be available soon at the FDA website. &nbsp; More information is available:&nbsp; FDA: Press release AIDSinfo: Patient fact sheet on abacavir AIDSinfo: Patient fact sheet on lamivudine (Source: AIDSinfo At-a-Glance: Offering Information on HIV/AIDS Treatment, Prevention, and Research, A Service of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS))<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
HHS Launches Innovative Digital Storytelling Project to Support Federal HIV Response
"The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services today released Positive Spin, a comprehensive digital educational tool that uses personal storytelling to promote the importance of getting people with HIV into treatment. The project, which was developed by AIDS.gov with input from federal agencies, health care professionals, persons living with HIV and community-based HIV organizations, is available at https://positivespin.hiv.gov." &nbsp; For more information, view the HHS press release. (Source: AIDSinfo At-a-Glance: Offering Information on HIV/AIDS Treatment, Prevention, and Research, A Service of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS))
News from NIH
March 26, 2015: HIV Can Spread Early, Evolve in Patients&rsquo; Brains &nbsp; "The AIDS virus can genetically evolve and independently replicate in patients&rsquo; brains early in the illness process, researchers funded by the National Institutes of Health have discovered." &nbsp; March 23, 2015: For Most Children With HIV and Low Immune Cell Count, Cells Rebound After Treatment &nbsp; "Most children with HIV who have low levels of a key immune cell eventually recover levels of this cell after beginning treatment, according to a study by researchers funded by the National Institutes of Health." March 13, 2015: Anti-Herpes Drug May Help Control HIV, NIH Study Finds &nbsp; "Valacyclovir, a drug commonly used to control the virus that causes genital herpes, appears to reduce the levels of HI...
Effectiveness of pharmacotherapy in behavioural therapeutic smoking cessation programmes
Conclusion: Behavioural support combined with SCA seems the most successful programme. However, as we performed an observational study, firm conclusions about the differences in effectiveness between the programme types cannot be made. Future research should consider the type of smoker (smoking history, amount of cigarettes per day). (Source: The European Journal of Public Health)
The AIDS epidemic and economic input impact factors in Chongqing, China, from 2006 to 2012: a spatial-temporal analysis
Conclusions The Chongqing HIV/AIDS epidemic showed temporal-spatial clustering and was mainly clustered in the mid-western and south-western counties, showing an upward trend over time. The amount of special funds dedicated to AIDS and to the public awareness unit showed positive and negative relationships with HIV/AIDS spatial clustering, respectively. (Source: BMJ Open)
Changes in HIV and syphilis prevalence among female sex workers from three serial cross-sectional surveys in Karnataka state, South India
Conclusions The prevalences of HIV infection and high-titre syphilis among FSWs have steadily declined with increased condom use. Further reductions in prevalence will require intensification of prevention efforts for new FSWs and those soliciting clients using mobile phones or from home, as well as increasing condom use in the context of regular partnerships. (Source: BMJ Open)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Complex clinical reasoning in the critical care unit ? difficulties, pitfalls and adaptive strategies
This article illustrates many of these with reference to a case encountered on our intensive care unit. Strategies to improve completeness of data gathering, processing and synthesis in the acute care environment are critically appraised in the context of early detection and amelioration of cognitive bias. These include reflection, targeted simulation training and the integration of social media and IT based aids in complex diagnostic processes. A framework which can be quickly and easily employed in a variety of clinical environments is then presented. (Source: International Journal of Clinical Practice)
Exploring assistive technology and post-school outcomes for students with severe disabilities.
CONCLUSION: An under-utilization of assistive technology exists in practice in the USA for students with severe disabilities. Implications for Rehabilitation An under-utilization of assistive technology for secondary students and adults with severe disabilities likely exists. A need exists for improved collaboration between professionals in rehabilitation and professionals in schools to ensure continuation of needed services or aids, such as assistive technology. Additional research is needed to better understand the adult life (or post-school) outcomes of individuals with severe disabilities, factors from PK-12 schooling or post-school services that positively and negative impact those outcomes. PMID: 25815682 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Disability and Rehabilitation....
A novel non-integrative single-cycle chimeric HIV lentivector DNA vaccine.
We examined the functional properties of this lentivector DNA in cell culture and the immunogenicity in mouse models. Viral proteins were expressed in transfected cells, assembled into viral particles that were able to transduce once target permissive cells. Unlike the parental replication-competent SHIV-KU2 that was detected in DNA samples from any of the serial passage infected cells, CAL-SHIV-IN(-) DNA was detected only in target cells of the first round of infection, hence demonstrating the single cycle replication of the vaccine. A single dose DNA immunization of humanized NOD/SCID/?2 mice showed a substantial increase of IFN-?-ELISPOT in splenocytes compared to the former replication and integration defective ?4SHIV-KU2 DNA vaccine. PMID: 25825333 [PubMed - as supplied by publ...
Indiana Gov. Mike Pence Overrides State Law To Authorize Needle-Exchange Program
INDIANAPOLIS (AP) ? Indiana Gov. Mike Pence overrode state law and his own anti-drug policies Thursday to authorize a short-term needle-exchange program designed to help contain HIV infections in a rural county where more than six dozen cases have been reported, all of them tied to intravenous drug use. Pence issued an executive order declaring a public health emergency in Scott County, an economically depressed area about 30 miles north of Louisville, Kentucky, that has seen 79 new infections since December. The county typically sees only about five HIV cases each year, health officials said. All of those infected either live in Scott County or have ties to the county, and all of the infections have been linked to needle sharing among drug users. Most of the infections involve people...
HIV Can Spread Early, Evolve in Patients' Brains
Source: National Institute of Mental Health - Related MedlinePlus Page: HIV/AIDS (Source: MedlinePlus Health News)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Pilot and feasibility clinical research grants in diabetes, endocrine and metabolic diseases
The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases invites applications for Aids-related pilot and feasibility clinical research grants in diabetes, and endocrine and metabolic diseases. This Aids-related R21 funding opportunity announcement encourage pilot and feasibility clinical research related to the prevention or treatment of diabetes and endocrine and genetic metabolic diseases.&nbsp; Direct costs are limited to US$275,000 over the two years of the R21 award, with no more than US$200,000 in direct costs allowed in any single year.&nbsp; Deadline is 7 May 2015 More information is available on the NIH website (Source: Society for Endocrinology)
Kenya: Teachers Told to Fight HIV Stigma
[The Star] TEACHERS have been urged to fight against stigma and discrimination against HIV positive colleagues. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Tanzania: Bunge Endorses New Anti-HIV Strategy
[Daily News] Dodoma -MEMBERS of Parliament (MPs) on Wednesday passed the Tanzania Commission for AIDS (TACAIDS) Amendment Bill, 2014 that among other things, creates a special fund to ensure that resources for fighting HIV/AIDS are readily available. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: Doing the Right Thing - Human Rights for Those Affected By TB
[Global Fund] Human rights abuses are an important factor impacting the TB crisis, and as countries mark World TB Day, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria with support from the Stop TB Partnership have chosen to highlight this topic this week. (Source: AllAfrica News: Tuberculosis)
Rwanda: First Lady Calls for Sustained Efforts in HIV/Aids Fight
[New Times] First lady Jeannette Kagame has reaffirmed Rwanda's commitment to the fight HIV/Aids, saying the country is using a holistic approach through a combination of laws and policies, and pro-women and girls programmes. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Zimbabwe: Masvingo Province Runs Out of ARVs, Say Activists and Patients
[New Zimbabwe] PEOPLE living with HIV in Masvingo have gone for two weeks without accessing medication after a serious shortage of ARVs hit the province. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
South Africa: TB - of Campaigns and Complications
[Daily Maverick] Deputy President Cyril Ramaphosa believes now is the time to combat SA's biggest killer, tuberculosis. The state is embarking on the largest screening campaign seen in South Africa and Ramaphosa, like activists and patients, wants to see the same efforts applied in fighting HIV/Aids. But the challenges are vast. (Source: AllAfrica News: Tuberculosis)
Namibia: Woman Overcomes HIV/Aids Stigma in Namibia
[New Era] WINDHOEK - Finding out that she was HIV positive 12 years ago came as such a big blow to one woman that she did not know whether she would recover from the psychological shock. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Quantitative Bead-Based Flow Cytometry for Assaying Rab7 GTPase Interaction with the Rab-Interacting Lysosomal Protein (RILP) Effector Protein
Rab7 facilitates vesicular transport and delivery from early endosomes to late endosomes as well as from late endosomes to lysosomes. The role of Rab7 in vesicular transport is dependent on its interactions with effector proteins, among them Rab-interacting lysosomal protein (RILP), which aids in the recruitment of active Rab7 (GTP-bound) onto dynein&ndash;dynactin motor complexes to facilitate late endosomal transport on the cytoskeleton. Here we detail a novel bead-based flow cytometry assay to measure Rab7 interaction with the Rab-interacting lysosomal protein (RILP) effector protein and demonstrate its utility for quantitative assessment and studying drug&ndash;target interactions. The specific binding of GTP-bound Rab7 to RILP is readily demonstrated and shown to be dose-dependent and...
Prostate cancer and treatment choices -- a decision shared by doctor and patient?
(University of Helsinki) Doctors strive to make treatment decisions together with their patients -- but is the decision really shared? According to adjunct professor Kari Tikkinen, shared decision-making isn't easy, and clinicians need help. The international research group led by Tikkinen has studied the decision aids for treatment choice of localized prostate cancer. The study was published in the CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, which has the highest impact factor of any journal. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
For most children with HIV and low immune cell count, cells rebound after treatment
UCLA Health Sciences Dr. Paul Krogstad Most children with HIV who have low levels of a key immune cell eventually recover levels of this cell after they begin treatment, according to a new study conducted by researchers at UCLA and other institutions in the U.S. and Brazil. The researchers were funded by the National Institutes of Health.  ?We were pleased to find that the vast majority of children experience immune system recovery with effective therapy,? said Dr. Paul Krogstad, professor of pediatric infectious diseases and of molecular and medical pharmacology at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, and the study?s first author. ?Our study also provided the most detailed information to date about the timing of this recovery in school-age children.? Krogstad is also ...
Neighborhood-level and individual-level correlates of cannabis use among young persons living with HIV/AIDS
Public views on the use of marijuana or cannabis in the United States and internationally are undergoing currently a profound shift that coincides with emerging evidence of its use in the treatment of selected health conditions (Tramer et al., 2001; Watson et al., 2000), including HIV/AIDS (Abrams et al., 2003; Woolridge et al., 2005). ?Medical marijuana? (including cannabinoids such as tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), and their derivatives) is increasingly the focus of legislation in states in the U.S., and is already legal in Canada and several European countries. (Source: Drug and Alcohol Dependence)
What is infectiveness and how is it involved in infection and immunity?
Proof of the Germ theory of disease and acceptance of Koch?s postulates in the late 1890?s launched the fields of microbial pathogenesis and infectious diseases and provided the conceptual framework that has guided thought and research in these fields. A central tenet that emerged from studies with microbes that fulfilled Koch?s postulates was that microbes that caused disease had characteristics that allowed them to do so, with the corollary that microbes that did not cause disease lacked disease-causing determinants. This observation, which held true for many diseases that were known to cause disease in the late 19th century, such as toxin-producing and encapsulated bacteria, led to the view that the ability to cause disease rested with microbes and reflected the activity of specif...
Collagen characterization in different patterns of bone invasion by OSCC: A histochemical study with picrosirius red and polarizing microscopy
Conclusion The stromal component plays an important role in the biological behaviour of a tumour. It is probable that in OSCC the infiltrative pattern of bone invasion induces increased production of loosely packed procollagens, intermediates, or pathological collagen which further aids in the invasion of the tumour into the surrounding bone, worsening the prognosis. (Source: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Medicine, and Pathology)
Time trends of baseline demographics and clinical characteristics of HIV infected children enrolled in care and treatment service in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
We present findings of a study that explored time-based trends of baseline characteristics among children enrolling into 26 public HIV care facilities in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods: Children enrolled between October 2004 and September 2011 was included in these analyses. The year of enrollment was used as the primary predictor of interest, and log linear and linear regressions model were used to analyze dichotomous and continuous variables respectively. P-values under 0.05 were considered significant. Results: Among the 6,579 children enrolled, the proportion with advanced disease at enrollment increased from 35% to 58%, mean age increasing from 5.0 to 6.2 years (p? (Source: BMC Infectious Diseases)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Vocational counseling of HIV-infected people: A role for nurses in HIV care
People living with HIV (PLWH) face various work-related problems, such as stigma and physical difficulties. Health care professionals can help improve the employment situation of PLWH. Nurses who work in HIV care play a central role in the care of PLWH in the Netherlands. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the contributions of nurses to the vocational counseling of PLWH, and to make an inventory of needs for future care. Our findings, collected with a self-administered survey, clarified that HIV nurses in the Netherlands regularly faced patients with problems at work, but that they didn?t have the required knowledge to provide assistance. (Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)
Creating Identity and Community: Latino Gay and Bisexual Men's Motives for Participation in the AIDS Movement
Abstract Motives are situated vocabularies providing insight into the social context and identities of activists and volunteers. In this paper, we examine motives for participation in the AIDS movement. We focus on an understudied group of volunteers and activists (N?=?75) in the USA, Latino gay and bisexual men. Participants elaborated on 11 motives: values, helping others, reciprocity, understanding, personal development, career enhancement, community concern, social change, esteem enhancement, personal experience, and social networking. Across almost all categories of motives, activists spoke of working for, and meeting, other Latinos and other Latino gay and bisexual males, and about fighting what they consider oppressing forces. Motives were articulated within the context of a col...
A Genomic Portrait of Haplotype Diversity and Signatures of Selection in Indigenous Southern African Populations
This study contributes to a better understanding of population ancestry and selection in south-eastern African populations; and the data and results obtained will support research into the genetic contributions to infectious as well as non-communicable diseases in the region. (Source: PLoS Genetics)
Global Fund redirects $574 million from Malawi AIDS council
LILONGWE (Reuters) - The Global Fund has redirected $574 million in HIV/AIDS funding away from Malawi's National Aids Council (NAC) after allegations of financial mismanagement, including the purchase of vehicles that were not budgeted for, it said on Wednesday. (Source: Reuters: Health)
Estimating the Cost of Increasing Retention in HIV CareEstimating the Cost of Increasing Retention in HIV Care
How expensinve would it be to scale-up retention in care interventions for HIV-infected patients? JAIDS: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Botswana: Makgalemele Salutes Naca Staff
[Botswana Daily News] Mmankgodi -The Assistant Minister for Presidential Affairs and Public Administration, Mr Phillip Makgalemele, has applauded the National AIDS Coordinating Agency (NACA) staff for their candid gesture. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Botswana: Youth Agents of Change
[Botswana Daily News] Mahalapye -Young people should be viewed as agents of change and solutions to the challenges faced by the country, says a United Nations Population Fund Agency (UNFPA) official, Ms Chada Kealotswe. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Strong correlation between protein reagent strip and protein-to-creatinine ratio for detection of renal dysfunction in HIV-infected patients: a cross-sectional study.
CONCLUSIONS: There is a high concordance between detection of proteinuria by PRS and uPCR. Therefore, in low-income countries PRS can be helpful for detecting tubular damage in people infected with HIV. PMID: 25798180 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Therapy)
Bradley Timepiece: Watch for Vision Impaired
In the past, people who experience visual disabilities had two basic types of watches available to them. The watches included ones that speak to the individual, the other is the kind of watch that permits the user to touch the hands of the clock face. The drawbacks to these watches is, for talking watches, the inability to hear the watch in loud places. The drawback of touch watches is the potential to damage or break the analog hands during use. (Source: Disabled World)
Efforts to Find Heterosexual HIV in San Francisco, 2007?2013
We report on risk behaviors and HIV prevalence among ?high-risk? heterosexuals in San Francisco. National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System is coordinated by the CDC and implemented in 21 health jurisdictions. The studies were conducted in 2006, 2010 and 2013 in San Francisco. Respondent driven sampling was used to sample participants. Eligible persons were 18?50 years old and had sex with at least one opposite gender partner in the past year. We obtained samples of 371, 421, 165 heterosexuals in 2007, 2010 and 2013, respectively. Some demographics varied across the 3 years. Residential neighborhoods changed, homelessness and healthcare coverage increased. Binge drinking, cocaine and heroin use increased while methamphetamine use declined. There were no changes in numbers of partn...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
?Please Don?t Make Me Ask for Help?: Implicit Social Support and Mental Health in Chinese Individuals Living with HIV
This study assessed explicit and implicit forms of social support and mental health symptoms in 120 HIV-positive Chinese. Explicit social support refers to interactions involving active disclosure and discussion of problems and request for assistance, whereas implicit social support refers to the emotional comfort one obtains from social networks without disclosing problems. We hypothesized and found using multiple linear regression, that after controlling for demographics, only implicit, but not explicit social support positively predicted mental health. Future research is warranted on the effects of utilizing implicit social support to bolster mental health, which has the potential to circumvent the issues of both high stigma and low professional resources in this population. (Source: AI...
History of Childhood Abuse, Drinking Motives, Alcohol Use, and Sexual Risk Behavior Among STD Clinic Patients in St. Petersburg, Russia: A Cross-Sectional Study
Abstract The relationship between level of childhood abuse (physical and emotional) and sexual risk behavior of sexually transmitted disease clinic patients in St. Petersburg, Russia was examined through path analyses. Mediating variables investigated were: Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT), drinking motives (for social interaction, to enhance mood, to facilitate sexual encounters), intimate partner violence (IPV), anxiety, and depression symptoms. Results showed a significant indirect effect of childhood abuse on women?s sexual risk behavior: higher level of childhood abuse was associated with a greater likelihood of IPV, motivations to drink, leading to higher AUDIT scores and correlated to higher likelihood of having multiple, new or casual sexual partner(s). N...
Mortality in children and adolescents vertically infected by HIV receiving care at a referral hospital in Vitoria, Brazil
Background: Daily throughout 2011, about 900 new HIV infections occurred in children and 630 children died as a result of AIDS-related complications worldwide. Late diagnosis, mortality trends, causes of and risk factors for death were evaluated in vertically HIV-infected children. Methods: A retrospective 11-year study was conducted with Brazilian vertically HIV-infected children and adolescents using patients? charts. Medical records, death certificates and the Ministry of Health?s mortality database were verified for mortality and cause of death. Diagnoses were made according to the CDC Revised Classification System for HIV infection. Results: Of 177 patients included, 97 were female (54.8%). Median age at admission was 30 months (IQR: 5?72 months). Median follow-up was 5 years ...
Effectiveness of cognitive rehabilitation following epilepsy surgery: Current state of knowledge
Summary ObjectiveCognitive rehabilitation (CR) is a well?researched therapeutic option for a variety of neurocognitive problems. Recently, CR has been proposed as an option for patients who experience cognitive difficulties following epilepsy surgery (ES). However, there is inconsistency in reporting the efficacy of CR in this population. We appraise existing evidence regarding CR approaches in patients undergoing resective ES and review effectiveness of specific CR strategies. MethodsA comprehensive literature search using MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and EBM Reviews (including the Cochrane database) identified studies in English published before September 2014, without age restriction, related to CR in patients who underwent resective ES. We included studies focused on patients w...
Risk of Discharge to Postacute Care A Patient-Centered Outcome for the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Surgical Risk Calculator
Conclusions and RelevanceIndividualized risk of discharge to postacute care can be predicted with excellent accuracy. This outcome will be incorporated into the ACS NSQIP Surgical Risk Calculator. (Source: JAMA Surgery)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Development and usability testing of a Web-based decision aid for families of patients receiving prolonged mechanical ventilation
Conclusions: The Web-based decision aid for ICU surrogate decision makers can facilitate highly individualized information sharing with excellent usability and acceptability. Decision aids that employ an electronic format such as eCODES represent a strategy that could enhance patient-clinician collaboration and decision making quality in intensive care. (Source: Annals of Intensive Care)
Quantitative trait locus analysis of agronomic and quality-related traits in cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).
In this study, high levels of phenotypic variation, broad-sense heritability and significant correlations were observed for agronomic and quality-related traits in an F 2:3 population. A genetic linkage map was constructed for cultivated peanut containing 470 simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci, with a total length of 1877.3 cM and average distance of 4.0 cM between flanking markers. For 10 agronomic traits, 24 QTLs were identified and each QTL explained 1.69-18.70 % of the phenotypic variance. For 8 quality-related traits, 12 QTLs were identified that explained 1.72-20.20 % of the phenotypic variance. Several QTLs for multiple traits were overlapped, reflecting the phenotypic correlation between these traits. The majority of QTLs exhibited obvious dominance or over-dominance effects on ...
Use of the new Airtraq ?Airtraq AVANT? in clinical settings
The use of video laryngoscopy for airway management has rapidly increased [1]. A new Airtraq, called Airtraq AVANT®(Senko Medical Trading Co. Japan, AVANT), has been approved for use in Japan since August 2014. The AVANT consists of a reusable optics, a disposable blade and an eyecup (Figure). Compared to the conventional Airtraq, the optics in the AVANT contains many prisms, which aids in the visualization of the vocal cord. Since the AVANT blade is disposable, the risk of cross contamination will low. (Source: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia)
An Updated Protocol to Detect Invalid Entries in an Online Survey of Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM): How Do Valid and Invalid Submissions Compare?
Abstract Researchers use protocols to screen for suspicious survey submissions in online studies. We evaluated how well a de-duplication and cross-validation process detected invalid entries. Data were from the Sexually Explicit Media Study, an Internet-based HIV prevention survey of men who have sex with men. Using our protocol, 146 (11.6 %) of 1254 entries were identified as invalid. Most indicated changes to the screening questionnaire to gain entry (n = 109, 74.7 %), matched other submissions? payment profiles (n = 56, 41.8 %), or featured an IP address that was recorded previously (n = 43, 29.5 %). We found few demographic or behavioral differences between valid and invalid samples, however. Invalid submissions had lower odds of reporting HIV testing in the past y...
[World Report] Peter Piot wins 2015 Canada Gairdner Global Health Award
Peter Piot has been awarded the Gairdner Foundation's 2015 global health prize for his codiscovery of the Ebola virus and his many contributions to the HIV/AIDS field. John Maurice reports. (Source: LANCET)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Does target animacy influence manual laterality of monkeys? First answer from northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina).
This study, for the first time, investigates the effect of target animacy on hand preference in Old World monkeys, compares our findings with previous related studies in great apes and humans, and aids in filling the knowledge gap on primate handedness evolution. Nine captive northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina) were chosen as focal subjects in this study. There was no group-level handedness for both animate and inanimate targets. No significant interaction was found between lateral hand use and target animacy. Left-hand use was more frequent than right-hand use for animate targets, whereas right-hand use was more frequent than left-hand use for inanimate targets, both of which demonstrate no significant level. On the whole, northern pig-tailed macaques showed a similar tendency a...
Lower Limb Neuromuscular Function and Blood Flow Characteristics in AFO-Using Survivors of Stroke
Conclusions: This cohort of ambulatory AFO users exhibited large variations in functional abilities. We recommend that future studies in stroke survivors consider AFO use in their research designs. (Source: Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy)
Liberia: UNAIDS Urges HIV, Ebola Survivors
[NEWS] The Country Director of the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS (UNAIDS) to Liberia has challenged people living with HIV and survivors of Ebola in the country to denounce all forms of stigma and discrimination against them by becoming agents of positive change. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Updated Fact Sheet: HIV and Tuberculosis
People with HIV and latent TB infection are at much higher risk for progressing to active TB disease than people with latent TB infection alone. Among 8,238 people with TB disease who had a documented HIV test result in 2013, 7% were coinfected with HIV. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
Africa: Global Steering Committee Advances Efforts for Quality Assurance
[Global Fund] The Global Steering Committee is harnessing the collective capabilities and innovations of major health development institutions to combat falsified, substandard, stolen and diverted medicines and other health products. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Liberia: HIV Network, Ebola Survivors Attend Workshop
[New Dawn] More than 30 representatives from the Liberia Network of People Living with HIV (LIBNEP) and the Ebola Survivors Association in Liberia or ESAL have participated in two-day training workshop in Monrovia, using the Positive Health, Dignity and Prevention or PHDP strategy to develop a work plan for inclusion in the Global Fund HIV Concept Note. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
[Newsdesk] Assessing a broader user base for new HCV drug
On March 6, 2015, the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the city officials of Washington, DC announced the launch of the ASCEND study, done as part of the DC Partnership for HIV/AIDS Progress. The aim of this study is to assess whether non-specialist staff (ie, general practitioners, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants) can treat people infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) with Gilead's new HCV treatment, a fixed-dose combination of ledipasvir plus sofosbuvir, as effectively as specialist physicians, and to assess the long-term effects of treatment. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Botswana: PEPFAR Make Strides in Combating HIV/Aids
[Botswana Daily News] Selebi Phikwe -Botswana in collaboration with the United States' President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) has made considerable strides in combating the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Botswana. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
First-time isolation of Candida dubliniensis from plaque and carious dentine of primary teeth
Conclusions Plaque and carious dentine may be a further habitat of C. dubliniensis. (Source: European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Risk of Drug Resistance Among Persons Acquiring HIV Within a Randomized Clinical Trial of Single- or Dual-Agent Preexposure Prophylaxis
Conclusions.&nbsp;These results suggest that resistance selected by PrEP is rare but can occur both with PrEP initiation during acute seronegative HIV infection and in PrEP breakthrough infections and that FTC is associated with a greater frequency of resistance mutations than TDF. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Elevated Levels of Monocyte Activation Markers Are Associated With Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Men With and Those Without HIV Infection
Conclusions.&nbsp;sCD163, sCD14, and CCL2 levels were elevated in treated HIV-infected men and associated with atherosclerosis. Monocyte activation may increase the risk for cardiovascular disease in individuals with HIV infection. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
HIV Nef Promotes Expression of B-Lymphocyte Stimulator by Blood Dendritic Cells During HIV Infection in Humans
Dendritic cells (DCs) modulate B-cell survival and differentiation, mainly through production of growth factors such as B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS; also known as "B-cell factor belonging to the tumor necrosis factor family" [BAFF]). We have recently shown that, in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)&ndash;infected individuals with rapid and those with classic disease progression, B-cell dysregulations were associated with increased BLyS expression in plasma and by blood myeloid DCs (mDCs), in contrast to aviremic HIV-infected individuals with slow disease progression (also known as "elite controllers"). In previous work with transgenic mice expressing HIV genes, B-cell dysregulations were concomitant with altered mDCs and dependent on HIV negative factor (Nef). We now report that HIV Nef...
Positive Results of Immunoglobulin G Cytomegalovirus Serologic Testing and Risk of Severe Non-AIDS-Related Complications in HIV-Infected Patients
(Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Enriched Formula Supplement Aids in Pressure Ulcer Healing
Drinking a calorie- and protein-rich formula enriched with arginine, zinc, and antioxidants improved the healing of pressure ulcers in patients who were malnourished, a condition that contributes to the development of pressure ulcers and hinders healing. The 200 patients with stage II, III, and IV pressure ulcers receiving home care services or in long-term care settings were randomly assigned to receive either the enriched formula (400 mL/day) or an isocaloric, isonitrogenous formula for 8 weeks. All participants also received optimal wound care (Cereda E et al. Ann Intern Med. 2015;162[3]:167-174). (Source: JAMA)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Integrating an infectious disease programme into the primary health care service: a retrospective analysis of Chagas disease community-based surveillance in Honduras
Conclusions: We found that Chagas disease vector surveillance can be integrated into the PHC service. Health centres demonstrated capacity to manage vector surveillance and improve performance, children?s awareness, vector report-response and seroprevalence, once tasks were simplified to be performed by trained non-specialists and distributed among the stakeholders. Health systems integration requires health workers to perform beyond their usual responsibilities and acquire management skills. Integration of non-patient-centred vector control is feasible and can contribute to strengthening the preventive capacity of the PHC service. (Source: BMC Health Services Research)
Touch imprint cytology: a rapid diagnostic tool for oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Authors: Geetha L, Astekar M, Ashok KN, Sowmya GV Abstract Techniques for intraoperative pathologic examination of oral squamous cell carcinoma are rare in the literature. We evaluated the advantages and limitations of touch imprint cytology for intraoperative diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma. We used 30 incisional biopsies of clinically diagnosed oral squamous cell carcinoma and compared touch imprint cytology to histopathological sections. Touch imprint cytology showed 24 specimens positive for malignancy, two suspicious for malignancy and four inadequate specimens. The accuracy of the test was 93.2%. Touch imprint cytology is an accurate, simple, rapid and cost-effective method that aids diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma during operation, but it does not replace...
Perilipin 5 Regulates Islet Lipid Metabolism and Insulin Secretion in a cAMP-Dependent Manner: Implication of Its Role in the Postprandial Insulin Secretion
Elevation of circulating fatty acids (FA) during fasting supports postprandial (PP) insulin secretion that is critical for glucose homeostasis and is impaired in diabetes. We tested our hypothesis that lipid droplet (LD) protein perilipin 5 (PLIN5) in &beta;-cells aids PP insulin secretion by regulating intracellular lipid metabolism. We demonstrated that PLIN5 serves as an LD protein in human islets. In vivo, Plin5 and triglycerides were increased by fasting in mouse islets. MIN6 cells expressing PLIN5 (adenovirus [Ad]-PLIN5) and those expressing perilipin 2 (PLIN2) (Ad-PLIN2) had higher [3H]FA incorporation into triglycerides than Ad-GFP control, which support their roles as LD proteins. However, Ad-PLIN5 cells had higher lipolysis than Ad-PLIN2 cells, which increased further by 8-Br-cAM...
Elizabeth Taylor Would Be 'Horrified' To Learn Of Current HIV Rates In Young Gay Men, Granddaughter Claims
Elizabeth Taylor would be "horrified" to learn about current HIV/AIDS rates in young gay men, the actress's granddaughter revealed in a new interview. Naomi deLuce Wilding, 40, tells The Telegraph that "a real complacency" regarding HIV/AIDS in the gay community had already set in before her legendary grandmother's death at the age of 79 in 2011. "Even before she died, when my grandmother was pretty ill, she was horrified to see that," Wilding said. "Sadly I don't think she had the strength to say what she really felt at that point." Describing Taylor as a "very intuitive woman," Wilding said, "When she saw that people -- friends of hers and fellow actors -- were being stigmatized [for being HIV-positive], she recognized an opportunity to use her voice and fame to speak up for those ...
MR imaging of the retrorectal?presacral tumors: an algorithmic approach
This article reviews the anatomy of the retrorectal?presacral space and the related tumors, optimal MRI protocol, MRI-based approach to differential diagnosis, and finally pertinent reporting pointers and implications of MR imaging findings for surgical management. (Source: Abdominal Imaging)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Sierra Leone: Rada-SL Aids Survivors to Defeat Ebola
[Concord] Rehabilitation and Development Agency Sierra Leone (RADA-SL), an organisation working as one of the social mobilization pillars in the fight against Ebola in the country, with support from Christian Aid, has trained over 50 young-adult Ebola survivors on championing Ebola sensitization in six chiefdoms in the Bo District - Kakua, Bumpe, Gbo, Wonde, Tikonko and Nyawalenga. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
HIV and Aging: Insights From the APHODHIV and Aging: Insights From the APHOD
How does older age affect typical HIV treatment-related outcomes? HIV Medicine (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
Needs Assessment and Theory-Based Promotion of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision (VMMC) Among Male Sexually Transmitted Diseases Patients (MSTDP) in China
Abstract Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) is an evidence-based biomedical HIV prevention method. It is under-utilized in countries outside Africa, including China. The present single-arm, non-blinded test-of-concept trial was designed to promote VMMC among 179 male sexually transmitted diseases patients (MSTDP) in Shenzhen, China. It was based on behavioral health theories and results of a formative survey. At month 4, 45.5 % of the MSTDP responded positively to the intervention (19.9 % had taken up VMMC and 25.6 % intended to do so in the next 6 months). Adjusted analysis showed that cognitive variables measured at baseline (perceived self-efficacy, subjective norm and behavioral intention) significantly predicted adoption of VMMC during the 4-month follow-up period...
Uganda: Why Do People Behave As If HIV Has Got a Cure?
[Observer] Lately, it has become common to hear people speak casually of sexual escapades as if they are unaware of HIV/Aids that nearly wiped out our society. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Gambia: National Assembly Passes HIV/Aids Bill
[Foroyaa] The Minister for Health and Social Welfare, Omar Sey, on Wednesday, (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Nigeria: Benue State Establishes HIV/Tuberculosis Treatment Centre
[Leadership] In a bid to improve the living conditions of the teeming populace of the state and the country at large, a treatment centre to foster reduction of HIV and tuberculosis has been established in Makurdi, the Benue State capital. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Malawi: Quest for Zero Discrimination Threatened in Kasungu
[Malawi News Agency] Kasungu -Stigma and discrimination is said to be one of the problems that is making people of Kawamba in Kasungu to conceal their HIV status. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Implementing decision aids affects care decisions in urology
(Group Health Research Institute) After Group Health Cooperative implemented video-based decision aids for men with two common prostate conditions, rates of elective surgery for benign prostatic hyperplasia and rates of active treatment for localized prostate cancer declined over six months. But the total cost of health care for those patients did not fall significantly. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
NHS issues call to action in hearing loss
New report identifies ways that services for people with impaired hearing can be improvedRelated items from OnMedicaIs this a crossroad for General Practice and Hearing Care?Re-think management of age-related hearing loss, GPs urgedHearing aids only worn by one in five of middle aged who need themPoor access to primary care impacts the health of deaf peopleIntegrated personal commissioning pilots revealed (Source: OnMedica Latest News)
Diarrhea, Anasarca, and Severe Hypoalbuminemia in an AIDS Patient
(Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Recommendations for Evaluation and Management of Bone Disease in HIV
Thirty-four human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) specialists from 16 countries contributed to this project, whose primary aim was to provide guidance on the screening, diagnosis, and monitoring of bone disease in HIV-infected patients. Four clinically important questions in bone disease management were identified, and recommendations, based on literature review and expert opinion, were agreed upon. Risk of fragility fracture should be assessed primarily using the Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX), without dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), in all HIV-infected men aged 40&ndash;49 years and HIV-infected premenopausal women aged &ge;40 years. DXA should be performed in men aged &ge;50 years, postmenopausal women, patients with a history of fragility fracture, patients receiving chronic...
Boosted Lopinavir- Versus Boosted Atazanavir-Containing Regimens and Immunologic, Virologic, and Clinical Outcomes: A Prospective Study of HIV-Infected Individuals in High-Income Countries
Conclusions.&nbsp;Our estimates are consistent with a lower mortality, a lower incidence of AIDS-defining illness, a greater 12-month increase in CD4 cell count, and a smaller risk of virologic failure at 12 months for atazanavir compared with lopinavir regimens. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Incidence of Herpes Zoster in HIV-Infected Adults in the Combined Antiretroviral Therapy Era: Results From the FHDH-ANRS CO4 Cohort
Conclusions.&nbsp;The risk of HZ has declined markedly among HIV-infected patients in the cART era, but remains 3 times higher than in the general population. The risk increases moderately during the first 6 months of cART. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Declining Relative Risk for Myocardial Infarction Among HIV-Positive Compared With HIV-Negative Individuals With Access to Care
Concerns remain for an increased myocardial infarction (MI) risk among individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We conducted a cohort study evaluating MI risk from 1996 to 2011 by HIV status. The adjusted MI rate ratio for HIV status declined over time, reaching 1.0 (95% confidence interval, .7&ndash;1.4) in 2010&ndash;2011, the most recent study period. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Diarrhea, Anasarca, and Severe Hypoalbuminemia in an AIDS Patient
(Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
?I was thinking too much?: experiences of HIV?positive adults with common mental disorders and poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy in Zimbabwe
ConclusionsBetter understanding of the local expression of mental disorders and of underlying stressors can inform the development of culturally sensitive interventions to reduce CMDs and poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy. (Source: Tropical Medicine and International Health)
A nationwide analysis of risk factors for in-hospital myocardial infarction after total joint arthroplasty
Conclusion Our findings can be used to better identify patients at high risk of AMI and to develop strategies aimed at diminishing its incidence, which could in turn translate to improved hospital efficiency and quality of care. (Source: International Orthopaedics)
Resistance to Cotrimoxazole and Other Antimicrobials among Isolates from HIV/AIDS and Non-HIV/AIDS Patients at Bugando Medical Centre, Mwanza, Tanzania.
Authors: Marwa KJ, Mushi MF, Konje E, Alele PE, Kidola J, Mirambo MM Abstract Bacterial resistance has increased in the AIDS era and is attributed to the widespread use of cotrimoxazole prophylaxis against opportunistic infections in HIV/AIDS patients. In Tanzania, cotrimoxazole prophylaxis has been used for more than ten years. Little is known, however, about its impact on the spread of antibiotic resistance in HIV positive patients. This cross-sectional study was done to compare magnitude of bacterial resistance to cotrimoxazole and other antimicrobials among isolates from HIV infected patients on cotrimoxazole prophylaxis and those not on prophylaxis and non-HIV patients attending Bugando Medical Centre (BMC). Susceptibility testing on obtained urine and swab specimens followed ...
Africa: Ebola and HIV - How to Change Behaviour for the Long Term
[IRIN] Nairobi -There have been no new Ebola infections in Liberia in the past three weeks, but it's still far too early to say the virus has been defeated - Liberia's borders are porous and its neighbours have been less successful in taming their outbreaks. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Responding to the public health consequences of the Ukraine crisis: an opportunity for global health diplomacy.
CONCLUSIONS: In response to this crisis, the application of global health diplomacy principles represents a possible route of advocacy to ensure that HIV prevention, humane treatment of substance using populations, and improving public health outcomes in the region are pursued among concerned international stakeholders. In order to be effective, global health diplomacy efforts must be coordinated and advocated in all forms of diplomatic engagement, including at the core, multistakeholder and informal levels and through existing channels such as the different human rights bodies of the United Nations as well as amongst other actors. Hence, the Ukraine crisis represents a critical moment for the practice and advancement of global health diplomacy in order to ensure global public health prior...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Factor analyses of a social support scale using two methods
Conclusion Factor structure of the MOS-SSS is method-dependent, with CFA supporting a four-factor structure, while EFA yielded a two-factor structure in two separate samples. We need to be careful in selecting the analytic method when applying the MOS-SSS to various samples and choose the factor structure that best fits the theoretical model. (Source: Quality of Life Research)
Identification of NF-kB and PLCL2 as new susceptibility genes and highlights on a potential role of IRF8 through interferon signature modulation in systemic sclerosis
Conclusions: An analysis of pleiotropic genes identified two new susceptibility genes for SSc (NF-?B and PLCL2) and confirmed IRF8 locus. Furthermore, IRF8 variant influenced interferon signature and we found an interaction between IRF8 and NF-?B gene variants that might play a potential role in SSc susceptibility. (Source: Arthritis Research and Therapy)
A Focused Laser Beam: a Useful and Versatile Tool for 1D Nanomaterials Research: A Review
Publication date: Available online 20 March 2015 Source:Journal of Materials Science &amp; Technology Author(s): Junpeng Lu , Sharon Xiaodai Lim , Chorng Haur Sow One-dimensional (1D) nanomaterials have generated considerable interest amongst researchers because of their potential as fundamental building block in future nano- and micro-electronic devices. In this article, we present a review of a focused laser beam system as a versatile tool for the manipulation, structural transformation, micropatterning and chemical modification of 1D nanomaterials. This tool was found to be effective in patterning and modifying various physical and chemical properties of the pristine 1D nanomaterials. It also aids in the fabrication process of heterostructures and 1D nanomaterial based devices. Fi...
Strong correlation between protein reagent strip and protein-to-creatinine ratio for detection of renal dysfunction in HIV-infected patients: a cross-sectional study
Background: Tubular dysfunction is common in HIV-infected people and detection of proteinuria is essential to identify this problem. In low-income countries, resources for detection of proteinuria using the Kidney Disease Improve Global Outcomes (KDIGO) gold standard urinary protein/creatinine ratio (uPCR) is rarely possible, and use of the protein reagent strip (PRS) could be an option in these places. The aims of this study were to establish the concordance between PRS and uPCR to detect tubular proteinuria in HIV-infected people, and to assess the sensitivity and specificity of PRS as a diagnostic method in this group. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the correlation between the two techniques to detect protein in urine. Participants were enrolled for a period ...
Blood Donor Test-Seeking Motivation and Prior HIV Testing Experiences in São Paulo, Brazil
Abstract HIV test-seeking behavior among blood donors has been observed worldwide and may pose a threat to the safety of the blood supply. We evaluated current test-seeking motivations and prior alternative HIV testing experiences among blood donors in São Paulo, Brazil. All candidate or potential blood donors were consecutively approached and recruited to participate in the study upon presentation at Fundação Pró-Sangue Hemocentro, the largest blood bank in Brazil. Participants were recruited between August 2012 and May 2013 after they were screened for donor eligibility. Questionnaires were administered through audio computer-assisted self-interview. Among 11,867 donors, 38 % previously tested for HIV apart from blood donation, of whom 47.7 % tested at public facilities an...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Systemic inflammation and residual viraemia in HIV-positive adults on protease inhibitor monotherapy: a cross-sectional study
Conclusions: We found no evidence of increased levels of inflammatory biomarkers or higher prevalence of residual viraemia in patients effectively suppressed on PImono as compared with patients on standard cART. (Source: BMC Infectious Diseases)
[Comment] Offline: Breaking the silence in nephrology
Durban, 2000. The world's AIDS community came to South Africa despondent about its future. The emerging epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa, combined with President Thabo Mbeki's scepticism about HIV as the cause of AIDS, presented what seemed to be an impossible challenge. I remember an evening with one long-serving WHO Africa-hand who was then advising the agency's Director-General on her AIDS policy. His view was stark, and devastating. There was no future for those living with AIDS in Africa, he said. (Source: LANCET)
Influence of quinacrine and chloroquine on the in vitro 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine antiretroviral effect.
CONCLUSION: Cq does not potentiate the effect of AZT, but it is effective by itself at high doses. The rise of HIV replication by Qc could be deleterious in HIV endemic regions, where it is used as antimalarial. The mechanisms associated to this phenomenon must be identified. PMID: 25788967 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Therapy)
Structural Biology Related to HIV/AIDS - 2015
(Source: NIGMS New on the Site)
Behavioral, Metabolic, and Immune Consequences of Chronic Alcohol or Cannabinoids on HIV/AIDs: Studies in the Non-Human Primate SIV Model
Abstract HIV-associated mortality has been significantly reduced with antiretroviral therapy (ART), and HIV infection has become a chronic disease that frequently coexists with many disorders, including substance abuse (Azar et al. Drug Alcohol Depend 112:178?193, 2010; Phillips et al. J Gen Int Med 16:165, 2001). Alcohol and drugs of abuse may modify host-pathogen interactions at various levels including behavioral, metabolic, and immune consequences of HIV infection, as well as the ability of the virus to integrate into the genome and replicate in host cells. Identifying mechanisms responsible for these interactions is complicated by many factors, such as the tissue specific responses to viral infection, multiple cellular mechanisms involved in inflammatory responses, neuroend...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
DFS70/LEDGFp75: An Enigmatic Autoantigen at the Interface between Autoimmunity, AIDS, and Cancer
Anamika Basu, Tino Wilson Sanchez and Carlos A Casiano (Source: Frontiers in Immunology)
HIV Infection and HIV-Associated Behaviors Among Persons Who Inject Drugs - 20 Cities, United States, 2012
This report summarizes HIV prevalence and risk behavior among persons who inject drugs in the United States. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
New books party: books that arrived recently
This week, I share my thoughts about a travel-adventure story about a quest to see one of the world?s last surviving ?unicorns? (the saola); a paperback about the natural history of Ebola and a second by the same author about the origins of HIV/AIDS, and a book that examines the strange behaviour of numbers Continue reading... (Source: Guardian Unlimited Science)
Africa: Gala to Raise Funds to Stop New HIV Infections Among Children
[UNAIDS] Geneva -UNAIDS, in partnership with the hotel InterContinental Genève, Cartier and Etihad Airways, is holding its first fundraising gala, in Geneva, Switzerland. The event is part of UNAIDS' efforts to ensure that children everywhere are free from HIV and that mothers have access to antiretroviral medicines to ensure that they stay alive and well. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Ascertainment and verification of end-stage renal disease and end-stage liver disease in the north american AIDS cohort collaboration on research and design.
Authors: Kitahata MM, Drozd DR, Crane HM, Van Rompaey SE, Althoff KN, Gange SJ, Klein MB, Lucas GM, Abraham AG, Lo Re V, McReynolds J, Lober WB, Mendes A, Modur SP, Jing Y, Morton EJ, Griffith MA, Freeman AM, Moore RD Abstract The burden of HIV disease has shifted from traditional AIDS-defining illnesses to serious non-AIDS-defining comorbid conditions. Research aimed at improving HIV-related comorbid disease outcomes requires well-defined, verified clinical endpoints. We developed methods to ascertain and verify end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and end-stage liver disease (ESLD) and validated screening algorithms within the largest HIV cohort collaboration in North America (NA-ACCORD). Individuals who screened positive among all participants in twelve cohorts enrolled between Januar...
Stroke-Like Presentation of Cerebral Toxoplasmosis: Two HIV-Infected Cases
Toxoplasmosis is the most common opportunistic infection of the central nervous system in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Clinical presentation of cerebral toxoplasmosis in these patients includes headache, focal neurological deficits and seizures. Prompt diagnosis and appropriate therapy results in rapid clinical and radiological improvement as well as good outcome for patients. In this article, we report two cases with stroke-like presentation of cerebral toxoplasmosis in the setting of HIV infection.Cerebrovasc Dis Extra 2015;5:28-30 (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases Extra)
REPORT: KSHV Suppresses PDLIM2 for Tumorigenesis [Molecular Bases of Disease]
Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) is the most common cause of malignancies among AIDS patients. However, how KSHV induces tumorigenesis remains largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that one important mechanism underlying the tumorigenesis of KSHV is through transcriptional repression of the tumor suppressor gene PDZ-LIM domain-containing protein 2 (PDLIM2). PDLIM2 expression is repressed in KSHV-transformed human umbilical vascular endothelial cells as well as in KSHV-associated cancer cell lines and primary tumors. Importantly, PDLIM2 repression is essential for KSHV-induced persistent activation of nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and subsequent tumorigenesis and tumor maintenance. Our mechanistic studies indicate that PDLIM2 rep...
A rare presentation of tuberculous prostatic abscess in young patient
Conclusion Tuberculous prostatic abscess although very uncommon in immunocompetent patient, we should have high index of suspicion in patients of PUO. Once diagnosed it should be treated with complete drainage of abscess and ATT with close follow up. (Source: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports)
Candidiasis: A Fungal Infection- Current Challenges and Progress in Prevention and Treatment.
Authors: Hani U, Shivakumar HG, Vaghela R, M Osmani RA Abstract Despite therapeutic advances candidiasis remains a common fungal infection most frequently caused by C. albicans and may occur as vulvovaginal candidiasis or thrush, a mucocutaneous candidiasis. Candidiasis frequently occurs in newborns, in immune-deficient people like AIDS patients, and in people being treated with broad spectrum antibiotics. It is mainly due to C. albicans while other species such as C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis and C. krusei are increasingly isolated. OTC antifungal dosage forms such as creams and gels can be used for the effective treatment of local candidiasis. Whereas, for preventing spread of the disease to deeper vital organs; candidiasis antifungal chemotherapy is preferred. Use...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
The relationship of physical performance with HIV disease and mortality: authors? response
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Proximal tubular dysfunction in a HIV-1 patient with coadministered tenofovir disoproxil-fumarate and ibuprofen
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Management guidelines for non-AIDS morbidity result in increased screening but no change in primary prevention implementation
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Response to: the relationship of physical performance with HIV disease and mortality: a cohort study
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Human papilloma virus vaccination induces strong human papilloma virus specific cell-mediated immune responses in HIV-infected adolescents and young adults
The ability of a quadrivalent human papilloma virus (HPV)-16/18/6/11 virus-like particles vaccine (Gardasil) to elicit HPV-specific cell-mediated immune responses was evaluated in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-treated HIV-infected young adults. Results showed that, after three doses of vaccine, central memory and effector memory CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, as well as HPV-specific interleukin (IL)2+/CD4+, interferon-gamma (IFN-?+)/CD4+, IFN-?+/CD8+ and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?)+/CD8+ T lymphocytes and Perforin and Granzyme B secreting CD8+ T lymphocytes were significantly increased. Notably, results obtained in HIV-infected patients were comparable to those seen in HIV-uninfected age-matched healthy controls. (Source: AIDS)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Protein-losing enteropathy in an HIV-infected pediatric patient with previous disseminated Mycobacterium genavense infection
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Estimating the range of potential epidemiological impact of pre-exposure prophylaxis: run-away success or run-away failure?
Conclusions: Multiple potentially interacting factors will determine the impact of PrEP. Model forecasts should reflect that uncertainty and programmes should focus on these factors and measure them, to maximize the impact of programmes. (Source: AIDS)
Mixed membership trajectory models of cognitive impairment in the multicenter AIDS cohort study
Conclusion: These results provide new insight into the natural history of cognitive dysfunction in HIV disease and provide evidence for a potential difference in the pathophysiology of the development of cognitive impairment based on trajectories to impairment. (Source: AIDS)
High HIV prevalence and incidence among MSM across 12 cities in India
Conclusion: We observed a high burden of HIV among MSM in India with tremendous diversity in prevalence, incidence, and risk behaviors. In particular, we observed high incidence in areas with relatively low prevalence suggesting emerging epidemics in areas not previously recognized to have high HIV burden. (Source: AIDS)
Effects of HIV and combination antiretroviral therapy on cortico-striatal functional connectivity
Objective: Determine whether HIV and combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) affect resting-state functional connectivity (rs-fc) between the striatum and the cortical regions. Methods: Forty-nine HIV-uninfected (HIV?) and 132 HIV-infected (HIV+) (65% receiving cART) patients underwent laboratory studies (current and nadir CD4+ T-cell counts, and plasma HIV viral load), neuropsychological performance testing, and neuroimaging. Rs-fc, which examines the coordination of neural activity in distant brain regions, was used to investigate the cortico-striatal functional connections. The effect of cART was assessed comparing HIV+ individuals on cART (HIV+/cART+), and HIV+ individuals not currently receiving cART (HIV+/cART?). Relationships between laboratory tests, cognitive performance, an...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Incomplete immune reconstitution despite virologic suppression in HIV-1 infected children and adolescents
Conclusion: ART improved CD4+ cell counts in most children, but the time to CD4+ cell count of at least 500 cells was highly dependent upon baseline immunological status. Some children did not reach a CD4+ T-cell count of 500?cells/?l despite 2 years of virologic suppression. AIDS-defining events occurred in 1% of the population, including children in whom virologic suppression and improved CD4+ T-cell counts were achieved. (Source: AIDS)
Risk of progression to high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-infected MSM
Conclusion: The rate of progression to HGAIN varies according to different predictors that should be considered when assessing the particular risk of each patient. Patients with low risk of progression could be screened at longer intervals. Brief summary: We describe the risk of progression to HGAIN in a cohort of 556 HIV-infected MSM. The incidence rate of HGAIN varies widely according to different predictors. These factors should be considered when assessing the particular risk of each patient. (Source: AIDS)
Association of microbial translocation biomarkers with clinical outcome in controllers HIV-infected patients
Background: A proportion of patients who spontaneously control viral load (controllers) experienced clinical progression. We hypothesized that microbial translocation would independently determine the rate of disease progression in controllers. Methods: sCD14, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) and EndoCab levels were assessed in 114 antiretroviral-naive patients with CD4+ T cells above 500?cells/?l (including 63 controllers and 51 noncontrollers). The independent predictive value of these markers on time to progression to the combined endpoint of AIDS, non-AIDS event, initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) or CD4+ cell count less than 500?cells/?l was assessed using a Cox regression model. Results: Most of the patients progressed to a combined endpoint (60%). ...
Dolutegravir inhibits HIV-1 Env evolution in primary human cells
Conclusion: These results may help to explain the absence of emergent resistance mutations in treatment-naive individuals treated with DTG. (Source: AIDS)
Human adipose tissue as a reservoir for memory CD4+ T cells and HIV
Conclusion: Adipose tissues of ART-treated patients harbour activated memory CD4+ T cells and HIV DNA. Adipocytes promote CD4+ T-cell activation and HIV production in concert with intrinsic adipose factors. Adipose tissue may be an important reservoir for HIV. (Source: AIDS)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
HIV-1 vaccines based on replication-competent Tiantan vaccinia protected Chinese rhesus macaques from simian HIV infection
Conclusion: An rTV-based HIV-1 vaccine, with or without a DNA primer, provided protection from SHIV challenge in a macaque model. Replication-competent Tiantan vaccinia is a promising vector and should enable advances in HIV-1 vaccine development. (Source: AIDS)
Retention in care for HIV-infected patients in the eye of the Ebola storm: lessons from Monrovia, Liberia
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
EnChroma Eyewear Lets Color Blind See Colors Indoors
The EnChroma glasses enable red-green color blind students, children, workers - anyone suffering from color vision deficiency (CVD) - to see and appreciate a more colorful world. (Source: Disabled World)
On Losing a Friend to Suicide and Learning to Understand Depression
I have lit a lot of candles for the dead. It's a custom that spans many cultures, and I've lit them in churches and synagogues, in my childhood home and my apartment's living room. I am a superstitious atheist, so I mutter a directionless prayer when I light a candle, but for me, just seeing the flame lit is the best part: That small fire, consecrated in the name of the dead one, lets them take in oxygen again -- breathe again, for an hour or so. It's been two years since my friend and college roommate J. took her own life, at 22. Among my friends from school, her death was cataclysmic: We mourned, scattered around the country and the globe. We asked the searing questions that human beings have built a carapace of belief against: Why? And: What happens now? And: How can it be that my fri...
HIV Patients May Fare as Well as Others with Kidney Transplants
But study also found that survival rates were lower if organ recipient also had hepatitis CSource: HealthDay Related MedlinePlus Pages: HIV/AIDS, Hepatitis C, Kidney Transplantation (Source: MedlinePlus Health News)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Rural-Urban Differences in HIV Viral Loads and Progression to AIDS among New HIV Cases.
CONCLUSIONS: The reasons behind differences in proportions of rural and urban residents who were diagnosed as having AIDS or progressed to AIDS despite similar initial CD4(+) T-cell counts and VL suppression at 1 year are unclear and should be explored in future studies. Future prevention and treatment efforts may need to consider the unique characteristics of rural populations in the South. PMID: 25772053 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Southern Medical Journal)
Sacroplasty for Cancer-Associated Insufficiency Fractures
CONCLUSION: Sacroplasty is a safe and effective option for the palliation of sacral fractures in the oncologic population. ABBREVIATIONS: PPRS, posterior pelvic ring stabilization SIF, sacral insufficiency fracture VAS, visual analog scale (Source: Neurosurgery)
Africa: Scientist Becomes a Fighter for Fairness
[Global Fund] As Pope Francis approached, coming up the stairs in St. Peter's Square, Vatican City, Stefano Vella readied himself for the moment. He may have been waiting for two hours on a chilly morning, but as that handshake drew nearer, Dr. Vella knew it was going to be momentous, a milestone in his decades-long career in global health. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Metastatic Breast Cancer Patients Need Help
Breast cancer in the breast is not life-threatening. However, when breast cancer travels outside of the breast (usually to the brain, liver, lungs or bones), it becomes metastatic or Stage IV. Approximately 5 percent of newly-diagnosed breast cancer cases are metastatic or Stage IV (interchangeable designations) but even more startling is that approximately 30 percent of early stage breast cancer will become Stage IV. So with more than one-third of all breast cancer patients having to deal with metastatic breast cancer, why don't we hear more about it, and why is it not receiving more attention? If you ever meet a woman dealing with metastatic breast cancer, you will know what real courage is. These women go through regimens of all sorts of chemotherapy, most often with a combination of c...
Prophylaxis for Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia: is it a necessity in pulmonary patients on high-dose, chronic corticosteroid therapy without AIDS?
Authors: Liebling M, Rubio E, Ie S Abstract The benefit of prophylaxis for Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) is well documented in immunocompromised patients, particularly those with HIV and/or AIDS; therefore, guidelines dictate this as standard of care. However, there is a paucity of literature regarding those without HIV and/or AIDS who are potentially predisposed to PJP, including patients with sarcoidosis, cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, interstitial lung disease, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, who may require high dose of prolonged corticosteroids for disease maintenance or to prevent relapses. In this review, the authors examine the available literature regarding prophylaxis in these groups, elaborate on the pathogenesis of PJP, when to suspect PJP ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Africa: HIV Prevalence Reduced in SADC, but Sub-Saharan Africa Still Tops
[The Herald] This is the eighth in a series of articles analysing regional progress on gender equality and women's empowerment. With 2015 finally here, notable progress has been made in reducing HIV and aids prevalence and stemming new infections. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Endoplasmic reticulum quality control in cancer: Friend or foe
Publication date: Available online 18 March 2015 Source:Seminars in Cancer Biology Author(s): Hana Kim , Asmita Bhattacharya , Ling Qi Quality control systems in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) mediated by unfolded protein response (UPR) and endoplasmic reticulum associated degradation (ERAD) ensure cellular function and organismal survival. Recent studies have suggested that ER quality-control systems in cancer cells may serve as a double-edged sword that aids progression as well as prevention of tumor growth in a context-dependent manner. Here we review recent advances in our understanding of the complex relationship between ER proteostasis and cancer pathology, with a focus on the two most conserved ER quality-control mechanisms?the IRE1?-XBP1 pathway of the UPR and SEL1L-HRD1 compl...
An audit of consent practices and perceptions of lumbar puncture, Botswana inpatient setting experience
Conclusion Contrasting responses between doctors and patients indicates a need for standard consenting practices among doctors. Also, patients? attitudes and receptiveness to lumbar punctures can be improved through education on lumbar puncture indications, benefits, and risks. (Source: African Journal of Emergency Medicine)
Influence of quinacrine and chloroquine on the in vitro 3&#8242;-azido-3&#8242;-deoxythymidine antiretroviral effect
Conclusion: Cq does not potentiate the effect of AZT, but it is effective by itself at high doses. The rise of HIV replication by Qc could be deleterious in HIV endemic regions, where it is used as antimalarial. The mechanisms associated to this phenomenon must be identified. (Source: AIDS Research and Therapy)
Disseminated Mycobacterium simiae manifested as IRIS: A case report
Publication date: Available online 18 March 2015 Source:HIV &amp; AIDS Review Author(s): Uttiya Brahmachari , Saikat Saha , Binay Guchhait , Subhasish Kamal Guha Disseminated disease caused by Mycobacterium simiae, a nontubercular mycobacterium, has been rarely reported in medical literature. Infection from M. simiae is more common in immunocompromised patients. It can also present as immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in HIV infected subjects after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Here, we report a case of a middle aged lady infected with HIV, who presented with fever and cough after switch to second-line antiretroviral therapy, found to be infected with M. simiae. (Source: HIV and AIDS Review)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Prevalence of HIV-1 subtypes among men who have sex with men in China: a systematic review
The distribution of prevalent HIV-1 strains are still complex in China. Men who have sex with men (MSM) play an important bridging role in spreading HIV. The aim of our study was to quantitatively evaluate the prevalence of HIV-1 subtypes among the MSM population in China from published studies. Relevant studies were searched by selection criteria from CNKI, CBM, Pubmed, etc. We computed the estimates of the pooled proportion of HIV-1 subtypes. Heterogeneity between studies was investigated and measured using Cochran&rsquo;s Q statistic and the I 2 statistic. All analyses were conducted by the R statistical package version 2.13.1. A meta-analysis was performed, which included 19 articles. For comprehensive analysis of env, gag and pol genes, the pooled estimates for the prevalence ...
Assessment of the efficacy and safety of pre-emptive anti-cytomegalovirus (CMV) therapy in HIV-infected patients with CMV viraemia
In conclusion, the use of PACT in HIV-infected patients with CMV viraemia could improve outcome but is associated with significant toxicity. (Source: International Journal of STD and AIDS)
Elevated urinary leukocyte esterase as a potential surrogate marker for HIV sexual transmission risks in men receiving antiretroviral therapy
Local genital tract inflammation stimulates leukocyte activity and causes HIV shedding, potentially increasing HIV sexual infectiousness. Although there are available clinical markers for genital tract inflammation, such as urinary leukocyte esterase, none have yet been examined in relation to HIV sexual risk behaviours. We sought to examine the association between urinary leukocyte esterase and sexual practices. Sexually active men living with HIV and receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART, N = 290) provided urine specimens and completed behavioural health assessments. HIV RNA tests and CD4 cell counts were abstracted from medical records. Urine specimens were analysed for leukocyte esterase using a standard point-of-care dipstick test. Thirty-one (10.6%) participants tested positive for l...
Get Yourself Tested 2011-2012: Findings and prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae at an urban public health system
During April 2011 and April 2012 the Get Yourself Tested campaign was launched throughout the Cook County Health and Hospitals System to promote testing of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) among 15&ndash;25-year-olds in a high-prevalence urban community. Retrospective data were collected and analysed. Demographic differences by CT and GC positivity were evaluated along with factors associated with CT and GC status. A total of 2853 tests were conducted among individuals aged 15&ndash;25 years. A total of 2060 (72%) females and 793 (28%) males were tested. Of those tested, 488 (17%) individuals tested positive for either CT or GC or both; 400 (14%) were positive for CT, 139 (5%) were positive for GC. The prevalence for GC was 8.8% (n = 70) in males compared to 3.3% (...
Assessment of the impact of the London Olympics 2012 on selected non-genitourinary medicine clinic sexual health services
With minimal information on sexual health provision during mass-gathering events, our aim was to describe the use of sexual health, contraceptive, sex worker and sexual assault services during the London 2012 Olympics. We analysed data from five sources. One contraceptive service provider reported a 10% increase in attendance during the main Games, while emergency contraception prescriptions rose during the main Olympics, compared to the week before, but were similar or lower than at the beginning and end of the summer period. A health telephone advice line reported a 16% fall in sexual health-related calls during the main Olympics, but a 33% increase subsequently. London sexual assault referral centres reported that 1.8% of sexual assaults were Olympics-linked. A service for sex workers r...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
High-risk motorcycle taxi drivers in the HIV/AIDS era: a respondent-driven sampling survey in Kampala, Uganda
We evaluated motorcycle taxi (&lsquo;boda-boda&rsquo;) drivers in Kampala for the prevalence of HIV/sexually transmitted infections. We used respondent-driven sampling to recruit a cross-sectional sample of boda-boda drivers. We collected data through audio computer-assisted self-administered interviews. Men were tested for HIV, syphilis serology using Rapid Plasma Reagin and enzyme immunoassay, and Chlamydia and gonorrhoea using urine polymerase chain reaction. We recruited 683 men. Median age was 26 years; 59.4% were single. The prevalence of HIV was 7.5% (95% CI 5.2&ndash;10.0), of positive syphilis serology was 6.1% (95% CI 4.3&ndash;8.1), of Chlamydia was 1.1% (95% CI 0.4&ndash;2.0), and of gonorrhoea was 1.2% (95% CI 0.1&ndash;1.2). Many men (67.8%) had both casual and regular partne...
Clinically significant extra-cardiac findings in asymptomatic HIV-positive men undergoing cardiac magnetic resonance imaging
Increased research-based imaging has led to an increase in clinically significant extra-cardiac findings. HIV patients are at increased risk of having polypathology at a younger age; therefore, it may be hypothesised that they would have more incidental findings on imaging. We reviewed the magnetic resonance imaging results of 169 HIV-positive and 40 HIV-negative, clinically well volunteers undergoing cardiac magnetic resonance imaging scanning to assess the prevalence of subclinical cardiac pathology. This sub-study assessed the prevalence of clinically significant extra-cardiac findings. Associated risk factors were assessed and clinical follow-up and outcome were ascertained. Of the HIV-positive study group, 12/169 (7.1%) vs. 1/40 (2.5%) control patients had a clinically significant ext...
The management of lichen sclerosus in a genitourinary medicine setting: a 12-month retrospective case-notes review
A retrospective case-notes review was undertaken of all women with lichen sclerosus seen during a 12-month period to review their characteristics and care. A total of 273 case-notes were reviewed. The mean age was 61 years (range, 14&ndash;94), and the mean duration of symptoms was 6.4 years (range, 1&ndash;50). The mean age at diagnosis was 55 years (range, 7&ndash;92). Sixty-two (23%) had at least one other autoimmune condition. Autoimmune conditions were seven times more frequent overall compared with United Kingdom prevalences. On-going symptoms were reported as none/minimal in 196 (72%), moderate in 65 (24%) and severe in 12 (4%). A total of 233 women (85%) had on-going treatment with clobetasol propionate (Dermovate) ointment with a mode of eight applications per month (range, 0&ndas...
Audit of the management of the syphilis outbreak in Herefordshire 2011-2013
The objective of this audit was to evaluate a localised rural outbreak of syphilis against British Association of Sexual Health and HIV guidelines. Forty-nine cases were identified; 98% were men, and 88% were men who have sex with men (MSM). There was a low incidence of HIV co-infection (18%). All standards regarding monitoring and treatment were met, whereas the standard concerning contact tracing was narrowly missed, highlighting a number of issues and areas for improvement. This audit has highlighted that a proactive approach is necessary to identify cases of syphilis in rural communities. This is due to difficulties in outreach testing and contact tracing in the absence of designated meeting places for MSM. (Source: International Journal of STD and AIDS)
Atypical penile Mondor's disease - involvement of the circumflex vein
Mondor&rsquo;s disease is a rare condition characterised by superficial thrombophlebitis of subcutaneous veins, most commonly over the anterior chest wall. Penile Mondor&rsquo;s disease is rarer, arising out of thrombophlebitis of the penile veins. It typically involves the dorsal vein of the penis and presents with a cord-like indurated lesion with a beaded feel, palpable along the length of the involved vein. Though penile Mondor&rsquo;s disease involving the dorsal vein of the penis has been reported by many authors, we report a peculiar case of penile Mondor&rsquo;s disease in a 26-year-old sexually active man with thrombophlebitis of the circumflex vein of the penis with sparing of the dorsal vein. Diagnosis was confirmed on Doppler ultrasonography of the penile venous system. Despite...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Condylomata acuminata within perianal fistulae tracts: report of two cases
The commonest sights of appearance of condylomata acuminata are in the genital and anal regions. Herein we present two cases of condylomata within perianal fistulae tracts, resulting in recurrence in one case and a malignant-like tumour in the second. To our knowledge, these are the first cases reported in the literature. (Source: International Journal of STD and AIDS)
Thank you to our Reviewers
(Source: International Journal of STD and AIDS)
Knowledge About Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission PreventionKnowledge About Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission Prevention
How much do pregnant women with HIV know about mother-to-child HIV transmission? Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
Updated Fact Sheet: HIV among Gay and Bisexual Men
This fact sheet describes the burden of HIV among gay and bisexual men, prevention challenges for this population, and what CDC is doing to address them. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
Nigeria: Kogi Lauds Ecobank, Naca On Fight Against HIV/Aids
[This Day] Kogi State governor, Mr. Idris Wada has commended Ecobank Nigeria and the National Agency for the Control of AIDS (NACA) for their support towards the eradication of the deadly HIV/AIDS disease from the country. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
South Africa: Social Development Launches HIV Report
[SAnews.gov.za] Pretoria - The Department of Social Development has launched the Gender Equality Assessment of Provincial Strategic and Operational Plans on HIV, Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) and Tuberculosis (TB). (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Needs, Risks, and Context in Sexual Health Among Temporary Foreign Migrant Farmworkers in Canada: A Pilot Study with Mexican and Caribbean Workers
Abstract Every year Canada hosts approximately 40,000 temporary foreign migrant farmworkers (MFWs). They are predominantly Mexican and Caribbean married men or single mothers who leave their families for months at a time over a span of many years. This pilot study investigated their knowledge about HIV/AIDS, attitudes towards condoms and their use, and perceived barriers to accessing sexual health services. A survey (n = 103) and four focus groups (n = 21) were conducted in Ontario?s Niagara Region. The results suggest that MFWs commonly face vulnerabilities to HIV/AIDS, STIs and other sexual health issues due to personal, social?cultural, environmental and structural factors. The findings highlight the need for increasing culturally and gender sensitive sexual health educ...
HIV/AIDS Research in Correctional Settings: A Difficult Task Made Even Harder?
This study examines the degree to which HIV/AIDS correctional researchers report greater challenges than do their noncorrectional counterparts. Results indicate that correctional researchers reported significantly more frequent challenges than those in noncorrectional settings, even after controlling for experience, with the dominant difference related to challenges due to the research setting. These findings add empirical data and support previous research in the field; however, additional research should include correctional staff and incarcerated individuals, and explore whether these differences extend to other research topics. (Source: Journal of Correctional Health Care)
Prevalence and Predictors of Mental/Emotional Distress Among HIV+ Jail Detainees at Enrollment in an Observational Study
This study evaluates the prevalence of mental/emotional distress and its specific correlates among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in 20 jail systems across the United States. Of the 878 PLWHA jail detainees, 52% had high levels of mental/emotional distress, defined by the composite Addiction Severity Index score. High mental/emotional distress was found to be associated with the inmate living in a city with lower income inequality, lower health ranking, and higher degree of danger. Proximate variables included being female, bisexual orientation, poorer physical health, and increased severity of substance abuse. Inmates in jails with accredited health services and those satisfied with family support had lower mental/emotional distress scores. These findings indicate the need for expand...
Epidemiological Criminology: Contextualization of HIV/AIDS Health Care for Female Inmates
This article not only presents recommendations for effective HIV/AIDS policy but also suggests epidemiological criminology as a means of explicit merging of health with justice issues and consequently provides a bridging framework. (Source: Journal of Correctional Health Care)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
A patient with a 12-year history characterized by four non-AIDS-related malignancies, occurring before and after the disclosure of HIV infection
(Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
IJERPH, Vol. 12, Pages 3264-3292: On the Road to HIV/AIDS Competence in the Household: Building a Health-Enabling Environment for People Living with HIV/AIDS
When aiming to provide chronic disease care within the context of human resource shortages, we should not only consider the responsibility of the individual person living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) but also the capacity of the social environment to actively encourage a lifestyle that fosters health. In this social environment, extensive efforts are thus required to increase HIV/AIDS knowledge, reduce stigma, stimulate HIV testing, improve health care-seeking behavior, and encourage safe sexual practices?described in the literature as the need for AIDS competence. In accordance with socio-ecological theory, one cannot restrict the research focus to communities, as AIDS competence studies should also incorporate the intermediate household level. In responding to this research need, the aim of t...
Less Invasive Quick Open Stenting using a J Graft Open Stent for Distal Arch Aneurysms
Thorac cardiovasc SurgDOI: 10.1055/s-0035-1546299A new device of aortic stent graft made in Japan has been available since July 2014. Here, we describe a novel, unique surgical technique named ?less invasive quick open stenting? at a rectal temperature of 28°C without any cerebral perfusion for treating distal arch aneurysms. All 12 patients were discharged from the intensive care unit within 24 hours after surgery without any complications. This technique aids in the exclusion of atherosclerotic plaques on the aortic wall and shortens the duration of circulatory arrest; moreover, it represents a very attractive option to prevent recurrent nerve injury.[...]Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New YorkArticle in Thieme eJournals:Table of contents  |  Abstract  |  Full text (Sou...
I Am Men's Health: Generating Adherence to HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) in Young Men of Color Who Have Sex with Men
In 2012, the US Food and Drug Administration approved Truvada as a pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for adults at risk of HIV. PrEP is highly effective at preventing HIV when taken daily, but no gold standard exists for consistently administering PrEP to populations at highest risk. The "I Am Men&rsquo;s Health" program used an innovative methodology to generate adherence to PrEP in 23 mostly young men who have sex with men of color (yMSMc), during a 28-week period from February to September 2013. Adherence was measured using weekly medication pickup rates. The average age of the participants was 21 years, and the majority were black and lived below the poverty line. Time on PrEP ranged from 1 to 28 weeks (2723 person-days), and the weighted average adherence was 73%. The methodology used i...
Giving "Sadness" a Name: The Need for Integrating Depression Treatment into HIV Care in Uganda
Depression is common among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), and can have significant consequences for HIV disease progression, treatment response and prevention. Yet mental health services are limited in most HIV care programs in this region, in part due to severe shortages of mental health professionals. To address the need for establishing an effective, sustainable model for integrating depression treatment into HIV care in SSA, we have embarked upon a 3-year research project, INDEPTH Uganda (INtegrating DEPression Treatment and in HIV care in Uganda), to evaluate a task-sharing, protocolized approach to providing antidepressant care in ten HIV clinics in Uganda. In this paper we share our experiences with two treated cases identified during the initial da...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Expanding Capacity for Hepatitis C Treatment in the United States: Team-Based Care and Use of Nonphysician Providers
Hepatitis C treatment is rapidly evolving with significant improvements in patient outcomes. With an estimated prevalence of over 3 million persons living with chronic hepatitis C in the United States, it is anticipated that there will be an increase in the number of persons seeking care and treatment for chronic hepatitis C infection. Current systems of care may be overburdened with people seeking care for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV). Interprofessional models of care have been shown to be feasible and effective in treating different populations affected by chronic HCV. Use of interprofessional teams, integrated models of care, and greater use of nonphysician providers offer a potential solution for expanding capacity to comprehensive HCV treatment and care in the United States. (Sourc...
Low Third-Trimester Serum Levels of Lamivudine/Zidovudine and Lopinavir/Ritonavir in an HIV-Infected Pregnant Woman with Gastric Bypass
Pharmacokinetics of lamivudine (3TC)/zidovudine (ZDV) and lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) are described in a gravid 27-year-old HIV-infected woman with gastric bypass. Blood levels were obtained for these medications at time points 0 (predose) and 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 hours postdose. For these times, the levels (&micro;g/mL) of 3TC were 0.0801, 0.69, 0.339, 0.237, 0.202, 0.108, and 0.0461; the levels of ZDV were 0.0153, 0.433, 0.0717, 0.0481, 0.0107, 0.0214, and 0.00864; the levels of lopinavir (LPV) were 2.45, 2.64, 1.95, 2.78, 3.83, 3.20, and 1.92; and the levels of ritonavir (RTV) were 0.09, 0.10, 0.07, 0.11, 0.15, 0.15, and 0.06. These data suggest that gastric bypass affected these antiretroviral drug levels. A functional, intact small bowel is responsible for absorption of these medicat...
HIV-Associated Neurocysticercosis
We present 2 such cases. First was a 35-year-old driver seropositive for HIV-1 presented with complex partial seizures and a CD4 count of 530 cells/mm3. The second case was a 40-year-old businessman with a CD4 count of 350 cells/mm3. Both of them had multiple parenchymal lesions, with 1 being a large cystic lesion. Relatively high CD4 count and a positive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay increased the likelihood for diagnosis and treatment. Both of our patients received cysticidal therapy, and none of them deteriorated with treatment. (Source: Journal of the International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care (JIAPAC))
Case Report: False Negative Serum Cryptococcal Latex Agglutination Test in a Patient with Disseminated Cryptococcal Disease
A case of false-negative serum latex agglutination cryptococcal antigen (CRAG) test in a 45-year-old HIV-positive male with Cryptococcus-positive culture is described. The patient was presented to a hospital in Botswana, with breathlessness and a diffuse papular rash. His CD4 count was 25 cells/&mu;L. Despite the suspicion for disseminated cryptococcal disease, an initial serum CRAG latex test was negative. Results of subsequent Indian ink staining, culture of cerebrospinal fluid and skin scrapings, and serum lateral flow immunoassay (LFA) were all positive for Cryptococcus neoformans. There are several possible explanations for the false-negative CRAG latex test. Given the positive LFA result, we speculate that disease may have been caused by Cryptococcus gattii, which is estimated to be ...
What Makes Me Screen for HIV? Perceived Barriers and Facilitators to Conducting Recommended Routine HIV Testing among Primary Care Physicians in the Southeastern United States
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have recommended routinely testing patients (aged 13-64) for HIV since 2006. However, many physicians do not routinely test. From January 2011 to March 2012, we conducted 18 in-depth individual interviews and explored primary care physicians' perceptions of barriers and facilitators to implementing routine HIV testing in North Carolina. Physicians' comments were categorized thematically and fell into 5 groups: policy, community, practice, physician, and patient. Lack of universal reimbursement was identified as the major policy barrier. Participants believed endorsement from the United States Preventive Services Tasks Force would facilitate adoption of routine HIV testing policies. Physicians reported HIV/AIDS stigma, socially conservative com...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Depressive Symptoms and Associated Factors among People Living with HIV/AIDS
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of depressive symptoms and associated variables among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in a specialized treatment center in a city located in southern Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted using the Beck Depression Inventory to assess the presence of depressive symptoms. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 53.5% among the surveyed population, which supports the idea that depressive symptoms are more common among PLWHA, mainly if compared with the general population. It was observed that 57.7% of the study participants were with depressive symptoms and did not take any psychiatric medication and 100% did not undergo psychotherapy, which indicates undertreatment. There was no statistically significant difference in the...
Learning about Barriers to Care for People Living with HIV in Egypt: A Qualitative Exploratory Study
The purpose of this study was to identify obstacles health care workers face in providing care for people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA). Based on these findings, health authorities can design interventions to support health care workers in providing better medical care for PLWHA. Thirty in-depth interviews were conducted with physicians and nurses in one 300-bed tertiary care public hospital in Giza, Egypt. Thematic analysis was conducted by 2 investigators. Five main themes were identified (1) fear of infection; (2) disbelief in effectiveness of infection control measures to protect against HIV; (3) misconceptions regarding medical care for PLWHA; (4) fear of secondary stigma; and (5) moral judgments toward PLWHA and negative connotations related to HIV. Interventions targeting health ...
Burden and Determinants of Severe Anemia among HIV-Infected Adults: Results from a Large Urban HIV Program in Tanzania, East Africa
Conclusion: There was a high prevalence of severe anemia among adults infected with HIV. Focused identification of anemia should be based on the hemoglobin and mean corpuscular volume measurements. (Source: Journal of the International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care (JIAPAC))
Self-Report Measures in the Assessment of Antiretroviral Medication Adherence: Comparison with Medication Possession Ratio and HIV Viral Load
Conclusion: These data suggest various SRA measures hold clinical value in screening for poor ART adherence. (Source: Journal of the International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care (JIAPAC))
Predictors of Nonadherence to Antiretroviral Therapy among HIV-Infected Adults in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Conclusions: Targeted interventions should be developed to improve ART adherence among healthier, younger, and more experienced patients who are on ART for longer durations within HIV care and treatment programs. Social support for patients on ART should be emphasized. (Source: Journal of the International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care (JIAPAC))<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Nutritional Status and Other Baseline Predictors of Mortality among HIV-Infected Children Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy in Tanzania
Conclusions: To sustain the obtained benefit of ART in this setting, interventions to improve nutritional status may be used as an adjunct to ART. (Source: Journal of the International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care (JIAPAC))
Cost Estimation of First-Line Antiretroviral Therapy with Zidovudine/Stavudine as the Nucleoside Backbone in India: A Pilot Study
Conclusion: Current treatment is associated with toxicity, increasing treatment costs and imposing a significant economic burden. (Source: Journal of the International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care (JIAPAC))
Impact of Poor Retention in HIV Medical Care on Hepatitis B Vaccination
Conclusion: Poor retention in HIV care is strongly associated with suboptimal hepatitis B vaccination. (Source: Journal of the International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care (JIAPAC))
Online Dating Among Australian Gay and Bisexual Men: Romance or Hooking Up?
Abstract Increasingly, gay and bisexual men (GBM) meet casual sex partners online and this has been associated with sexual risk behavior. How do GBM meet regular partners? This online anonymous survey of 4215 GBM included 2562 men with a primary regular partner (PRP) who were included in these analyses. Mean age of the sample was 38.1 years. 60.3 % had met their PRP at least 2 years earlier. Meeting their PRP online increased from 14.0 % before 2001 to 79.9 % in 2013?2014. At all time points, men who met their PRP online were somewhat older than those who met their PRP offline. Regardless of how they met their PRP, most men met casual sex partners online. Among GBM, meeting sexual and romantic partners online has replaced other methods, for all age groups. The population o...
Examining Adherence Among Challenging Patients in Public and Private HIV Care in Argentina
This study examined the most challenging patients in Buenos Aires, Argentina, those non-adherent to HIV care. Men (n = 61) and women (n = 59) prescribed antiretrovirals (ARVs) and non-adherent to treatment in the prior 3?6 months were enrolled and assessed regarding adherence, knowledge, motivation and attitudes regarding treatment. Private clinic patients had lower viral load and higher self-reported adherence than public clinic patients. Motivations to be adherent and positive beliefs regarding ARVs were associated with increased adherence in public clinic participants. Increased self-efficacy was associated with increased adherence among participants from both clinics. Results support patient and provider interventions that strengthen the characteristics supporting adherence, eng...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Less Invasive Quick Open Stenting using a J Graft Open Stent for Distal Arch Aneurysms.
Authors: Hata M, Akiyama K, Orime Y, Wakui S, Nakamura T, Shiono M Abstract A new device of aortic stent graft made in Japan has been available since July 2014. Here, we describe a novel, unique surgical technique named "less invasive quick open stenting" at a rectal temperature of 28°C without any cerebral perfusion for treating distal arch aneurysms. All 12 patients were discharged from the intensive care unit within 24 hours after surgery without any complications. This technique aids in the exclusion of atherosclerotic plaques on the aortic wall and shortens the duration of circulatory arrest; moreover, it represents a very attractive option to prevent recurrent nerve injury. PMID: 25785769 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeo...
Understanding Miralax: The parents? guide on how to approach constipation
Increase water intake and exercise, adopt and maintain a fiber-rich diet and avoid foods that bind you. These are common ways to find relief from constipation. But sometimes a child needs more to keep the digestive ?engines,? (or bowels) moving. To ease the discomfort of chronic childhood constipation, pediatricians often prescribe an over-the-counter laxative called Miralax, the brand name for the generic drug polyethylene glycol 3350. The odorless, tasteless powder is typically mixed with 8 ounces of water or other liquid-of-choice and prescribed to children for use once or twice daily. Common side effects include loose bowel movements and sometimes diarrhea, bloating or nausea. These side effects typically improve when dosing is adjusted. Miralax under the microscope However, Mir...
Zimbabwe: Prisoners Living 'Like Rats' - Parly
[New Zimbabwe] INMATES in Zimbabwe's prisons are living "like rats" and are being fed "substandard food" posing a serious danger to those who are living with HIV/AIDS, Parliament has reported. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Herpes Drug Might Help Control Spread of HIV, Too
Researchers found that Valtrex appeared to reduce viral levels Source: HealthDay Related MedlinePlus Pages: HIV/AIDS, Herpes Simplex, Medicines (Source: MedlinePlus Health News)
Comparison of Rates of Death Having any Death-Certificate Mention of Heart, Kidney, or Liver Disease Among Persons Diagnosed with HIV Infection with those in the General US Population, 2009-2011.
CONCLUSION: Persons with HIV infection have a higher risk of death with liver and kidney diseases reported as causes than the general population. PMID: 25767634 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
LETTER TO THE EDITOR Performance of the ViroSeq® HIV-1 Genotyping System v2.0 in Central Africa.
Authors: Mouafo LC, Péré H, Ndjoyi-Mbiguino A, Koyalta D, Longo Jde D, Mbopi-Kéou FX, Kane CT, Bélec L Abstract Resistance genotypes in pol gene of HIV-1 were obtained by the ViroSeq(®) HIV-1 Genotyping System v2.0 (Celera Diagnostics, Alameda, CA, USA) in 138 of 145 (95%) antiretroviral treatment-experienced adults in virological failure living in Central Africa (Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Gabon). HIV-1 group M exhibited broad genetic diversity. Performance of the 7 ViroSeq(®) sequencing primers showed high failure rate, from 3% to 76% (D: 76%; F: 17%; A and H: 15%; G and B: 4%; C: 3%). These findings emphasize the need of updating the ViroSeq(®) HIV-1 genotyping system for non-B subtypes HIV-1. PMID: 25767633 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
Nigeria: Kebbi Records Drop in HIV/Aids
[Daily Trust] Birnin Kebbi -Secretary to the Kebbi State Government and Chairman, State Agency for the Control of AIDs (SACA), Alhaji Garba Rabiu said yesterday that the state has recorded a steady reduction in HIV/AIDS infection. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: Japan to Host Key Global Fund Meeting
[Global Fund] Tokyo -The Government of Japan today announced it would host the Global Fund's Replenishment Preparatory Meeting in December 2015, an important milestone in the three-year funding cycle aimed at ending AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria as epidemics. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: NACA, Sure-P Partner to Stem Scourge of HIV/Aids
[Independent (Lagos)] The scourge of HIV/ AIDS and its impact on the socio-economic well being of the citizenry as well as its effect on the economy of the country has been a source of worry to the Federal Government for a long time now. Recently the National Agency for the Control of AIDS (NACA)/ Subsidy Reinvestment and Empowerment Programme (SURE-P) HIV/AIDS Programme held a stakeholders meeting in Abia State which brought together civil societies, clergy, legal, religious among others to rub minds on the NACA/SURE-P HIV and (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Kenya: HIV /TB in Adolescents Needs a Different Approach
[The Star] Do you remember that time when you had just passed thirteen years of age but were still below eighteen? You weren't technically an adult but neither were you a child. Your parents and relatives probably told you how 'now' you have become an adult and if you were a boy, that came with a certain sense of pride "You are now a man" but if you were a girl, the message was laced with caution, "You are now a woman, you have to be more careful." Being a teenager has never been easy and it's probably more difficult (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Penicillin is the drug of choice to treat all stages of syphilis despite a paucity of clinical trials data for the treatment of some stages, pregnant women and HIV-infected people
Commentary on: Clement ME, Okeke NL, Hicks CB. Treatment of syphilis: a systematic review. JAMA 2014;312:1905&ndash;17. Context Syphilis rates are increasing particularly in men, many of whom are HIV co-infected. In some areas, syphilis continues to affect women leading to high rates of congenital infections. Non-treponemal serological tests are still the mainstay of staging and assessing response to therapy. These tests are, at best, an indirect marker of disease activity. In some cases, changes in non-treponemal titres may reflect factors other than syphilis infection.1 In the pre-antibiotic era, people with early syphilis, whose non-treponemal antibody tests failed to revert to negative (ie, remained &lsquo;serofast&rsquo;), had a worse long-term prognosis. This systematic review examin...
Effect of Leflunomide, Cidofovir and Ciprofloxacin on replication of BKPyV in a salivary gland in vitro culture system
In conclusion, treatment of human salivary gland cells with each of the three drugs produced modest decreases in BKPyV genome replication. These data highlight the need for continued studies to discover more effective and less toxic drugs that inhibit BKPyV replication in salivary gland cells. (Source: Antiviral Therapy)
Depressive Symptoms Mediate the Effect of HIV-Related Stigmatization on Medication Adherence Among HIV-Infected Men Who Have Sex with Men
This study tested the hypothesis that depressive symptoms would mediate the association of HIV-related stigma to medication adherence. We recruited HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM; N = 66; 66 % White, 23 % African-American) from an outpatient infectious disease clinic, and asked them to complete self-report measures. Mediational analyses showed that depressive symptoms fully mediated the association between HIV-related stigma and adherence. That is, stigma-related experiences were positively associated with depressive symptoms and negatively associated with adherence, and, in the final model, depressive symptoms remained a significant correlate of adherence while stigma did not. A test of the indirect effect of stigma on adherence through depressive symptoms was also signif...
Question: Is breastfeeding useful in the management of neonatal abstinence syndrome?
Case scenario A 23-year-old woman is admitted to the postnatal ward after she gave birth to a term infant of 3&nbsp;kg. During pregnancy, she is known to have used methadone. There is no known use of other illicit drugs or prescription medication. The midwife who is taking care of this woman and her baby asks if she can encourage the mother to breastfeed her child. Structured clinical question Can a mother who used methadone during pregnancy (patient) breastfeed her newborn (intervention) to help the management of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) (outcome)? Search Search strategy: terms used: Breastfeeding AND neonatal abstinence syndrome -&gt;65 results (16 reviews and systematic reviews) -&gt;5 relevant.1&ndash;5 The results were excluded if they were not about methadone use, not in En...
Gorilla origin of the HIV-1 group O [Microbiology]
HIV-1, the cause of AIDS, is composed of four phylogenetic lineages, groups M, N, O, and P, each of which resulted from an independent cross-species transmission event of simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) infecting African apes. Although groups M and N have been traced to geographically distinct chimpanzee communities in southern... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
[Communication with children : Practical hints and tools for the anesthesiology routine].
CONCLUSION: Meeting at eye level, talking to the child instead of just about it, a language appropriate for children but not childish, comprehensible information and explanations, return of control and care more than pure technical distance, all play an important role. A serious look into such communication strategies can help the anesthetist to overcome uncertainties that a child can easily sense. PMID: 25776207 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Der Anaesthesist)
Meta-Analysis and Time Series Modeling Allow a Systematic Review of Primary HIV-1 Drug-Resistant Prevalence in Latin America and Caribbean.
Authors: Campos Coelho AV, De Moura RR, Da Silva RC, Kamada AJ, Guimarães RL, Cavalcanti Brandão LA, Campos Coelho HF, Crovella S Abstract Here we review the prevalence of HIV-1 primary drug resistance in Latin America and Caribbean using meta-analysis as well as time-series modeling. We also discuss whether there could be a drawback to HIV/AIDS programs due to drug resistance in Latin America and Caribbean in the next years. We observed that, although some studies report low or moderate primary drug resistance prevalence in Caribbean countries, this evidence needs to be updated. In other countries, such as Brazil and Argentina, the prevalence of drug resistance appears to be rising. Mutations conferring resistance against reverse transcriptase inhibitors were the most frequent i...
Sendai Conference Stresses Importance of Women?s Leadership
Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe says boosting women?s leadership in disaster risk reduction would be a key element of the country?s new programme of international support. Credit: Jamshed Baruah/IPSBy Jamshed Baruah and Katsuhiro AsagiriSENDAI, Japan, Mar 16 2015 (IPS)Women play a critical role in reducing disaster risk and planning and decision-making during and after disasters strike, according to senior United Nations, government and civil society representatives.In fact, efforts at reducing risks can never be fully effective or sustainable if the needs and voices of women are ignored, they agreed.WFP Executive Director Ertharin Cousin underscored that the ?global reset? that began on Mar. 14 in Sendai must include steps to place women at the centre of disaster risk reduction...
A National Webinar on Patient-Centered Outcomes Research (PCOR) and the Use of Decision Aids to Facilitate Shared Decision Making
Registration is open for this webinar, being held Wednesday Mar 18, 2015 from 03:30 pm to 04:30 pm EDT (Source: HSR Information Central)
Kenya: Churches' Claims to Heal HIV Put Lives At Risk
[Key Correspondents] "After living with AIDS for ten years I now stand here thanking the Lord for healing me and saving me from death through AIDS!" testifies John, a junior pastor of New Life Church. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Adenovirus Vectors as HIV-1 VaccinesAdenovirus Vectors as HIV-1 Vaccines
This article examines the possibility of adenovirus vectors as HIV-1 vaccines. AIDS (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
Namibia: People Being Tested for HIV in Their Homes
[New Era] The Total Control of the Epidemic (TCE) fieldworkers, who are part of the Development Aid from People to People (DAPP), daily endure harsh weather conditions. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
The Gambian despot who 'cured HIV-AIDS' and his British homoeopath allies
President Yahyah Jammeh, the dictator who has defied medical opinion since 2007 by claiming to have found a cure for HIV-AIDS, has found allies in a British homoeopathic group sponsored by the official suppliers of homoeopathic medicine to the Royal family (Source: Telegraph Health)
Zimbabwe: Faith Healers Urged to Encourage ART
[Zimbabwe Standard] The Parliamentary Thematic Committee on HIV and Aids has recommended that traditional and faith healers should encourage people to take anti-retroviral treatment (ART) even after undergoing herbal or spiritual healing. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Prophylaxis for Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia: is it a necessity in pulmonary patients on high-dose, chronic corticosteroid therapy without AIDS?
Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine, Volume 9, Issue 2, Page 171-181, April 2015. (Source: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine)
Zimbabwe: Complications, Even Death As Patients Default
[The Herald] THERE comes a time when someone on chronic medication gets fatigue from taking their daily doses and feel like giving up. For anyone with a chronic condition be it hypertension, diabetes, is HIV positive or has kidney ailment, one needs to have a 'medic buddy'. A 'medic buddy' is someone who reminds one to take their medication on time and this buddy does not tire of telling one that its time to take medication. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: Global Fund Work Falling Short On Gender-Related Issues
[Key Correspondents] The Global Fund's efforts to put women and girls at the center of its work on HIV, TB and malaria have yet to bear significant fruit at the country level, according to the ATHENA Network. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Tanzania: HIV/Aids Counselors Seek Capacity Building
[Daily News] Mwanza -THE government is urged to recognise lay counselors who care for and treat people living with HIV/AIDS. Chairman of The National Council for People Living with HIV/AIDS Tanzania (NACOPHA), Mr Vitalis Makayula said here on Wednesday that the counselors are doing great, so there is a need to roll out the program countrywide. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Quadruple Burden of HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, Chronic Intestinal Parasitoses, and Multiple Micronutrient Deficiency in Ethiopia: A Summary of Available Findings.
Authors: Amare B, Moges B, Mulu A, Yifru S, Kassu A Abstract Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), tuberculosis (TB), and helminthic infections are among the commonest public health problems in the sub-Saharan African countries like Ethiopia. Multiple micronutrient deficiencies also known as the "hidden hunger" are common in people living in these countries either playing a role in their pathogenesis or as consequences. This results in a vicious cycle of multiple micronutrient deficiencies and infection/disease progression. As infection is profoundly associated with nutritional status resulting from decreased nutrient intake, decreased nutrient absorption, and nutrient losses, micronutrient deficiencies affect immune system and impact infection and diseases progression. As a result, ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Trends on epidemiological, virological, and clinical features among newly diagnosed HIV?1 persons in Northwest Spain over the last 10 years
To describe temporal trend and characteristics of newly HIV?diagnosed patients in a medical care area in Northwest Spain over the last 10 years. All newly diagnosed patients for HIV?infection from 2004 to 2013 at a reference medical care area in Northwest of Spain were identified. Epidemiological, virological, immunological, and clinical data, as well as HIV genotype and drug resistance information were recorded. A total of 565 newly HIV?diagnosed patients were identified. The number of new cases increased in the last 5 years (66?cases/year). Overall, 53.1% had a median CD4 counts?&lt;?350?cells/µl and 33.6% had an AIDS defining criteria. Non?B variants were found in 34.4% of patients being subtype F (25.8%) the most common non?B subtype. The rate of transmitted drug res...
Dynamics of T?cell subsets and their relationship with oral and systemic opportunistic infections in HIV/AIDS patients during the first year of HAART in Guangxi, China
To analyze the dynamic changes in Th1, Th2, Tc1, and Tc2 of HIV/AIDS patients during the first year of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and to explore their relationship with oral and systemic opportunistic infections, a cohort study was carried out among HIV/AIDS patients in Guangxi, China. Ninety HIV/AIDS patients and 30 healthy controls (HC) were included. The enrolled HIV/AIDS patients were examined at baseline and after 3, 6, and 12 months of HAART. On each visit, oral and systemic opportunistic infections were recorded, oral Candida load and plasma viral load (VL) were counted, differential T?cell counts and flow cytometric analysis of T?cell subsets were performed. During the first year of HAART, the total number of opportunistic infections decreased steadily with th...
Application of bioprocessing techniques (sourdough fermentation and technological aids) for brewer?s spent grain breads
Publication date: Available online 7 March 2015 Source:Food Research International Author(s): Anastasia Ktenioudaki , Laura Alvarez-Jubete , Thomas J. Smyth , Kieran Kilcawley , Dilip K. Rai , Eimear Gallagher A comprehensive study into the potential of bioprocessing techniques (sourdough fermentation and technological aids) for improving the technological, sensory, and nutritional properties of breads made using brewer?s spent grain (BSG) was undertaken. Xylanase and dough conditioner altered the mixing and pasting properties of the flours, improved the specific volume and texture of breads and delayed staling in BSG breads when added to both sourdough and non-sourdough BSG breads. The aromatic properties were determined by volatile analysis and were influenced by sourdough fermentati...
Monitoring treatment outcomes in patients with chronic disease: lessons from tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS care and treatment programmes
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Tropical Medicine and International Health)
Braces and orthoses for treating osteoarthritis of the knee.
CONCLUSIONS: Evidence was inconclusive for the benefits of bracing for pain, stiffness, function and quality of life in the treatment of patients with medial compartment knee OA. On the basis of one laterally wedged insole versus no treatment study, we conclude that evidence of an effect on pain in patients with varus knee OA is lacking. Moderate-quality evidence shows lack of an effect on improvement in pain, stiffness and function between patients treated with a laterally wedged insole and those treated with a neutral insole. Low-quality evidence shows lack of an effect on improvement in pain, stiffness and function between patients treated with a valgus knee brace and those treated with a laterally wedged insole. The optimal choice for an orthosis remains unclear, and long-term implicat...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Integrase Interactor 1 in Health and Disease.
Authors: Das S Abstract Integrase interactor 1 (INI1/hSNF5) is a core component of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex that alters the structure of chromatin in order to facilitate DNA-dependent cellular processes like transcription, replication, and repair. INI1/hSNF5 plays an important role in a variety of cellular processes. Inactivation of the Snf5 gene in mice leads to embryonic lethality suggesting a critical role for INI1/hSNF5 in cellular function, viability, and development. Biallelic loss-of-function of INI1/hSNF5 leads to certain cancers, most frequently rhabdoid tumors, demonstrating that INI1/hSNF5 is a tumor suppressor gene. INI1/hSNF5 regulates several essential steps in the propagation of the HIV-1 virus within the host cell, particularly HIV-1 integration. The...
Increased monocyte turnover is associated with interstitial macrophage accumulation and pulmonary tissue damage in SIV-infected rhesus macaques.
Authors: Cai Y, Sugimoto C, Liu DX, Midkiff CC, Alvarez X, Lackner AA, Kim WK, Didier ES, Kuroda MJ Abstract We recently reported that increasing blood monocyte turnover that was associated with tissue macrophage death better predicts terminal disease progression in adult SIV-infected macaques than does declining CD4(+) T cell levels. To understand better mechanisms of pathogenesis, this study relates severity of lung-tissue damage to the ratio, distribution, and inflammatory responses of lung macrophage subsets during SIV infection in rhesus macaques exhibiting varying rates of monocyte turnover. In vivo BrdU incorporation was used to evaluate kinetics of monocyte/tissue macrophage turnover. Tissue damage was scored microscopically from H&E-stained lung-tissue sections, and cy...
Cannabis in cancer care.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 25777363 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
N-glycans and metastasis in galectin-3 transgenic mice.
Authors: More SK, Srinivasan N, Budnar S, Bane S, Upadhya A, Thorat R, Ingle A, Chiplunkar S, Kalraiya RD Abstract Poly-N-acetyl-lactosamine (polyLacNAc) on N-glycans facilitate lung specific metastasis of melanoma cells by serving as high affinity ligands for galectin-3, expressed in highest amounts in the lungs, on almost all its tissue compartments including on the surface of vascular endothelium. PolyLacNAc not only aids in initial arrest on the organ endothelium but in all the events of extravasation. Inhibition of polyLacNAc synthesis, or competitive inhibition of its interaction with galectin-3 all inhibited these processes and experimental metastasis. Transgenic galectin-3 mice, viz., gal-3(+/+) (wild type), gal-3(+/-) (hemizygous) and gal-3(-/-) (null) have been used to pr...
Effect of Leflunomide, Cidofovir and Ciprofloxacin on replication of BKPyV in a salivary gland in vitro culture system.
In conclusion, treatment of human salivary gland cells with each of the three drugs produced modest decreases in BKPyV genome replication. These data highlight the need for continued studies to discover more effective and less toxic drugs that inhibit BKPyV replication in salivary gland cells. PMID: 25790744 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Antiviral Research)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
"An unspoken world of unspoken things": a study identifying and exploring core beliefs underlying self-stigma among people living with HIV and AIDS in Ireland.
CONCLUSIONS: This study helps fill identified gaps in knowledge about self-stigma as experienced by PLHIV. By understanding the core beliefs driving self-stigma, it will be possible to create targeted interventions to challenge and overcome such beliefs, supporting PLHIV to achieve improved wellbeing and lead productive lives free of self-limitation and self-judgement. PMID: 25768695 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Swiss Medical Weekly)
Proximate Context of HIV Stigma and Its Association with HIV Testing in Sierra Leone: A Population-Based Study
Abstract The extent to which HIV stigma at the community level remains a barrier to greater uptake in HIV testing services is poorly understood. We used nationally representative data from the 2008 Sierra Leone Demographic and Health Survey. The primary outcome was HIV testing (past 12 months). Our explanatory variable was HIV stigmatizing attitudes (5-item scale). After multivariable adjustment, HIV testing had an inverse association with HIV stigmatizing attitudes measured at the individual [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.94; 95 % CI 0.87?1.01] and community level (AOR 0.70; 95 % CI 0.58?0.85). HIV stigma had a stronger negative association with HIV testing when modeled at the community rather than individual level. (Source: AIDS and Behavior)
Increased risk of non-AIDS-related events in HIV subjects with persistent low CD4 counts despite cART in the CoRIS cohort
Publication date: Available online 9 March 2015 Source:Antiviral Research Author(s): Y.M. Pacheco , I. Jarrin , I. Rosado , A.A. Campins , J. Berenguer , J.A. Iribarren , Maria Rivero , L. Muñoz-Medina , E. Bernal-Morell , F. Gutiérrez , M. Leal The aim was to analyze clinical complications in HIV-infected subjects who persistently maintain low CD4 levels despite virological response to cART in the Spanish CoRIS cohort. The main inclusion criteria were CD4 counts &lt;200cells/mm3 at cART-initiation and at least 2years under cART achieving a viral load &lt;500copies/mL. Those patients with CD4 counts &lt;250cells/mm3 2years after cART were classified as the Low-CD4 group, and clinical events were collected from this time-point. Poisson regression models were used to calculat...
Persistent High Mortality in Advanced HIV/TB Despite Appropriate Antiretroviral and Antitubercular Therapy: an Emerging Challenge
Abstract Approximately 1.1 million, or 13 %, of all TB cases in 2013 were coinfected with HIV, and in some African countries, such as Botswana and Swaziland, 60?80 % of TB cases are coinfected with HIV. Effective therapies for both HIV and TB exist, yet patients presenting with TB and advanced HIV still experience high rates of morbidity and mortality despite initiation of both antitubercular and antiretroviral therapy (ART). Previous reviews and research have focused largely on TB-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) as a type of complicated outcome on ART in advanced HIV/TB, but recent data indicate that immunologic failure despite suppressive ART is associated with early mortality. In this review, we examine recent findings regarding early mortal...
Clinical and Psychological Effects of Early Mobilization in Patients Treated in a Neurologic ICU: A Comparative Study*
Conclusions: A neurologic ICU early mobility protocol increased highest neurologic ICU mobility and discharge home and decreased length of stay, but did not improve quality metrics or psychological profile. (Source: Critical Care Medicine)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Zimbabwe: MSU Students Spread HIV - NAC
[The Herald] MIDLANDS State University students' reckless sexual behaviour has been singled out as the major driver of the sharp increase in the province's HIV prevalence that shot up from last year's 20 to 23 percent this year. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Psychometric Testing of the Chinese Version of the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey among people living with HIV/AIDS in China
To assess the psychometric properties of the Chinese (Mandarin) version of the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey (MOS-SSS-CM) among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Mainland China. (Source: Applied Nursing Research : ANR)
A School with iPad
Publication date: 20 February 2015 Source:Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, Volume 176 Author(s): Annarita Miglietta The learning of science has always been a major obstacle for our Italian students. The cause is probably not to be found in the complexity of the content, but rather in the particular in which way learners are usually initiated in these subjects. The purpose of this study is to focus our attention on the possible positive effects that digital teaching aids can have on learning-related scientific disciplines. In fact, it is thought that the new digital tools can be a bridge between students? prerequisites and the teacher's, and ensure the achievement of objectives that do not concern only the content, but above all the means of achieving path to achieve them. In ...
Exploring Students? Learning Style at a Gulf University: A Contributing Factor to Effective Instruction
This study will also determine related factors (hand use, gender, and study streams) and their impact, as well as make recommendations to improve teaching and learning at the University. (Source: Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences)
Physical Medicine Interventions as Alternatives to Invasive Airway Tubes
This article describes the use of physical medicine noninvasive inspiratory and expiratory muscle aids to prevent ventilatory/respiratory failure and to permit the extubation and tracheostomy tube decannulation of patients with little or no autonomous ability to breathe (i.e., who are ?unweanable? from ventilator support). Noninvasive airway pressure aids can provide up to continuous ventilatory support and effective cough flows for patients with severely dysfunctional respiratory muscles. (Source: PM and R)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Peering into the literature: a systematic review of the roles of people who inject drugs in harm reduction initiatives
People who inject drugs have a long history of organizing and have been central to the development of harm reduction initiatives in regions including North America, Europe, Oceania, and East and South-East Asia (Curtis, 2004; Southwell, 2002). Referred to by terms that include peer workers, peer helpers, or natural helpers (Wye, 2006), people with lived experience of drug use work both behind the scenes and at the forefront of needle distribution services, harm reduction education, peer support, and community-based research initiatives (Canadian AIDS Society and Canadian Harm Reduction Network, 2008; Hunt et al., 2010; Jain et al., 2014; Thangsing, 2012). (Source: Drug and Alcohol Dependence)
The prognostic role of systemic inflammatory markers on HIV-infected patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma, a multicenter cohort study
Conclusions: GPS, mGPS, PI and PNI are independent prognostic factors for survival of HIV patients with NHL. (Source: Journal of Translational Medicine)
HIV-1 non-macrophage-tropic R5 envelope glycoproteins are not more tropic for entry into primary CD4+ T-cells than envelopes highly adapted for macrophages
Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that T/F, early or late disease non-mac-tropic R5 Envs do not preferentially mediate infection of primary CD4+ T-cells compared to highly mac-tropic Envs from brain tissue. We conclude that non-macrophage-tropism of HIV-1 R5 Envs in vitro is determined predominantly by a reduced capacity to target myeloid cells via low CD4 rather than a specific adaptation for T-cells entry that precludes macrophage infection. (Source: Retrovirology)
Physical Medicine Interventions to Avoid Acute Respiratory Failure and Invasive Airway Tubes
This article describes the use of physical medicine noninvasive inspiratory and expiratory muscle aids to prevent ventilatory/respiratory failure and to permit the extubation and tracheostomy tube decannulation of patients with little or no autonomous ability to breathe (ie, those who cannot be weaned from ventilator support). Noninvasive airway pressure aids can provide continuous ventilatory support and effective cough flows for patients with severely dysfunctional respiratory muscles. (Source: PM and R)
Acid Attack Survivors Pose As 'Calendar Girls' To Redefine Beauty
You don't see too many burns on the faces of calendar models, but that's exactly why the women featured in "Bello" are smiling big for the camera. The calendar -- featuring women who survived acid attacks -- was created as part of the Stop Acid Attacks campaign by the Chhanv Foundation in India, Quartz reported. Funds raised from the sales are expected to help the rehabilitation of Indian survivors of the crime. "In a society as insensitive as ours, it doesn't take much for the acid attack victims to lose their self-confidence," the calendar's website states, noting the calendar was launched in recognition of International Women's Day on March 8. "Apathy of the attackers give birth to the acid attack. The apathy of relatives, 'friends' and neighbors generates burns everyday. The calendar...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group expands scope to include HIV/AIDS research
The Cochrane HIV/AIDS External link for more information:&nbsp; http://cidg.cochrane.org/welcome Contributor&#039;s Information Contributor&#039;s name:&nbsp; Cochrane CEAD Email address:&nbsp; cead@lists.cochrane.org read more (Source: The Cochrane Collaboration - Current news at The Cochrane Collaboration)
Nigeria: NPA Intensifies Campaign Against HIV/Aids
[This Day] Nigeria Ports Authority (NPA) has intensified enlightenment campaign on prevention of HIV/AIDS in the country. To this end, the authority, as part of its corporate social responsibility (CSR) has joined forces with the Abidjan-Lagos Corridor Organisation (ALCO) began a sensitisation campaign for stakeholders in the Nigerian transport and maritime sector on how to prevent HIV/ AIDS. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
South Africa: Brother's Death Leaves a Legacy of Commitment
[Health-e] February marked the one-year anniversary of her brother's death due to AIDS-related illnesses, but Sazi Mnyageni says she keeps her brother's memory alive every time she counsels a person on HIV. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
HHS Panel on Antiretroviral Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents Welcomes New Panel Members
The HHS Panel on Antiretroviral Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents (a working group of the Office of AIDS Research Council) is pleased to welcome 5 new scientific members and 1 new community member to the Panel who will begin a 4-year term starting in April 2015. Roger Bedimo, MD (University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas, TX) Charles Hicks, MD (University of California-San Diego, San Diego, CA) Tim Horn, BA (Treatment Action Group, New York, NY) Michael Kozal, MD (Yale University, New Haven, CT) Susan Swindells, MD (University of Nebraska, Omaha, NE) Melanie Thompson, MD (AIDS Research Consortium of Atlanta, Atlanta, GA) The Panel would like to express our gratitude and appreciation to the following outgoing members for the many years of dedication and contributions in the...
March 20 is National Native HIV/AIDS Awareness Day
National Native HIV/AIDS Awareness Day is an annual observance that highlights the impact of HIV/AIDS on American Indian, Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian communities. &nbsp; According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), compared to members of other ethnic or racial groups, the Native Hawaiian, American Indian, and Alaska Native communities have the highest proportion of people diagnosed with AIDS within 12 months of receiving an HIV diagnosis, suggesting that they may be diagnosed late in the course of their HIV infection. This highlights the need to educate these communities about HIV prevention, testing, and treatment. &nbsp; Explore our National Native HIV/AIDS Awareness Day webpage [en espa&ntilde;ol] to learn more about the observance. (Source: AIDSinfo At-a-Gl...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Physical Medicine Interventions as Alternatives to Invasive Airway Tubes
This article describes the use of physical medicine noninvasive inspiratory and expiratory muscle aids to prevent ventilatory/respiratory failure and to permit the extubation and tracheostomy tube decannulation of patients with little or no autonomous ability to breathe (i.e., who are ?unweanable? from ventilator support). Noninvasive airway pressure aids can provide up to continuous ventilatory support and effective cough flows for patients with severely dysfunctional respiratory muscles. (Source: PMandR)
Use of Surveillance Data on HIV Diagnoses with HIV-Related Symptoms to Estimate the Number of People Living with Undiagnosed HIV in Need of Antiretroviral Therapy
Conclusions The method is straightforward to implement within a short period once a surveillance system of all new HIV diagnoses, collecting data on HIV-related symptoms at diagnosis, is in place and is most suitable for estimating the number of undiagnosed people with CD4 count (Source: PLoS One)
Essay: A Lesson in Living
Abstract This 2013 Consortium of Universities for Global Health essay examines the ethical dilemmas encountered by a public health worker engaged in HIV/AIDS prevention and health promotion in a rural Tanzanian community. Is the professional objective of improving the health and well-being of the population so simple? (Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Comparison of home and hospital deaths among patients on anti-retroviral therapy (ART): A clinical and verbal autopsy study
Conclusion Strategies for improving adherence, prevention and treatment of TB should be explored. (Source: HIV and AIDS Review)
Sexual practices and the prevalence of HIV and syphilis among men who have sex with men in Lanzhou, China.
Authors: Gao W, Li Z, Li Y, Qiao X Abstract To assess the risk of sexual practices and explore the determinants of the prevalence of HIV and syphilis among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Lanzhou, China, a survey was conducted among 600 MSM from March 2008 to December 2009, demographic information and sexually behavioral factors were collected with snowball sampling technology and blood samples were obtained. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to determine the predictors of HIV and syphilis infection. The sera-prevalence of HIV, syphilis, HCV and co-infection of HIV with syphilis was 6.0%, 18.0%, 1.3% and 2.5% respectively. Inconsistent utilization of condom in vaginal sex was higher than that in anal sex, buying sex or selling sex. Multivariate analysis shows tha...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
An Update of the Review of Neuropsychological Consequences of HIV and Substance Abuse: A Literature Review and Implications for Treatment and Future Research.
Authors: Norman LR, Basso M Abstract Neuropyschological dysfunction, ranging from mild cerebral indicators to dementia has been a consistent part of the medical picture of HIV/AIDS. However, advances in medical supervision, particularly as a result of antiretroviral (ARV) treatment, have resulted in some mitigation of the neuropsychological effects of HIV and necessitate re-evaluation of the pattern and nature of HIV-related cognitive or mental deficits. The associated enhancements in morbidity and mortality that have occurred as a result of ARV medication have led to a need for interventions and programs that maintain behaviors that are health and stop the resurgence of the risk of HIV transmission. Risk factors such as mental illness and substance use that may have contributed to...
Implementation and Operational Research: The Impact of Option B+ on the Antenatal PMTCT Cascade in Lilongwe, Malawi
Conclusions: Although several improvements in PMTCT program performance were noted with implementation of B+, challenges remain at several critical steps along the cascade requiring innovative solutions to ensure an AIDS-free generation. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Risk Factors for HCV Acquisition Among HIV-Positive MSM in Belgium
Conclusions: Our study confirmed fisting and suffering from other STIs as risk factors for HCV and suggested an increased risk of HCV associated with serosorting. Furthermore, we identified anal douching as being associated with HCV infection. The role that douching plays in the acquisition of HCV infection and other STIs requires further research, as well as the effect of serosorting on STI transmission. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Cancer Risk and Use of Protease Inhibitor or Nonnucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor?Based Combination Antiretroviral Therapy: The D: A: D Study
Conclusions: Cumulative use of PIs may be associated with a higher risk of anal cancer and possibly other NADC. Further investigation of biological mechanisms is warranted. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Evades Vaccine-Elicited Antibody Responses to V2 Region
Conclusions: The yeast surface displayed library allows the mapping of SIV-specific linear and conformational MAD. The MVTTgpe-based regimen induces antibodies targeting mainly to 6 antigenic domains covering the entire gp160. Critically, this regimen induced a uniquely predominant antibody response against a distinct MAD in variable region 2 (V2) as compared with the Ad5gpe-based vaccine and SIVmac239 infection. This MAD was associated with a higher titer of anti-V2 antibody responses, which was inversely correlated with peak and set-point viral loads. Unexpectedly, the pathogenic SIVmac239 challenge evaded the vaccine-elicited anti-V2 antibody response. Instead of recalling B-cell memory responses to the V2 MAD, viral infection directed anti-V1V2 antibodies primarily to V1 region. Moreov...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Gambia: First Lady Zineb Jammeh Talks About Ending HIV/Aids By 2030
[The Point] First Lady Zineb Yahya Jammeh on 8 March, in a statement she delivered, talked about ending HIV/AIDS by 2030. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Aptamer-siRNA Chimeras for HIV.
Authors: Takahashi M, Burnett JC, Rossi JJ Abstract Since 1980s, HIV/AIDS has escalated into a global pandemic. Although combinatorial antiretroviral therapy (cART) regimens can suppress plasma virus levels to below the detection limit and the survival rate of HIV-1 infected patients has been improving, long-term cART holds the potential to cause a number of chronic diseases. RNA interference (RNAi) is considered as a powerful method for developing new generation of therapeutics. Discovery of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) shed light on limitations of targets that are "undruggable" with current technologies. However, delivery remains a major hurdle of siRNA-based therapy. Recent progress in technology of engineering nucleic acid enables a targeted delivery of siRNAs using aptamers...
C peptides as entry inhibitors for gene therapy.
In conclusion, C peptide gene therapeutics may provide a strong benefit to AIDS patients and could present an effective alternative to current antiretroviral drug regimens. PMID: 25757622 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology)
HIV Latency and the Noncoding RNA Therapeutic Landscape.
Authors: Saayman S, Roberts TC, Morris KV, Weinberg MS Abstract The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) belongs to the subfamily of lentiviruses that are characterized by long incubation periods and chronic, persistent infection. The virus integrates into the genome of infected CD4+ cells and, in a subpopulation of cells, adopts a transcriptionally silent state, a process referred to a viral latency. This property makes it exceedingly difficult to therapeutically target the virus and eradicate infection. If left untreated, the inexorable demise of the infected individual's immune system ensues, a causal result of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Latently infected cells provide a reservoir that maintains viral infection indefinitely. In this chapter we explore the role of n...
Editing CCR5: A Novel Approach to HIV Gene Therapy.
Authors: Cornu TI, Mussolino C, Bloom K, Cathomen T Abstract Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a life-threatening disorder caused by infection of individuals with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Entry of HIV-1 into target cells depends on the presence of two surface proteins on the cell membrane: CD4, which serves as the main receptor, and either CCR5 or CXCR4 as a co-receptor. A limited number of people harbor a genomic 32-bp deletion in the CCR5 gene (CCR5?32), leading to expression of a truncated gene product that provides resistance to HIV-1 infection in individuals homozygous for this mutation. Moreover, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation with CCR5?32 donor cells seems to confer HIV-1 resistance to the recipient as well. However, si...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Nigeria: Nigeria's Doing Well With HIV Control, But... - Camara, UNAIDS Coordinator
[Independent (Lagos)] BILALI CAMARA is the UNAIDS Country Coordinator in Nigeria, also doubles as the UNAIDS Focal Point for ECOWAS. In this interview with our Correspondent, HASSAN ZAGGI, Camara x-rays the current HIV situation in Nigeria, efforts of the government in the fight the scourge and what UNAIDS is doing to ensure ARVs are produced in Nigeria. He also spokes on many other issues. Excerpts: (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Women and HIV: the urgent need for more research and policy attention in the Middle East and North Africa region.
Authors: DeJong J, Battistin F PMID: 25753933 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Nigeria: NACA, SURE-P Begin Free Medical Outreach in Kogi
[Guardian] THE National Agency for the Control of AIDS (NACA), in collaboration with the Subsidy Reinvestment and Empowerment Programme (SURE-P) has commenced a four-Day free medical outreach campaign in Dekina Local Area of Kogi State. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Malawi: Mk540 Million for HIV and Aids, Nutrition Issues in KK
[Malawi News Agency] Nkhotakota -Issues arising from malnutrition as well as HIV and AIDS in Nkhotakota are expected to decrease as the district has received US$1 210 880.7 (about MK544 million) for such activities within a two year period commencing March 2015. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Ethiopia: AU to Set Up African Centre for Disease Control
[Ethiopian Herald] Dr. Marie Goreti Harakeye, Head of HIV/AIDS, TB & OID Division Under the AU Department of Social Affairs (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
North Carolina Program on Health Literacy
Provides an overview of health literacy, literacy assessment instruments, health communication and teaching aids, and the Health Literacy Universal Precautions Toolkit. (Source: PHPartners.org)
Zimbabwe: Global Health Partners Hail Zim
[The Herald] Representatives of four global development partners visiting Zimbabwe have commended Zimbabwe for leading in mobilising domestic funds to finance HIV and AIDS programmes. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Zimbabwe: Zim Commended for Fighting Diseases Head-On
[The Herald] Over the years, HIV and AIDS as well as malaria have taken so much, from so many, and Zimbabwe saw a great loss of years in life expectancy in the 1990s. And since then, this country has fought back. It has taken nearly 20 years of grit and determination, wisdom and foresight, to climb back up and to attack this epidemic head-on. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
AIDS to Ebola, report confronts key challenge: Maintaining US leadership in global health technology
(Burness Communications) Today, the world is looking to the US for cutting-edge diagnostics, drugs, and vaccines that could have the last word on an Ebola outbreak that is down but not out. With funding at risk for global health R&D at places like the National Institutes of Health, a new report probes the perils of this underinvestment and the rewards to be gained at home and abroad from renewing US leadership in global health technology development. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)
Bayesian modeling of the covariance structure for irregular longitudinal data using the partial autocorrelation function
We describe a Bayesian approach, discuss computational issues, and apply the proposed methods to CD4 count data from a pediatric AIDS clinical trial. © 2015 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. (Source: Statistics in Medicine)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Fabrication and In vivo evaluation of Nelfinavir loaded PLGA Nanoparticles for enhancing oral bioavailability and therapeutic effect
Publication date: Available online 11 March 2015 Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal Author(s): D. Nagasamy Venkatesh , Mahendran Baskaran , V.V.S. Narayana Reddy Karri , Sai Sandeep Mannemala , Kollipara Radhakrishna , Sandip Goti Nelfinavir mesylate (NFV) is an anti-viral drug, used in the treatment of Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Poor oral bioavailability and shorter half-life (3.5 to 5 h) remains a major clinical limitation of NFV leading to unpredictable drug bioavailability and frequent dosing. In this context, the objective of the present study was to formulate NFV loaded poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs), which can increase the solubility and oral bioavailability along with sustained release of the drug. NFV loaded PLGA-NPs were prepared by n...
Feasibility of Using an iPod Touch Device and Acceptability of a Stigma Reduction Intervention with HIV-Infected Women in the Deep South
Abstract As with many infectious diseases throughout history, stigma is a part of the trajectory of the HIV disease process. HIV-related stigma impedes women from being tested for HIV. Once infected, HIV-related stigma hinders women from disclosing their HIV status to sexual partners and health care providers, engaging in medical care, effectively self-managing the disease after infection, and adhering to anti-retroviral therapy. After three decades of the HIV epidemic, no evidenced-based, culturally relevant, gender-specific interventions exist to help women infected with HIV manage the stigma associated with HIV infection. This manuscript reports the feasibility of using an iPod touch device and acceptability of a stigma reduction intervention with HIV-infected women in the Deep...
Enhancing Our Understanding of Current Therapies for Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)
Abstract Great progress has been made in understanding the HCV genome and its molecular virology. This understanding has culminated in the development of direct-acting antiviral (DAA) agents targeting HCV viral proteins. Telaprevir (TVR) and boceprevir (BOC) were the first DAAs introduced for treatment of genotype 1 HCV in 2011; when used in combination with pegylated interferon (pegIFN) and ribavirin (RBV), these protease inhibitors improved efficacy in patients with chronic HCV infection compared to the traditional dual therapy. However, this combination was associated with adverse events that often led to early termination of therapy. In late 2013, the FDA approved a second wave of DAAs, sofosbuvir (SOF) and simeprevir (SMV). The use of SOF with SMV opened the door for IFN-free...
Evaluation of late presentation for HIV treatment in a reference center in Belo Horizonte, Southeastern Brazil, from 2008 to 2010
Conclusion The proportion of patients who were late attending a clinic for HIV treatment is still high, and effective strategies to improve early HIV detection with a special focus on the vulnerable population are urgently needed. (Source: The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases)
The Clinical Role and Cost-Effectiveness of Long-Acting Antiretroviral Therapy
Conclusions.&nbsp;LA-ART could improve survival of HIV patients, especially those with poor daily ART adherence. At an annual cost of $40 000&ndash;$70 000, LA-ART will offer good value for patients with multiple prior failures. To be a viable option for first- or second-line therapy, however, its cost must approach that of currently available regimens. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Poorer Cognitive Performance in Perinatally HIV-Infected Children Versus Healthy Socioeconomically Matched Controls
Conclusions.&nbsp;Our results show that cognitive performance of HIV-infected children is poor compared with that of SES-matched healthy controls. Gaining insight into these cognitive deficits is essential, as subtle impairments may progress to more pronounced complications that will influence future intellectual performance, job opportunities, and community participation of HIV-infected children. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Trends in CD4 Count at Presentation to Care and Treatment Initiation in Sub-Saharan Africa, 2002-2013: A Meta-analysis
Conclusions.&nbsp;CD4 counts at presentation to care and at ART initiation in sub-Saharan Africa have not increased over the past decade. Barriers to presentation, diagnosis, and linkage to HIV care remain major challenges that require attention to optimize population-level benefits of ART. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Editorial Commentary: Immunodeficiency at Start of Antiretroviral Therapy: The Persistent Problem of Late Presentation to Care
(Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
HIV-Risk Related Attitudes and Behaviors Among Older Impoverished Women Living in Puerto Rico
This study examines the relationship between age and HIV-related attitudes and risk behaviors among female public housing residents in Puerto Rico. Using a self-administered survey instrument, 1,138 female public housing residents were surveyed between April and August 2006. Bivariate results showed that older women (aged 50+ years) were significantly less likely to report HIV testing and to discuss safer sex with their most recent ?steady? sex partner than women under the age of 50 years. Older women were also more likely to express anxiety associated with condoms and more barriers to using condoms. The older versus younger groups did not significantly differ regarding condom use, which was extremely low across the groups. In the past three and 12 months, older women were less likel...
?How do you care for technology?? ? Care professionals' experiences with assistive technology in care of the elderly
Publication date: April 2015 Source:Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Volume 93 Author(s): Maxine Saborowski , Ingrid Kollak The needs of elderly people and their relatives, as well as the problems they face in using assistive technology, are taken into account to some extend when such devices are designed. However, another important group is overlooked in most of the research and technical development: care professionals. They use assistive devices every day. To consider them as users and facilitators of assistive technology has become even more important, since new capacities of technology and comprehensive visions of robotics have started to change the relation between care workers and technology significantly. In Berlin, Germany, we conducted a series of qualitative interv...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Cancer incidence and mortality for all causes in HIV-infected patients over a quarter century: a multicentre cohort study
Conclusions: In HIV infected patients, ADC but not NADC incidence rates were higher than the general population. Although overall mortality in HIV infected subjects decreased over time, it is about three-fold higher than the general population at present. (Source: BMC Public Health)
TEFM is a potent stimulator of mitochondrial transcription elongation in vitro
A single-subunit RNA polymerase, POLRMT, transcribes the mitochondrial genome in human cells. Recently, a factor termed as the mitochondrial transcription elongation factor, TEFM, was shown to stimulate transcription elongation in vivo, but its effect in vitro was relatively modest. In the current work, we have isolated active TEFM in recombinant form and used a reconstituted in vitro transcription system to characterize its activities. We show that TEFM strongly promotes POLRMT processivity as it dramatically stimulates the formation of longer transcripts. TEFM also abolishes premature transcription termination at conserved sequence block II, an event that has been linked to primer formation during initiation of mtDNA synthesis. We show that POLRMT pauses at a wide range of sites in a giv...
Ethical and practical considerations in providing critical care to patients with Ebola virus disease.
Authors: Torabi-Parizi P, Davey RT, Suffredini AF, Chertow DS Abstract Abstract: Infectious disease epidemics in the past have given rise to psychological and emotional responses among health care workers stemming from fear of infection during patient care. Early experiences in the AIDS epidemic provide an example where fear of contagion resulted in differential treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. However, with a deeper understanding of AIDS pathogenesis and treatment, fear and discrimination diminished. Parallels exist between early experiences with AIDS and the present outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa particularly in regards to discussions of medical futility in seriously ill patients. We provide a historical perspective on healt...
Decision aids for localized prostate cancer treatment choice: Systematic review and meta?analysis
In conclusion, scant evidence at high risk of bias suggests the variable impact of existing decision aids on a limited set of decisional processes and outcomes. Because current decision aids provide information but do not directly facilitate shared decision making, subsequent efforts would benefit from user?centered design of decision aids that promote shared decision making. CA Cancer J Clin 2015. © 2015 American Cancer Society. (Source: CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians)
Antiviral Medication in Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Part II: HIV.
Authors: Majewska A, Mlynarczyk-Bonikowska B, Malejczyk M, Mlynarczyk G, Majewski S Abstract This is a second part of a review under a main title Antiviral medication in sexually transmitted diseases. In the part we published in Mini Rev Med Chem. 2013,13(13):1837-45, we have described mechanisms of action and mechanism of resistance to antiviral agents used in genital herpes and genital HPV infection. The Part II review focuses on therapeutic options in HIV infection. In 1987, 6 years after the recognition of AIDS, the FDA approved the first drug against HIV - zidovudine. Since then a lot of antiretroviral drugs are available. The most effective treatment for HIV is highly active antiretroviral therapy - a combination of several antiretroviral medicines that cause a reduction of H...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Uganda: Ugandans Angry at Lack of ARVs
[Observer] Despite testing for HIV/Aids, residents of the city suburb of Kamwokya are angry they can't get anti-retroviral treatment from hospitals or NGOs. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Zambia: Mwandi NGO Shelters Orphans, Widows
[Times of Zambia] A NON-GOVERNMENTAL Organisation (NGO), Home for AIDS Orphans, based in Mwandi Western Province, has built 140 houses for orphans and vulnerable widows in the area.Home for AIDS Orphans coordinator Paula Vanzyl said her organisation, which is run by volunteers, had been taking care of orphans and vulnerable mothers in Mwandi by building them houses. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Complex single step skull reconstruction in Gorham¿s disease - a technical report and review of the literature
Conclusions: A single step excisional craniectomy and cranioplasty can be an effective treatment for patients with Gorham?s disease affecting the skull vault only. Preoperative planning by a density graded CT aids to design a synthetic bone flap and is beneficial in skull reconstruction. Systemic involvement is variable in this patient?s population. (Source: BMC Surgery)
Trends in Causes of Adult Deaths among the Urban Poor: Evidence from Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System, 2003?2012
Abstract What kills people around the world and how it varies from place to place and over time is critical in mapping the global burden of disease and therefore, a relevant public health question, especially in developing countries. While more than two thirds of deaths worldwide are in developing countries, little is known about the causes of death in these nations. In many instances, vital registration systems are nonexistent or at best rudimentary, and even when deaths are registered, data on the cause of death in particular local contexts, which is an important step toward improving context-specific public health, are lacking. In this paper, we examine the trends in the causes of death among the urban poor in two informal settlements in Nairobi by applying the InterVA-4 softwa...
Hearing Loss and Cognition: The Role of Hearing Aids, Social Isolation and Depression
by Piers Dawes, Richard Emsley, Karen J. Cruickshanks, David R. Moore, Heather Fortnum, Mark Edmondson-Jones, Abby McCormack, Kevin J. Munro Hearing loss is associated with poor cognitive performance and incident dementia and may contribute to cognitive decline. Treating hearing loss with hearing aids may ameliorate cognitive decline. The purpose of this study was to test whether use of hearing aids was associated with better cognitive performance, and if this relationship was mediated via social isolation and/or depression. Structural equation modelling of associations between hearing loss, cognitive performance, social isolation, depression and hearing aid use was carried out with a subsample of the UK Biobank data set (n = 164,770) of UK adults aged 40 to 69 years who completed a heari...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Nurses Can Facilitate Safer Sexual Behavior Counseling for Persons Living With HIV: Strategies for Success
Patients living with HIV who are on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and who are adherent can now lead longer and healthier lives, with decreased AIDS-related complications (Panel on Antiretroviral Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents, 2014; Walensky et al., 2006). Despite these improved outcomes, the rate of new HIV infections remains steady at about 50,000 cases in the United States each year (Blair et al., 2014). Using transmission rate modeling, Hall, Holtgrave, and Maulsby (2012) estimated that persons living with HIV who were unaware of their infection transmitted about half of new HIV infections. (Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)
Prevalence of Intermediate-Stage Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Patients with the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
To evaluate the prevalence of intermediate-stage age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). (Source: American Journal of Ophthalmology)
Complex single step skull reconstruction in Gorham&#8217;s disease - a technical report and review of the literature
Conclusions: A single step excisional craniectomy and cranioplasty can be an effective treatment for patients with Gorham?s disease affecting the skull vault only. Preoperative planning by a density graded CT aids to design a synthetic bone flap and is beneficial in skull reconstruction. Systemic involvement is variable in this patient?s population. (Source: BMC Surgery)
Prevalence of Intermediate-Stage Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Patients With Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
To evaluate the prevalence of intermediate-stage age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). (Source: American Journal of Ophthalmology)
Size and Distribution of Lymph Nodes in Rectal Cancer Resection Specimens
This study aimed to determine the size and distribution of lymph nodes in rectal cancer resection specimens. DESIGN: This was a prospective, observational study of rectal cancer resection specimens analyzed by a single histopathologist. SETTING: This study was conducted from January 2007 to July 2013 at the authors? institution. PATIENTS: Two hundred forty-four consecutive patients underwent resection for rectal cancer. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The size and distribution of lymph nodes in the resection specimens and the anatomical position of mesorectal lymph nodes in relation to the peritoneal reflection, tumor, and anal verge were recorded. RESULTS: A total of 10,473 lymph nodes were retrieved in 244 patients (75 women; median age, 68 years (interquartile range, 59?75 years)). One hundr...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
New HIV Testing AlgorithmNew HIV Testing Algorithm
A new HIV testing algorithm has the potential to improve the prevention of HIV/AIDS in the United States. CDC Expert Commentary (Source: Medscape Hiv-Aids Headlines)
Treatment of Menière?s Disease
Opinion statement Diagnosis of Menière?s disease is made with a characteristic patient history, including discrete episodes of vertigo lasting 20 min or longer, accompanied by sensorineural hearing loss, which is typically low frequency at first, aural fullness, and tinnitus. Workup includes audiometry, a contrast enhanced MRI of the internal auditory canals, and exclusion of other diseases that can produce similar symptoms, like otosyphilis, autoimmune inner ear disease, perilymphatic fistula, superior semicircular canal syndrome, Lyme disease, multiple sclerosis, vestibular paroxysmia, and temporal bone tumors. A history of migraine should be sought as well because of a high rate of co-occurrence (Rauch, Otolaryngol Clin North Am 43:1011?1017, 2010). Treatment begins with...
Psychosocial perspectives on sexual recovery after prostate cancer treatment
Nature Reviews Urology 12, 167 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrurol.2015.29 Authors: Lauren M. Walker, Richard J. Wassersug & John W. Robinson Many therapies for erectile dysfunction (ED) after prostate cancer treatment improve erectile firmness, yet, most couples stop using aids within 1&#8211;2 years. Patients and partners who expect immediate and complete success with their first ED treatment can be demoralized when they experience treatment failure, which (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Priority setting in HIV/AIDS control in West Java Indonesia: an evaluation based on the accountability for reasonableness framework
Conclusions To increase fairness in HIV/AIDS priority setting, West Java should make improvements on all four conditions of the A4R framework. (Source: Health Policy and Planning)
A total market approach for condoms in Myanmar: the need for the private, public and socially marketed sectors to work together for a sustainable condom market for HIV prevention
Conclusion The market for male condoms was stagnant in Myanmar due to: limited demand for condoms among key populations, the dominance of free and socially marketed condoms on the market and a neglected commercial sector. Subsidies for socially marketed and free condoms have prevented the growth of the private sector, an unintended consequence. A TMA is needed to grow and sustain the condom market in Myanmar, which requires close co-ordination between the public, socially marketed and commercial sectors. (Source: Health Policy and Planning)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Prevalence and factors associated with late HIV diagnosis
While highly active antiretroviral therapy has been successful in delaying progression into AIDS, late HIV diagnosis remains a major contributor to the mortality and morbidity of AIDS. An epidemiological study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence and factors of late diagnosis and the characteristics of those individuals with late diagnosis in Liuzhou city. Patients with late diagnosis were defined as either those who were diagnosed with AIDS at the time of HIV diagnosis or as those who developed AIDS no more than 1 year after HIV diagnosis. Of 899 participants, 72.6% had a late diagnosis. Common characteristics of those who experienced late diagnosis included older participants, those who were unexpectedly diagnosed while seeking other medical attention, participants who believed they ...
Lymphoid Fibrosis Occurs in Long-Term Nonprogressors and Persists With Antiretroviral Therapy but May Be Reversible With Curative Interventions
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication causes lymphoid tissue (LT) fibrosis, which causes CD4+ T-cell depletion. It is unknown whether people who spontaneously control HIV replication have LT fibrosis. We measured LT fibrosis and CD4+ T cells in 25 HIV controllers, 10 noncontrollers, 45 HIV-positive individuals receiving therapy, and 10 HIV-negative individuals. Controllers had significant LT fibrosis and CD4+ T-cell depletion, similar to noncontrollers, but the so-called Berlin patient (in whom HIV infection was cured) had near normal LT. Thus, LT fibrosis occurs in all HIV-infected subjects, and current therapy does not reverse it. Reversal of fibrosis during a curative intervention suggests that ongoing low-level virus production may maintain LT fibrosis. (Source: The Journal of...
In vitro susceptibility testing of amphotericin B for Cryptococcus neoformans variety grubii AFLP1/VNI and Cryptococcus gattii AFLP6/VGII by CLSI and flow cytometry

Multi-color reflectance imaging of middle ear pathology in vivo.
Authors: Valdez TA, Spegazzini N, Pandey R, Longo K, Grindle C, Peterson D, Barman I Abstract Otoscopic examination using white-light illumination has remained virtually unchanged for well over a century. However, the limited contrast of white-light otoscopy constrains the ability to make accurate assessment of middle ear pathology and is subject to significant observer variability. Here, we employ a modified otoscope with multi-color imaging capabilities for superior characterization of the middle ear constituents in vivo and for enhanced diagnosis of acute otitis media and cholesteatoma. In this pilot study, five patients undergoing surgery for tympanostomy tube placement and congenital cholesteatoma excision were imaged using the custom-designed multi-color video-rate reflectanc...
A direct method to evaluate the time?dependent predictive accuracy for biomarkers
Summary Time?dependent receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and their area under the curve (AUC) are important measures to evaluate the prediction accuracy of biomarkers for time?to?event endpoints (e.g., time to disease progression or death). In this article, we propose a direct method to estimate AUC(t) as a function of time t using a flexible fractional polynomials model, without the middle step of modeling the time?dependent ROC. We develop a pseudo partial?likelihood procedure for parameter estimation and provide a test procedure to compare the predictive performance between biomarkers. We establish the asymptotic properties of the proposed estimator and test statistics. A major advantage of the proposed method is its ease to make inference and to compare the predi...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Evaluation of late presentation for HIV treatment in a reference center in Belo Horizonte, Southeastern Brazil, from 2008 to 2010.
CONCLUSION: The proportion of patients who were late attending a clinic for HIV treatment is still high, and effective strategies to improve early HIV detection with a special focus on the vulnerable population are urgently needed. PMID: 25769736 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Braz J Infect Dis)
When Robots Begin to Care
This past week, in an article titled "Be Calm, Robots Aren't About to Take Your Job, MIT Economist Says," the Wall Street Journal spoke with my colleague, economist David Autor, on the subject of robotics and the labor force. Autor provided a number of compelling reasons not to worry about robots stealing jobs from humans, chiefly: ? There's a serious skill gap between robots and people when it comes to jobs that require a human touch. ? Automation increases the productivity of the entire economy, allowing society as a whole to produce more wealth, which is a good thing. He's right on both counts--for now--and as I'll explain, even if robots do achieve human skills and take over some jobs sooner than expected, it might be exactly what our aging society needs. Expanding on Autor's ...
Opinion: The World Sees Progress Against Undernutrition, but it?s Uneven
Nepal has one of the highest rates of malnutrition in the world. Over 41 percent of the country?s children suffer from chronic malnutrition, predominantly in rural areas. Credit: Naresh Newar/IPSBy Jomo Kwame SundaramROME, Mar 9 2015 (IPS)In 2014, an estimated 805 million people ? one in nine people worldwide ? were estimated to be chronically hungry. All but 14 million of the world?s hungry live in developing countries, i.e., 791 million are in developing countries, where the share of the hungry has declined by less than half ? from 23.4 per cent (1990-1992) to 13.5 per cent (2012-2014).Progress unevenOverall progress has been highly uneven. Some countries and regions have seen only slow progress in reducing hunger, while the absolute number of hungry has even increased in sever...
HIV's hiding places at last revealed by simple scan
Drugs can clear HIV from the blood, but the virus can hide out around the body. Now we have a way to reveal its hiding places ? the first step to getting rid of it fully (Source: New Scientist - HIV and AIDS)
Why Compassion Matters
A few weeks ago during a medical writing seminar I teach, Dr. Gerald Friedland, an infectious disease expert, spoke with my undergraduates about caring for AIDS patients in the earliest days of the epidemic. One of my students asked him this: When there were no treatments, what was there for a doctor to do? "There's always something you can do for people," Dr. Friedland said in his soft-spoken way. He proceeded to explain how he would pull up a chair by the bedside so he and his patients were talking on the same level rather than he literally talking down to them; how he would help families cope with the poor prognosis; how he told the truth even when it wasn't easy. Doctors rarely cure diseases, he added. For the most part, they manage them. He told my students that being a good phy...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Nigeria: Boko Haram Insurgency Hampering Fight Against HIV/Aids - - Adamawa Govt.
[Premium Times] Stephen John, the Executive Secretary of Adamawa State Agency for the Control of Aids, has expressed concern over the adverse effect of the current insurgency on the fight against HIV/AIDs in the state. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Malawi: Irish Ambassador Underscores Significance of Community Empowerment
[Malawi News Agency] Nkhotakota - Irish Ambassador to Malawi Aine Hearns has said community empowerment is crucial in ensuring that most vulnerable households are supported and are enabled to support themselves to participate in making decisions that affect their lives. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Factors Responsible for Incomplete Linkage to Care After HIV DiagnosisFactors Responsible for Incomplete Linkage to Care After HIV Diagnosis
Linkage to care after HIV diagnosis is an important obstacle that needs to be overcome to control the HIV epidemic. HIV Medicine (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
HSJ Live: CCG becomes first in country to ration access to hearing aids
North Staffordshire Clinical Commissioning Group has become the first CCG in the country to restrict access to NHS funded hearing aids, plus the rest of today?s news and comment (Source: HSJ)
HIV infection in the aspect of psychiatric practice
Publication date: Available online 9 March 2015 Source:HIV &amp; AIDS Review Author(s): Magdalena Wi?d?ocha , Piotr Marcinowicz , Bart?omiej Sta?czykiewicz Presentation of the psychopathological signs and psychological dysfunctions associated with HIV infection is the aim of this review. Current neuropathological theories and psychiatric aspects of antiretroviral treatment have been outlined. Diagnostics and adequate treatment of psychiatric conditions concomitant to HIV infection are difficult because of the unspecific character of symptoms; thus, emphasis has been put on the characteristic psychopathological features that a clinician may encounter. We aimed to shed light on neuropathology of HIV and provide a wide variety of conclusions from current research topics. The descrip...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Race, Poverty, and Medicine in the United States
I spent most of my career at the Boston City Hospital, now known as Boston Medical Center, that has emphasized ?exceptional care without exception.? At Boston City Hospital the 2 worlds of race and poverty collide on an almost daily basis. Under the 4-decade leadership of 2 pediatric chairs, Joel Alpert, MD, and Barry Zuckerman, MD, and continuing under the current chair Robert Vinci, MD, the Department of Pediatrics expanded the boundaries of traditional medicine. In addition to providing care for medical problems such as asthma, HIV/AIDS, seizures, prematurity, and sickle cell disease, the department is committed to addressing issues of poverty, violence, poor housing, and food insecurity. (Source: JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association)
Shared Decision Making and Use of Decision Aids for Localized Prostate Cancer Perceptions From Radiation Oncologists and Urologists
ImportanceThe current attitudes of prostate cancer specialists toward decision aids and their use in clinical practice to facilitate shared decision making are poorly understood.ObjectiveTo assess attitudes toward decision aids and their dissemination in clinical practice.Design, Setting, and ParticipantsA survey was mailed to a national random sample of 1422 specialists (711 radiation oncologists and 711 urologists) in the United States from November 1, 2011, through April 30, 2012. Main Outcomes and MeasuresRespondents were asked about familiarity, perceptions, and use of decision aids for clinically localized prostate cancer and trust in various professional societies in developing decision aids. The Pearson ?2 test was used to test for bivariate associations between physician characte...
Spinal RyR2 pathway regulated by the RNA-binding protein HuD induces pain hypersensitivity in antiretroviral neuropathy.
Authors: Sanna MD, Peroni D, Quattrone A, Ghelardini C, Galeotti N Abstract The antiretroviral toxic neuropathy, a distal sensory polyneuropathy associated with antiretroviral treatment, is a frequently occurring neurological complication during treatment of patients with AIDS and often leads to discontinuation of antiretroviral therapy. The mechanisms by which antiretroviral drugs contribute to the development of neuropathic pain are not known. Using drugs that reduce intracellular calcium ions (Ca(2+)), we investigated the hypothesis that altered cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration contributes to the 2',3'-dideoxycytidine (ddC)-evoked painful neuropathy. Administration of ddC induced mechanical and cold allodynia, which were abolished by intrathecal administration of TMB-8, a blocker ...
Increased risk of non-AIDS-related events in HIV subjects with persistent low CD4 counts despite cART in the CoRIS cohort.
Authors: Pacheco YM, Jarrin I, Rosado I, Campins AA, Berenguer J, Iribarren JA, Rivero M, Muñoz-Medina L, Bernal-Morell E, Gutiérrez F, Leal M, CoRIS Abstract The aim was to analyze clinical complications in HIV-infected subjects who persistently maintain low CD4 levels despite virological response to cART in the Spanish CoRIS cohort. The main inclusion criteria were CD4 counts &lt;200cells/mm(3) at cART-initiation and at least 2years under cART achieving a viral load &lt;500copies/mL. Those patients with CD4 counts &lt;250cells/mm(3) 2years after cART were classified as the Low-CD4 group, and clinical events were collected from this time-point. Poisson regression models were used to calculate incidence rate ratios of death, AIDS-defining events, serious non-AIDS-defining events ...
An assessment of adverse drug reactions among HIV positive patients receiving antiretroviral treatment in South Africa.
CONCLUSION: More realistic time-to-event models for recurrent events data have been used to analyse timing of ADR events in HIV patients taking ARV treatment. Age, antiretroviral regimen type and period of initiation of ART were associated with the timing of HIV/AIDS drug related adverse reactions regardless of the analysis model used. This study has public health policy implications in addressing the added morbidity among HIV patients taking ARV treatment in the context of universal scaling up of ARV treatment. PMID: 25745501 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Therapy)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
?I was thinking too much?: experiences of HIV?positive adults with common mental disorders and poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy in Zimbabwe
ConclusionsBetter understanding of the local expression of mental disorders and of underlying stressors can inform the development of culturally sensitive interventions to reduce common mental disorders and poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Tropical Medicine and International Health)
Residents¿ perceptions of their own sadness - a qualitative study in Norwegian nursing homes
Conclusions: Nursing home nurses and doctors should identify and respond to sadness that is a rational response to manageable causes. Further, identifying and supporting residents? resources and coping strategies is a salutogenetic approach that may alleviate sadness. (Source: BMC Geriatrics)
Residents? perceptions of their own sadness - a qualitative study in Norwegian nursing homes
Conclusions: Nursing home nurses and doctors should identify and respond to sadness that is a rational response to manageable causes. Further, identifying and supporting residents? resources and coping strategies is a salutogenetic approach that may alleviate sadness. (Source: BioMed Central)
The stories we tell: Qualitative research interviews, talking technologies and the ?normalisation? of life with HIV
Publication date: April 2015 Source:Social Science &amp; Medicine, Volume 131 Author(s): Fadhila Mazanderani , Sara Paparini Since the earliest days of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, talking about the virus has been a key way affected communities have challenged the fear and discrimination directed against them and pressed for urgent medical and political attention. Today, HIV/AIDS is one of the most prolifically and intimately documented of all health conditions, with entrenched infrastructures, practices and technologies ? what Vinh-Kim Nguyen has dubbed ?confessional technologies? ? aimed at encouraging those affected to share their experiences. Among these technologies, we argue, is the semi-structured interview: the principal methodology used in qualitative social science resear...
Importance of formal education and family income in the accession process to the use of hearing devices in children under 12 years
CONCLUSION: the family income or education of parents or guardians does not influence the adherence to the use of hearing aids in children up to 12 years seen in University Hospital. (Source: Revista CEFAC)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Frequency compression on speech recognition in elderly people with possible cochlear dead regions
CONCLUSION: in silence, both groups presented significant improvement in performance using hearing aids with frequency compression. In noise, there was no difference between the results without or with frequency compression. Comparing the groups, the measurement obtained in noise with hearing aids without the algorithm was the only one that presented a significant difference, in which the group with cochlear dead regions presented a better performance. (Source: Revista CEFAC)
The HIV care cascade: models, measures and moving forward.
CONCLUSIONS: There is no "one size fits all" model as the provision of services may differ based on a range of factors. Nonetheless, measures informed by global guidelines are needed to more consistently evaluate the scope of and factors associated with delays to each stage of the cascade. Doing so will help identify how practitioners can best deliver services and facilitate access to and continued engagement in care. PMID: 25735869 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Africa: 'Free Sugars' Pose New Threat to Africa's Health
[The Herald] Africa is long known for high rates of hunger, under-nutrition and infectious diseases like HIV/AIDS but a disturbing new threat of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) associated with overweight, obesity and diet-related NCDs is emerging in many countries. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
HIV eradication symposium: will the brain be left behind?
Abstract On 18 July 2014, the National Institute of Mental Health in collaboration with ViiV Health Care and Boehringer Ingelheim supported a symposium on HIV eradication and what it meant for the brain. The symposium was an affiliated event to the 20th International AIDS Conference. The meeting was held in Melbourne, Australia, and brought together investigators currently working on HIV eradication together with investigators who are working on the neurological complications of HIV. The purpose of the meeting was to bring the two fields of HIV eradication and HIV neurology together to foster dialogue and cross talk to move the eradication field forward in the context of issues relating to the brain as a potential reservoir of HIV. The outcomes of the symposium were that there was...
Improvement of HAART in Brazil, 1998¿2008: a nationwide assessment of survival times after AIDS diagnosis among men who have sex with men
Universal and free access to Highly active antiretroviral therapy has helped achieve impressive declines in AIDS mortality in Brazil but differential AIDS-related mortality continue to exist suggesting efforts are needed to eliminate these health disparities. (Source: BMC Public Health)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Parent¿child communication about sexual and reproductive health: evidence from the Brong Ahafo region, Ghana
Conclusions: Parents in the Brong Ahafo region of Ghana do talk to children about sex, but their conversations cover limited topics. While abstinence is the most widely discussed sexual topic, condoms and contraception were rarely discussed. Sex educational programmes ought to encourage parents to expand sexual communication to cover more topics. (Source: Reproductive Health)
A rare presentation of reversible ALS in HIV infection
Publication date: Available online 7 March 2015 Source:HIV &amp; AIDS Review Author(s): Aju Abraham John , Suryanarayana Sharma , B.K. Madhusudhan , Rohan Mahale , Mahendra Javali , R. Srinivasa Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common type of motor neuron disease (MND) [1]. It is usually associated with an irreversible course, and treatable causes of ALS are rare. Here, we present a case report of a 35-year-old male, with progressive weakness and wasting of muscles in all four limbs with fasciculation and electro diagnostic features compatible with a diagnosis of probable ALS. He was later diagnosed to have HIV infection and initiated on anti-retroviral therapy. On 6 months follow-up, he had a weight gain of 8kg and electro diagnostic studies revealed near total normal...
The prevalence of malaria among HIV seropositive individuals and the impact of the co- infection on their hemoglobin levels
Conclusion: It was revealed that almost all the patients with malaria infection were anemic. (Source: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials)
NIH-led study to assess community-based hepatitis C treatment in Washington, D.C.
The study is being conducted as part of the D.C. Partnership for HIV/AIDS Progress. (Source: National Institutes of Health (NIH) News Releases)
Feeling sleepy? Might be the melatonin
Melatonin supplements are commonly used as sleep aids; however, our bodies also make melatonin naturally, and until a recent study using zebrafish, no one knew how -- or even if -- this melatonin contributed to our natural sleep. The new work suggests that even in the absence of a supplement, naturally occurring melatonin may help us fall and stay asleep. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
What kills more women than AIDS and breast cancer? Dirty water
NEW YORK (Thomson Reuters Foundation) - Diseases spread through dirty water and poor sanitation are the fifth biggest killer of women worldwide, causing more deaths than AIDS, diabetes or breast cancer, researchers say. (Source: Reuters: Health)
New tool aids US conservation, management of whales, dolphins and porpoises
Researchers have identified more than 100 areas within US waters that should be considered biologically important when making management and regulatory decisions about human activities that could affect whales, dolphins and porpoises. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)
Hypersexual, Sexually Compulsive, or Just Highly Sexually Active? Investigating Three Distinct Groups of Gay and Bisexual Men and Their Profiles of HIV-Related Sexual Risk
We examined data from 370 highly sexually active GBM to assess how the three groups compare across a range of risk factors for HIV infection. Comparisons focused on psychosexual measures?temptation for condomless anal sex (CAS), self-efficacy for avoiding CAS, sexual excitation and inhibition?as well as reports of actual sexual behavior. Nearly half (48.9 %) of this highly sexually active sample was classified as Neither SC nor HD, 30 % as SC Only, and 21.1 % as Both SC and HD. While we found no significant differences between the three groups on reported number of male partners, anal sex acts, or anal sex acts with serodiscordant partners, the Both SC and HD group reported higher numbers of CAS acts and CAS acts with serodiscordant partners and also had a higher proportion of their...
CDC Observes National Women and Girls HIV/AIDS Awareness Day
March 10 is National Women and Girls HIV/AIDS Awareness Day (NWGHAAD), a time when organizations and communities across the United States come together to offer support, encourage discussion, and teach women and girls about the prevention of HIV, the importance of getting tested, and how to live with and manage HIV infection. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
Learn what you can do to support National Women's and Girls HIV/AIDS Awareness Day
March 10 is National Women and Girls HIV/AIDS Awareness Day (NWGHAAD), a time when organizations and communities across the United States come together to offer support, encourage discussion, and teach women and girls about the prevention of HIV, the importance of getting tested, and how to live with and manage HIV infection. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Refine your presenting skills
Does the thought of presenting your work in public fill you with fear? We are offering early career members the opportunity to attend a Presentation Skills training session on 18 May 2015 to give you the knowledge and confidence to present your work effectively. Organised by the Society of Biology, this course will help you structure a presentation to keep your audience&rsquo;s attention, give you some top tips on body language, and advise on how to make the best use of visual aids. The Society for Endocrinology can fund up to five places (subject to availability), including reasonable travel expenses. If you&rsquo;d like to attend please email Omar Jamshed:&nbsp;omar.jamshed@endocrinology.org (Source: Society for Endocrinology)
South Africa: Proteas Come Out to Bat Against HIV Stigma
[SA Info] Players and officials at the International Cricket Council (ICC) Cricket World Cup 2015, being held in Australia and New Zealand, are raising awareness around HIV in efforts to eliminate discrimination and increase solidarity around ending the AIDS epidemic. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Kenya: 75 Years for Man Who Defiled Daughter, Infected Her With HIV
[Capital FM] Nakuru -A man has been jailed for 75 years by a court in Nakuru for defiling his 12-year-old daughter. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: Medical and Psychosocial Support for Teenagers With HIV
[MSF] Despite the medical progress, teenagers living with HIV continue to face a raft of challenges. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Zimbabwe: Stigma, Confusion, Silence - Life As a Young Girl With HIV
[MSF] Telling a child that they have HIV can be a long and delicate process. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Nigeria: States, LGs Frustrating Fight Against HIV/Aids in Nigeria - Ogungbemi
[Independent (Lagos)] Dr Kayode Ogungbemi is Director Strategic knowledge management of the National Agency for the Control of AIDS (NACA). In this encounter with our Correspondent, Hassan Zaggi, he explains the effort of the agency in the fight against HIV and the frustration it has to bear due to the lack of support from states and Local Government Areas (LGAs). Excerpts: (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Feeling sleepy? Might be the melatonin
(California Institute of Technology) Melatonin supplements are commonly used as sleep aids; however, our bodies also make melatonin naturally, and until a recent Caltech study using zebrafish, no one knew how -- or even if -- this melatonin contributed to our natural sleep. The new work suggests that even in the absence of a supplement, naturally occurring melatonin may help us fall and stay asleep. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
New tool aids US conservation and management of whales, dolphins and porpoises
(NOAA Northeast Fisheries Science Center) Researchers have identified more than 100 areas within US waters that should be considered biologically important when making management and regulatory decisions about human activities that could affect whales, dolphins and porpoises. The creation of Biologically Important Areas (BIAs) are described in a special issue of the journal Aquatic Mammals. Expert judgment was combined with published and unpublished data to identify 131 BIAs covering 24 species, stocks or populations in seven regions of the US. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
What kills more women than AIDS and breast cancer? Dirty wate
NEW YORK (Thomson Reuters Foundation) - Diseases spread through dirty water and poor sanitation are the fifth biggest killer of women worldwide, causing more deaths than AIDS, diabetes or breast cancer, researchers say. (Source: Reuters: Health)
How 'Dumb Phones' Can Help Stop The Spread Of Ebola
A basic cell phone may not be able to snap the best selfies, but it can be a vital tool in preventing the spread of deadly viruses. In Ebola-stricken West Africa -- a region where a lack of resources makes spreading information more challenging -- UNICEF is helping young people stay safe through its U-Report initiative. The free social tool, accessible through any cell phone that can make calls and send texts, lets users voice opinions on issues affecting their community. Launched in May 2011 in Uganda, U-Report has been used to spread information on various topics, like education, sanitation, youth unemployment and HIV/AIDS. But more recently it's been utilized in the fight against Ebola in Liberia. After a user downloads U-Report on their mobile device, UNICEF sends them a weekly pol...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
[In Depth] Doubts dispelled about HIV prevention
Nearly 5 years ago, a large study showed that taking an anti-HIV pill each day can protect people at high risk of becoming infected. But despite several confirmatory trials and approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, so-called pre-exposure prophylaxis, or PrEP, hasn't been used much. New studies reported last week at a major HIV/AIDS conference in Seattle, Washington, promise to make PrEP far more popular. The studies once again show that PrEP offers solid protection for men who have sex with men and heterosexuals?if it is used as prescribed. But they go further and show novel ways to take advantage of PrEP, including "on-demand" usage right before and after having sex. A new model also shows how PrEP can be used to bend the curves of local epidemics. Author: Jon Cohen (Source...
[In Depth] Drug flushes out hidden AIDS virus
Purge the reservoirs! That's the battle cry of HIV researchers attempting to cure infected people, and a novel drug study in monkeys took important steps toward that elusive goal. The reservoir refers to cells that harbor latent HIV DNA woven into their chromosomes that are impervious to antiretroviral (ARV) drugs and invisible to the immune system. Researchers have been searching for drugs that "shock" latent HIV to produce new viruses, which would kill those reservoir cells or target them for immune destruction. This new drug targets what's known as toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) on immune cells. Researchers infected four monkeys with the simian AIDS virus, treated with the ARVs to fully suppress the infections, and then tried to mop up the reservoirs with the TLR7 drug. Although they did n...
Pilot study to evaluate children with hearing aids through PEACH and TEACH in a rural community
This study was done to evaluate the use of functional measures in hearing aid benefit assessment of children (n =60) in a rural community. Children with age ranging from 6months to 15years with moderately severe to profound hearing loss were evaluated. They were evaluated by functional measures PEACH and TEACH which were translated into local language (Tamil). The relationship between PEACH and TEACH was calculated using SPSS and Chi-square tests. It was found that PEACH and TEACH questionnaires can be easily administered in the rural community and gives a quantitative measure of the effect of amplification. It gave caregivers a motivation to take an active part in the rehabilitation. This model of using functional evaluation tools to evaluate the suitability and effectiveness of amplifica...
Clinical characteristics of abnormal savda syndrome type human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome patients: A cross-sectional investigation in Xinjiang, China
Conclusion Abnormal savda syndrome is the dominant syndrome among HIV/AIDS patients, and they present a more sever clinical manifestation. (Source: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine)
Multiplex diagnosis of viral infectious diseases (AIDS, hepatitis C, and hepatitis A) based on point of care lateral flow assay using engineered proteinticles
Publication date: 15 July 2015 Source:Biosensors and Bioelectronics, Volume 69 Author(s): Jong-Hwan Lee , Hyuk Seong Seo , Jung-Hyuk Kwon , Hee-Tae Kim , Koo Chul Kwon , Sang Jun Sim , Young Joo Cha , Jeewon Lee Lateral flow assay (LFA) is an attractive method for rapid, simple, and cost-effective point of care diagnosis. For LFA-based multiplex diagnosis of three viral intractable diseases (acquired immune deficiency syndrome and hepatitis C and A), here we developed proteinticle-based 7 different 3D probes that display different viral antigens on their surface, which were synthesized in Escherichia coli by self-assembly of human ferritin heavy chain that was already engineered by genetically linking viral antigens to its C-terminus. Each of the three test lines on LFA strip contains th...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Effects of age and task difficulty on ERP responses to novel sounds presented during a speech-perception-in-noise test
While the treatment of hearing loss with hearing aids has considerably improved over the last decades due to the development of digital signal-processing and noise-reduction algorithms, there is increasing awareness that the impact of hearing loss and the outcome of hearing aid provision are not fully captured by routine audiometric assessment alone (Mackersie and Cones, 2011; McGarrigle et al., 2014). Pure-tone audiograms and speech audiometry provide hearing thresholds, percent correct speech recognition scores and signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), but they do not provide information about the stress under which the listener produced this performance (Mackersie and Cones, 2011). (Source: Clinical Neurophysiology)
Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems: A Policy Statement From the American Association for Cancer Research and the American Society of Clinical Oncology [ASCO SPECIAL ARTICLES]
Combustible tobacco use remains the number-one preventable cause of disease, disability, and death in the United States. Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), which include electronic cigarettes, are devices capable of delivering nicotine in an aerosolized form. ENDS use by both adults and youth has increased rapidly, and some have advocated these products could serve as harm-reduction devices and smoking cessation aids. ENDS may be beneficial if they reduce smoking rates or prevent or reduce the known adverse health effects of smoking. However, ENDS may also be harmful, particularly to youth, if they increase the likelihood that nonsmokers or former smokers will use combustible tobacco products or if they discourage smokers from quitting. The American Association for Cancer Researc...
Prevalence of shingles and its association with PTSD among HIV-infected women in Rwanda
Conclusions Our study found a significant independent relationship between PTSD and reported shingles, suggesting that PTSD may be associated with immune compromise that can result in herpes zoster reactivation. Further study is needed. It also confirmed previous findings of a strong relationship between shingles and greater immunosuppression in women with HIV infection. (Source: BMJ Open)
Assessing the validity of respondents' reports of their partners' ages in a rural South African population-based cohort
Conclusions Rural South Africans reported their sexual partners&rsquo; ages imperfectly, but with less error than in some other African settings. Further research is required to determine how generalisable these findings are. Self-reported data on age disparity in sexual relationships can be used with caution for research, intervention design, and targeting in this and similar settings. (Source: BMJ Open)
Is the promise of methadone Kenya's solution to managing HIV and addiction? A mixed-method mathematical modelling and qualitative study
Conclusions Methadone offers HIV prevention potential, but there is a need to better model the effects of sexual HIV transmission in mediating the impact of OST among PWID in settings characterised by a combination of generalised and concentrated epidemics. We find that individual and community narratives of methadone as hope for recovery coexist with policy narratives positioning methadone primarily in relation to HIV prevention. Our analyses show the value of mixed methods approaches to investigating newly-introduced interventions. (Source: BMJ Open)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
The Implementation of a Tobacco Use Registry in an Academic Family Practice
Conclusions: The tobacco use decision support tool resulted in an increase in provider confidence in prescribing cessation medications without lengthening the duration of patients' visits, and the tool continues to be used routinely in the practice 2 years after introduction, indicating sustainability. The use of a tobacco use registry and decision support tool aids in standardizing care and overcoming barriers to cessation counseling. (Source: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine)
Analysis of RNA decay factor mediated RNA stability contributions on RNA abundance
Conclusions: Integrative analysis of ChIP-seq, RNA-seq and our BRIC-seq showed that transcriptional regulation and RNA degradation are independently regulated. In addition, RNA stability is an important determinant of eventual transcript levels. RNA binding proteins, such as UPF1, STAU1 and EXOSC5 may play active roles in such controls. (Source: BMC Genomics)
The Value of Personalizing Medicine: Medical Oncologists' Views on Gene Expression Profiling in Breast Cancer Treatment.
CONCLUSION: Oncologists valued the test as a treatment-decision support tool despite their concerns about its cost, over-reliance, overuse, and inappropriate use by other oncologists, as well as patients' limited understanding of GEP. The results identify a need for decision aids to support patients' understanding and clinical practice guidelines to facilitate standardized use of the test. PMID: 25746345 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Oncologist)
Top takeaways from TEDxBirmingham
The theme of climbing mountains at this year's TEDxBirmingham resounded through many of the dozen or so speeches from mostly local business and civic leaders. Ways to overcome obstacles were offered before a packed crowd of about 400 at the event at Alys Stephens Center on Feb. 28. Talking about health care and changes needed, Dr. Michael Saag, one of the leading physician researchers in the fight against HIV/AIDS at the University of Alabama at Birmingham, said the American health care system? (Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Biotechnology headlines)
Liberia: Features USAID-Supported HIV Research International Journal
[Inquirer] The U.S. Government, through the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), and in partnership with the Johns Hopkins University Center for AIDS Research, the Foundation for AIDS Research, and the National Institutes of Health, announces the release of a special issue of the Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (JAIDS) entitled, "HIV Risks and Vulnerabilities among Key Populations in West and Central Africa--Evidence to Inform HIV Prevention, Treatment, and Care." (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Using feedback from patient-reported outcome measures in mental health services: a scoping study and typology.
CONCLUSIONS: The proposed procedural typology helps explain the diversity of results from studies reporting on the effects of PROM feedback, by highlighting that PROM feedback appears to be more effective when integrated in a formalized and structured manner. Future work is required to isolate these effects from common procedural correlates, such as monitoring of the therapeutic alliance. PMID: 25727110 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Psychiatric Services)
South Africa: Cricketers Team Up to Support Efforts to End the Aids Epidemic
[UNAIDS] Auckland/Geneva -At the Cricket World Cup 2015, cricketing champions show their commitment to raise awareness around HIV and break down stigma and discrimination (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Kenya: Make ARVs Available to Deserving Women and Teenagers - President Kenyatta
[Kenya Presidency] President Uhuru Kenyatta has directed County Commissioners to help identify HIV/AIDS positive women and teenagers to be placed on life-saving medication. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: Cancer Kills More People Than Malaria, HIV and TB, Expert Says
[This Day] Cancer kills more people globally than malaria, HIV and Tuberculosis (TB) combined, and impacts on low to middle- income countries like Nigeria. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Nigeria: 'AIDS Was Passed to Humans From African Gorillas, Chimpanzees'6
[Guardian] The origin of HIV has baffled scientists since 1984 when it was first shown it causes AIDS. Evidence soon pointed to Africa and a similar virus in chimpanzees. Many scientists suspect that the chimp virus jumped into humans who hunt and butcher these great apes. But gorillas are now emerging as having played a supporting role in the AIDS epidemic - possibly by humans hunting them. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: USAID-Supported HIV Research Features in International Journal
[Guardian] THE United States Government, acting through the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), in partnership with the Johns Hopkins University Center for AIDS Research, the Foundation for AIDS Research, and the National Institutes of Health, announces the release of a special issue of the Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (JAIDS) titled "HIV Risks and Vulnerabilities among Key Populations in West and Central Africa--Evidence to Inform HIV Prevention, Treatment, and Care." (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Botswana: Sowa Town Uses Drama to Fight HIV/Aids
[Botswana Daily News] Sowa -Sowa Town Primary Health Care services under the Ministry of Health has partnered with Shadows Arts production to disseminate information and sensitise employees about the effects of HIV and AIDS at the work place. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: HIV/Aids - NACA Commends FG for Anti-Stigma Law
[This Day] The Director-General, National Agency for the Control of AIDS (NACA), Professor John Idoko has commended President Goodluck Jonathan for signing the HIV and AIDS Anti-discrimination ACT 2014 into law. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
The comparative efficacy of first? versus second?generation electronic cigarettes in reducing symptoms of nicotine withdrawal
ConclusionsSecond?generation e?cigarettes seem to be more effective in reducing symptoms of nicotine withdrawal than do first?generation e?cigarettes. (Source: Addiction)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Updated HHS Pediatric Antiretroviral Treatment Guidelines Released
The HHS Panel on Antiretroviral Therapy and Medical Management of HIV-Infected Children announces the release of the updated Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in Pediatric HIV Infection.&nbsp; For a complete preview of key updates to the guidelines, please see What's New in the Guidelines. Additions and revisions are also highlighted in yellow throughout the text and tables of the guidelines. To view or download the guidelines, go to the Pediatric Guidelines section of AIDSinfo. Separate PDF files of the tables or recommendations can also be downloaded from the page. Your Feedback Is Welcome&nbsp; Feedback on the latest revisions to the Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in Pediatric HIV Infection is welcome. Please send your comments with the subject line &l...
An assessment of adverse drug reactions among HIV positive patients receiving antiretroviral treatment in South Africa
This study aimed at modelling the timing of ADR events in HIV patients on ART using correlated time-to-event models. Methods: The data concern 590 HIV patients registered onto the Medunsa National ARV Pharmacovigilance Surveillance System within 6 months of ART initiation between February 2007 and July 2011. Recurrent times of ADRs and baseline characteristics: patient gender, and age, ART regimen, clinic and initiation period were extracted from the data. The recurrent ADR events data were modelled using both shared frailty and marginal models on the five patients? characteristics as covariates. Results: Out of 590 patients, 67% were female, 68% started on regimen: Stavudine, Lamivudine and Efavirenz; 37% had experienced at least one ADR and 67% started ART in 2009?2011. Age (p-value...
Promoting Health Literacy in an HIV-infected Population: Creating Staff Awareness
It is becoming increasingly apparent that a lack of health literacy has significant consequences for patients. Health literacy has a considerable impact on patient health. A number of health outcomes are associated with lack of health literacy, including risk for hospitalization and risk for mortality (Ownby, Waldrop-Valverde, & Taha, 2012). With the advent of highly effective antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV has become a chronic, manageable disease. There is evidence that, for patients to live well with chronic disease, health literacy is essential (Dister, Gallagher & Davidson, 2012; Shaw, Huebner, Armin, Orzech, & Vivian, 2009). (Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)
Caught in the Middle: The Contested Politics of HIV/AIDS and Health Policy in Vietnam
Drawing on the changing landscape of responses to HIV in Vietnam, this article describes the key players and analyzes the relationships between global players and local interests, including both the omnipresent state and an emerging civil society presence. We discuss the critical importance of timing for policy intervention and the role of health policy in shaping the broader social terrain. The interventions of external actors such as the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) and the Global Fund were instrumental in improving both policies and programs at a critical juncture, when the national responses to the epidemic had been ineffective. At the same time, those global interventions met resistance and led to unintended consequences, both welcome and unwelcome. Furthermo...
International Institutions and China's Health Policy
This article examines the role of international institutional actors in China's health policy process. Particular attention is paid to three major international institutional actors: the World Bank, the World Health Organization, and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Through process tracing and comparative case studies, the article looks at how international institutions contribute to policy change in China and seeks to explain different outcomes in the relationship between international institutions and China's health policies. It finds that despite the opaque and exclusive authoritarian structure in China, international institutions play a significant role in the country's domestic health governance. By investing their resources and capabilities selectively and str...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
The occurrence and characteristics of pain in HIV-1 positive persons ? A challenge in the aging population
Conclusion Almost 40% of respondents reported chronic pain. We have found a strong correlation between age and chronic pain in the HIV infected population with the 7% increase in the odds of experiencing pain with each year of age. (Source: HIV and AIDS Review)
Mechanisms of prolonged lithium therapy-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.
Authors: Behl T, Kotwani A, Kaur I, Goel H Abstract Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is a clinical sub-type of a diversely expounded disorder, named diabetes insipidus. It is characterized by inability of the renal cells to sense and respond to the stimulus of vasopressin. Amongst its various etiologies, one of the most inevitable causes includes lithium-induced instigation. Numerous studies reported marked histological damage to the kidneys upon long-term treatment with lithium. The recent researches have hypothesized many lithium-mediated mechanisms to explain the damage and dysfunction caused in the kidneys following lithium exposure. These mechanisms, widely, intend to justify the lithium-induced electrolyte imbalance, its interference with some vital proteins and a specific ster...
HIV and adolescents: focus on young key populations.
Authors: Bekker LG, Hosek S PMID: 25726947 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Regional Variation in HIV Clinical Trials Participation in the United States.
CONCLUSIONS: Significant regional variations in knowledge of and participation in HIV clinical trials exist. Our results suggest that increasing awareness and understanding of research studies, particularly among African Americans in the South, may facilitate HIV clinical trial participation that is more representative of the HIV-infected population across the United States. PMID: 25688896 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Southern Medical Journal)
Migration patterns among Floridians with AIDS, 1993-2007: implications for HIV prevention and care.
CONCLUSIONS: A sizable percentage of people, particularly younger people and people with a transmission mode of IDU and IDU&MSM, migrated at least once between the time of their AIDS diagnosis and death. This has important implications for care and treatment, as well as efforts to prevent the disease. Further research is needed to explore barriers and facilitators to access to care upon migration and to assess the need for programs to help people transfer their human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS care, ensuring continuity of care and adherence. PMID: 25188615 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Southern Medical Journal)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Event Information: A National Webinar on Patient-Centered Outcomes Research (PCOR) and the Use of Decision Aids to Facilitate Shared Decision Making
Registration is required for this webinar, being held Wednesday, March 18, 2015 at 3:30 pm (ET). (Source: HSR Information Central)
Nigeria: FG Earmarks N8 Billion for HIV/Aids Project
[Daily Trust] Enugu -The federal government said it had set aside N8 billion for funding of HIV/AIDS intervention project, with the aim of taking over owner-ship. Deputy Director, Finance, Natio-nal Agency for the Control of AIDS (NACA), Dr. Kenneth Kalu, said this during a stakeholders' meeting in Umuahia, Abia State. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Uganda: HIV/Aids Complicates Fight Against Kala-Azar
[Observer] As if suffering from the deadly kala-azar, a neglected tropical disease, was not bad enough, both Bernard Argaw and Mulat Meseret* are also victims of the HIV/Aids pandemic, which further complicates global efforts to fight these two fatal illnesses. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Botswana: NACA Introduces Catch Model to Fight HIV
[Botswana Daily News] Maun -In an effort to promote HIV Testing and Counselling Campaign, National Aids Coordinating Agency (NACA) has come up with a new initiative dubbed 'CATCH model' which aims to develop a comprehensive HIV prevention delivery plan. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: 'HIV/Aids Could Be Eradicated By 2020'
[Guardian] Ilorin -AS states commit to greater awareness creation among citizens and researches improving globally, a complete eradication of HIV/AIDS in Nigeria could be feasible by the year 2020, Kwara State Commissioner for Health, Kayode Issa, has said. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Zimbabwe: 'All In' to End HIV, Aids Epidemic Among Adolescents
[The Herald] While major advances have been made in almost every area in response to HIV, progress for adolescents is falling behind, say leaders in the global response to end the AIDS epidemic. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: HIV Trial Holds Promise for Preventing Infection
[SciDev.Net] Although antiretroviral drugs are not a cure, they can stop people infected with HIV from developing AIDS by keeping the amount of virus in the body low. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Zimbabwe: Farmers Blasted for Using ARVs in Chicken Feed
[The Herald] The National Aids Council has warned poultry farmers against using anti-retroviral drugs to fast-track the growth of their chickens as doing so has a long term effects on consumers. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Zimbabwe: Man Kills Self After Testing HIV Positive
[New Zimbabwe] A NYANGA man, who could not cope with testing positive for HIV, recently took his own life by drinking a pesticide. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Medicationdiscountcard.com recognizes sleep awareness week with...
Rest Easy During Sleep Awareness Week With Discount Cards on Top Sleep Aids From Medicationdiscountcard.com(PRWeb March 03, 2015)Read the full story at http://www.prweb.com/releases/sleep/lunesta-sonata-ambien/prweb12557379.htm (Source: PRWeb: Medical Pharmaceuticals)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Toxoplasma gondii: A rare pathogen causing a neurological immune inflammatory reconstitution syndrome in HIV infected patient
We report a case of cerebral toxoplasmosis-IRIS in an HIV infected patient with a favorable outcome. (Source: HIV and AIDS Review)
The HIV-1 transgenic rat model of neuroHIV
Publication date: Available online 27 February 2015 Source:Brain, Behavior, and Immunity Author(s): Michael Vigorito , Kaitlyn P. Connaghan , Sulie L. Chang Despite the ability of current combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART) to limit the progression of HIV-1 to AIDS, HIV-positive individuals continue to experience neuroHIV in the form of HIV-associated neurological disorders (HAND), which can range from subtle to substantial neurocognitive impairment. NeuroHIV may also influence substance use, abuse, and dependence in HIV-positive individuals. Because of the nature of the virus, variables such as mental health co-morbidities make it difficult to study the interaction between HIV and substance abuse in human populations. Several rodent models have been developed in an attempt to stu...
Optical reading aids for children and young people with low vision.
CONCLUSIONS: There is a lack of good quality evidence regarding the use of optical low vision aids in children and young people. As such, no implications for practice can be drawn. We believe future research should include functional outcome measures such as reading speed, accuracy and comprehension, as well as the effect of low vision aids on quality of life, in order to truly assess and compare the effect of these devices on a child's life and development. PMID: 25738963 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews)
Willingness to Take PrEP and Potential for Risk Compensation Among Highly Sexually Active Gay and Bisexual Men
Abstract Once-daily Truvada (Emtricitabine/Tenofovir) as a method of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is one of the most promising biomedical interventions to eliminate new HIV infections; however, uptake among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men has been slow amidst growing concern in popular/social media that PrEP use will result in reduced condom use (i.e., risk compensation). We investigated demographic, behavioral, and psychosocial differences in willingness to use PrEP as well as the perceived impact of PrEP on participants? condom use in a sample of 206 highly sexually active HIV-negative gay and bisexual men. Nearly half (46.1 %) said they would be willing to take PrEP if it were provided at no cost. Although men willing to take PrEP (vs. others) reported ...
Bone-conduction hearing aids in an elderly population: complications and quality of life assessment
Abstract To determine whether an elderly population with hearing impairment can be adequately rehabilitated with a bone-conduction hearing aid and whether the putative relationship between the elderly and an increased complication rate is justified. The study design was a retrospective case note review with a postal and telephone questionnaire, which was carried out in a tertiary centre. All patients aged 60 or over underwent implantation with a bone-conduction aid between 2009 and 2013 for conductive, SSD or mixed hearing loss. Outcome measures were complication rates and quality of life assessment using the Glasgow Benefit Inventory. The influence of patient and surgical factors on the complication rate was assessed. Fifty-one patients were implanted. Mean age was 67 years (ran...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
After cochlear implant surgery, Isabelle celebrates two birthdays in one month
February is a pretty special month for Isabelle. She and her twin sister Jasmine celebrated their seventh birthdays on February 20. But February 4 belongs to Isabelle alone.  ?We call it her hearing birthday. It?s one year from the date when her cochlear implants were activated,? says Isabelle?s mother Vicki Labriola. &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; Diagnosed with progressive hearing loss shortly after birth, Isabelle was fitted with hearing aids at six weeks of age. But cochlear implants?surgically implanted devices that provide a sense of sound to the profoundly deaf or hard of hearing?were the best option. As her hearing loss progressed, hearing aids could no longer meet her needs. The implanted devices, provided in concert with services from Boston Children?s Cochlear Implant Prog...
Nigeria: Kaduna Records Improvement in HIV Care, Prevention
[Daily Trust]Kaduna -The Kaduna State government has recorded quality improvement in HIV care and reduced the rate of mother-to-child transmission. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Patients With HIV More Likely to Smoke, Less Likely to QuitPatients With HIV More Likely to Smoke, Less Likely to Quit
More than 4 in 10 of US adults receiving medical care for HIV infection are current smokers. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)
Nigeria: Islamic Teacher Infects Students With HIV/Aids
[Independent (Lagos)]Yola -An Islamic teacher, Mallam Alhassan Adamu, with the Tappare-Ganye Community Islamic Centre in Yola has been arrested by the Adamawa State Police Command for allegedly rapping and infecting some of the students with HIV/AIDS. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: On National Response to HIV/Aids
[Independent (Lagos)]This Newspaper believes that more should be done in the area of giving information on the consequences of unprotected sex... On the whole stakeholders must join hands with NACA to get HIV/AIDS infection to zero discrimination, zero new infections and zero AIDS-related deaths (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Zimbabwe: Zimbabweans Shun Free Condoms, Says Govt Official
[New Zimbabwe]THE ministry of health has expressed concern at the low uptake of condoms provided for free in public health institutions with most people apparently opting for those sold by vendors on the streets. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Risk Perception and Knowledge About Osteoporosis: Well Informed But Not Aware? A Cross-Sectional Study
Abstract Identify the level of knowledge and risk perception of developing osteoporosis (OP) and its association with socio-demographic variables and risk factors. Individuals older than 18 years living in Mexico City were surveyed. The sample, which was designed to be representative of this population, was randomly selected and stratified by socioeconomic level, age, and sex. The Multiple Osteoporosis Prevention Survey, designed to assess OP-related knowledge, risk perception, was used. Four hundred and fifty-five individuals, homogeneously distributed according to defined strata, were surveyed. Almost 29 % (28.9 %) of subjects consumed tobacco, and 13.4 % had a family history of OP. Most subjects reported a lower-than-recommended calcium daily intake. Fifty-three and a half ...
Payment delays dent India's flagship health, AIDS programmes
The funds involved amounted to about one-third of the total federal spending on health, and led to further deterioration in India's tattered public health system. (Source: The Economic Times)
Exclusive: Payment delays dent India's flagship health, AIDS programs
NEW DELHI (Reuters) - India's main public health programs, aimed at millions of rural poor, have been in disarray for months because the government changed the way that over $1.3 billion in federal funds were distributed, according to data and letters seen by Reuters. (Source: Reuters: Health)
Neonatal pustular dermatosis: An overview
Sangita GhoshIndian Journal of Dermatology 2015 60(2):211-211Neonatal pustular eruption is a group of disorders characterized by various forms of pustulosis seen in first 4 weeks of life. Its presentation is often similar with some subtle differences, which can be further established by few simple laboratory aids, to arrive at a definite diagnosis. Given their ubiquitous presentation, it is sometimes difficult to differentiate among self-limiting, noninfectious, pustular dermatosis such as erythema toxicum neonatorum, transient neonatal pustular melanosis, miliaria pustulosa, etc., and potentially life threatening infections such as herpes simplex virus and varicella zoster virus infections. This review article tries to address the chronological, clinical, morphological, and histological d...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Physical Activity is Associated with Better Neurocognitive and Everyday Functioning Among Older Adults with HIV Disease
We examined the association between physical activity (PA), neurocognitive impairment (NCI), and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) among older HIV+ persons. One hundred older HIV+ adults completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, a neurocognitive battery, and IADL scale. Higher levels of moderate PA were associated with lower odds of NCI (p = 0.01), even when covariates were modeled. The association between moderate PA and NCI was driven by executive function (p = 0.04). Higher levels of moderate PA were also associated with lower odds of IADL Dependence (p = 0.03), although this fell to a trend (p = 0.08) when including covariates. Follow-up analysis showed those with both NCI and IADL Dependence had lower moderate PA than those with neither (p =...
Providing ART to HIV Seropositive Persons Who Use Drugs: Progress in New York City, Prospects for ?Ending the Epidemic?
We examined progress in placing HIV seropositive persons who inject drugs (PWID) and HIV seropositive non-injecting drug users (NIDU) onto antiretroviral treatment (ART) in New York City over the last 15 years. We recruited 3511 PWID and 3543 NIDU from persons voluntarily entering drug detoxification and methadone maintenance treatment programs in New York City from 2001 to 2014. HIV prevalence declined significantly among both PWID and NIDU. The percentage who reported receiving ART increased significantly, from approximately 50 % (2001?2005) to approximately 75 % (2012?2014). There were no racial/ethnic disparities in the percentages of HIV seropositive persons who were on ART. Continued improvement in ART uptake and TasP and maintenance of other prevention and care services shoul...
HIV Among Indigenous peoples: A Review of the Literature on HIV-Related Behaviour Since the Beginning of the Epidemic
Abstract From the early days of the HIV epidemic, Indigenous peoples were identified as a population group that experiences social and economic determinants?including colonialism and racism?that increase exposure to HIV. There are now substantial disparities in HIV rates between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples in some countries. We conducted a comprehensive literature review to assess the evidence on HIV-related behaviors and determinants in four countries?Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States?in which Indigenous peoples share important features of colonization and marginalization. We identified 107 articles over more than 20 years. The review highlights the determinants of HIV-related behaviors including domestic violence, stigma and discrimination, ...
Half of Known Strains of HIV Originated in Gorillas
Two of four classes of the AIDS-causing virus arose in these large primates, international study finds Source: HealthDay Related MedlinePlus Page: HIV/AIDS (Source: MedlinePlus Health News)
A cross-sectional assessment of the prevalence of multiple chronic conditions and medication use in a sample of community-dwelling adults with fibromyalgia in Olmsted County, Minnesota
Conclusions The results of our study highlight the problem of multiple chronic conditions and high prevalence of polypharmacy in fibromyalgia. Clinicians who care for patients with fibromyalgia should take into consideration the presence of multiple chronic conditions when recommending medications. (Source: BMJ Open)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Baseline traits of patients presenting at a low vision clinic in Shanghai, China
Conclusions: The majority of the patients in our low vision clinic were young, the main causes of visual impairment were congenital and hereditary diseases. Stand magnifiers were the most commonly dispensed LVAs. High price was the major reason for refusing LVAs. (Source: BMC Ophthalmology)
Exclusive: Payment delays dent India's flagship health, AIDS programs
NEW DELHI (Reuters) - India's main public health programs, aimed at millions of rural poor, have been in disarray for months because the government changed the way that over $1.3 billion in federal funds were distributed, according to data and letters seen by Reuters. (Source: Reuters: Health)
Study finds gorilla origins in half of human AIDS virus lineages
WASHINGTON (Reuters) - Revealing new details about the origins of AIDS, scientists said on Monday half the lineages of the main type of human immunodeficiency virus, HIV-1, originated in gorillas in Cameroon before infecting people, probably via bushmeat hunting. (Source: Reuters: Health)
AIDS was passed to humans from gorillas as well as chimpanzees
Two of the four known strains of viruses that cause HIV have been traced back to western lowland gorillas that share 98 per cent of human DNA, Pennsylvania University scientists found. (Source: the Mail online | Health)
The HIV Test at 30: More Essential Than Ever
Early in the AIDS epidemic, there was so much we didn't know -- what caused the disease, how it was spread or how to treat it. But, once scientists were able to isolate and establish a virus -- HIV -- as the cause of AIDS, that all began to change. For one thing, knowing what to look for allowed scientists to begin developing a test to detect HIV. Thirty years ago today -- on March 2, 1985 -- the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved the first commercial HIV blood test. This was a major breakthrough. Testing meant that the blood supply could be essentially freed of HIV, and helped scientists and public health officials determine the extent of the epidemic. Testing also gave individuals the power of knowing their status, and enabled them to protect their partners, if infected. Earl...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Gambia: 'No One Should Be Left Behind in Accessing Treatment'
[The Point]Ms Sirah Ndow, country director UNAIDS, has said universal access calls for comprehensive provision of HIV services, including access to treatment services that are accessible, acceptable, affordable, available, equitable, and sustainable as well as free from any form of stigma or discrimination. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Mon Valley Hospital aids cancer patients with co-pays
Dealing with cancer is bad enough without having to worry about the cost of prescription drugs. That was the thinking at Monongahela Valley Hospital, where the staff helps patients find independent sources of funding for prescription drug co-pays and other bills. And the program has been remarkably successful: During the past three years alone, the hospital staff has helped patients find $1.6 million in co-pay assistance and free chemotherapy prescriptions. It all started eight years ago when a? (Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Biotechnology headlines)
Tanzania: Poor Nutrition Fuelling Aids Patients Deaths
[Arusha Times]When people suffering from HIV and Aids succumb to the disease, sometimes it is not due to infections only, if the Arusha situation is anything to by, they could be dying also because of poor nutrition (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Zimbabwe: Stamps Blames Catholics, SDA for HIV Stigma
[New Zimbabwe]HEALTH Advisor to the President and Cabinet Dr Timothy Stamps has blamed the churches for the persistence of HIV related stigma and the country's failure to effectively deal with the pandemic. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: Police Arrest Teacher for Allegedly Raping, Infecting Victim With HIV
[Premium Times]The Adamawa State Police Command has confirmed the arrest of Alhassan Adamu, a teacher at Tappare-Ganye Community Islamic Centre, for allegedly raping and infecting at least one student of the centre with HIV/AIDS. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Nigeria: Nigeria's HIV/Aids Situation May Worsen - Naca
[Independent (Lagos)]Abuja -Despite the decline in the prevalence rate of HIV/AIDS in Nigeria, the behavioural pattern of Nigerians has not changed as the National Agency for the Control of AIDS (NACA) has said that illicit sex, among all categories of age groups, is on the rise in the country. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: Rotary Empowers Widows, Orphans, HIV Positive Persons
[Leadership]As part of its family of Rotary International day celebrations, the Rotary Club of Abuja Maitama, marked the day in a grand style, by empowering widows, orphans and HIV positive persons in the Vantaged Teen Centre, Bwari. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: UNAIDS Hails Nigeria's Signing of HIV Anti-Discrimination Law
[Guardian]AHEAD of the World Zero Discrimination Day tomorrow, the Joint United Nations Programme on AIDS (UNAIDS) has expressed full support of the Federal Government of Nigeria for her commitment towards ending stigma and discrimination against people living with and affected by Human Immuno-deficiency Virus (HIV), even as the world body hails President Goodluck Jonathan for signing the HIV/AIDS Anti-Discrimination Law. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Improving Neurocognitive Outcomes in HIV-Infected ChildrenImproving Neurocognitive Outcomes in HIV-Infected Children
Children with HIV are vulnerable to subtle-to-severe neurocognitive problems. Early viral suppression may improve those outcomes. AIDS (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
VG Life Sciences granted key composition of matter patent
(Viral Genetics, Inc.) VG Life Sciences, Inc., a biotechnology company developing therapies for autoimmune and infectious diseases, has been issued an important composition of matter patent covering methods for modulating immune system function through the targeting of CLIP. The US patent covers the targeted peptide technology underlying VG Life Sciences' VG1177, a synthetic peptide which has the ability to displace CLIP that plays a key role in chronic inflammation and autoimmune diseases, including HIV/AIDS, hypertension, preeclampsia and TBI. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Gorilla origins of the last two AIDS virus lineages confirmed
(University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine) Two of the four known groups of human AIDS viruses (HIV-1 groups O and P) have originated in western lowland gorillas, according to an international team of scientists. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)
Building our youth for the future.
Authors: Bekker LG, Johnson L, Wallace M, Hosek S Abstract Adolescents and young adults are at increased risk for HIV due to the many developmental, psychological, social, and structural transitions that converge in this period of the lifespan. In addition, adolescent deaths resulting from HIV continue to rise despite declines in other age groups. There are also young key populations (YKPs) that bear disproportionate burdens of HIV and are the most vulnerable, including young men who have sex with men (MSM), transgender youth, young people who inject drugs, and adolescent and young adult sex workers. As a society, we must do more to stop new HIV infections and untimely HIV-related deaths through both primary and secondary prevention and better management approaches. Using an interw...
Providing comprehensive health services for young key populations: needs, barriers and gaps.
Discussion: YKP require comprehensive, integrated services that respond to their specific developmental needs, including health, educational and social services within the context of a human rights-based approach. The recent WHO Consolidated Guidelines on HIV Prevention, Diagnosis, Treatment and Care for Key Populations are an important first step for a more comprehensive approach to HIV programming for YKP, but there are limited data on the effective delivery of combined interventions for YKP. Significant investments in research and implementation will be required to ensure adequate provision and coverage of services for YKP. In addition, greater commitments to harm reduction and rights-based approaches are needed to address structural barriers to access to care. PMID: 25724511 [PubMe...
"We don't need services. We have no problems": exploring the experiences of young people who inject drugs in accessing harm reduction services.
Conclusions: The consultations provide a rare insight into the lived experiences of adolescents who inject drugs and highlight the dissonance between their reality and current policy and programmatic approaches. Findings suggest that harm reduction and HIV policies and programmes should adapt the comprehensive package to reach young people and explore linkages to other sectors such as education and employment to ensure they are fully supported and protected. Continued participation of the community of young people who inject drugs can help ensure policy and programmes respond to the social exclusion and denial of rights and prevent HIV infection among adolescents who inject drugs. PMID: 25724510 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Young key populations and HIV: a special emphasis and consideration in the new WHO Consolidated Guidelines on HIV Prevention, Diagnosis, Treatment and Care for Key Populations.
Authors: Baggaley R, Armstrong A, Dodd Z, Ngoksin E, Krug A PMID: 25724509 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
"First, do no harm": legal guidelines for health programmes affecting adolescents aged 10-17 who sell sex or inject drugs.
Conclusions: Controlling international law specifies that protective interventions among KPs aged 10-17 must not only include low-threshold, voluntary services but also "protect" adolescent KPs from the harms attendant to law-enforcement-based interventions. Going forward, health practitioners must honour the right to health by adjusting programmes according to principles of minimum intervention, due process and proportionality, and duly limit juvenile justice and child protection involvement as a measure of last resort, if any. PMID: 25724508 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Tailored combination prevention packages and PrEP for young key populations.
Conclusions: Reductions in HIV incidence will only be achieved through the implementation of combinations of interventions that include biomedical and behavioural interventions, as well as components that address social, economic and other structural factors that influence HIV prevention and transmission. PMID: 25724507 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
HIV testing and linkage to services for youth.
Conclusions: Young people worldwide need more routine access to HIV testing services that effectively address the developmental, socio-political and other issues faced by young women and men. PMID: 25724506 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Mental health and support among young key populations: an ecological approach to understanding and intervention.
Conclusions: We put forth recommendations for future research and strategies to address the mental wellbeing of YKPs, including the need for integrated interventions that address the multiplicity of risk factors inherent in the multiple group membership, rather than single-focus interventions whilst addressing the unique needs or challenges of YKPs. PMID: 25724505 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Adolescent girls and young women: key populations for HIV epidemic control.
Conclusions: There is an urgent need to meet the HIV prevention needs of adolescent girls and young women, particularly those who are unable to negotiate monogamy, condom use and/or male circumcision. Concerted efforts to expand the prevention options available to these young women in terms of the development of novel HIV-specific biomedical, structural and behavioural interventions are urgently needed for epidemic control. In the interim, a pragmatic approach of integrating existing HIV prevention efforts into broader sexual reproductive health services is a public health imperative. PMID: 25724504 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Review: An urgent need for research on factors impacting adherence to and retention in care among HIV-positive youth and adolescents from key populations.
Conclusions: There is an urgent need for more systematic research in YKP. Current limited evidence suggests that healthcare delivery should be tailored to the unique needs of YKP. Thus, research on YKP could be used to inform future interventions to improve access to treatment and management of co-morbidities related to HIV, to ease the transition from paediatric to adult care and to increase uptake of secondary prevention methods. PMID: 25724503 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
HIV Care Continuum for HIV-Infected Emergency Department Patients in an Inner-City Academic Emergency Department
Conclusion To our knowledge, this study is the first to quantify gaps in HIV care for an ED patient population, with the HIV Care Continuum as a framework. Our findings identified distinct phases (ie, testing, provider awareness of HIV diagnosis, and linkage to care) in which the greatest opportunities for intervention exist, if appropriate resources were allocated. This schema could serve as a model for other indolent treatable diseases frequently observed in EDs, where continuity of care is critical. (Source: Annals of Emergency Medicine)
Changing Policy and Practice in the Control of Pediatric Schistosomiasis
Schistosomiasis is a chronic disease that affects ~200 million people. The extended health impact of the disease has been estimated to exceed that of malaria or tuberculosis and to be nearer to that of HIV/AIDS. Within endemic areas, children carry the heaviest burden of infection. Infection/disease is controlled by the treatment of infected subjects with the anthelminthic drug praziquantel. Global initiatives from Partners of Parasite Control, including the World Health Organization (WHO), advocate regular school-based deworming strategies to reduce the development of severe morbidity, promote school&ndash;child health and development, and improve the cognitive potential of children. Until recently, preschool-aged children were excluded from schistosome treatment, creating a health inequi...
Compulsory Licensing Often Did Not Produce Lower Prices For Antiretrovirals Compared To International Procurement [Drug Pricing]
Compulsory licensing has been widely suggested as a legal mechanism for bypassing patents to introduce lower-cost generic antiretrovirals for HIV/AIDS in developing countries. Previous studies found that compulsory licensing can reduce procurement prices for drugs, but it is unknown how the resulting prices compare to procurements through the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria; UNICEF; and other international channels. For this study we systematically constructed a case-study database of compulsory licensing activity for antiretrovirals and compared compulsory license prices to those in the World Health Organization&rsquo;s (WHO&rsquo;s) Global Price Reporting Mechanism and the Global Fund&rsquo;s Price and Quality Reporting Tool. Thirty compulsory license cases were anal...
Zimbabwe: Patients to Monitor Aids Services At Hospitals
[New Zimbabwe]THE Zimbabwe HIV and AIDS Activist Union Community Trust ZHAAU-CT is setting up committees led by people living with HIV with the intention of monitoring access to and availability of AIDS services in the country's heath care centres. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Nigeria: UNAIDS Charges Religious, Traditional Leaders to Support HIV/Aids Patients
[Independent (Lagos)]Abuja -The Country Director of United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) for Nigeria, Dr. Bilali Camara, has called on traditional and religious leaders in the country to add their voices to the call for more compassion, tolerance and peace for people living with or affected by HIV/AIDS in the country. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Knowledge, Attitudes, Beliefs, and Practices in Registered Nurses and Care Aids About Urinary Incontinence in Korean Nursing Homes: A Cross-sectional Survey
CONCLUSIONS: Attitude plays an important role in continence care practice for both RNs and care aids in Korean nursing homes. In addition, continence care practice of RNs may be influenced by updating clinical competencies. For care aids, continence care practice can be influenced by improving basic knowledge of urinary incontinence. (Source: Journal of Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nursing)
Multilevel Drivers of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Among Black Philadelphians: Exploration Using Community Ethnography and Geographic Information Systems
This study was a first step to disentangle relationships between community-level factors and potential risk for HIV in an HIV epicenter. The findings also highlight stark sociodemographic differences within and across racial groups and further substantiate the need for comprehensive, community-level HIV prevention interventions. These findings from targeted U.S. urban communities have potential applicability for examining the distribution of HIV/AIDS in broader national and international geosocial contexts. (Source: Nursing Research)
Treatment of Tobacco Use Disorders in Smokers with Serious Mental Illness: Toward Clinical Best Practices
Abstract: Addiction to tobacco-derived nicotine remains highly prevalent in the United States, with 18% using daily, and 53% of those with serious mental illness using daily. While smokers with serious mental illness have been excluded from most large nicotine-dependence treatment studies, a growing evidence base is available to guide clinicians in assisting their patients with psychiatric illness to quit smoking. The aim of this review is to present the evidence on safety and efficacy of smoking cessation interventions for those with serious mental illness. Smokers with schizophrenia spectrum disorders should receive varenicline or bupropion with or without nicotine replacement therapy in combination with behavioral treatment. Although more research is needed, preliminary evidence suggest...
Why do patients regret their prostate cancer treatment? A systematic review of regret after treatment for localized prostate cancer
ConclusionsThis is the first systematic review of regret following treatment for localized prostate cancer. Suggestions for the future study of regret in this setting can be made. These include the use of a standardized scale; recognizing levels of regret as low, medium or high; and separately identifying the decision made when patients have combinations of treatments such as surgery followed by radiotherapy. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. (Source: Psycho-Oncology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Hear Better? Never Say Never When?if ever?is a child who successfully uses bilateral hearing aids a candidate for cochlear implants?
Courtesy of Advanced Bionics LLC (Source: The ASHA Leader Online)
Boning Up on BAIs How do you answer when a parent asks you: When is a bone-anchored implant the right choice for my child?and why choose this option over traditional hearing aids or a cochlear implant? We talked with a pediatric audiologist for the latest intelligence.
Image provided courtesy of Cochlear Americas, © 2014 Cochlear Americas. (Source: The ASHA Leader Online)
Cognitive Aids in Medicine Assessment Tool (CMAT): preliminary validation of a novel tool for the assessment of emergency cognitive aids
Summary Applying human factors principles to the design of clinical emergency guidelines is important. The UK Civil Aviation Authority uses a Checklist Assessment Tool for evaluating the content and usability of emergency drills before introduction into service on aircraft. We hypothesised that this model could be used to develop a generic medical tool. A three?stage modified Delphi process was used to adapt the above tool for use in designing medical emergency guidelines. The resulting Cognitive aids in Medicine Assessment Tool was then used to score and rank seven published difficult airway guidelines; the scores were used to assess its validity and reliability. Pearson's rank coefficient between these scores and scores from independent assessors was 0.89 (p = 0.007). Internal consis...
Uptake of HIV Testing in Substance Use Disorder Treatment Programs That Offer On-Site Testing
Abstract Increasing rates of HIV testing within substance use disorder (SUD) treatment clients is an important public health strategy for reducing HIV transmission rates. The present study examined uptake of HIV testing among 1,224 clients in five SUD treatment units that offered on-site testing in Florida, New York, and California. Nearly one-third (30 %) of the participants, who had not previously tested positive, reported not having been tested for HIV within the past 12 months. Women, African Americans, and injection drug users had a higher likelihood of having been tested within the past 12 months. The SUD treatment program was the most frequently identified location of participants? last HIV test. Despite the availability of free, on-site testing, a substantial propor...
The Effects of Sexual Sensation Seeking and Alcohol Use on Risky Sexual Behavior Among Men Who Have Sex with Men
Abstract Men who have sex with men (MSM) remain most at risk for developing HIV infection. The best prevention in this population is to identify risk factors associated with unprotected sex. Recent research suggests that sexual sensation seeking (SSS) and level of average drinking moderates the relationship between drinking alcohol in the context of sex and risky sexual behavior in a young MSM population (ages 16?20 years). Current study is an exploratory analysis using multilevel modeling to examine if these results are consistent across a MSM population with a wider range of ages who are also heavy drinkers. Participants (n = 181) included MSM (ages 18?75 years) from a longitudinal clinical research trial. Results indicate that MSM with higher SSS were more likely to ha...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Behavioral Economic Decision Making and Alcohol-related Sexual Risk Behavior
This study examined questionnaire-based indices of both types of discounting in relation to sexual risk taking in an emergency department sample of hazardous drinkers who engage in risky sexual behavior. More impulsive delay discounting was significantly associated with increased sexual risk-taking during a drinking episode, but not general sexual risk-taking. Probability discounting was not associated with either form of sexual risk-taking. These findings implicate impulsive delay discounting with sexual risk taking during alcohol intoxication and provide further support for applying this approach to HIV risk behavior. (Source: AIDS and Behavior)
HIV Testing Behaviors and Perceptions of Risk of HIV Infection Among MSM with Main Partners
Abstract Male couples represent a high priority group for HIV prevention interventions because primary partners have been identified as the source of one-third to two-thirds of HIV infections among men who have sex with men (MSM). HIV testing is an important component of the U.S. National AIDS Strategy. In previous research rates of HIV testing among partnered MSM have been found to be lower compared to other MSM. In this paper, we use a sample of 906 MSM recruited through internet advertisements to contrast HIV testing behavior, perceived risk of HIV infection and confidence in remaining HIV sero-negative between single MSM and MSM who report having a main partner. We also examine associations between sexual agreements and HIV testing and perceived risk among partnered MSM. Alth...
Computer-Based Video to Increase HIV Testing Among Emergency Department Patients Who Decline
This study delivered a 16-min video-based intervention to 160 patients who declined HIV tests in a high volume, urban ED. One third of participants (n = 53) accepted an HIV test post-intervention. Interviews with a subset of participants (n = 40) show that before the video, many were unaware HIV testing could be conducted without drawing blood, or that results could be delivered in 20 min. (Source: AIDS and Behavior)
Differential Risk Factors for HIV Drug and Sex Risk-Taking Among Non-treatment-seeking Hospitalized Injection Drug Users
Abstract Injection drug users (IDUs) are at increased risk of contracting HIV. From a clinical trial assessing an intervention to enhance the linkage of hospitalized patients to opioid treatment after discharge, we conducted multivariate analysis of baseline data from hospitalized IDUs with a history of opioid dependence (n = 104) to identify differences in factors predicting HIV drug and sex risk behaviors. Factors significantly associated with HIV drug risk were being non-Hispanic Caucasian and recent cocaine use. Being female, binge drinking, and poorer mental health were significantly associated with higher sex risk. Because factors predicting HIV sex risk behaviors differ from those predicting HIV drug risk, interventions aimed at specific HIV risks should have different b...
Factors Associated with HIV-Testing and Acceptance of an Offer of Home-Based Testing by Men in Rural Zambia
The objective of this study is to describe HIV-testing among men in rural Lusaka Province, Zambia, using a population-based survey for a cluster-randomized trial. Households (N = 120) were randomly selected from each of the 42 clusters, defined as a health facility catchment area. Individuals aged 15?60 years were invited to complete questionnaires regarding demographics and HIV-testing history. Men testing in the last year were defined as recent-testers. After questionnaire completion adults were offered home-based rapid HIV-testing. Of the 2,828 men, 53 % reported ever-testing and 25 % recently-testing. Factors independently associated with ever- and recent-testing included age 20+ years, secondary/higher education, being married or widowed, a history of TB-treatment and higher s...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Intoxication at Last Sexual Intercourse and Unprotected Sex among HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Individuals in Uganda: An Event-Level Analysis
This study examined, for the first time, the association between intoxication at last sexual intercourse and unprotected sex separately among HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals. Data were derived from a nationally-representative survey of Uganda in 2011. Multivariable logistic regression analyses of the intoxication-unprotected sex association included adjustment for sociodemographic and behavioral covariates that were also examined as moderators of the association. Among HIV-positive individuals, intoxication was associated with unprotected sex, whereas among HIV-negative individuals, the intoxication-unprotected sex association was moderated by knowledge that condoms prevent HIV transmission. The odds of unprotected sex was 2.67 times greater among HIV-negative individuals who wer...
Efficacy of an HIV/AIDS and HIV Testing Video for Spanish-Speaking Latinos in Healthcare and Non-Healthcare Settings
Abstract We assessed the efficacy of a Spanish-language HIV/AIDS and HIV testing video as a substitute for comparable orally-delivered information in healthcare and non-health care settings for Spanish-speakers regardless of health literacy level. In a non-inferiority clinical trial, Spanish-speaking Latinos from an emergency department, a clinic, and community-based organizations were randomly assigned to receive HIV/AIDS and HIV testing information orally or from a video. Comprehension of the information was measured using a questionnaire. Of the 150 participants, 39 % met criteria for lower health literacy and 75 % previously had been tested for HIV. Mean scores on the questionnaire for the video (20.4; 95 % CI 19.5 ~ 21.3) and the orally-delivered information arms (20.6;...
Daily Associations Between Alcohol Use and Unprotected Anal Sex Among Heavy Drinking HIV-Positive Men Who Have Sex with Men
This study explored daily associations between alcohol use and sexual behavior among heavy drinking HIV-positive MSM using a 30-day Timeline Followback interview. Results of generalized estimating equations indicated that greater alcohol consumption on a given day was associated with a linear increase in the odds of having unprotected anal sex with partners of any HIV status. However, the odds of reporting unprotected anal sex with HIV-negative or HIV-status unknown partners increased in a curvilinear fashion, occurring primarily at very heavy levels of use (12+ drinks). Results suggest that very heavy drinking increases the risk of engaging in sexual behavior that has the potential for transmitting HIV to other men. (Source: AIDS and Behavior)
[Adolescents with cerebral palsy and their contact with the GP and the habilitative services].
Authors: Ramstad K, Jahnsen RB, Diseth TH Abstract BACKGROUND Cerebral palsy (CP) often entails a need for health and social services throughout life. Upon scrutiny, it has been found that the transition from services for children and adolescents to services for adults is particularly challenging. The study investigates contact between adolescents with CP and their GPs/habilitative services up to and after the age of 18 years, and the percentage who have an individual habilitation plan (IHP).MATERIAL AND METHOD An attempt was made to identify all those with CP born in 1992 and 1993 and resident in southeast Norway. Seventy-four patients were included (time point I, interview and clinical examination). Forty-two (57 %) responded at the follow-up examination (time point II, question...
Advances in non?invasive techniques as aids to the diagnosis and monitoring of therapeutic response in plaque psoriasis: a review
Abstract Plaque psoriasis is a common, chronic, inflammatory disease with a multifactorial etiopathogenesis. Although its diagnosis is often based on clinical features, in ambiguous cases a biopsy with histopathologic confirmation may be necessary. Advanced high?definition imaging techniques may be useful in the study of skin properties in vivo and may facilitate therapeutic monitoring. Available imaging tools vary in their resolution, depth of penetration and visual representation (horizontal, vertical, three?dimensional), and in the type of skin structures visualized. The purpose of this review is to analyze a variety of non?invasive techniques that may assist in establishing definitive diagnoses, as well as in the therapeutic monitoring of psoriasis. These include dermoscopy, vide...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Hearing Loss Among HIV-Seropositive and HIV-Seronegative Men and Women
Conclusions and RelevanceThe HIV+ adults had significantly poorer lower-frequency and higher-frequency hearing than HIV? adults. High-frequency hearing loss is consistent with an accelerated aging (presbycusis); low-frequency hearing loss in middle age is unexpected. Because some vowels and consonants have predominantly low-frequency acoustic energy, poor low-frequency hearing may impair communication in HIV+ individuals. (Source: JAMA Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery)
Visual Aids to Learning in a Second Language: Adding Redundant Video to an Audio Lecture
SummaryKorean high school students (Experiment 1) and college students (Experiment 2a) received a 16?minute lesson on Antarctica that consisted of English audio only (audio group) or English audio with corresponding video depicting the scenes and objects described in the audio (audio?+?video group). The audio?+?video group scored significantly (d?=?0.33 in Experiment 1) or marginally higher (d?=?0.42 in Experiment 2a) than the audio group on a subsequent comprehension test. The mean difficulty rating of the audio?+?video group was significantly less than that of the audio group (d?=?0.62 in Experiment 1 and d?=?0.96 in Experiment 2a); the mean effort rating of the audio?+?video group was significantly greater than that of the audio group (d?=?0.60 in E...
Molecular Characteristics and Drug Susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates from Patients Co-infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Beijing, China.
In this study, M. tuberculosis and NTM strains isolated from AIDS patients with TB-like symptoms were identified and genotyping analysis indicated that Beijing genotype was the predominant genotype. In addition, the prevalence of drug-resistant TB, especially the prevalence of XDR-TB, was higher than that in TB patients without HIV infection. PMID: 25800448 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences : BES)
Likelihood?based inferences about the mean area under a longitudinal curve in the presence of observations subject to limits of detection
Comparison of groups in longitudinal studies is often conducted using the area under the outcome versus time curve. However, outcomes may be subject to censoring due to a limit of detection and specific methods that take informative missingness into account need to be applied. In this article, we present a unified model?based method that accounts for both the within?subject variability in the estimation of the area under the curve as well as the missingness mechanism in the event of censoring. Simulation results demonstrate that our proposed method has a significant advantage over traditionally implemented methods with regards to its inferential properties. A working example from an AIDS study is presented to demonstrate the applicability of our approach. Copyright © 2015?John Wiley...
[Stigma and discrimination: the experiences of HIV-positive women in poor neighborhoods of Maputo, Mozambique].
This study takes a socio-anthropological perspective to analyze the experience of HIV-positive women in poor neighborhoods of Maputo and the ways they cope with stigma and discrimination. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 HIV-positive women. The results show how gender inequalities increase women's vulnerability to HIV and contribute to their stigmatization and discrimination. In dealing with stigma, women try to keep their diagnosis confidential, seeking support in group meetings with others living with HIV. Public policies should focus on women's empowerment and the reduction of HIV/AIDS-related stigma. PMID: 25859723 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Cadernos de Saude Publica)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
The current state of play of research on the social, political and legal dimensions of HIV.
Authors: Paiva V, Ferguson L, Aggleton P, Mane P, Kelly-Hanku A, Giang le M, Barbosa RM, Caceres CF, Parker R Abstract This paper offers a critical overview of social science research presented at the 2014 International AIDS Conference in Melbourne, Australia. In an era of major biomedical advance, the political nature of HIV remains of fundamental importance. No new development can be rolled out successfully without taking into account its social and political context, and consequences. Four main themes ran throughout the conference track on social and political research, law, policy and human rights: first, the importance of work with socially vulnerable groups, now increasingly referred to as "key populations"; second, continued recognition that actions and programs need to be t...
Top-Line Questions From Moms About MMR
We all want our children to be safe and healthy. Measles is a serious and highly contagious disease, but, fortunately, we can prevent it with immunizations. The measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine is safe and the best way to protect your child against measles and other diseases. I understand that some parents are concerned about vaccines. The evidence about the vaccine's safety and benefits is strong and consistent. There is a lot of inaccurate information circulating about the measles vaccine, so let's make sure we separate the facts from the myths. If you have any concerns or questions, talk to your child's health care provider. In the meantime, here are some answers to the most commonly asked questions I get: How easy is it to get measles if you aren't vaccinated? If you aren'...
Untreatable tuberculosis: is surgery the answer?
According to the 2014 World Health Organization (WHO) Global Report, tuberculosis (TB) continues to be the most important infectious disease in terms of incidence and mortality, along with HIV/AIDS: 9&nbsp;million new cases and 1.5 million deaths are estimated to have occurred in 2013 [1]. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Baseline Attitudes About Prostate Cancer Screening Moderate the Impact of Decision Aids on Screening Rates.
CONCLUSIONS: The decision aids amplified the impact of men's baseline attitudes about limitations of screening: Compared to the usual care arm, men in both decision aid arms were less likely to be screened when they perceived more limitations of screening. PMID: 25724634 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Annals of Behavioral Medicine)
Comparison of four international cardiovascular disease prediction models and the prevalence of eligibility for lipid lowering therapy in HIV infected patients on antiretroviral therapy.
Conclusion. In our sample, agreement between the high DAD CVD risk score and other CVD high risk scores was not very good. The ACC/AHA guidelines would recommend statins more often than ESC/EAS and EACS guidelines. Current recommendations on treatment of dyslipidemia should be applied with caution in the HIV infected population. PMID: 25727038 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Croatian Medical Journal)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Nigeria: 10,000 HIV/Aids Pregnant Women to Benefit From Sure-P Intervention in Abia, Taraba
[Independent (Lagos)]The Subsidy Reinvestment Programme (SURE-P) of the Federal Government has commenced a stakeholder meeting that would ensure that it takes over fully the funding of activities associated with HIV/AIDS across the country, as a prelude to ensuring that states take over the programme in the near future. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Risk of death among those awaiting treatment for HIV infection in Zimbabwe: adolescents are at particular risk.
CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents present to ART services at a later clinical stage than adults and are at an increased risk of death prior to commencing ART. Improved and innovative HIV case-finding approaches and emphasis on prompt ART initiation in adolescents are urgently needed. Following registration, defaulter tracing should be used, whether or not ART has been commenced. PMID: 25712590 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
7 Ways to Permanently Banish Belly Fat
Sixty-nine percent of Americans adults are overweight, and over 35 percent are obese. Obesity increases your risk for numerous conditions including heart disease, stroke, Type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, and cancer. Sadly, about 3.4 million adults die each year from being overweight or obese. Globally obesity now kills about the same as tobacco and all wars, terrorism and violence. Nearly all people who are overweight already have "pre-diabetes" and have significant risks of disease and death. They just don't know it. When you begin to put on weight, especially lethal belly fat, your biology shifts out of balance, veering into the unstable and unhealthy territory of disease -- which in turn makes you fatter. A vicious, deadly cycle ensues unless you take control of your weight.  I...
HIV testing and clinical status upon admission to a specialized health care unit in Pará, Brazil
CONCLUSIONS Despite the increased awareness of the number of HIV/AIDS cases, these patients have identified their serological status late and were admitted to health care units with active disease. The HIV/AIDS epidemic in Pará presents specificities in its progression that indicate the complex characteristics of the epidemic in the Northern region of Brazil and across the country. OBJETIVO Analisar as características clínicas e laboratoriais de indivíduos infectados pelo HIV na admissão em serviço de referência em saúde. MÉTODOS Estudo transversal realizado entre 1999 e 2010, com 527 indivíduos com diagnóstico sorológico confirmado de infecção pelo HIV, matriculados em serviço de saúde ambulatorial, em Santarém, PA, Brasil. Foram coletadas informações de prontuários re...
Antiretrovirals Linked to Cumulative Kidney RiskAntiretrovirals Linked to Cumulative Kidney Risk
The chance of developing chronic kidney disease increases steadily in patients taking tenofovir, ritonavir-boosted atazanavir, or ritonavir-enhanced lopinavir, researchers warn. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Ureteral Reimplantation through the use of a Running Stitch
In this video, we describe ureteral reimplantation into the bladder through the use of a novel technique that aids with positioning of the ureter as well as the utilization of a running stitch. (Source: The Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology)
VelaSense Wireless Technology Helps Vision Impaired
The blind and visually impaired often have to rely on others for help with basic life tasks such as matching clothing, distinguishing bills or reading a menu at a restaurant. There's some technology that can help, but it often involves purchasing expensive devices or carrying around specific equipment for each purpose. (Source: Disabled World)
Zimbabwe: War to End Child Marriages
[The Herald]"Everyone knows how to slaughter a hen. Likewise people should know how to end HIV and AIDS! Why is it that when people are tasked to catch a hen for a relish, it is quickly done but when we are tasked to end HIV, it takes forever," were the words of Headman Chiveso of Musana, Bindura. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Adolescents? Communication with Parents, Other Adult Family Members and Teachers on Sexuality: Effects of School-Based Interventions in South Africa and Tanzania
Abstract Cluster-randomized controlled trials were carried out to examine effects on sexual practices of school-based interventions among adolescents in three sites in sub-Saharan Africa. In this publication, effects on communication about sexuality with significant adults (including parents) and such communication as a mediator of other outcomes were examined. Belonging to the intervention group was significantly associated with fewer reported sexual debuts in Dar es Salaam only (OR 0.648). Effects on communication with adults about sexuality issues were stronger for Dar es Salaam than for the other sites. In Dar, increase in communication with adults proved to partially mediate associations between intervention and a number of social cognition outcomes. The hypothesized medi...
Reply to ?How does weight influence tenofovir disoproxil-fumarate induced renal function decline??
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
How does weight influence tenofovir disoproxil-fumarate induced renal function decline?
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Sexual networks, HIV, race and bacterial vaginosis
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Reply to ?Sexual networks, HIV, race and bacterial vaginosis?
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Evaluating potential T-cell epitope peptides for detecting HIV-specific T cell responses in a highly diverse HIV-1 epidemic from Cameroon
HIV genetic diversity is a major obstacle for vaccine development. To define whether potential T-cell epitope (PTE) peptide usage improves the detection of T cell responses in a highly diverse HIV-1 epidemic, we compared the magnitude, breadth and depth of group M PTE peptide responses to consensus M peptides in Gag and Nef proteins. Gag PTE responses were detected at a higher magnitude, more Nef PTE responses were detected at a cohort (but not individual) level and depth was detected in both Gag and Nef responses. (Source: AIDS)
The evolving HIV epidemic among people who inject drugs in India and the need for a heightened response
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Impact of HIV on lung tumorigenesis in an animal model
Many HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy have controlled viremia and restored (albeit partially) immunity. Yet, they have high rates of lung cancer, even after controlling for smoking. We tested the hypothesis that HIV proteins accelerate development/progression of lung cancer in an immunocompetent HIV transgenic mouse model. The expression of HIV proteins did not enhance lung tumorigenesis caused by two different tobacco carcinogens, suggesting that incompletely restored immunity and/or inflammation, which persist(s) in most HIV patients despite controlled viremia, underlie(s) excess risk of lung cancer. Adjuvant therapies that restore immunity and lower inflammation may decrease lung cancer mortality in HIV patients. (Source: AIDS)
Pubertal development in HIV-infected African children on first-line antiretroviral therapy
Objectives: To estimate age at attaining Tanner stages in Ugandan/Zimbabwean HIV-infected children initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in older childhood and investigate predictors of delayed puberty, particularly age at ART initiation. Design: Observational analysis within a randomized trial. Methods: Tanner staging was assessed every 24 weeks from 10 years of age, menarche every 12 weeks and height every 4?6 weeks. Age at attaining different Tanner stages was estimated using normal interval regression, considering predictors using multivariable regression. Growth was estimated using multilevel models with child-specific intercepts and trajectories. Results: Median age at ART initiation was 9.4 years (inter-quartile range 7.8, 11.3) (n?=?582). At the first assessment, the majori...
High HIV burden among people who inject drugs in 15 Indian cities
Conclusions: The burden of HIV infection is high among PWIDs in India, and may be increasing in cities where injecting drug use is emerging. Women who inject drugs were at substantially higher risk for HIV than men ? a situation that may be mediated by dual injection-related and sexual risks. (Source: AIDS)
Effects of a social network HIV/STD prevention intervention for MSM in Russia and Hungary: a randomized controlled trial
Conclusion: Even where same-sex behavior is stigmatized, it is possible to reach MSM and deliver HIV prevention through their social networks. (Source: AIDS)
Influence of lifelong cumulative HIV viremia on long-term recovery of CD4+ cell count and CD4+/CD8+ ratio among patients on combination antiretroviral therapy
Objective: We explored the impact of lifelong cumulative HIV viremia on immunological recovery during antiretroviral therapy, according to the timing of treatment initiation. Methods: We estimated lifelong cumulative HIV viremia in patients followed in the ANRS PRIMO cohort since primary infection, including 244 patients who started treatment during PHI and had at least one treatment interruption, and 218 patients who started treatment later but with no interruptions. The impact of cumulative viremia on current immunological status was analysed using linear and logistic regression models. Results: At the last visit on treatment, median CD4+ cell count was 645?cells/?l in the early/intermittent treatment group (median time from infection 9.5 years, 4.8 years of continuous treatment since...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Cerebrospinal fluid metabolomics implicate bioenergetic adaptation as a neural mechanism regulating shifts in cognitive states of HIV-infected patients
Conclusion: These CSF metabolic results suggest that worsening cognitive status in HIV-infected patients is associated with increased aerobic glycolysis, and improvements in cognitive status are associated with a shift to anaerobic glycolysis. Dietary, lifestyle and pharmacologic interventions that promote anaerobic glycolysis could protect the brain in setting of HIV infection with combined antiretroviral therapy. (Source: AIDS)
Faldaprevir and pegylated interferon ?-2a/ribavirin in individuals co-infected with hepatitis C virus genotype-1 and HIV
Objective: Faldaprevir is a potent, once-daily hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3/4A protease inhibitor. STARTVerso4 assessed the efficacy and safety of faldaprevir and response-guided pegylated interferon ?-2a/ribavirin (PegIFN/RBV) in individuals with HCV/HIV co-infection. Design: A phase 3 open-label study (NCT01399619). Methods: Individuals (N?=?308) co-infected with HCV genotype 1 (treatment-naive or prior interferon relapsers) and HIV [96% on antiretroviral therapy (ART)] received faldaprevir 120?mg (N?=?123) or 240?mg (N?=?185) and PegIFN/RBV. Those receiving a protease inhibitor or efavirenz ART were assigned to faldaprevir 120 or 240?mg, respectively. Individuals achieving early treatment success (ETS; HCV RNA (Source: AIDS)
Multivariate normative comparison, a novel method for more reliably detecting cognitive impairment in HIV infection
Conclusion: Prevalence of cognitive impairment in HIV-1-infected men with suppressed viremia on cART estimated by MNC was much higher than that estimated by Gisslén criteria, while the false positive rate was greatly reduced compared with the Frascati criteria. Video abstract: http://links.lww.com/QAD/A633 (Source: AIDS)
HIV-associated mucosal gene expression: region-specific alterations
Conclusion: These data demonstrate persistent, proinflammatory changes in the intestinal mucosa of virally suppressed HIV-infected individuals. These changes in intestinal gene expression may be the consequence of or contribute to barrier dysfunction and intestinal dysbiosis observed in HIV. (Source: AIDS)
Low SAMHD1 expression following T-cell activation and proliferation renders CD4+ T cells susceptible to HIV-1
Conclusion: We demonstrate that SAMHD1 expression is decreased during CD4+ T-cell activation and proliferation. Also, CD4+ T-cell subsets known to be more susceptible to HIV-1 infection, for example, T-helper 17 and follicular helper T cells, display lower levels of SAMHD1. These results pin point a role for SAMHD1 expression in HIV-1 infection and the concomitant depletion of CD4+ T cells. (Source: AIDS)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Up-regulation of Tim-3 on T cells during acute simian immunodeficiency virus infection and on antigen specific responders
Conclusion: Rhesus macaques show constitutive expression of Tim-3 primarily on innate immune cells, but markedly lower levels on T cells compared to humans. Nevertheless, Tim-3 expression on T cells is transiently up-regulated during acute, but not chronic, SIV infection, and appears to be a marker of antigen-specific effector cells. The exact role and contribution of Tim-3 to the modulation of antiviral responses in vivo will require additional investigation. (Source: AIDS)
The HLA-C*04: 01/KIR2DS4 gene combination and human leukocyte antigen alleles with high population frequency drive rate of HIV disease progression
Conclusion: These results highlight the impact of population allele frequency on viral control and identify a novel association between HLA-C*04?:?01 in combination with KIR2DS4f and uncontrolled HIV infection. Our data further support the importance of the interplay of markers of the adaptive and innate immune system in viral control. (Source: AIDS)
South Africa: Life With HIV - "I Need to Take the Blood Tests, but I Also Need the Job"
[The Daily Vox]HIV can have a devastating effect on people and their families, particularly if they are poor and unemployed. Without treatment you may be too ill to work, but without money you might not get the treatment you need. MBALI JILI* (25) told Zimasa Matiwane about her struggle to get onto treatment and hold down a job at the same time. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: Zero Discrimination Day to Be Celebrated Around the World
[UNAIDS]Geneva -Discrimination continues to affect the lives of millions of people around the world. On 1 March, Zero Discrimination Day, people from all corners of the world will unite under the theme of Open Up, Reach Out in order to celebrate diversity and reject discrimination in all its forms. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: A Research Agenda for HIV Survivors
[SciDev.Net]Chronic disease among HIV positive people has been overlooked, say K. M. Venkat Narayan and Sten Vermund. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Swaziland: Mswati's HIV-Aids Idiocy Highlights Our Bitter Struggle
[COSATU]Swaziland's absolute ruler, [i]Mswati III, adds a grotesque twist to Marx's observation that history repeats itself, first as tragedy and then as farce. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
U.S. Push for Abstinence in Africa Is Seen as Failure Against H.I.V.
The government?s $1.3 billion program to stop HIV infection in Africa is not cost effective, a new study by a Stanford student shows. (Source: NYT Health)
A rapid and highly specific method to evaluate the presence of 2-(2-phenylethyl) chromones in agarwood by supercritical fluid chromatography-mass spectrometry.
In this study, we developed a method using super- critical fluid chromatography in combination with mass spectrometry (SFC-MS). Tropylium ions, the characteristic product ions of 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones in tandem mass spectrometric experiments, were selected for the targeted detection of 2-(2-phenylethyl) chromones. This method used precursor ion scans for tropylium ions with different possible substitutions on a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer. To evaluate the usefulness of the developed method, a diethyl ether extract from a Chinese agarwood "Qi-Nan" sample was first separated using SFC, and the elutes were later subjected to precursor ion scans, which searched for 15 common substituted tropylium ions to evaluate the 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones. In the precursor ion scans, a total ...
Request for Information (RFI) Seeks Input Regarding the Strategic Vision for the National Library of Medicine (NLM)
Please take advantage of this opportunity to provide input to the Working Group of Advisory Committee to the NIH Director as they develop a strategic vision for NLM. &nbsp; http://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/notice-files/NOT-OD-15-067.html &nbsp; This Request for Information (RFI) seeks input regarding the strategic vision for the NLM to ensure that it remains an international leader in biomedical data and health information. In particular, comments are being sought regarding the current value of and future need for NLM programs, resources, research and training efforts, and services (e.g., databases, software, collections) &ndash; collectively referred to in this RFI hereafter as "NLM elements." &nbsp; Your comments can include but are not limited to the following topics: &nbsp; Current N...
Recent HIV/AIDS News from CDC, FDA, and NIAID
News from CDC February 24, 2015: CDC statement on IPERGAY trial of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention among men who have sex with men February 23, 2015: 9 in 10 new U.S. HIV infections come from people not receiving HIV care News from FDA February 18, 2015: Isentress (raltegravir) label update re: aluminum and/or magnesium hydroxide-containing antacids News from NIAID February 26, 2015: HIV controls its activity independent of host cells&nbsp;&nbsp; February 18, 2015: NIH-funded scientists create potential long-acting HIV therapeutic February 18, 2015: NIH-sponsored HIV vaccine trial launches in South Africa February 18, 2015: NIH-supported clinical trials to evaluate long-acting, injectable antiretroviral drugs to prevent HIV infection (Source: AID...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
March 10 is National Women and Girls HIV/AIDS Awareness Day
National Women and Girls HIV/AIDS Awareness Day is a nationwide observance to promote HIV prevention, testing, and treatment to protect women and girls from HIV. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), at the end of 2010, women accounted for one in four people living with HIV infection in the United States. &nbsp; Browse our National Women and Girls HIV/AIDS Awareness Day webpage [en espa&ntilde;ol]&nbsp;to learn more about the annual observance and to find HIV/AIDS-related information specific to women and girls.&nbsp; (Source: AIDSinfo At-a-Glance: Offering Information on HIV/AIDS Treatment, Prevention, and Research, A Service of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS))
The HIV-1 transgenic rat model of neuroHIV.
Authors: Vigorito M, Connaghan KP, Chang SL Abstract Despite the ability of current combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART) to limit the progression of HIV-1 to AIDS, HIV-positive individuals continue to experience neuroHIV in the form of HIV-associated neurological disorders (HAND), which can range from subtle to substantial neurocognitive impairment. NeuroHIV may also influence substance use, abuse, and dependence in HIV-positive individuals. Because of the nature of the virus, variables such as mental health co-morbidities make it difficult to study the interaction between HIV and substance abuse in human populations. Several rodent models have been developed in an attempt to study the transmission and pathogenesis of the HIV-1 virus. The HIV-1 transgenic (HIV-1Tg) rat is a r...
APOBEC3H polymorphisms associated with the susceptibility to HIV-1 infection and AIDS progression in Japanese

Next-Gen Tenofovir for HIV Kinder on Kidneys and BonesNext-Gen Tenofovir for HIV Kinder on Kidneys and Bones
Plasma levels are much lower with the prodrug version of tenofovir, which has an improved safety profile and helped the drug become a candidate for use in pre-exposure prophylaxis and in children. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)
Increased mortality after a first myocardial infarction in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients; a nested cohort study.
CONCLUSIONS: HIV infection was associated with a significantly increased risk of all-cause mortality one year after incident AMI. PMID: 25705241 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Therapy)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
HIV prevention finally has a game-changer, and it?s called Truvada
If the NHS and policymakers are bold, it could spell the end for HIV in the UK Continue reading... (Source: Guardian Unlimited Science)
Nigeria: More Evidence Back Preventing HIV Infection in High-Risk Persons With Aids Drugs
[Guardian]THE proposed plan by the National Agency for Control of AIDS (NACA) and its global partners to give antiretroviral drugs (ARV) to high-risk persons, especially men having sex with men (MSM), to prevent new Human Immuno-deficiency Virus (HIV) infections has been backed by more evidence. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: HIV/Aids - More Prevention of Mother Child Transmission Centres Established in Gombe
[Independent (Lagos)]Gombe State Agency for the Control of HIV/AIDS (GOMSACA) has said it had increased the number of Prevention of Mother Child Transmission (PMCT) centres from 185 to 225 in the state. Project Managerof the agency, Dr Suraj Abdulkarim, told the News Agency of Nigeria (NAN) in Gombe at the weekend that the centres were sited across the state. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: New Studies 'Significant Breakthrough' in HIV Prevention, Says UN Agency Combating Virus
[UN News]The United Nations programme working to combat HIV/AIDS welcomed yesterday the results of a number of recent clinical studies of the effects of antiretroviral medicines on preventing new HIV infections, which were presented at a conference on viruses held in Seattle. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
A Meta-Analysis of Risky Sexual Behaviour among Male Youth in Developing Countries.
Authors: Berhan Y, Berhan A Abstract The purpose of this meta-analysis was to assess the association between risky sexual behaviour and level of education and economic status in male youth. Previous tests of the association of risky sexual behaviour with levels of education and economic status have yielded inconsistent results. Using data from 26 countries, from both within and outside Africa, we performed a meta-analysis with a specific focus on male youths' risky sexual behaviour. We applied a random effects analytic model and calculated a pooled odds ratio. Out of 19,148 males aged 15-24 years who reported having sexual intercourse in the 12 months preceding the survey, 75% engaged in higher-risk sex. The proportion of higher-risk sex among male youth aged 15-19 years was nearly...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Zimbabwe: Prioritise Employee Well-Being
[The Herald]At the Institute of People Management in Zimbabwe's Labour Briefing held on November 19 2014, the Ministry of Public Service, Labour and Social Welfare announced that it had promulgated a new Statutory Instrument (SI 105 of 2014) to regulate issues on HIV/AIDS at the workplace. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Zimbabwe: Aids Union Launched
[The Herald]HEALTH Advisor in the Office of The President and Cabinet Dr Timothy Stamps has launched the Mashonaland East chapter of the Zimbabwe HIV/ AIDS Activist Union Trust (ZHAAUCT) to help address the needs of people living with HIV in rural areas. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
The end of AIDS?
Publication date: March 2015 Source:The Lancet HIV, Volume 2, Issue 3 Author(s): The Lancet HIV (Source: The Lancet HIV)
How can we end paediatric AIDS?
Publication date: March 2015 Source:The Lancet HIV, Volume 2, Issue 3 Author(s): Francesca Celletti , Jennifer Cohen , Catherine Connor , Marc Lallemant , Janice Soo Fern Lee (Source: The Lancet HIV)
Genome editing strategies: potential tools for eradicating HIV-1/AIDS
Abstract Current therapy for controlling human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection and preventing acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) progression has profoundly decreased viral replication in cells susceptible to HIV-1 infection, but it does not eliminate the low level of viral replication in latently infected cells, which contain integrated copies of HIV-1 proviral DNA. There is an urgent need for the development of HIV-1 genome eradication strategies that will lead to a permanent or ?sterile? cure of HIV-1/AIDS. In the past few years, novel nuclease-initiated genome editing tools have been developing rapidly, including zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and the CRISPR/Cas9 system. These surgical knives, which ca...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Taking Pill Before, After Sex Cuts HIV Infection for Gay Men: Study
Research suggests that Truvada doesn't need to be taken daily, but more study still needed (Source: Fertility News - Doctors Lounge)
Direct enzyme assay evidence confirms aldehyde reductase function of Ydr541cp and Ygl039wp from Saccharomyces cerevisiae
This study presents partially purified proteins of two ORFs, YDR541C and YGL039W, and direct enzyme assay evidence against aldehyde?inhibitory compounds commonly encountered during lignocellulosic biomass fermentation processes. Each of the partially purified proteins encoded by these ORFs showed a molecular mass of approximately 38?kDa, similar to Ari1p, a protein encoded by aldehyde reductase gene. Both proteins demonstrated strong aldehyde reduction activities toward 14 aldehyde substrates, with high levels of reduction activity for Ydr541cp toward both aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes. While Ydr541cp was observed to have a significantly higher specific enzyme activity at 20 U/mg using co?factor NADPH, Ygl039wp displayed a NADH preference at 25 U/mg in reduction of butylaldehyde. ...
New frontiers in the future of palliative care: real-world bioethical dilemmas and axiology of clinical practice
Conclusions: This investigation opens up new horizons in a career path where professional wearing is rampant. The rediscovery of values and virtues in palliative clinical practice will renew and replenish the motivation of healthcare providers who carry out these duties, giving them a new professional and personal perspective of growth. (Source: BMC Medical Ethics)
Diagnostic accuracy of 2 cone-beam computed tomography protocols for detecting arthritic changes in temporomandibular joints
Conclusions Based on the results of this study, the 180° CBCT acquisition protocol can detect small and large arthritic lesions with high reliability and is comparable with the 360° spin acquisition. (Source: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics)
Trends of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Lyon University Hospitals from 1985 to 2011: continuous decrease since the introduction of HAART
(Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Recall of Nadir CD4 Cell Count and Most Recent HIV Viral Load Among HIV-Infected, Socially Marginalized Adults
Abstract Lower nadir CD4 cell counts and higher HIV viral loads are associated with increased risks of adverse events in the progression of HIV disease. In cases where medical records are inaccessible or incomplete, little evidence is available regarding whether nadir CDR cell count or HIV viral load is reliably reported in any patient population. We compare survey data collected from 207 HIV-infected individuals detained in San Francisco jails to data collected from electronic medical records (EMR) kept by the jails and community health providers. The sensitivity of self-reported nadir CD4 cell count less than 200 was 82 % [95 % confidence interval (CI) 68, 88], and the sensitivity of reporting an undetectable most recent HIV viral load was 93 % (95 % CI 84, 97). This suggest...
Alcohol-Related Diagnoses and All-Cause Hospitalization Among HIV-Infected and Uninfected Patients: A Longitudinal Analysis of United States Veterans from 1997 to 2011
Abstract Individuals with HIV infection are living substantially longer on antiretroviral therapy, but hospitalization rates continue to be relatively high. We do not know how overall or diagnosis-specific hospitalization rates compare between HIV-infected and uninfected individuals or what conditions may drive hospitalization trends. Hospitalization rates among United States Veterans were calculated and stratified by HIV serostatus and principal diagnosis disease category. Because alcohol-related diagnoses (ARD) appeared to have a disproportional effect, we further stratified our calculations by ARD history. A multivariable Cox proportional hazards model was fitted to assess the relative risk of hospitalization controlling for demographic and other comorbidity variables. From...
Understanding Gay Community Subcultures: Implications for HIV Prevention
We examined men?s participation in gay community subcultures, and its association with risk behavior. In a cross-sectional survey, 849 GBM provided information about men in their personal networks. We devised measures of their participation in five subcultural groupings and explored their associations with sexual behavior. We identified five subcultural groupings: sexually adventurous; bear tribes; alternative queer; party scene; and sexually conservative. Higher scores on the sexually adventurous measure was associated with being older, having more gay friends, being HIV-positive, and being more sexually active. It was also independently associated with unprotected anal intercourse with casual partners (AOR 1.82; 95 % CI 1.20?2.76; p = 0.005). HIV prevention strategies need to acco...
The ?Fears? of Disclosing HIV Status to Sexual Partners: A Mixed Methods Study in a Counseling Setting in Ghana
This study aimed at determining the disclosure rate and factors that influence disclosure in Cape Coast, Ghana. In-depth interviews of 15 peer educators and a survey of 510 PLHIV were used in a mixed methods study design. Majority of the study participants (78.6 %) had disclosed their HIV positive status to their sexual partners. Although peer educators in this study portrayed the overall outcome of disclosure to be negative, 84.0 % of disclosers were accepted by their partners without negative consequences after disclosure. This study suggests that the existing support services ill prepares newly diagnosed HIV positive clients and hampers disclosure initiatives. Providing comprehensive support services and re-training peer educators may be crucial in creating a safe disclosure environme...
A Systematic Review of HIV and STI Behavior Change Interventions for Female Sex Workers in the United States
Abstract The lives of female sex workers (FSW) in the US are typically marked by substance abuse, violence, trauma, and poverty. These factors place FSW at risk for acquiring and transmitting HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The purpose of this systematic review is to examine HIV/STI interventions conducted in the US that aim to reduce sexual- or drug-related risk behavior among FSW. Eighteen studies describing 19 unique interventions met our selection criteria: five exclusively targeted FSW, two reported stratified data for FSW, and 12 included at least 50 % FSW. Results indicate that 15 interventions provided HIV/STI information, 13 provided substance abuse prevention information, and few included content tailored to specific needs of FSW. Our findings sugg...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
?If I don?t use a condom ? I would be stressed in my heart that I?ve done something wrong?: Routine Prevention Messages Preclude Safer Conception Counseling for HIV-Infected Men and Women in South Africa
Discussions about pregnancy focused on maternal and child health, not sexual HIV transmission; no participants had received tailored safer conception advice. Although participants welcomed safer conception counseling, barriers to client-initiated discussions included narrowly focused prevention messages and perceptions that periconception transmission risk is not modifiable. Supporting providers to assess clients? fertility intentions and offer appropriate advice, and public health campaigns that address sexual HIV transmission in the context of conception may improve awareness of and access to safer conception strategies. (Source: AIDS and Behavior)
Efficacy of genotypic drug resistance testing in patients with low-level plasma HIV-1 viremia
Conclusions Success rate for genotyping at low plasma viremia levels is high and allows to guide treatment optimization. As drug resistance is commonly found at low viral loads, genotyping should be attempted in every virologically failing patient regardless the plasma viremia. (Source: HIV and AIDS Review)
Research captures transient details of HIV genome packaging
Researchers have employed a recently developed technique to capture how a viral protein, Gag, selectively extracts and packages viral RNA into the viral particles that exported to new cells. More &#187; (Source: The Rockefeller University Newswire)
Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Halts Real-world HIV TransmissionPre-exposure Prophylaxis Halts Real-world HIV Transmission
Prophylactic treatment with tenofovir and emtricitabine is highly effective and likely has no effect on risk behavior, two new studies show. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)
Taking Pill Before, After Sex Cuts HIV Infection for Gay Men
Research suggests that Truvada doesn't need to be taken daily, but more study still neededSource: HealthDay Related MedlinePlus Pages: Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender Health, HIV/AIDS Medicines (Source: MedlinePlus Health News)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Botswana: NACA Coordinator Mobilises Community Leaders
[Botswana Daily News]Gaborone -NACA coordinator, Ms Grace Muzila, says there is need for community leadership to take part in the fight against the HIV/AIDS scourge so as to address HIV prevention from grassroots. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Gambia: HIV/Aids Community Treatment Training Is Underway
[Foroyaa]A five day training of community treatment activists on HIV/AIDS commenced yesterday, Monday, 23rd February 2015 at the Paradise Suites hotel in Kololi. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Kenya: Parents Oppose Proposal On Children's Condoms
[The Star]Parents in Kisumu county have opposed a proposal to provide condoms to school children. Maseno School Parents Teachers Association chairman James Obondi said the proposal will affect education. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Malawi: Mangochi Council Chair for Paradigm Shift On HIV/Aids Fight
[Malawi News Agency]Chairperson for the Mangochi District Council, Councillor Yusuf Kusweje has tipped stakeholders involved in the fight against the HIV/AIDS pandemic to emphasise on abstinence, condom use and faithfulness among couples. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: HIV/Aids Prevalence Rate in Nigeria Drops to 3.4 Percent - NACA
[Leadership]The HIV/AIDS prevalence rate in Nigeria has dropped from 5.1 per cent to 3.4 per cent, the National Agency for the Control of AIDS (NACA) has said. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
South Africa: Vaginal Gel Fails to Protect Against HIV Despite Earlier Trial
[Health-e]In a blow for HIV prevention, a vaginal gel that showed some effect against HIV in an earlier trial has failed to protect women in a big follow-up trial. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
New studies show ?significant breakthrough? in HIV prevention, says UN agency combating virus
The United Nations programme working to combat HIV/AIDS welcomed yesterday the results of a number of recent clinical studies of the effects of antiretroviral medicines on preventing new HIV infections, which were presented at a conference on viruses held in Seattle. (Source: UN News Centre - Health, Poverty, Food Security)
Concurrent partnerships in Cape Town, South Africa: race and sex differences in prevalence and duration of overlap.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that in this population the prevalence of CPs is relatively high and is characterized by overlaps of long duration, implying there may be opportunities for HIV to be transmitted to concurrent partners. PMID: 25697328 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Trials Show HIV Drugs to Be Effective
New findings from clinical trials show how well drugs meant to treat the AIDS virus can protect people, but the trials also show the limits of certain prevention methods. (Source: WSJ.com: Health)
Low-vision Service Provision by Optometrists: A Canadian Nationwide Survey
Conclusions: This is the first comprehensive study of LVS provision by optometrists in Canada. In order for optometrists to become more involved in LVS, there is a need for more LV education, provincial health coverage of optometric LVS, and better collaboration communication between LV providers. (Source: Optometry and Vision Science)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Community perspective on the INSIGHT Strategic Timing of AntiRetroviral Treatment (START) trial
Determining when to start antiretroviral treatment (ART) is vitally important for people living with HIV. Yet the optimal point at which to start to maximize clinical benefit remains unknown. In the absence of randomized studies, current guidelines rely on conflicting observational data and expert opinion, and consequently diverge on this point. In the USA, ART is recommended irrespective of CD4 cell count. The World Health Organization now recommends starting ART at a CD4 cell count of 500?cells/?L, while the threshold for the UK and South Africa remains at 350?cells/?L. The Strategic Timing of AntiRetroviral Treatment (START) study, one of the largest clinical trials on the treatment of HIV infection, will answer this question. START compares two treatment strategies: immediate tre...
Stigma, subsistence, intimacy, face, filial piety, and mental health problems among newly HIV-diagnosed men who have sex with men in China
High rates of mental health problems among people living with HIV (PLWH) have been widely reported in the literature, however an understanding of the socio-ecological contexts of these presentations remains limited, particularly in China. In order to explore potential socio-ecological factors associated with mental health problems among newly diagnosed HIV-infected migrant men who have sex with men (MSM), we employed a life profile approach conducting semi-structured in-depth interviews with 31 newly diagnosed HIV-infected MSM residing in a city in Southern China. (Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)
A Preliminary Evaluation of a Community-Based Campaign to Increase Awareness of Concurrency and HIV Transmission in African American and African-Born Communities
Abstract We evaluate an innovative grassroots community-based campaign in Seattle, WA focused on educating African American and African-born communities about concurrent partnerships and HIV transmission. Respondents completed a short self-administered questionnaire on a handheld personal digital assistant to evaluate the reach, acceptability and preliminary efficacy of the campaign. Of those who remembered seeing the campaign materials (82 %), social networks were the most common source of exposure (80 %). Respondents rated campaign materials very visually attractive (86 %), very interesting (91 %), and very important for themselves (90 %) and their community (93 %). Respondents reported that the campaign increased their knowledge about concurrency (84 %), changed their at...
Cash Payments Fail to Improve H.I.V. Drug Adherence, Researchers Say
Scientists at an AIDS conference in Seattle said paying patients as much as $280 a year to take AIDS-prevention drugs failed to significantly improve adherence or infection rates. (Source: NYT Health)
Study That Paid Patients to Take H.I.V. Drugs Fails
Scientists at an AIDS conference in Seattle said paying patients as much as $280 a year to take AIDS-prevention drugs failed to significantly improve adherence or infection rates. (Source: NYT Health)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Impact of Age on Retention in Care and Viral Suppression
Conclusions: These results have important implications for improving viral control among younger adults, emphasizing the crucial role retention in care plays in supporting viral suppression in this population. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Preventative treatment dramatically reduces HIV risk in gay men
LONDON (Reuters) - Gay men at high risk of HIV who took a daily dose of a Gilead AIDS drug as a preventative measure cut their risk of infection by 86 percent, according to results of a British trial released on Tuesday. (Source: Reuters: Health)
Rwanda: Police Training School Houses New Blood Collection Site
[Focus]The National Center for Blood Transfusion (NCBT) has opened a center for blood collection in the main police training school in Gishari, Rwamagana. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
HIV Care Slammed by Ebola (CME/CE)
(MedPage Today) -- Even when care was available, patients stayed away. (Source: MedPage Today HIV/AIDS)
Daily pill Truvada cuts spread of HIV by 86%, study shows
Study looking at transmission among men who have sex with men recruited 545 participants at high risk of contracting HIV A daily pill can effectively protect gay men against infection with HIV, a UK trial has shown, which experts say now offers hope of reversing the virus?s spread.Taking the drug, called Truvada, could become a daily routine for men who have sex with men in the same way that the contraceptive pill is for women, some believe. NHS England will now study the results to determine whether it is cost effective to provide it for men at risk of infection. Continue reading... (Source: Guardian Unlimited Science)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
South Africa: Speech - Gauteng 2015 State of the Province Address
[Health-e]Gauteng Premier David Makhura reveals how Gauteng health facilities stack up in his latest State of the Province Address. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Gambia: Training Under Way On Community Treatment for PlHIV
[The Point]A-six-day training session organised for People Living with HIV by the Gambia Network of AIDS Support Societies and funded by the German Agency for International Cooperation, through the International Treatment Preparedness Coalition, commenced on Monday at the Paradise Suites Hotel. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: Nigeria's HIV/Aids Prevalence Drops to 3.4 Percent
[Independent (Lagos)]Uyo -The National Agency for the Control of AIDS (NACA) has said the HIV/AIDS prevalence rate in Nigeria has dropped from 5.1 per cent to 3.4 per cent. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: Govt Backs Anti - HIV/Aids War With N8 Billion
[Vanguard]Umuahia -The Federal Government has provided N8 billion to take ownership and sustain the drive against HIV/AIDS. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: Govt to Spend N8 Billion On HIV/Aids in Taraba, Abia
[Daily Trust]Jalingo -The federal government has released N8 billion for the fight of HIV/AIDS in Taraba and Abia states through the National Agency for Control of HIV/AIDS SURE-P implementation programme. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
South Africa: Know Your Status
[SAnews.gov.za]Pretoria -The Department of Higher Education and Training has launched its First Things First campaign at the Waterberg Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) College at Lebowakgomo campus, Limpopo. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
A Developing Framework for the Development, Implementation and Maintenance of HIV Interventions in the African American Church.
Authors: Stewart JM Abstract The African American church has promoted the health of African Americans through supporting interventions that target a wide variety of diseases, and it is a crucial community partner in the development of HIV prevention interventions. Although research has described the development of church-based HIV interventions, there is a significant lack of frameworks and approaches available to guide the implementation and maintenance of HIV interventions within church-based settings. A developing framework of a comprehensive church-based intervention, derived from an ethnographic study about the development, implementation, and maintenance of an HIV/AIDS Ministry within an African American church is presented. This approach can provide guidance to support the d...
Lapses in Diagnoses, Care Tied to 91% of New HIV InfectionsLapses in Diagnoses, Care Tied to 91% of New HIV Infections
Focusing prevention efforts on diagnosing and keeping patients on antiretrovirals could greatly decrease spread in the United States, but would come with considerable difficulty and cost. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)
Nigeria: WHO Urges Single-Use Syringes, Action Over Mers Virus
[Guardian]DETERMINED to protect people from infections acquired through unsafe injections such as hepatitis B and C, and Human Immuno-deficiency Virus (HIV), the World Health Organisation (WHO), yesterday, called for all health-care programmes to switch to syringes that cannot be used more than once. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: How Airtel Backing Campaign Against HIV/Aids - Naca DG
[Independent (Lagos)]The Director General of the National Agency for Control of Aids (NACA), Professor John Idoko, has showered encomiums on leading telecommunications services provider, Airtel Nigeria, for its leading role in providing practical, relevant and continuous assistance in the fight against the dreaded HIV/AIDS. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
HBsAg seroprevalence among Senegalese militaries
Conclusions: The high prevalence of HBsAg in the military requires the implementation of an effective prevention and care program to reduce the risk of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma and contribute to reducing the burden of communicable diseases, such as hepatitis and HIV/AIDS, and non-communicable diseases. (Source: Epidemiologic Perspectives and Innovations)
Focusing National Institutes of Health HIV/AIDS Research for Maximum Population Impact
Progress in advancing research on the pathophysiology, prevention, treatment, and impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is threatened by the decaying purchasing power of National Institutes of Health (NIH) dollars. A working group of the NIH Office of AIDS Research Advisory Council was charged by the NIH Director with developing a focused and concise blueprint to guide the use of limited funding over the next few years. Science priorities outlined by the working group and reported here are intended to maximally address individuals, groups, and settings most affected by the epidemic, and to redress shortcomings in realizing population-level HIV prevention, treatment, and eradication goals. Optimizing these priorities requires that traditional silos&mdash;defined by topic focus and by...
End-Stage Renal Disease Among HIV-Infected Adults in North America
Conclusions.&nbsp;The risk of ESRD remains high among HIV-infected individuals in care but is declining with improvements in virologic suppression. HIV-infected black persons continue to comprise the majority of cases, as a result of higher viral loads, comorbidities, and genetic susceptibility. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Comparison of the Prognostic Value of Liver Biopsy and FIB-4 Index in Patients Coinfected With HIV and Hepatitis C Virus
Conclusions.&nbsp;FIB-4 outperformed LB as a predictor of OD and LRE. These findings are of relevance for clinical practice and research and call into question the role of LB as a gold standard for assessing prognosis in HIV/HCV coinfection. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Prevalence, Correlates, and Outcomes of Cryptococcal Antigen Positivity Among Patients With AIDS, United States, 1986-2012
Conclusions.&nbsp;The prevalence of cryptococcal infection among advanced AIDS patients in the United States was high and above the published cost-effectiveness threshold for routine screening. We recommend routine CrAg screening among human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with a CD4 count &le;100 cells/&micro;L to detect and treat early infection. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
HBsAg seroprevalence among Senegalese militaries
Conclusions The high prevalence of HBsAg in the military requires the implementation of an effective prevention and care program to reduce the risk of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma and contribute to reducing the burden of communicable diseases, such as hepatitis and HIV/AIDS, and non-communicable diseases. (Source: Military Medical Research)
ACOG Guideline Aids Transition From Pediatric to Adult CareACOG Guideline Aids Transition From Pediatric to Adult Care
Asking young women about sleep, sex, drugs, exercise, and eating habits can identify preventive care needs. The ACOG's recommendations also address schedules for breast and pelvic exams. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)
Most HIV Infections Come From Undiagnosed or Untreated People: Study
Findings suggest there's a long way to go in containing spread of the disease (Source: Fertility News - Doctors Lounge)
Most HIV Infections Come from Undiagnosed or Untreated People
Findings suggest there's a long way to go in containing spread of the disease Source: HealthDay Related MedlinePlus Page: HIV/AIDS (Source: MedlinePlus Health News)
Pediatric Hearing Aid Use: Parent-Reported Challenges
Conclusions: Parents reported an array of challenges, even after their child had been wearing hearing aids for a prolonged time, revealing critical implications for how to provide audiological care. Audiologists have an important role in partnering with parents to identify and jointly problem-solving challenges related to their child?s hearing aid use. Supporting parents includes not only addressing technical aspects of hearing testing and hearing aid function but also addressing parent thoughts, feelings, and emotions. (Source: Ear and Hearing)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Development of the Adaptive Music Perception Test
Conclusion: The AMP test revealed differences in a wide range of music perceptual abilities between NH and HI listeners. The recognition of meter was more difficult for HI listeners when the listening task was based on frequency discrimination. The HI group was less sensitive to changes in harmony and had more difficulties with distinguishing melodies in a background of music. In addition, the thresholds to discriminate timbre were significantly higher for the HI group in brightness and spectral irregularity dimensions. The AMP test can be used as a research tool to further investigate music perception with hearing aids and compare the benefit of different music processing strategies for the HI listener. Future testing will involve larger samples with the inclusion of hearing aided conditi...
Time when Southwest was wet and Northwest was dry aids efforts to predict future rainfall patterns
The first comprehensive map of the topsy-turvy climate in the western U.S, 21,000 years ago has been developed by researchers. They focus on when the Southwest was wet and the Northwest was dry, testing it to improve the global climate models that have been developed to predict how precipitation patterns will change in the future. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)
Updated Basic Statistics from the 2013 HIV Surveillance Report
The Basic Statistics page has been updated with information from the CDC HIV Surveillance Report: Diagnoses of HIV infection and AIDS in the United States and Dependent Areas, 2013. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
Updated Statistics Overview from the 2013 HIV Surveillance Report
The Statistics Overview page has been updated with information from the CDC HIV Surveillance Report: Diagnoses of HIV infection and AIDS in the United States and Dependent Areas, 2013. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)

 

 


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