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CD4 Cells
By Afsath Jameela

CD4 Cells
Treatment centers need consulting rooms, offices, waiting rooms and secure storage for valuable drugs. They also require basic facilities to test for anemia, pregnancy, renal function, white blood cell counts and other factors that may affect treatment.
In developed countries, decisions about when to start treatment are based on the results of clinical tests called the CD4 test and the viral load test. Ideally these tests should be used everywhere, but in many parts of the world they are currently unavailable, as they require expensive equipment, electricity and trained technicians. In theory, decisions about when to start treatment may be based on symptoms alone. However in practice some treatment programmers provide medication only to people who have had a CD4 count.
There are two primary types of T-cells.
1. CD4 Cells-These cells have molecules called CD4 on its surface. These "helper" cells initiate the body's response to invading micro-organisms such as viruses.
2.CD8 Cells-These types of T-cells have a molecule called CD8 on their surface. CD8 cells destroy cells that have been infected with foreign invading micro-organisms. CD8 cells also produce antiviral substances (antibodies) that help fight off the foreign invader.
3.Normal values-In a healthy adult, a normal CD4 count can vary a great deal but is typically 600 to 1200 cells per cubic millimeter of blood
Between 600 and 350- In an HIV+ person, this range is considered "very good".
HIV medications are typically not be indicated.
Between 350 and 200-The immune system is weakened and therefore the HIV+ person may be at increased risk for infection and illness.
Function of T helper cells: Antigen presenting cells present antigen on their Class II MHC molecules. Helper T cells recognize these, with the help of their expression of CD4 co-receptor. The activation of a resting helper T cell causes it to release cytokines and other stimulatory signals. The importance of CD4 T cells is demonstrated with infection.
It has been proposed that during the non-symptomatic phase of infection, the virus has a relatively low affinity towards T cells (and has a higher affinity for macrophages), resulting in a slow kill rate of CD4+ T cells by the immune system. This is initially compensated for via the production of new helper T cells from thymus. Once the virus becomes T-tropic, it begins to infect CD4+ T cells far more efficiently, and

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the immune system is overwhelmed.
At this point, functional CD4+ T cell levels begin to decrease, eventually to a point where the CD4+ T cell population is too small to recognize the full range antigens that could potentially be detected. The lack of full antigen cover results in the core symptoms of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).CD4 T cell depletion during AIDS allows various pathogens to escape T cell recognition, thus allowing opportunistic infections that would normally elicit a helper T cell response to bypass the immune system. While these complete bypass situations only occur when the helper T cell response is absolutely necessary for infection clearance, most infections increase in severity and/or duration because the immune system's helper T cells provide a weaker contribution to a less efficient immune response.
Two components of the immune system are particularly affected in AIDS, due to its CD4+ T cell dependency:
CD8+ T cells are not stimulated as effectively during the AIDS period of infection, making AIDS patients very susceptible to most viruses, including itself. This decline in killing of CD4+ T cells results in the virus being produced for a longer period (the infected CD4+ T cells are not killed as quickly), increasing the proliferation of the virus, and accelerating the development of the disease.
Antibody class switching declines significantly once helper T cell function fails. The immune system loses its ability to improve the affinity of their antibodies, and are unable to generate B cells that can produce antibody groups such as IgG and IgA. These effects are primarily due to the loss of any helper T cell that can interact with the B lymphocyte correctly. Another symptom of AIDS is the reduction in antibody levels due to a decrease in Th2 cytokines (and less interactions by helper T cells). All of these complications result in an increased susceptibility to aggressive bacterial infections, especially in areas of the body not accessible by IgM antibodies.
If the patient does not respond to Treatment they will succumb usually to either cancers or infections; the immune system finally reaches a point where it is no longer coordinated or stimulated enough to deal with the disease.

 Keywords:  HIV,AIDS,HIV Cure,HIV Treatment,HIV Infection,HIV Dating,HIV Positive,HIV Symptoms.


Afsath Jameela is a successful lady writer from Kairo. She right now living in UK.

P7 Investigating the role of the novel cytokine IL-35 in the regulation of anti-tumour immunity against head and neck cancer
Cancer cells have the ability to induce immune tolerance, in order to escape the host?s immune cells, which aids in tumour survival. The mechanism by which immune tolerance occurs is not completely known; however, it has been suggested that cytokines produced by cancer cells may serve a key role. Interleukin (IL)-35 is a novel immune suppression cytokine forming part of the IL-12 family and is a heterodimeric secreting protein composed of two subunits: Epstein-Barr virus-Induced gene 3 (EBI3) and IL-12p35. (Source: Oral Oncology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Benzer Pharmacy Hits the Streets in the Fight Against AIDS
Raising hope to help thousands of men, women, and children living with HIV/AIDS at the AIDS Walk Orlando 2015(PRWeb March 28, 2015)Read the full story at http://www.prweb.com/releases/2015/03/prweb12608838.htm (Source: PRWeb: Medical Pharmaceuticals)
Safety and immunogenicity of the M72/AS01 candidate tuberculosis vaccine in HIV-infected adults on combination antiretroviral therapy: a phase I/II, randomized trial: Erratum
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Antiretroviral nanoparticles: the future is now: authors? response to editorial comments
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Immortal time bias: authors? reply
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Transmitted antiretroviral resistance in a large HIV directorate 2011?2014: a response
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Immortal time bias
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Is statin preventing cancer in HIV-1 infected individuals? An inappropriate methodology is a more likely explanation: authors? reply
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Is statin preventing cancer in HIV-1 infected individuals? An inappropriate methodology is a more likely explanation
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Switch to maraviroc/raltegravir dual therapy leads to an unfavorable immune profile with low-level HIV viremia
Immunovirological consequences of a switch to a maraviroc/raltegravir dual therapy were analyzed in 16 HIV-infected patients with persistent viral load below 50?copies/ml. At 26-week postswitch, the CD4+/CD8+ ratio decreased and the CD8+ T-cell activation increased. A decrease in classical monocytes was associated with a shift toward a proinflammatory monocyte profile and negatively correlated with ultrasensitive viral load. Thus, this therapeutic switch induced a proinflammatory profile probably driven by a slight loss of virus control. (Source: AIDS)
Plasma levels of cytokines and chemokines and the risk of mortality in HIV-infected individuals: a case?control analysis nested in a large clinical trial
Conclusion: Whereas plasma levels of interleukin-6 are the most informative biomarker of cytokine dysregulation associated with all-cause mortality in individuals with HIV-1 infection, assessment of plasma levels of CXCL8 might provide information about causes of mortality and possibly SNAEs. (Source: AIDS)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
State-level structural sexual stigma and HIV prevention in a national online sample of HIV-uninfected MSM in the United States
Conclusion: MSM living in more stigmatizing environments had decreased use of antiretroviral-based HIV-prevention strategies compared to those in less stigmatizing environments. Legal reforms protecting sexual minorities should be evaluated as structural interventions that could reduce HIV risk among MSM. (Source: AIDS)
Effect of cytomegalovirus infection on breastfeeding transmission of HIV and on the health of infants born to HIV-infected mothers
Conclusion: Most breastfed infants of HIV-infected mothers in this resource-limited setting are infected with CMV by 24 weeks of age. Early CMV infection may be a risk factor for subsequent infant HIV infection through breastfeeding, pointing to the need for comprehensive approaches in order to achieve elimination of breastfeeding transmission of HIV. (Source: AIDS)
Hair concentrations of antiretrovirals predict viral suppression in HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding Ugandan women
Conclusion: Antiretroviral hair concentrations represent an innovative tool that strongly predicts viral suppression among HIV-infected childbearing women during the critical periods of delivery and breastfeeding. (Source: AIDS)
The impact of adherence to preexposure prophylaxis on the risk of HIV infection among people who inject drugs
We examined adherence by age group and sex and used logistic regression to evaluate demographics and risk behaviors as predictors of adherence and Cox regression to assess the impact of adherence on the risk of HIV infection. Results: A total of 2413 people enrolled and contributed 9665 person-years of follow-up (mean 4.0 years, maximum 6.9 years). The risk of HIV infection decreased as adherence improved, from 48.9% overall to 83.5% for those with at least 97.5% adherence. In multivariable analysis, men were less adherent than women (P?=?0.006) and participants 20?29 years old (P? (Source: AIDS)
HIV-infection impact on clinical?biological features and outcome of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with R-CHOP in the combination antiretroviral therapy era
Conclusion: In the cART era, HIV-related DLBCL still presents more aggressive features than HIV-unrelated DLBCL, and has a worse OS despite having a similar DFS. Prevention of HIV-related complications is essential to achieve outcomes comparable with HIV-uninfected patients with DLBCL. (Source: AIDS)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Pregnancy is associated with elevation of liver enzymes in HIV-positive women on antiretroviral therapy
The objective of this study is to assess whether pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of liver enzyme elevation (LEE) and severe LEE in HIV-positive women on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Design: Two observational studies: the UK Collaborative HIV Cohort (UK CHIC) study and the UK and Ireland National Study of HIV in Pregnancy and Childhood (NSHPC). Methods: Combined data from UK CHIC and NSHPC were used to identify factors associated with LEE (grade 1?4) and severe LEE (grade 3?4). Women starting ART in 2000?2012 were included irrespective of pregnancy status. Cox proportional hazards were used to assess fixed and time-dependent covariates including pregnancy status, CD4+ cell count, drug regimen and hepatitis B virus/hepatitis C virus (HBV/HCV) coinfection. Results: One-q...
Impact of nucleic acid testing relative to antigen/antibody combination immunoassay on the detection of acute HIV infection
Conclusion: The incorporation of pooled NAT into the HIV testing algorithm in high-risk populations may be beneficial in the long term. The addition of pooled NAT testing resulted in an increase in screening costs of 22% to identify AHI: from $8.33 per screened patient to $10.16. Risk factors of the testing population should be considered prior to NAT implementation given the additional testing complexity and costs. (Source: AIDS)
Cross-reactivity between darunavir and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in HIV-infected patients
Conclusion: Although DRV allergy is uncommon, making cross-reactivity with TMP-SMX a rare clinical problem, it appears to exist more often in the background of a TMP-SMX allergy. (Source: AIDS)
High level of APOBEC3F/3G editing in HIV-2 DNA vif and pol sequences from antiretroviral-naive patients
Conclusion: We showed for the first time a high level of APOBEC3F/3G editing in HIV-2 sequences from antiretroviral-naive patients. Our study reported a group effect with a significantly higher level of APOBEC3F/3G editing in HIV-2 group B than in group A sequences. (Source: AIDS)
Associations of common variants in the BST2 region with HIV-1 acquisition in African American and European American people who inject drugs
Conclusion: Our findings support BST2 as a genetic susceptibility factor for HIV-1 acquisition: identifying a novel SNP association for rs13189798 and linking the previously reported regulatory SNP rs12609479 to HIV-1 acquisition. (Source: AIDS)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Cell-to-cell contact facilitates HIV transmission from lymphocytes to astrocytes via CXCR4
Conclusion: Cell-to-cell transmission was mediated by a unique mechanism by which immature viral particles initiated a fusion process in a CXCR4-dependent, CD4-independent manner. These observations have important implications for developing approaches to prevent formation of HIV reservoirs in the brain. (Source: AIDS)
Mozambique: Study Shows Dismally Low Rate of Contraceptive Use
[AIM] Maputo -The vast majority of young Mozambican women do not use contraception, and are thus exposed to the risk of sexually transmitted diseases (including HIV-AIDS) and unwanted pregnancies. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Polymorphisms in the IFN?, IL-10, and TGF? Genes May Be Associated with HIV-1 Infection.
Conclusions. The results suggest that the presence of the IFN+874A allele confers susceptibility to HIV-1 infection and a decrease in the number of CD4+ T lymphocytes. In addition, the genotype associated with high serum levels of TGF? may be associated with an increase in plasma viral load. PMID: 25802474 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Disease Markers)
Hypertension ? an emerging cardiovascular risk factor in HIV infection
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Acoustic topological insulator could hide submarines
Hearing aids could benefit from lattices of rotating cylinders (Source: PhysicsWeb News)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Mae-Wan Ho: No Boundary Really Between Genetic and Epigenetic
As co-founder and director of ISIS (Institute of Science in Society), the UK-based organization focused on reclaiming science for the public good, Mae-Wan Ho, a geneticist, has for many years questioned the engineering of our food supply and addressed other biotechnology issues. She has also been one of neo-Darwinism's most effective critics. Oxford University physiologist Denis Noble has cited the early work of Mae-Wan Ho and physicist and theoretical biologist Peter Saunders as partly inspiring his much discussed paper on replacing neo-Darwinism published recently in the Journal of Experimental Biology. Noble wrote the following: "In certain respects, my article reflects some of the points made over 30 years ago by Ho and Saunders (Ho and Saunders, 1979) who wrote: 'The intrinsic dy...
Namibia: Men in Oshana Encouraged to Get Circumcised
[New Era] Health directorate of Oshana region warned in December that circumcision should not be confused or misunderstood as the cure for HIV/AIDS, but merely a deterent. The directorate is encouraging men to get circumcised because circumcision lowers the chance of getting the HIV virus. The Oshakati Intermediate Hospital has an ongoing circumcision campaign but the health director said the number of men who come forward is not overwhelming. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Prenatal Diagnosis of Musculoskeletal Conditions.
Authors: Oetgen ME, Kelly SM, Sellier LS, Du Plessis A Abstract Ultrasonography is a safe, cost-effective tool used to prenatally detect common musculoskeletal conditions, including clubfoot, skeletal dysplasias, limb-length discrepancies, spinal abnormalities, and hand and other upper extremity deformities. With increased detection of such abnormalities, prenatal parental counseling by orthopaedic surgeons is being requested more frequently. Counseling is important for family education on prognosis and treatment options. A thorough understanding of the common musculoskeletal conditions diagnosed on prenatal ultrasonography, classification of these conditions, and the correlations of these classifications to postnatal severity allows the orthopaedic surgeon to conduct well-informed...
Experiences of coercion to sterilize and forced sterilization among women living with HIV in Latin America.
CONCLUSIONS: The experiences of WLHIV indicate that HIV-related stigma and discrimination by healthcare providers is a primary driver of coercive and forced sterilization. WLHIV are particularly vulnerable when seeking maternal health services. Health worker training on HIV and reproductive rights, improving counselling on HIV and sexual and reproductive health for WLHIV, providing State mechanisms to investigate and sanction coercive and forced sterilization, and strengthening civil society to increase WLHIV's capacity to resist coercion to sterilize can contribute to preventing coercive and forced sterilization. Improved access to judicial and non-judicial mechanisms to procure justice for women who have experienced reproductive rights violations is also needed. PMID: 25808633 [PubMe...
What are the constraints and opportunities for HIVST scale-up in Africa? Evidence from Kenya, Malawi and South Africa.
CONCLUSIONS: Stakeholders in three HIV endemic sub-Saharan countries felt that HIVST will be an important complement to existing community and facility-based testing approaches if accompanied by the same essential components of any HIV testing service, including access to accurate information and linkages to care. While there is an increasingly positive global policy environment regarding HIVST, several implementation and social challenges limit scale-up. There is a need for further research to provide contextual and operational evidence that addresses concerns and contributes to normative WHO guidance. PMID: 25797344 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Pulmonary Cryptococcosis in HIV? sero?negative patients: case series from India
Summary Pulmonary cryptococcosis is likely to be misdiagnosed due to relatively non?specific clinical and radiological features. It is more frequently associated with immuno?suppressed conditions especially acquired immuno?deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). Four cases of pulmonary cryptococcosis were diagnosed over a period of eleven years. All patients in this case series were human immune?deficiency virus (HIV)?negative. The predisposing factors in these patients were diabetes mellitus (DM), acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), post?partum and pregnancy in one each of the patients. Relapse was seen in two cases. All the patients survived due to strict follow?up. Pulmonary cryptococcosis is common in non?AIDS patients and it warrants rapid diagnos...
Why Are We Not Screening for Anal Cancer RoutinelyWhy Are We Not Screening for Anal Cancer Routinely
Anal cancer is now the most common non-AIDS-defining malignancy in those living with HIV, but screening is rarely done. Why the reluctance? BMC Public Health (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
[Perspectives] Sheena McCormack: helping to prepare the world for PrEP
As a clinician who has witnessed the devastating impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic since the 1980s, Sheena McCormack is enthusiastic about her latest project, the UK Medical Research Council (MRC) PROUD study. As lead investigator, she has been investigating the effect of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to protect against HIV infection in high-risk men who have sex with men (MSM). PROUD has shown that PrEP reduces new HIV infections by 86%. ?These results show that MSM who know they are at high risk of HIV are willing to take PrEP and it works incredibly well at preventing HIV infection in the real world?, says McCormack, who works at University College London and is a Professor of Clinical Epidemiology at Imperial College London. (Source: LANCET)
? Manejar la Situacion ?: Partner Notification, Partner Management, and Conceptual Frameworks for HIV/STI Control Among MSM in Peru
Abstract Previous analyses of partner notification (PN) have addressed individual, interpersonal, social, and structural issues influencing PN outcomes but have paid less attention to the conceptual framework of PN itself. We conducted 18 individual interviews and 8 group discussions, in a two-stage qualitative research process, to explore the meanings and contexts of PN for sexually transmitted infections (STI) among men who have sex with men (MSM) and men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) in Lima, Peru. Participants described PN as the open disclosure of private, potentially stigmatizing information that could strengthen or disrupt a partnership, structured by the tension between concealment and revelation. In addition to informing partners of an STI diagnosis, the act of ...
Uganda: Bunyoro in New Drive Against HIV
[Observer] She smiles and jokes as she welcomes visitors to her two-room rented house in Kinubbi slum in Hoima municipality. Patience Aikoru, living with HIV, is a mother of three healthy babies. She is testimony that one can have a positive life after contracting HIV, the virus, which causes Aids. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Zolpidem and Eszopiclone prime ?1?2?2 GABAA receptors for longer duration activity
CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONSAs the derived mechanism successfully simulated the effects of eszopiclone and zolpidem on ensemble currents, we propose it as a definitive mechanism accounting for the effects of both drugs. Our findings reveal that eszopiclone and zolpidem enhance GABAAR currents via a mechanism that differs from that proposed for benzodiazepines. (Source: British Journal of Pharmacology)
Zimbabwe: Govt, Private Sector Join Hands to Fight TB, HIV
[The Herald] Government has launched a strategic public-private sector partnership framework to strengthen the country's response for TB and HIV prevention, treatment, care and support. In a speech read on his behalf by Lands and Rural Resettlement Minister Dr Douglas Mombeshora, Minister of Health and Child Care Dr David Parirenyatwa said the engagement of the private sector was critical in the fight against TB and HIV. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Angola: "Vem Comigo" Project on Awareness About HIV/Aids Danger
[ANGOP] Luanda -The National Association of Angolan Disabled People (Anda) Thursday in the municipality of Cacuaco, Luanda, started an awareness-raising programme on danger related to HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and other sexually transmitted diseases, under the fifth phase of "Vem Comigo"Project. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
NYU developing HIV antibodies and RNA test in a single POC
(New York University) NYU College of Dentistry has received a sub-award in the amount of $335,000 from a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase II grant from NIH to complete the development of a fully automated self-confirming assay that can simultaneously detect HIV/AIDS antibodies and viral RNA from the AIDS virus in a single specimen. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
The effects of HAART on the expression of MUC1 and P65 in a cervical cancer cell line, HCS-2
In conclusion, the drugs used, especially the PI showed some anticancer effects by facilitating cell death through decreased gene and protein expression of MUC1 and P65 and present promising agents for cancer treatment. (Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Immediate, Non Submerged Root Analog Zirconia Implant in Single Rooted Tooth Replacement: Case Report with 2 years Follow Up
This report demonstrates the clinical use of a modified, truly anatomic, root analogue zirconia implant for immediate replacement of a right mandibular first premolar. A 22-year-old female patient with chronic apical periodontitis of the right mandibular first premolar was referred and the tooth was carefully extracted. A truly anatomical, root identical, roughened zirconia implant modified by macro-retentions was manufactured and placed into the extraction socket by tapping 3 days later. After 4 months a composite crown was cemented in place. No complications occurred during the healing period. A good functional and aesthetic result was achieved with minimal bone resorption and soft tissue recession at 18 months follow-up. This report describes the successful clinical use of an immedia...
Traumatic Revictimization of Men Who Have Sex With Men Living With HIV/AIDS
In this study, we contribute to the literature by exploring associations between multiple types of childhood and adult abuse experiences (physical, sexual, and psychological; perpetrated by partners and non-partner), rather than examining sexual victimization alone. A sample of 166 HIV-positive MSM attending primary HIV health care clinics in Seattle, Washington, completed a one-time questionnaire. Results of regression analyses revealed associations between experiencing CSA and adult sexual abuse, and experiencing childhood physical abuse and adult physical and sexual abuse. Childhood psychological abuse was associated with adult physical and psychological abuse and partner psychological abuse. At higher frequencies, childhood psychological abuse was associated with all forms of adult abu...
Sexual Behaviours of Homosexual and Bisexual Men in France: A Generational Approach
Discussion While the increased frequency of first intercourse with a man over successive generations since the 1970s may be related to reduced social pressure for heterosexuality, there is evidence that sexual norms among MSM are widespread, with practices spreading across age groups and generations. Although AIDS profoundly affected sexual practices in the 1980s, further AIDS-related events (discovery of HIV antiretroviral drugs and their use in prevention) do not appear to have accentuated ongoing trends in sexual practices. (Source: PLoS One)
Gastrointestinal cryptococcoma-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome or cryptococcal relapse in a patient with AIDS?
We present the case of an HIV-infected patient on ART, with a history of cryptococcal meningitis who presented with subacute, worsening abdominal pain during immune recovery. This evolved into chronic abdominal pain, with thickened bowel, and abdominal lymphadenopathy, while receiving empiric tuberculosis treatment. At 6-months, he developed intestinal perforation due to a histologically confirmed cryptococcoma. (Source: Medical Mycology Case Reports)
The ethics of talking about &#8216;HIV cure&#8217;
DiscussionAlthough this research field is largely in a pre-clinical phase, talk about curing HIV has become a regular feature in the global mass media. This paper explores the language of HIV cure from philosophical, ethical and historical perspectives. Examination of currently influential definitions of ?functional? and ?sterilizing? HIV cure reveal that these conceptualizations are more complicated than they seem. Cure is often understood in narrowly biomedical terms in isolation from the social and psychological dimensions of illness. Contemporary notions of HIV cure also inherit some of the epistemic problems traditionally associated with cures for other health conditions, such as cancer. Efforts to gain greater conceptual clarity about cure lead to the normative question of ho...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
CYP2B6*6, CYP2B6*18, Body weight and sex are predictors of efavirenz pharmacokinetics and treatment response: population pharmacokinetic modeling in an HIV/AIDS and TB cohort in Zimbabwe
Conclusion: This study showed that screening for CYP2B6 functional variants has a high predictability for efavirenz plasma levels and could be used in prescribing optimal and safe EFV doses. (Source: BMC Clinical Pharmacology)
FDA Updates Abacavir and Lamivudine Labeling
"On March 23, 2015, FDA approved revisions to the Epivir (lamivudine) and Ziagen (abacavir sulfate) labels to each provide for once-daily dosing in pediatric patients 3 months of age and older in combination with other antiretroviral agents for the treatment of HIV-1 infection." &nbsp; The updated labeling for both drugs will be available soon at the FDA website. &nbsp; More information is available:&nbsp; FDA: Press release AIDSinfo: Patient fact sheet on abacavir AIDSinfo: Patient fact sheet on lamivudine (Source: AIDSinfo At-a-Glance: Offering Information on HIV/AIDS Treatment, Prevention, and Research, A Service of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS))
HHS Launches Innovative Digital Storytelling Project to Support Federal HIV Response
"The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services today released Positive Spin, a comprehensive digital educational tool that uses personal storytelling to promote the importance of getting people with HIV into treatment. The project, which was developed by AIDS.gov with input from federal agencies, health care professionals, persons living with HIV and community-based HIV organizations, is available at https://positivespin.hiv.gov." &nbsp; For more information, view the HHS press release. (Source: AIDSinfo At-a-Glance: Offering Information on HIV/AIDS Treatment, Prevention, and Research, A Service of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS))
News from NIH
March 26, 2015: HIV Can Spread Early, Evolve in Patients&rsquo; Brains &nbsp; "The AIDS virus can genetically evolve and independently replicate in patients&rsquo; brains early in the illness process, researchers funded by the National Institutes of Health have discovered." &nbsp; March 23, 2015: For Most Children With HIV and Low Immune Cell Count, Cells Rebound After Treatment &nbsp; "Most children with HIV who have low levels of a key immune cell eventually recover levels of this cell after beginning treatment, according to a study by researchers funded by the National Institutes of Health." March 13, 2015: Anti-Herpes Drug May Help Control HIV, NIH Study Finds &nbsp; "Valacyclovir, a drug commonly used to control the virus that causes genital herpes, appears to reduce the levels of HI...
Effectiveness of pharmacotherapy in behavioural therapeutic smoking cessation programmes
Conclusion: Behavioural support combined with SCA seems the most successful programme. However, as we performed an observational study, firm conclusions about the differences in effectiveness between the programme types cannot be made. Future research should consider the type of smoker (smoking history, amount of cigarettes per day). (Source: The European Journal of Public Health)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
The AIDS epidemic and economic input impact factors in Chongqing, China, from 2006 to 2012: a spatial-temporal analysis
Conclusions The Chongqing HIV/AIDS epidemic showed temporal-spatial clustering and was mainly clustered in the mid-western and south-western counties, showing an upward trend over time. The amount of special funds dedicated to AIDS and to the public awareness unit showed positive and negative relationships with HIV/AIDS spatial clustering, respectively. (Source: BMJ Open)
Changes in HIV and syphilis prevalence among female sex workers from three serial cross-sectional surveys in Karnataka state, South India
Conclusions The prevalences of HIV infection and high-titre syphilis among FSWs have steadily declined with increased condom use. Further reductions in prevalence will require intensification of prevention efforts for new FSWs and those soliciting clients using mobile phones or from home, as well as increasing condom use in the context of regular partnerships. (Source: BMJ Open)
Complex clinical reasoning in the critical care unit ? difficulties, pitfalls and adaptive strategies
This article illustrates many of these with reference to a case encountered on our intensive care unit. Strategies to improve completeness of data gathering, processing and synthesis in the acute care environment are critically appraised in the context of early detection and amelioration of cognitive bias. These include reflection, targeted simulation training and the integration of social media and IT based aids in complex diagnostic processes. A framework which can be quickly and easily employed in a variety of clinical environments is then presented. (Source: International Journal of Clinical Practice)
Indiana Gov. Mike Pence Overrides State Law To Authorize Needle-Exchange Program
INDIANAPOLIS (AP) ? Indiana Gov. Mike Pence overrode state law and his own anti-drug policies Thursday to authorize a short-term needle-exchange program designed to help contain HIV infections in a rural county where more than six dozen cases have been reported, all of them tied to intravenous drug use. Pence issued an executive order declaring a public health emergency in Scott County, an economically depressed area about 30 miles north of Louisville, Kentucky, that has seen 79 new infections since December. The county typically sees only about five HIV cases each year, health officials said. All of those infected either live in Scott County or have ties to the county, and all of the infections have been linked to needle sharing among drug users. Most of the infections involve people...
HIV Can Spread Early, Evolve in Patients' Brains
Source: National Institute of Mental Health - Related MedlinePlus Page: HIV/AIDS (Source: MedlinePlus Health News)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Pilot and feasibility clinical research grants in diabetes, endocrine and metabolic diseases
The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases invites applications for Aids-related pilot and feasibility clinical research grants in diabetes, and endocrine and metabolic diseases. This Aids-related R21 funding opportunity announcement encourage pilot and feasibility clinical research related to the prevention or treatment of diabetes and endocrine and genetic metabolic diseases.&nbsp; Direct costs are limited to US$275,000 over the two years of the R21 award, with no more than US$200,000 in direct costs allowed in any single year.&nbsp; Deadline is 7 May 2015 More information is available on the NIH website (Source: Society for Endocrinology)
Kenya: Teachers Told to Fight HIV Stigma
[The Star] TEACHERS have been urged to fight against stigma and discrimination against HIV positive colleagues. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Tanzania: Bunge Endorses New Anti-HIV Strategy
[Daily News] Dodoma -MEMBERS of Parliament (MPs) on Wednesday passed the Tanzania Commission for AIDS (TACAIDS) Amendment Bill, 2014 that among other things, creates a special fund to ensure that resources for fighting HIV/AIDS are readily available. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: Doing the Right Thing - Human Rights for Those Affected By TB
[Global Fund] Human rights abuses are an important factor impacting the TB crisis, and as countries mark World TB Day, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria with support from the Stop TB Partnership have chosen to highlight this topic this week. (Source: AllAfrica News: Tuberculosis)
Rwanda: First Lady Calls for Sustained Efforts in HIV/Aids Fight
[New Times] First lady Jeannette Kagame has reaffirmed Rwanda's commitment to the fight HIV/Aids, saying the country is using a holistic approach through a combination of laws and policies, and pro-women and girls programmes. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Zimbabwe: Masvingo Province Runs Out of ARVs, Say Activists and Patients
[New Zimbabwe] PEOPLE living with HIV in Masvingo have gone for two weeks without accessing medication after a serious shortage of ARVs hit the province. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
South Africa: TB - of Campaigns and Complications
[Daily Maverick] Deputy President Cyril Ramaphosa believes now is the time to combat SA's biggest killer, tuberculosis. The state is embarking on the largest screening campaign seen in South Africa and Ramaphosa, like activists and patients, wants to see the same efforts applied in fighting HIV/Aids. But the challenges are vast. (Source: AllAfrica News: Tuberculosis)
Namibia: Woman Overcomes HIV/Aids Stigma in Namibia
[New Era] WINDHOEK - Finding out that she was HIV positive 12 years ago came as such a big blow to one woman that she did not know whether she would recover from the psychological shock. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Quantitative Bead-Based Flow Cytometry for Assaying Rab7 GTPase Interaction with the Rab-Interacting Lysosomal Protein (RILP) Effector Protein
Rab7 facilitates vesicular transport and delivery from early endosomes to late endosomes as well as from late endosomes to lysosomes. The role of Rab7 in vesicular transport is dependent on its interactions with effector proteins, among them Rab-interacting lysosomal protein (RILP), which aids in the recruitment of active Rab7 (GTP-bound) onto dynein&ndash;dynactin motor complexes to facilitate late endosomal transport on the cytoskeleton. Here we detail a novel bead-based flow cytometry assay to measure Rab7 interaction with the Rab-interacting lysosomal protein (RILP) effector protein and demonstrate its utility for quantitative assessment and studying drug&ndash;target interactions. The specific binding of GTP-bound Rab7 to RILP is readily demonstrated and shown to be dose-dependent and...
Prostate cancer and treatment choices -- a decision shared by doctor and patient?
(University of Helsinki) Doctors strive to make treatment decisions together with their patients -- but is the decision really shared? According to adjunct professor Kari Tikkinen, shared decision-making isn't easy, and clinicians need help. The international research group led by Tikkinen has studied the decision aids for treatment choice of localized prostate cancer. The study was published in the CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, which has the highest impact factor of any journal. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
For most children with HIV and low immune cell count, cells rebound after treatment
UCLA Health Sciences Dr. Paul Krogstad Most children with HIV who have low levels of a key immune cell eventually recover levels of this cell after they begin treatment, according to a new study conducted by researchers at UCLA and other institutions in the U.S. and Brazil. The researchers were funded by the National Institutes of Health.  ?We were pleased to find that the vast majority of children experience immune system recovery with effective therapy,? said Dr. Paul Krogstad, professor of pediatric infectious diseases and of molecular and medical pharmacology at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, and the study?s first author. ?Our study also provided the most detailed information to date about the timing of this recovery in school-age children.? Krogstad is also ...
Neighborhood-level and individual-level correlates of cannabis use among young persons living with HIV/AIDS
Public views on the use of marijuana or cannabis in the United States and internationally are undergoing currently a profound shift that coincides with emerging evidence of its use in the treatment of selected health conditions (Tramer et al., 2001; Watson et al., 2000), including HIV/AIDS (Abrams et al., 2003; Woolridge et al., 2005). ?Medical marijuana? (including cannabinoids such as tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), and their derivatives) is increasingly the focus of legislation in states in the U.S., and is already legal in Canada and several European countries. (Source: Drug and Alcohol Dependence)
What is infectiveness and how is it involved in infection and immunity?
Proof of the Germ theory of disease and acceptance of Koch?s postulates in the late 1890?s launched the fields of microbial pathogenesis and infectious diseases and provided the conceptual framework that has guided thought and research in these fields. A central tenet that emerged from studies with microbes that fulfilled Koch?s postulates was that microbes that caused disease had characteristics that allowed them to do so, with the corollary that microbes that did not cause disease lacked disease-causing determinants. This observation, which held true for many diseases that were known to cause disease in the late 19th century, such as toxin-producing and encapsulated bacteria, led to the view that the ability to cause disease rested with microbes and reflected the activity of specif...
Collagen characterization in different patterns of bone invasion by OSCC: A histochemical study with picrosirius red and polarizing microscopy
Conclusion The stromal component plays an important role in the biological behaviour of a tumour. It is probable that in OSCC the infiltrative pattern of bone invasion induces increased production of loosely packed procollagens, intermediates, or pathological collagen which further aids in the invasion of the tumour into the surrounding bone, worsening the prognosis. (Source: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Medicine, and Pathology)
Time trends of baseline demographics and clinical characteristics of HIV infected children enrolled in care and treatment service in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
We present findings of a study that explored time-based trends of baseline characteristics among children enrolling into 26 public HIV care facilities in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods: Children enrolled between October 2004 and September 2011 was included in these analyses. The year of enrollment was used as the primary predictor of interest, and log linear and linear regressions model were used to analyze dichotomous and continuous variables respectively. P-values under 0.05 were considered significant. Results: Among the 6,579 children enrolled, the proportion with advanced disease at enrollment increased from 35% to 58%, mean age increasing from 5.0 to 6.2 years (p? (Source: BMC Infectious Diseases)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Vocational counseling of HIV-infected people: A role for nurses in HIV care
People living with HIV (PLWH) face various work-related problems, such as stigma and physical difficulties. Health care professionals can help improve the employment situation of PLWH. Nurses who work in HIV care play a central role in the care of PLWH in the Netherlands. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the contributions of nurses to the vocational counseling of PLWH, and to make an inventory of needs for future care. Our findings, collected with a self-administered survey, clarified that HIV nurses in the Netherlands regularly faced patients with problems at work, but that they didn?t have the required knowledge to provide assistance. (Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)
Creating Identity and Community: Latino Gay and Bisexual Men's Motives for Participation in the AIDS Movement
Abstract Motives are situated vocabularies providing insight into the social context and identities of activists and volunteers. In this paper, we examine motives for participation in the AIDS movement. We focus on an understudied group of volunteers and activists (N?=?75) in the USA, Latino gay and bisexual men. Participants elaborated on 11 motives: values, helping others, reciprocity, understanding, personal development, career enhancement, community concern, social change, esteem enhancement, personal experience, and social networking. Across almost all categories of motives, activists spoke of working for, and meeting, other Latinos and other Latino gay and bisexual males, and about fighting what they consider oppressing forces. Motives were articulated within the context of a col...
A Genomic Portrait of Haplotype Diversity and Signatures of Selection in Indigenous Southern African Populations
This study contributes to a better understanding of population ancestry and selection in south-eastern African populations; and the data and results obtained will support research into the genetic contributions to infectious as well as non-communicable diseases in the region. (Source: PLoS Genetics)
Global Fund redirects $574 million from Malawi AIDS council
LILONGWE (Reuters) - The Global Fund has redirected $574 million in HIV/AIDS funding away from Malawi's National Aids Council (NAC) after allegations of financial mismanagement, including the purchase of vehicles that were not budgeted for, it said on Wednesday. (Source: Reuters: Health)
Estimating the Cost of Increasing Retention in HIV CareEstimating the Cost of Increasing Retention in HIV Care
How expensinve would it be to scale-up retention in care interventions for HIV-infected patients? JAIDS: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Botswana: Makgalemele Salutes Naca Staff
[Botswana Daily News] Mmankgodi -The Assistant Minister for Presidential Affairs and Public Administration, Mr Phillip Makgalemele, has applauded the National AIDS Coordinating Agency (NACA) staff for their candid gesture. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Botswana: Youth Agents of Change
[Botswana Daily News] Mahalapye -Young people should be viewed as agents of change and solutions to the challenges faced by the country, says a United Nations Population Fund Agency (UNFPA) official, Ms Chada Kealotswe. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Strong correlation between protein reagent strip and protein-to-creatinine ratio for detection of renal dysfunction in HIV-infected patients: a cross-sectional study.
CONCLUSIONS: There is a high concordance between detection of proteinuria by PRS and uPCR. Therefore, in low-income countries PRS can be helpful for detecting tubular damage in people infected with HIV. PMID: 25798180 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Therapy)
Bradley Timepiece: Watch for Vision Impaired
In the past, people who experience visual disabilities had two basic types of watches available to them. The watches included ones that speak to the individual, the other is the kind of watch that permits the user to touch the hands of the clock face. The drawbacks to these watches is, for talking watches, the inability to hear the watch in loud places. The drawback of touch watches is the potential to damage or break the analog hands during use. (Source: Disabled World)
Efforts to Find Heterosexual HIV in San Francisco, 2007?2013
We report on risk behaviors and HIV prevalence among ?high-risk? heterosexuals in San Francisco. National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System is coordinated by the CDC and implemented in 21 health jurisdictions. The studies were conducted in 2006, 2010 and 2013 in San Francisco. Respondent driven sampling was used to sample participants. Eligible persons were 18?50 years old and had sex with at least one opposite gender partner in the past year. We obtained samples of 371, 421, 165 heterosexuals in 2007, 2010 and 2013, respectively. Some demographics varied across the 3 years. Residential neighborhoods changed, homelessness and healthcare coverage increased. Binge drinking, cocaine and heroin use increased while methamphetamine use declined. There were no changes in numbers of partn...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
?Please Don?t Make Me Ask for Help?: Implicit Social Support and Mental Health in Chinese Individuals Living with HIV
This study assessed explicit and implicit forms of social support and mental health symptoms in 120 HIV-positive Chinese. Explicit social support refers to interactions involving active disclosure and discussion of problems and request for assistance, whereas implicit social support refers to the emotional comfort one obtains from social networks without disclosing problems. We hypothesized and found using multiple linear regression, that after controlling for demographics, only implicit, but not explicit social support positively predicted mental health. Future research is warranted on the effects of utilizing implicit social support to bolster mental health, which has the potential to circumvent the issues of both high stigma and low professional resources in this population. (Source: AI...
History of Childhood Abuse, Drinking Motives, Alcohol Use, and Sexual Risk Behavior Among STD Clinic Patients in St. Petersburg, Russia: A Cross-Sectional Study
Abstract The relationship between level of childhood abuse (physical and emotional) and sexual risk behavior of sexually transmitted disease clinic patients in St. Petersburg, Russia was examined through path analyses. Mediating variables investigated were: Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT), drinking motives (for social interaction, to enhance mood, to facilitate sexual encounters), intimate partner violence (IPV), anxiety, and depression symptoms. Results showed a significant indirect effect of childhood abuse on women?s sexual risk behavior: higher level of childhood abuse was associated with a greater likelihood of IPV, motivations to drink, leading to higher AUDIT scores and correlated to higher likelihood of having multiple, new or casual sexual partner(s). N...
Mortality in children and adolescents vertically infected by HIV receiving care at a referral hospital in Vitoria, Brazil
Background: Daily throughout 2011, about 900 new HIV infections occurred in children and 630 children died as a result of AIDS-related complications worldwide. Late diagnosis, mortality trends, causes of and risk factors for death were evaluated in vertically HIV-infected children. Methods: A retrospective 11-year study was conducted with Brazilian vertically HIV-infected children and adolescents using patients? charts. Medical records, death certificates and the Ministry of Health?s mortality database were verified for mortality and cause of death. Diagnoses were made according to the CDC Revised Classification System for HIV infection. Results: Of 177 patients included, 97 were female (54.8%). Median age at admission was 30 months (IQR: 5?72 months). Median follow-up was 5 years ...
Effectiveness of cognitive rehabilitation following epilepsy surgery: Current state of knowledge
Summary ObjectiveCognitive rehabilitation (CR) is a well?researched therapeutic option for a variety of neurocognitive problems. Recently, CR has been proposed as an option for patients who experience cognitive difficulties following epilepsy surgery (ES). However, there is inconsistency in reporting the efficacy of CR in this population. We appraise existing evidence regarding CR approaches in patients undergoing resective ES and review effectiveness of specific CR strategies. MethodsA comprehensive literature search using MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and EBM Reviews (including the Cochrane database) identified studies in English published before September 2014, without age restriction, related to CR in patients who underwent resective ES. We included studies focused on patients w...
Risk of Discharge to Postacute Care A Patient-Centered Outcome for the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Surgical Risk Calculator
Conclusions and RelevanceIndividualized risk of discharge to postacute care can be predicted with excellent accuracy. This outcome will be incorporated into the ACS NSQIP Surgical Risk Calculator. (Source: JAMA Surgery)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Development and usability testing of a Web-based decision aid for families of patients receiving prolonged mechanical ventilation
Conclusions: The Web-based decision aid for ICU surrogate decision makers can facilitate highly individualized information sharing with excellent usability and acceptability. Decision aids that employ an electronic format such as eCODES represent a strategy that could enhance patient-clinician collaboration and decision making quality in intensive care. (Source: Annals of Intensive Care)
Quantitative trait locus analysis of agronomic and quality-related traits in cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.).
In this study, high levels of phenotypic variation, broad-sense heritability and significant correlations were observed for agronomic and quality-related traits in an F 2:3 population. A genetic linkage map was constructed for cultivated peanut containing 470 simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci, with a total length of 1877.3 cM and average distance of 4.0 cM between flanking markers. For 10 agronomic traits, 24 QTLs were identified and each QTL explained 1.69-18.70 % of the phenotypic variance. For 8 quality-related traits, 12 QTLs were identified that explained 1.72-20.20 % of the phenotypic variance. Several QTLs for multiple traits were overlapped, reflecting the phenotypic correlation between these traits. The majority of QTLs exhibited obvious dominance or over-dominance effects on ...
Use of the new Airtraq ?Airtraq AVANT? in clinical settings
The use of video laryngoscopy for airway management has rapidly increased [1]. A new Airtraq, called Airtraq AVANT®(Senko Medical Trading Co. Japan, AVANT), has been approved for use in Japan since August 2014. The AVANT consists of a reusable optics, a disposable blade and an eyecup (Figure). Compared to the conventional Airtraq, the optics in the AVANT contains many prisms, which aids in the visualization of the vocal cord. Since the AVANT blade is disposable, the risk of cross contamination will low. (Source: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia)
An Updated Protocol to Detect Invalid Entries in an Online Survey of Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM): How Do Valid and Invalid Submissions Compare?
Abstract Researchers use protocols to screen for suspicious survey submissions in online studies. We evaluated how well a de-duplication and cross-validation process detected invalid entries. Data were from the Sexually Explicit Media Study, an Internet-based HIV prevention survey of men who have sex with men. Using our protocol, 146 (11.6 %) of 1254 entries were identified as invalid. Most indicated changes to the screening questionnaire to gain entry (n = 109, 74.7 %), matched other submissions? payment profiles (n = 56, 41.8 %), or featured an IP address that was recorded previously (n = 43, 29.5 %). We found few demographic or behavioral differences between valid and invalid samples, however. Invalid submissions had lower odds of reporting HIV testing in the past y...
[World Report] Peter Piot wins 2015 Canada Gairdner Global Health Award
Peter Piot has been awarded the Gairdner Foundation's 2015 global health prize for his codiscovery of the Ebola virus and his many contributions to the HIV/AIDS field. John Maurice reports. (Source: LANCET)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Does target animacy influence manual laterality of monkeys? First answer from northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina).
This study, for the first time, investigates the effect of target animacy on hand preference in Old World monkeys, compares our findings with previous related studies in great apes and humans, and aids in filling the knowledge gap on primate handedness evolution. Nine captive northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina) were chosen as focal subjects in this study. There was no group-level handedness for both animate and inanimate targets. No significant interaction was found between lateral hand use and target animacy. Left-hand use was more frequent than right-hand use for animate targets, whereas right-hand use was more frequent than left-hand use for inanimate targets, both of which demonstrate no significant level. On the whole, northern pig-tailed macaques showed a similar tendency a...
Lower Limb Neuromuscular Function and Blood Flow Characteristics in AFO-Using Survivors of Stroke
Conclusions: This cohort of ambulatory AFO users exhibited large variations in functional abilities. We recommend that future studies in stroke survivors consider AFO use in their research designs. (Source: Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy)
Liberia: UNAIDS Urges HIV, Ebola Survivors
[NEWS] The Country Director of the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS (UNAIDS) to Liberia has challenged people living with HIV and survivors of Ebola in the country to denounce all forms of stigma and discrimination against them by becoming agents of positive change. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Updated Fact Sheet: HIV and Tuberculosis
People with HIV and latent TB infection are at much higher risk for progressing to active TB disease than people with latent TB infection alone. Among 8,238 people with TB disease who had a documented HIV test result in 2013, 7% were coinfected with HIV. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
Africa: Global Steering Committee Advances Efforts for Quality Assurance
[Global Fund] The Global Steering Committee is harnessing the collective capabilities and innovations of major health development institutions to combat falsified, substandard, stolen and diverted medicines and other health products. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Liberia: HIV Network, Ebola Survivors Attend Workshop
[New Dawn] More than 30 representatives from the Liberia Network of People Living with HIV (LIBNEP) and the Ebola Survivors Association in Liberia or ESAL have participated in two-day training workshop in Monrovia, using the Positive Health, Dignity and Prevention or PHDP strategy to develop a work plan for inclusion in the Global Fund HIV Concept Note. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
[Newsdesk] Assessing a broader user base for new HCV drug
On March 6, 2015, the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the city officials of Washington, DC announced the launch of the ASCEND study, done as part of the DC Partnership for HIV/AIDS Progress. The aim of this study is to assess whether non-specialist staff (ie, general practitioners, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants) can treat people infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) with Gilead's new HCV treatment, a fixed-dose combination of ledipasvir plus sofosbuvir, as effectively as specialist physicians, and to assess the long-term effects of treatment. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Botswana: PEPFAR Make Strides in Combating HIV/Aids
[Botswana Daily News] Selebi Phikwe -Botswana in collaboration with the United States' President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) has made considerable strides in combating the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Botswana. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
First-time isolation of Candida dubliniensis from plaque and carious dentine of primary teeth
Conclusions Plaque and carious dentine may be a further habitat of C. dubliniensis. (Source: European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry)
Risk of Drug Resistance Among Persons Acquiring HIV Within a Randomized Clinical Trial of Single- or Dual-Agent Preexposure Prophylaxis
Conclusions.&nbsp;These results suggest that resistance selected by PrEP is rare but can occur both with PrEP initiation during acute seronegative HIV infection and in PrEP breakthrough infections and that FTC is associated with a greater frequency of resistance mutations than TDF. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Elevated Levels of Monocyte Activation Markers Are Associated With Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Men With and Those Without HIV Infection
Conclusions.&nbsp;sCD163, sCD14, and CCL2 levels were elevated in treated HIV-infected men and associated with atherosclerosis. Monocyte activation may increase the risk for cardiovascular disease in individuals with HIV infection. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
HIV Nef Promotes Expression of B-Lymphocyte Stimulator by Blood Dendritic Cells During HIV Infection in Humans
Dendritic cells (DCs) modulate B-cell survival and differentiation, mainly through production of growth factors such as B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS; also known as "B-cell factor belonging to the tumor necrosis factor family" [BAFF]). We have recently shown that, in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)&ndash;infected individuals with rapid and those with classic disease progression, B-cell dysregulations were associated with increased BLyS expression in plasma and by blood myeloid DCs (mDCs), in contrast to aviremic HIV-infected individuals with slow disease progression (also known as "elite controllers"). In previous work with transgenic mice expressing HIV genes, B-cell dysregulations were concomitant with altered mDCs and dependent on HIV negative factor (Nef). We now report that HIV Nef...
Positive Results of Immunoglobulin G Cytomegalovirus Serologic Testing and Risk of Severe Non-AIDS-Related Complications in HIV-Infected Patients
(Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Enriched Formula Supplement Aids in Pressure Ulcer Healing
Drinking a calorie- and protein-rich formula enriched with arginine, zinc, and antioxidants improved the healing of pressure ulcers in patients who were malnourished, a condition that contributes to the development of pressure ulcers and hinders healing. The 200 patients with stage II, III, and IV pressure ulcers receiving home care services or in long-term care settings were randomly assigned to receive either the enriched formula (400 mL/day) or an isocaloric, isonitrogenous formula for 8 weeks. All participants also received optimal wound care (Cereda E et al. Ann Intern Med. 2015;162[3]:167-174). (Source: JAMA)
Integrating an infectious disease programme into the primary health care service: a retrospective analysis of Chagas disease community-based surveillance in Honduras
Conclusions: We found that Chagas disease vector surveillance can be integrated into the PHC service. Health centres demonstrated capacity to manage vector surveillance and improve performance, children?s awareness, vector report-response and seroprevalence, once tasks were simplified to be performed by trained non-specialists and distributed among the stakeholders. Health systems integration requires health workers to perform beyond their usual responsibilities and acquire management skills. Integration of non-patient-centred vector control is feasible and can contribute to strengthening the preventive capacity of the PHC service. (Source: BMC Health Services Research)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Touch imprint cytology: a rapid diagnostic tool for oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Authors: Geetha L, Astekar M, Ashok KN, Sowmya GV Abstract Techniques for intraoperative pathologic examination of oral squamous cell carcinoma are rare in the literature. We evaluated the advantages and limitations of touch imprint cytology for intraoperative diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma. We used 30 incisional biopsies of clinically diagnosed oral squamous cell carcinoma and compared touch imprint cytology to histopathological sections. Touch imprint cytology showed 24 specimens positive for malignancy, two suspicious for malignancy and four inadequate specimens. The accuracy of the test was 93.2%. Touch imprint cytology is an accurate, simple, rapid and cost-effective method that aids diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma during operation, but it does not replace...
Perilipin 5 Regulates Islet Lipid Metabolism and Insulin Secretion in a cAMP-Dependent Manner: Implication of Its Role in the Postprandial Insulin Secretion
Elevation of circulating fatty acids (FA) during fasting supports postprandial (PP) insulin secretion that is critical for glucose homeostasis and is impaired in diabetes. We tested our hypothesis that lipid droplet (LD) protein perilipin 5 (PLIN5) in &beta;-cells aids PP insulin secretion by regulating intracellular lipid metabolism. We demonstrated that PLIN5 serves as an LD protein in human islets. In vivo, Plin5 and triglycerides were increased by fasting in mouse islets. MIN6 cells expressing PLIN5 (adenovirus [Ad]-PLIN5) and those expressing perilipin 2 (PLIN2) (Ad-PLIN2) had higher [3H]FA incorporation into triglycerides than Ad-GFP control, which support their roles as LD proteins. However, Ad-PLIN5 cells had higher lipolysis than Ad-PLIN2 cells, which increased further by 8-Br-cAM...
Elizabeth Taylor Would Be 'Horrified' To Learn Of Current HIV Rates In Young Gay Men, Granddaughter Claims
Elizabeth Taylor would be "horrified" to learn about current HIV/AIDS rates in young gay men, the actress's granddaughter revealed in a new interview. Naomi deLuce Wilding, 40, tells The Telegraph that "a real complacency" regarding HIV/AIDS in the gay community had already set in before her legendary grandmother's death at the age of 79 in 2011. "Even before she died, when my grandmother was pretty ill, she was horrified to see that," Wilding said. "Sadly I don't think she had the strength to say what she really felt at that point." Describing Taylor as a "very intuitive woman," Wilding said, "When she saw that people -- friends of hers and fellow actors -- were being stigmatized [for being HIV-positive], she recognized an opportunity to use her voice and fame to speak up for those ...
MR imaging of the retrorectal?presacral tumors: an algorithmic approach
This article reviews the anatomy of the retrorectal?presacral space and the related tumors, optimal MRI protocol, MRI-based approach to differential diagnosis, and finally pertinent reporting pointers and implications of MR imaging findings for surgical management. (Source: Abdominal Imaging)
Sierra Leone: Rada-SL Aids Survivors to Defeat Ebola
[Concord] Rehabilitation and Development Agency Sierra Leone (RADA-SL), an organisation working as one of the social mobilization pillars in the fight against Ebola in the country, with support from Christian Aid, has trained over 50 young-adult Ebola survivors on championing Ebola sensitization in six chiefdoms in the Bo District - Kakua, Bumpe, Gbo, Wonde, Tikonko and Nyawalenga. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
HIV and Aging: Insights From the APHODHIV and Aging: Insights From the APHOD
How does older age affect typical HIV treatment-related outcomes? HIV Medicine (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
Needs Assessment and Theory-Based Promotion of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision (VMMC) Among Male Sexually Transmitted Diseases Patients (MSTDP) in China
Abstract Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) is an evidence-based biomedical HIV prevention method. It is under-utilized in countries outside Africa, including China. The present single-arm, non-blinded test-of-concept trial was designed to promote VMMC among 179 male sexually transmitted diseases patients (MSTDP) in Shenzhen, China. It was based on behavioral health theories and results of a formative survey. At month 4, 45.5 % of the MSTDP responded positively to the intervention (19.9 % had taken up VMMC and 25.6 % intended to do so in the next 6 months). Adjusted analysis showed that cognitive variables measured at baseline (perceived self-efficacy, subjective norm and behavioral intention) significantly predicted adoption of VMMC during the 4-month follow-up period...
Uganda: Why Do People Behave As If HIV Has Got a Cure?
[Observer] Lately, it has become common to hear people speak casually of sexual escapades as if they are unaware of HIV/Aids that nearly wiped out our society. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Gambia: National Assembly Passes HIV/Aids Bill
[Foroyaa] The Minister for Health and Social Welfare, Omar Sey, on Wednesday, (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: Benue State Establishes HIV/Tuberculosis Treatment Centre
[Leadership] In a bid to improve the living conditions of the teeming populace of the state and the country at large, a treatment centre to foster reduction of HIV and tuberculosis has been established in Makurdi, the Benue State capital. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Malawi: Quest for Zero Discrimination Threatened in Kasungu
[Malawi News Agency] Kasungu -Stigma and discrimination is said to be one of the problems that is making people of Kawamba in Kasungu to conceal their HIV status. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Implementing decision aids affects care decisions in urology
(Group Health Research Institute) After Group Health Cooperative implemented video-based decision aids for men with two common prostate conditions, rates of elective surgery for benign prostatic hyperplasia and rates of active treatment for localized prostate cancer declined over six months. But the total cost of health care for those patients did not fall significantly. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
NHS issues call to action in hearing loss
New report identifies ways that services for people with impaired hearing can be improvedRelated items from OnMedicaIs this a crossroad for General Practice and Hearing Care?Re-think management of age-related hearing loss, GPs urgedHearing aids only worn by one in five of middle aged who need themPoor access to primary care impacts the health of deaf peopleIntegrated personal commissioning pilots revealed (Source: OnMedica Latest News)
Diarrhea, Anasarca, and Severe Hypoalbuminemia in an AIDS Patient
(Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Recommendations for Evaluation and Management of Bone Disease in HIV
Thirty-four human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) specialists from 16 countries contributed to this project, whose primary aim was to provide guidance on the screening, diagnosis, and monitoring of bone disease in HIV-infected patients. Four clinically important questions in bone disease management were identified, and recommendations, based on literature review and expert opinion, were agreed upon. Risk of fragility fracture should be assessed primarily using the Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX), without dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), in all HIV-infected men aged 40&ndash;49 years and HIV-infected premenopausal women aged &ge;40 years. DXA should be performed in men aged &ge;50 years, postmenopausal women, patients with a history of fragility fracture, patients receiving chronic...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Boosted Lopinavir- Versus Boosted Atazanavir-Containing Regimens and Immunologic, Virologic, and Clinical Outcomes: A Prospective Study of HIV-Infected Individuals in High-Income Countries
Conclusions.&nbsp;Our estimates are consistent with a lower mortality, a lower incidence of AIDS-defining illness, a greater 12-month increase in CD4 cell count, and a smaller risk of virologic failure at 12 months for atazanavir compared with lopinavir regimens. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Incidence of Herpes Zoster in HIV-Infected Adults in the Combined Antiretroviral Therapy Era: Results From the FHDH-ANRS CO4 Cohort
Conclusions.&nbsp;The risk of HZ has declined markedly among HIV-infected patients in the cART era, but remains 3 times higher than in the general population. The risk increases moderately during the first 6 months of cART. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Declining Relative Risk for Myocardial Infarction Among HIV-Positive Compared With HIV-Negative Individuals With Access to Care
Concerns remain for an increased myocardial infarction (MI) risk among individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We conducted a cohort study evaluating MI risk from 1996 to 2011 by HIV status. The adjusted MI rate ratio for HIV status declined over time, reaching 1.0 (95% confidence interval, .7&ndash;1.4) in 2010&ndash;2011, the most recent study period. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Diarrhea, Anasarca, and Severe Hypoalbuminemia in an AIDS Patient
(Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
?I was thinking too much?: experiences of HIV?positive adults with common mental disorders and poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy in Zimbabwe
ConclusionsBetter understanding of the local expression of mental disorders and of underlying stressors can inform the development of culturally sensitive interventions to reduce CMDs and poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy. (Source: Tropical Medicine and International Health)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
A nationwide analysis of risk factors for in-hospital myocardial infarction after total joint arthroplasty
Conclusion Our findings can be used to better identify patients at high risk of AMI and to develop strategies aimed at diminishing its incidence, which could in turn translate to improved hospital efficiency and quality of care. (Source: International Orthopaedics)
Resistance to Cotrimoxazole and Other Antimicrobials among Isolates from HIV/AIDS and Non-HIV/AIDS Patients at Bugando Medical Centre, Mwanza, Tanzania.
Authors: Marwa KJ, Mushi MF, Konje E, Alele PE, Kidola J, Mirambo MM Abstract Bacterial resistance has increased in the AIDS era and is attributed to the widespread use of cotrimoxazole prophylaxis against opportunistic infections in HIV/AIDS patients. In Tanzania, cotrimoxazole prophylaxis has been used for more than ten years. Little is known, however, about its impact on the spread of antibiotic resistance in HIV positive patients. This cross-sectional study was done to compare magnitude of bacterial resistance to cotrimoxazole and other antimicrobials among isolates from HIV infected patients on cotrimoxazole prophylaxis and those not on prophylaxis and non-HIV patients attending Bugando Medical Centre (BMC). Susceptibility testing on obtained urine and swab specimens followed ...
Africa: Ebola and HIV - How to Change Behaviour for the Long Term
[IRIN] Nairobi -There have been no new Ebola infections in Liberia in the past three weeks, but it's still far too early to say the virus has been defeated - Liberia's borders are porous and its neighbours have been less successful in taming their outbreaks. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Responding to the public health consequences of the Ukraine crisis: an opportunity for global health diplomacy.
CONCLUSIONS: In response to this crisis, the application of global health diplomacy principles represents a possible route of advocacy to ensure that HIV prevention, humane treatment of substance using populations, and improving public health outcomes in the region are pursued among concerned international stakeholders. In order to be effective, global health diplomacy efforts must be coordinated and advocated in all forms of diplomatic engagement, including at the core, multistakeholder and informal levels and through existing channels such as the different human rights bodies of the United Nations as well as amongst other actors. Hence, the Ukraine crisis represents a critical moment for the practice and advancement of global health diplomacy in order to ensure global public health prior...
Factor analyses of a social support scale using two methods
Conclusion Factor structure of the MOS-SSS is method-dependent, with CFA supporting a four-factor structure, while EFA yielded a two-factor structure in two separate samples. We need to be careful in selecting the analytic method when applying the MOS-SSS to various samples and choose the factor structure that best fits the theoretical model. (Source: Quality of Life Research)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Identification of NF-kB and PLCL2 as new susceptibility genes and highlights on a potential role of IRF8 through interferon signature modulation in systemic sclerosis
Conclusions: An analysis of pleiotropic genes identified two new susceptibility genes for SSc (NF-?B and PLCL2) and confirmed IRF8 locus. Furthermore, IRF8 variant influenced interferon signature and we found an interaction between IRF8 and NF-?B gene variants that might play a potential role in SSc susceptibility. (Source: Arthritis Research and Therapy)
A Focused Laser Beam: a Useful and Versatile Tool for 1D Nanomaterials Research: A Review
Publication date: Available online 20 March 2015 Source:Journal of Materials Science &amp; Technology Author(s): Junpeng Lu , Sharon Xiaodai Lim , Chorng Haur Sow One-dimensional (1D) nanomaterials have generated considerable interest amongst researchers because of their potential as fundamental building block in future nano- and micro-electronic devices. In this article, we present a review of a focused laser beam system as a versatile tool for the manipulation, structural transformation, micropatterning and chemical modification of 1D nanomaterials. This tool was found to be effective in patterning and modifying various physical and chemical properties of the pristine 1D nanomaterials. It also aids in the fabrication process of heterostructures and 1D nanomaterial based devices. Fi...
Strong correlation between protein reagent strip and protein-to-creatinine ratio for detection of renal dysfunction in HIV-infected patients: a cross-sectional study
Background: Tubular dysfunction is common in HIV-infected people and detection of proteinuria is essential to identify this problem. In low-income countries, resources for detection of proteinuria using the Kidney Disease Improve Global Outcomes (KDIGO) gold standard urinary protein/creatinine ratio (uPCR) is rarely possible, and use of the protein reagent strip (PRS) could be an option in these places. The aims of this study were to establish the concordance between PRS and uPCR to detect tubular proteinuria in HIV-infected people, and to assess the sensitivity and specificity of PRS as a diagnostic method in this group. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the correlation between the two techniques to detect protein in urine. Participants were enrolled for a period ...
Blood Donor Test-Seeking Motivation and Prior HIV Testing Experiences in São Paulo, Brazil
Abstract HIV test-seeking behavior among blood donors has been observed worldwide and may pose a threat to the safety of the blood supply. We evaluated current test-seeking motivations and prior alternative HIV testing experiences among blood donors in São Paulo, Brazil. All candidate or potential blood donors were consecutively approached and recruited to participate in the study upon presentation at Fundação Pró-Sangue Hemocentro, the largest blood bank in Brazil. Participants were recruited between August 2012 and May 2013 after they were screened for donor eligibility. Questionnaires were administered through audio computer-assisted self-interview. Among 11,867 donors, 38 % previously tested for HIV apart from blood donation, of whom 47.7 % tested at public facilities an...
Systemic inflammation and residual viraemia in HIV-positive adults on protease inhibitor monotherapy: a cross-sectional study
Conclusions: We found no evidence of increased levels of inflammatory biomarkers or higher prevalence of residual viraemia in patients effectively suppressed on PImono as compared with patients on standard cART. (Source: BMC Infectious Diseases)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
[Comment] Offline: Breaking the silence in nephrology
Durban, 2000. The world's AIDS community came to South Africa despondent about its future. The emerging epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa, combined with President Thabo Mbeki's scepticism about HIV as the cause of AIDS, presented what seemed to be an impossible challenge. I remember an evening with one long-serving WHO Africa-hand who was then advising the agency's Director-General on her AIDS policy. His view was stark, and devastating. There was no future for those living with AIDS in Africa, he said. (Source: LANCET)
Influence of quinacrine and chloroquine on the in vitro 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine antiretroviral effect.
CONCLUSION: Cq does not potentiate the effect of AZT, but it is effective by itself at high doses. The rise of HIV replication by Qc could be deleterious in HIV endemic regions, where it is used as antimalarial. The mechanisms associated to this phenomenon must be identified. PMID: 25788967 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Therapy)
Structural Biology Related to HIV/AIDS - 2015
(Source: NIGMS New on the Site)
Behavioral, Metabolic, and Immune Consequences of Chronic Alcohol or Cannabinoids on HIV/AIDs: Studies in the Non-Human Primate SIV Model
Abstract HIV-associated mortality has been significantly reduced with antiretroviral therapy (ART), and HIV infection has become a chronic disease that frequently coexists with many disorders, including substance abuse (Azar et al. Drug Alcohol Depend 112:178?193, 2010; Phillips et al. J Gen Int Med 16:165, 2001). Alcohol and drugs of abuse may modify host-pathogen interactions at various levels including behavioral, metabolic, and immune consequences of HIV infection, as well as the ability of the virus to integrate into the genome and replicate in host cells. Identifying mechanisms responsible for these interactions is complicated by many factors, such as the tissue specific responses to viral infection, multiple cellular mechanisms involved in inflammatory responses, neuroend...
DFS70/LEDGFp75: An Enigmatic Autoantigen at the Interface between Autoimmunity, AIDS, and Cancer
Anamika Basu, Tino Wilson Sanchez and Carlos A Casiano (Source: Frontiers in Immunology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
HIV Infection and HIV-Associated Behaviors Among Persons Who Inject Drugs - 20 Cities, United States, 2012
This report summarizes HIV prevalence and risk behavior among persons who inject drugs in the United States. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
New books party: books that arrived recently
This week, I share my thoughts about a travel-adventure story about a quest to see one of the world?s last surviving ?unicorns? (the saola); a paperback about the natural history of Ebola and a second by the same author about the origins of HIV/AIDS, and a book that examines the strange behaviour of numbers Continue reading... (Source: Guardian Unlimited Science)
Africa: Gala to Raise Funds to Stop New HIV Infections Among Children
[UNAIDS] Geneva -UNAIDS, in partnership with the hotel InterContinental Genève, Cartier and Etihad Airways, is holding its first fundraising gala, in Geneva, Switzerland. The event is part of UNAIDS' efforts to ensure that children everywhere are free from HIV and that mothers have access to antiretroviral medicines to ensure that they stay alive and well. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Ascertainment and verification of end-stage renal disease and end-stage liver disease in the north american AIDS cohort collaboration on research and design.
Authors: Kitahata MM, Drozd DR, Crane HM, Van Rompaey SE, Althoff KN, Gange SJ, Klein MB, Lucas GM, Abraham AG, Lo Re V, McReynolds J, Lober WB, Mendes A, Modur SP, Jing Y, Morton EJ, Griffith MA, Freeman AM, Moore RD Abstract The burden of HIV disease has shifted from traditional AIDS-defining illnesses to serious non-AIDS-defining comorbid conditions. Research aimed at improving HIV-related comorbid disease outcomes requires well-defined, verified clinical endpoints. We developed methods to ascertain and verify end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and end-stage liver disease (ESLD) and validated screening algorithms within the largest HIV cohort collaboration in North America (NA-ACCORD). Individuals who screened positive among all participants in twelve cohorts enrolled between Januar...
Stroke-Like Presentation of Cerebral Toxoplasmosis: Two HIV-Infected Cases
Toxoplasmosis is the most common opportunistic infection of the central nervous system in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Clinical presentation of cerebral toxoplasmosis in these patients includes headache, focal neurological deficits and seizures. Prompt diagnosis and appropriate therapy results in rapid clinical and radiological improvement as well as good outcome for patients. In this article, we report two cases with stroke-like presentation of cerebral toxoplasmosis in the setting of HIV infection.Cerebrovasc Dis Extra 2015;5:28-30 (Source: Cerebrovascular Diseases Extra)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
REPORT: KSHV Suppresses PDLIM2 for Tumorigenesis [Molecular Bases of Disease]
Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) is the most common cause of malignancies among AIDS patients. However, how KSHV induces tumorigenesis remains largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that one important mechanism underlying the tumorigenesis of KSHV is through transcriptional repression of the tumor suppressor gene PDZ-LIM domain-containing protein 2 (PDLIM2). PDLIM2 expression is repressed in KSHV-transformed human umbilical vascular endothelial cells as well as in KSHV-associated cancer cell lines and primary tumors. Importantly, PDLIM2 repression is essential for KSHV-induced persistent activation of nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and subsequent tumorigenesis and tumor maintenance. Our mechanistic studies indicate that PDLIM2 rep...
A rare presentation of tuberculous prostatic abscess in young patient
Conclusion Tuberculous prostatic abscess although very uncommon in immunocompetent patient, we should have high index of suspicion in patients of PUO. Once diagnosed it should be treated with complete drainage of abscess and ATT with close follow up. (Source: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports)
Candidiasis: A Fungal Infection- Current Challenges and Progress in Prevention and Treatment.
Authors: Hani U, Shivakumar HG, Vaghela R, M Osmani RA Abstract Despite therapeutic advances candidiasis remains a common fungal infection most frequently caused by C. albicans and may occur as vulvovaginal candidiasis or thrush, a mucocutaneous candidiasis. Candidiasis frequently occurs in newborns, in immune-deficient people like AIDS patients, and in people being treated with broad spectrum antibiotics. It is mainly due to C. albicans while other species such as C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis and C. krusei are increasingly isolated. OTC antifungal dosage forms such as creams and gels can be used for the effective treatment of local candidiasis. Whereas, for preventing spread of the disease to deeper vital organs; candidiasis antifungal chemotherapy is preferred. Use...
The relationship of physical performance with HIV disease and mortality: authors? response
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Proximal tubular dysfunction in a HIV-1 patient with coadministered tenofovir disoproxil-fumarate and ibuprofen
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Management guidelines for non-AIDS morbidity result in increased screening but no change in primary prevention implementation
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Response to: the relationship of physical performance with HIV disease and mortality: a cohort study
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Human papilloma virus vaccination induces strong human papilloma virus specific cell-mediated immune responses in HIV-infected adolescents and young adults
The ability of a quadrivalent human papilloma virus (HPV)-16/18/6/11 virus-like particles vaccine (Gardasil) to elicit HPV-specific cell-mediated immune responses was evaluated in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-treated HIV-infected young adults. Results showed that, after three doses of vaccine, central memory and effector memory CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, as well as HPV-specific interleukin (IL)2+/CD4+, interferon-gamma (IFN-?+)/CD4+, IFN-?+/CD8+ and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?)+/CD8+ T lymphocytes and Perforin and Granzyme B secreting CD8+ T lymphocytes were significantly increased. Notably, results obtained in HIV-infected patients were comparable to those seen in HIV-uninfected age-matched healthy controls. (Source: AIDS)
Protein-losing enteropathy in an HIV-infected pediatric patient with previous disseminated Mycobacterium genavense infection
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Estimating the range of potential epidemiological impact of pre-exposure prophylaxis: run-away success or run-away failure?
Conclusions: Multiple potentially interacting factors will determine the impact of PrEP. Model forecasts should reflect that uncertainty and programmes should focus on these factors and measure them, to maximize the impact of programmes. (Source: AIDS)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Mixed membership trajectory models of cognitive impairment in the multicenter AIDS cohort study
Conclusion: These results provide new insight into the natural history of cognitive dysfunction in HIV disease and provide evidence for a potential difference in the pathophysiology of the development of cognitive impairment based on trajectories to impairment. (Source: AIDS)
High HIV prevalence and incidence among MSM across 12 cities in India
Conclusion: We observed a high burden of HIV among MSM in India with tremendous diversity in prevalence, incidence, and risk behaviors. In particular, we observed high incidence in areas with relatively low prevalence suggesting emerging epidemics in areas not previously recognized to have high HIV burden. (Source: AIDS)
Effects of HIV and combination antiretroviral therapy on cortico-striatal functional connectivity
Objective: Determine whether HIV and combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) affect resting-state functional connectivity (rs-fc) between the striatum and the cortical regions. Methods: Forty-nine HIV-uninfected (HIV?) and 132 HIV-infected (HIV+) (65% receiving cART) patients underwent laboratory studies (current and nadir CD4+ T-cell counts, and plasma HIV viral load), neuropsychological performance testing, and neuroimaging. Rs-fc, which examines the coordination of neural activity in distant brain regions, was used to investigate the cortico-striatal functional connections. The effect of cART was assessed comparing HIV+ individuals on cART (HIV+/cART+), and HIV+ individuals not currently receiving cART (HIV+/cART?). Relationships between laboratory tests, cognitive performance, an...
Incomplete immune reconstitution despite virologic suppression in HIV-1 infected children and adolescents
Conclusion: ART improved CD4+ cell counts in most children, but the time to CD4+ cell count of at least 500 cells was highly dependent upon baseline immunological status. Some children did not reach a CD4+ T-cell count of 500?cells/?l despite 2 years of virologic suppression. AIDS-defining events occurred in 1% of the population, including children in whom virologic suppression and improved CD4+ T-cell counts were achieved. (Source: AIDS)
Risk of progression to high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-infected MSM
Conclusion: The rate of progression to HGAIN varies according to different predictors that should be considered when assessing the particular risk of each patient. Patients with low risk of progression could be screened at longer intervals. Brief summary: We describe the risk of progression to HGAIN in a cohort of 556 HIV-infected MSM. The incidence rate of HGAIN varies widely according to different predictors. These factors should be considered when assessing the particular risk of each patient. (Source: AIDS)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Association of microbial translocation biomarkers with clinical outcome in controllers HIV-infected patients
Background: A proportion of patients who spontaneously control viral load (controllers) experienced clinical progression. We hypothesized that microbial translocation would independently determine the rate of disease progression in controllers. Methods: sCD14, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) and EndoCab levels were assessed in 114 antiretroviral-naive patients with CD4+ T cells above 500?cells/?l (including 63 controllers and 51 noncontrollers). The independent predictive value of these markers on time to progression to the combined endpoint of AIDS, non-AIDS event, initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) or CD4+ cell count less than 500?cells/?l was assessed using a Cox regression model. Results: Most of the patients progressed to a combined endpoint (60%). ...
Dolutegravir inhibits HIV-1 Env evolution in primary human cells
Conclusion: These results may help to explain the absence of emergent resistance mutations in treatment-naive individuals treated with DTG. (Source: AIDS)
Human adipose tissue as a reservoir for memory CD4+ T cells and HIV
Conclusion: Adipose tissues of ART-treated patients harbour activated memory CD4+ T cells and HIV DNA. Adipocytes promote CD4+ T-cell activation and HIV production in concert with intrinsic adipose factors. Adipose tissue may be an important reservoir for HIV. (Source: AIDS)
HIV-1 vaccines based on replication-competent Tiantan vaccinia protected Chinese rhesus macaques from simian HIV infection
Conclusion: An rTV-based HIV-1 vaccine, with or without a DNA primer, provided protection from SHIV challenge in a macaque model. Replication-competent Tiantan vaccinia is a promising vector and should enable advances in HIV-1 vaccine development. (Source: AIDS)
Retention in care for HIV-infected patients in the eye of the Ebola storm: lessons from Monrovia, Liberia
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
EnChroma Eyewear Lets Color Blind See Colors Indoors
The EnChroma glasses enable red-green color blind students, children, workers - anyone suffering from color vision deficiency (CVD) - to see and appreciate a more colorful world. (Source: Disabled World)
On Losing a Friend to Suicide and Learning to Understand Depression
I have lit a lot of candles for the dead. It's a custom that spans many cultures, and I've lit them in churches and synagogues, in my childhood home and my apartment's living room. I am a superstitious atheist, so I mutter a directionless prayer when I light a candle, but for me, just seeing the flame lit is the best part: That small fire, consecrated in the name of the dead one, lets them take in oxygen again -- breathe again, for an hour or so. It's been two years since my friend and college roommate J. took her own life, at 22. Among my friends from school, her death was cataclysmic: We mourned, scattered around the country and the globe. We asked the searing questions that human beings have built a carapace of belief against: Why? And: What happens now? And: How can it be that my fri...
HIV Patients May Fare as Well as Others with Kidney Transplants
But study also found that survival rates were lower if organ recipient also had hepatitis CSource: HealthDay Related MedlinePlus Pages: HIV/AIDS, Hepatitis C, Kidney Transplantation (Source: MedlinePlus Health News)
Rural-Urban Differences in HIV Viral Loads and Progression to AIDS among New HIV Cases.
CONCLUSIONS: The reasons behind differences in proportions of rural and urban residents who were diagnosed as having AIDS or progressed to AIDS despite similar initial CD4(+) T-cell counts and VL suppression at 1 year are unclear and should be explored in future studies. Future prevention and treatment efforts may need to consider the unique characteristics of rural populations in the South. PMID: 25772053 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Southern Medical Journal)
Sacroplasty for Cancer-Associated Insufficiency Fractures
CONCLUSION: Sacroplasty is a safe and effective option for the palliation of sacral fractures in the oncologic population. ABBREVIATIONS: PPRS, posterior pelvic ring stabilization SIF, sacral insufficiency fracture VAS, visual analog scale (Source: Neurosurgery)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Africa: Scientist Becomes a Fighter for Fairness
[Global Fund] As Pope Francis approached, coming up the stairs in St. Peter's Square, Vatican City, Stefano Vella readied himself for the moment. He may have been waiting for two hours on a chilly morning, but as that handshake drew nearer, Dr. Vella knew it was going to be momentous, a milestone in his decades-long career in global health. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Metastatic Breast Cancer Patients Need Help
Breast cancer in the breast is not life-threatening. However, when breast cancer travels outside of the breast (usually to the brain, liver, lungs or bones), it becomes metastatic or Stage IV. Approximately 5 percent of newly-diagnosed breast cancer cases are metastatic or Stage IV (interchangeable designations) but even more startling is that approximately 30 percent of early stage breast cancer will become Stage IV. So with more than one-third of all breast cancer patients having to deal with metastatic breast cancer, why don't we hear more about it, and why is it not receiving more attention? If you ever meet a woman dealing with metastatic breast cancer, you will know what real courage is. These women go through regimens of all sorts of chemotherapy, most often with a combination of c...
Prophylaxis for Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia: is it a necessity in pulmonary patients on high-dose, chronic corticosteroid therapy without AIDS?
Authors: Liebling M, Rubio E, Ie S Abstract The benefit of prophylaxis for Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) is well documented in immunocompromised patients, particularly those with HIV and/or AIDS; therefore, guidelines dictate this as standard of care. However, there is a paucity of literature regarding those without HIV and/or AIDS who are potentially predisposed to PJP, including patients with sarcoidosis, cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, interstitial lung disease, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, who may require high dose of prolonged corticosteroids for disease maintenance or to prevent relapses. In this review, the authors examine the available literature regarding prophylaxis in these groups, elaborate on the pathogenesis of PJP, when to suspect PJP ...
Africa: HIV Prevalence Reduced in SADC, but Sub-Saharan Africa Still Tops
[The Herald] This is the eighth in a series of articles analysing regional progress on gender equality and women's empowerment. With 2015 finally here, notable progress has been made in reducing HIV and aids prevalence and stemming new infections. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Endoplasmic reticulum quality control in cancer: Friend or foe
Publication date: Available online 18 March 2015 Source:Seminars in Cancer Biology Author(s): Hana Kim , Asmita Bhattacharya , Ling Qi Quality control systems in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) mediated by unfolded protein response (UPR) and endoplasmic reticulum associated degradation (ERAD) ensure cellular function and organismal survival. Recent studies have suggested that ER quality-control systems in cancer cells may serve as a double-edged sword that aids progression as well as prevention of tumor growth in a context-dependent manner. Here we review recent advances in our understanding of the complex relationship between ER proteostasis and cancer pathology, with a focus on the two most conserved ER quality-control mechanisms?the IRE1?-XBP1 pathway of the UPR and SEL1L-HRD1 compl...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
An audit of consent practices and perceptions of lumbar puncture, Botswana inpatient setting experience
Conclusion Contrasting responses between doctors and patients indicates a need for standard consenting practices among doctors. Also, patients? attitudes and receptiveness to lumbar punctures can be improved through education on lumbar puncture indications, benefits, and risks. (Source: African Journal of Emergency Medicine)
Influence of quinacrine and chloroquine on the in vitro 3&#8242;-azido-3&#8242;-deoxythymidine antiretroviral effect
Conclusion: Cq does not potentiate the effect of AZT, but it is effective by itself at high doses. The rise of HIV replication by Qc could be deleterious in HIV endemic regions, where it is used as antimalarial. The mechanisms associated to this phenomenon must be identified. (Source: AIDS Research and Therapy)
Disseminated Mycobacterium simiae manifested as IRIS: A case report
Publication date: Available online 18 March 2015 Source:HIV &amp; AIDS Review Author(s): Uttiya Brahmachari , Saikat Saha , Binay Guchhait , Subhasish Kamal Guha Disseminated disease caused by Mycobacterium simiae, a nontubercular mycobacterium, has been rarely reported in medical literature. Infection from M. simiae is more common in immunocompromised patients. It can also present as immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in HIV infected subjects after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Here, we report a case of a middle aged lady infected with HIV, who presented with fever and cough after switch to second-line antiretroviral therapy, found to be infected with M. simiae. (Source: HIV and AIDS Review)
Prevalence of HIV-1 subtypes among men who have sex with men in China: a systematic review
The distribution of prevalent HIV-1 strains are still complex in China. Men who have sex with men (MSM) play an important bridging role in spreading HIV. The aim of our study was to quantitatively evaluate the prevalence of HIV-1 subtypes among the MSM population in China from published studies. Relevant studies were searched by selection criteria from CNKI, CBM, Pubmed, etc. We computed the estimates of the pooled proportion of HIV-1 subtypes. Heterogeneity between studies was investigated and measured using Cochran&rsquo;s Q statistic and the I 2 statistic. All analyses were conducted by the R statistical package version 2.13.1. A meta-analysis was performed, which included 19 articles. For comprehensive analysis of env, gag and pol genes, the pooled estimates for the prevalence ...
Assessment of the efficacy and safety of pre-emptive anti-cytomegalovirus (CMV) therapy in HIV-infected patients with CMV viraemia
In conclusion, the use of PACT in HIV-infected patients with CMV viraemia could improve outcome but is associated with significant toxicity. (Source: International Journal of STD and AIDS)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Elevated urinary leukocyte esterase as a potential surrogate marker for HIV sexual transmission risks in men receiving antiretroviral therapy
Local genital tract inflammation stimulates leukocyte activity and causes HIV shedding, potentially increasing HIV sexual infectiousness. Although there are available clinical markers for genital tract inflammation, such as urinary leukocyte esterase, none have yet been examined in relation to HIV sexual risk behaviours. We sought to examine the association between urinary leukocyte esterase and sexual practices. Sexually active men living with HIV and receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART, N = 290) provided urine specimens and completed behavioural health assessments. HIV RNA tests and CD4 cell counts were abstracted from medical records. Urine specimens were analysed for leukocyte esterase using a standard point-of-care dipstick test. Thirty-one (10.6%) participants tested positive for l...
Get Yourself Tested 2011-2012: Findings and prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae at an urban public health system
During April 2011 and April 2012 the Get Yourself Tested campaign was launched throughout the Cook County Health and Hospitals System to promote testing of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) among 15&ndash;25-year-olds in a high-prevalence urban community. Retrospective data were collected and analysed. Demographic differences by CT and GC positivity were evaluated along with factors associated with CT and GC status. A total of 2853 tests were conducted among individuals aged 15&ndash;25 years. A total of 2060 (72%) females and 793 (28%) males were tested. Of those tested, 488 (17%) individuals tested positive for either CT or GC or both; 400 (14%) were positive for CT, 139 (5%) were positive for GC. The prevalence for GC was 8.8% (n = 70) in males compared to 3.3% (...
Assessment of the impact of the London Olympics 2012 on selected non-genitourinary medicine clinic sexual health services
With minimal information on sexual health provision during mass-gathering events, our aim was to describe the use of sexual health, contraceptive, sex worker and sexual assault services during the London 2012 Olympics. We analysed data from five sources. One contraceptive service provider reported a 10% increase in attendance during the main Games, while emergency contraception prescriptions rose during the main Olympics, compared to the week before, but were similar or lower than at the beginning and end of the summer period. A health telephone advice line reported a 16% fall in sexual health-related calls during the main Olympics, but a 33% increase subsequently. London sexual assault referral centres reported that 1.8% of sexual assaults were Olympics-linked. A service for sex workers r...
High-risk motorcycle taxi drivers in the HIV/AIDS era: a respondent-driven sampling survey in Kampala, Uganda
We evaluated motorcycle taxi (&lsquo;boda-boda&rsquo;) drivers in Kampala for the prevalence of HIV/sexually transmitted infections. We used respondent-driven sampling to recruit a cross-sectional sample of boda-boda drivers. We collected data through audio computer-assisted self-administered interviews. Men were tested for HIV, syphilis serology using Rapid Plasma Reagin and enzyme immunoassay, and Chlamydia and gonorrhoea using urine polymerase chain reaction. We recruited 683 men. Median age was 26 years; 59.4% were single. The prevalence of HIV was 7.5% (95% CI 5.2&ndash;10.0), of positive syphilis serology was 6.1% (95% CI 4.3&ndash;8.1), of Chlamydia was 1.1% (95% CI 0.4&ndash;2.0), and of gonorrhoea was 1.2% (95% CI 0.1&ndash;1.2). Many men (67.8%) had both casual and regular partne...
Clinically significant extra-cardiac findings in asymptomatic HIV-positive men undergoing cardiac magnetic resonance imaging
Increased research-based imaging has led to an increase in clinically significant extra-cardiac findings. HIV patients are at increased risk of having polypathology at a younger age; therefore, it may be hypothesised that they would have more incidental findings on imaging. We reviewed the magnetic resonance imaging results of 169 HIV-positive and 40 HIV-negative, clinically well volunteers undergoing cardiac magnetic resonance imaging scanning to assess the prevalence of subclinical cardiac pathology. This sub-study assessed the prevalence of clinically significant extra-cardiac findings. Associated risk factors were assessed and clinical follow-up and outcome were ascertained. Of the HIV-positive study group, 12/169 (7.1%) vs. 1/40 (2.5%) control patients had a clinically significant ext...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
The management of lichen sclerosus in a genitourinary medicine setting: a 12-month retrospective case-notes review
A retrospective case-notes review was undertaken of all women with lichen sclerosus seen during a 12-month period to review their characteristics and care. A total of 273 case-notes were reviewed. The mean age was 61 years (range, 14&ndash;94), and the mean duration of symptoms was 6.4 years (range, 1&ndash;50). The mean age at diagnosis was 55 years (range, 7&ndash;92). Sixty-two (23%) had at least one other autoimmune condition. Autoimmune conditions were seven times more frequent overall compared with United Kingdom prevalences. On-going symptoms were reported as none/minimal in 196 (72%), moderate in 65 (24%) and severe in 12 (4%). A total of 233 women (85%) had on-going treatment with clobetasol propionate (Dermovate) ointment with a mode of eight applications per month (range, 0&ndas...
Audit of the management of the syphilis outbreak in Herefordshire 2011-2013
The objective of this audit was to evaluate a localised rural outbreak of syphilis against British Association of Sexual Health and HIV guidelines. Forty-nine cases were identified; 98% were men, and 88% were men who have sex with men (MSM). There was a low incidence of HIV co-infection (18%). All standards regarding monitoring and treatment were met, whereas the standard concerning contact tracing was narrowly missed, highlighting a number of issues and areas for improvement. This audit has highlighted that a proactive approach is necessary to identify cases of syphilis in rural communities. This is due to difficulties in outreach testing and contact tracing in the absence of designated meeting places for MSM. (Source: International Journal of STD and AIDS)
Atypical penile Mondor's disease - involvement of the circumflex vein
Mondor&rsquo;s disease is a rare condition characterised by superficial thrombophlebitis of subcutaneous veins, most commonly over the anterior chest wall. Penile Mondor&rsquo;s disease is rarer, arising out of thrombophlebitis of the penile veins. It typically involves the dorsal vein of the penis and presents with a cord-like indurated lesion with a beaded feel, palpable along the length of the involved vein. Though penile Mondor&rsquo;s disease involving the dorsal vein of the penis has been reported by many authors, we report a peculiar case of penile Mondor&rsquo;s disease in a 26-year-old sexually active man with thrombophlebitis of the circumflex vein of the penis with sparing of the dorsal vein. Diagnosis was confirmed on Doppler ultrasonography of the penile venous system. Despite...
Condylomata acuminata within perianal fistulae tracts: report of two cases
The commonest sights of appearance of condylomata acuminata are in the genital and anal regions. Herein we present two cases of condylomata within perianal fistulae tracts, resulting in recurrence in one case and a malignant-like tumour in the second. To our knowledge, these are the first cases reported in the literature. (Source: International Journal of STD and AIDS)
Thank you to our Reviewers
(Source: International Journal of STD and AIDS)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Knowledge About Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission PreventionKnowledge About Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission Prevention
How much do pregnant women with HIV know about mother-to-child HIV transmission? Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
Updated Fact Sheet: HIV among Gay and Bisexual Men
This fact sheet describes the burden of HIV among gay and bisexual men, prevention challenges for this population, and what CDC is doing to address them. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
Nigeria: Kogi Lauds Ecobank, Naca On Fight Against HIV/Aids
[This Day] Kogi State governor, Mr. Idris Wada has commended Ecobank Nigeria and the National Agency for the Control of AIDS (NACA) for their support towards the eradication of the deadly HIV/AIDS disease from the country. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
South Africa: Social Development Launches HIV Report
[SAnews.gov.za] Pretoria - The Department of Social Development has launched the Gender Equality Assessment of Provincial Strategic and Operational Plans on HIV, Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) and Tuberculosis (TB). (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Needs, Risks, and Context in Sexual Health Among Temporary Foreign Migrant Farmworkers in Canada: A Pilot Study with Mexican and Caribbean Workers
Abstract Every year Canada hosts approximately 40,000 temporary foreign migrant farmworkers (MFWs). They are predominantly Mexican and Caribbean married men or single mothers who leave their families for months at a time over a span of many years. This pilot study investigated their knowledge about HIV/AIDS, attitudes towards condoms and their use, and perceived barriers to accessing sexual health services. A survey (n = 103) and four focus groups (n = 21) were conducted in Ontario?s Niagara Region. The results suggest that MFWs commonly face vulnerabilities to HIV/AIDS, STIs and other sexual health issues due to personal, social?cultural, environmental and structural factors. The findings highlight the need for increasing culturally and gender sensitive sexual health educ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
HIV/AIDS Research in Correctional Settings: A Difficult Task Made Even Harder?
This study examines the degree to which HIV/AIDS correctional researchers report greater challenges than do their noncorrectional counterparts. Results indicate that correctional researchers reported significantly more frequent challenges than those in noncorrectional settings, even after controlling for experience, with the dominant difference related to challenges due to the research setting. These findings add empirical data and support previous research in the field; however, additional research should include correctional staff and incarcerated individuals, and explore whether these differences extend to other research topics. (Source: Journal of Correctional Health Care)
Prevalence and Predictors of Mental/Emotional Distress Among HIV+ Jail Detainees at Enrollment in an Observational Study
This study evaluates the prevalence of mental/emotional distress and its specific correlates among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in 20 jail systems across the United States. Of the 878 PLWHA jail detainees, 52% had high levels of mental/emotional distress, defined by the composite Addiction Severity Index score. High mental/emotional distress was found to be associated with the inmate living in a city with lower income inequality, lower health ranking, and higher degree of danger. Proximate variables included being female, bisexual orientation, poorer physical health, and increased severity of substance abuse. Inmates in jails with accredited health services and those satisfied with family support had lower mental/emotional distress scores. These findings indicate the need for expand...
Epidemiological Criminology: Contextualization of HIV/AIDS Health Care for Female Inmates
This article not only presents recommendations for effective HIV/AIDS policy but also suggests epidemiological criminology as a means of explicit merging of health with justice issues and consequently provides a bridging framework. (Source: Journal of Correctional Health Care)
A patient with a 12-year history characterized by four non-AIDS-related malignancies, occurring before and after the disclosure of HIV infection
(Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)
IJERPH, Vol. 12, Pages 3264-3292: On the Road to HIV/AIDS Competence in the Household: Building a Health-Enabling Environment for People Living with HIV/AIDS
When aiming to provide chronic disease care within the context of human resource shortages, we should not only consider the responsibility of the individual person living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) but also the capacity of the social environment to actively encourage a lifestyle that fosters health. In this social environment, extensive efforts are thus required to increase HIV/AIDS knowledge, reduce stigma, stimulate HIV testing, improve health care-seeking behavior, and encourage safe sexual practices?described in the literature as the need for AIDS competence. In accordance with socio-ecological theory, one cannot restrict the research focus to communities, as AIDS competence studies should also incorporate the intermediate household level. In responding to this research need, the aim of t...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Less Invasive Quick Open Stenting using a J Graft Open Stent for Distal Arch Aneurysms
Thorac cardiovasc SurgDOI: 10.1055/s-0035-1546299A new device of aortic stent graft made in Japan has been available since July 2014. Here, we describe a novel, unique surgical technique named ?less invasive quick open stenting? at a rectal temperature of 28°C without any cerebral perfusion for treating distal arch aneurysms. All 12 patients were discharged from the intensive care unit within 24 hours after surgery without any complications. This technique aids in the exclusion of atherosclerotic plaques on the aortic wall and shortens the duration of circulatory arrest; moreover, it represents a very attractive option to prevent recurrent nerve injury.[...]Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New YorkArticle in Thieme eJournals:Table of contents  |  Abstract  |  Full text (Sou...
I Am Men's Health: Generating Adherence to HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) in Young Men of Color Who Have Sex with Men
In 2012, the US Food and Drug Administration approved Truvada as a pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for adults at risk of HIV. PrEP is highly effective at preventing HIV when taken daily, but no gold standard exists for consistently administering PrEP to populations at highest risk. The "I Am Men&rsquo;s Health" program used an innovative methodology to generate adherence to PrEP in 23 mostly young men who have sex with men of color (yMSMc), during a 28-week period from February to September 2013. Adherence was measured using weekly medication pickup rates. The average age of the participants was 21 years, and the majority were black and lived below the poverty line. Time on PrEP ranged from 1 to 28 weeks (2723 person-days), and the weighted average adherence was 73%. The methodology used i...
Giving "Sadness" a Name: The Need for Integrating Depression Treatment into HIV Care in Uganda
Depression is common among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), and can have significant consequences for HIV disease progression, treatment response and prevention. Yet mental health services are limited in most HIV care programs in this region, in part due to severe shortages of mental health professionals. To address the need for establishing an effective, sustainable model for integrating depression treatment into HIV care in SSA, we have embarked upon a 3-year research project, INDEPTH Uganda (INtegrating DEPression Treatment and in HIV care in Uganda), to evaluate a task-sharing, protocolized approach to providing antidepressant care in ten HIV clinics in Uganda. In this paper we share our experiences with two treated cases identified during the initial da...
Expanding Capacity for Hepatitis C Treatment in the United States: Team-Based Care and Use of Nonphysician Providers
Hepatitis C treatment is rapidly evolving with significant improvements in patient outcomes. With an estimated prevalence of over 3 million persons living with chronic hepatitis C in the United States, it is anticipated that there will be an increase in the number of persons seeking care and treatment for chronic hepatitis C infection. Current systems of care may be overburdened with people seeking care for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV). Interprofessional models of care have been shown to be feasible and effective in treating different populations affected by chronic HCV. Use of interprofessional teams, integrated models of care, and greater use of nonphysician providers offer a potential solution for expanding capacity to comprehensive HCV treatment and care in the United States. (Sourc...
Low Third-Trimester Serum Levels of Lamivudine/Zidovudine and Lopinavir/Ritonavir in an HIV-Infected Pregnant Woman with Gastric Bypass
Pharmacokinetics of lamivudine (3TC)/zidovudine (ZDV) and lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) are described in a gravid 27-year-old HIV-infected woman with gastric bypass. Blood levels were obtained for these medications at time points 0 (predose) and 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 hours postdose. For these times, the levels (&micro;g/mL) of 3TC were 0.0801, 0.69, 0.339, 0.237, 0.202, 0.108, and 0.0461; the levels of ZDV were 0.0153, 0.433, 0.0717, 0.0481, 0.0107, 0.0214, and 0.00864; the levels of lopinavir (LPV) were 2.45, 2.64, 1.95, 2.78, 3.83, 3.20, and 1.92; and the levels of ritonavir (RTV) were 0.09, 0.10, 0.07, 0.11, 0.15, 0.15, and 0.06. These data suggest that gastric bypass affected these antiretroviral drug levels. A functional, intact small bowel is responsible for absorption of these medicat...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
HIV-Associated Neurocysticercosis
We present 2 such cases. First was a 35-year-old driver seropositive for HIV-1 presented with complex partial seizures and a CD4 count of 530 cells/mm3. The second case was a 40-year-old businessman with a CD4 count of 350 cells/mm3. Both of them had multiple parenchymal lesions, with 1 being a large cystic lesion. Relatively high CD4 count and a positive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay increased the likelihood for diagnosis and treatment. Both of our patients received cysticidal therapy, and none of them deteriorated with treatment. (Source: Journal of the International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care (JIAPAC))
Case Report: False Negative Serum Cryptococcal Latex Agglutination Test in a Patient with Disseminated Cryptococcal Disease
A case of false-negative serum latex agglutination cryptococcal antigen (CRAG) test in a 45-year-old HIV-positive male with Cryptococcus-positive culture is described. The patient was presented to a hospital in Botswana, with breathlessness and a diffuse papular rash. His CD4 count was 25 cells/&mu;L. Despite the suspicion for disseminated cryptococcal disease, an initial serum CRAG latex test was negative. Results of subsequent Indian ink staining, culture of cerebrospinal fluid and skin scrapings, and serum lateral flow immunoassay (LFA) were all positive for Cryptococcus neoformans. There are several possible explanations for the false-negative CRAG latex test. Given the positive LFA result, we speculate that disease may have been caused by Cryptococcus gattii, which is estimated to be ...
What Makes Me Screen for HIV? Perceived Barriers and Facilitators to Conducting Recommended Routine HIV Testing among Primary Care Physicians in the Southeastern United States
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have recommended routinely testing patients (aged 13-64) for HIV since 2006. However, many physicians do not routinely test. From January 2011 to March 2012, we conducted 18 in-depth individual interviews and explored primary care physicians' perceptions of barriers and facilitators to implementing routine HIV testing in North Carolina. Physicians' comments were categorized thematically and fell into 5 groups: policy, community, practice, physician, and patient. Lack of universal reimbursement was identified as the major policy barrier. Participants believed endorsement from the United States Preventive Services Tasks Force would facilitate adoption of routine HIV testing policies. Physicians reported HIV/AIDS stigma, socially conservative com...
Depressive Symptoms and Associated Factors among People Living with HIV/AIDS
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of depressive symptoms and associated variables among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in a specialized treatment center in a city located in southern Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted using the Beck Depression Inventory to assess the presence of depressive symptoms. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 53.5% among the surveyed population, which supports the idea that depressive symptoms are more common among PLWHA, mainly if compared with the general population. It was observed that 57.7% of the study participants were with depressive symptoms and did not take any psychiatric medication and 100% did not undergo psychotherapy, which indicates undertreatment. There was no statistically significant difference in the...
Learning about Barriers to Care for People Living with HIV in Egypt: A Qualitative Exploratory Study
The purpose of this study was to identify obstacles health care workers face in providing care for people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA). Based on these findings, health authorities can design interventions to support health care workers in providing better medical care for PLWHA. Thirty in-depth interviews were conducted with physicians and nurses in one 300-bed tertiary care public hospital in Giza, Egypt. Thematic analysis was conducted by 2 investigators. Five main themes were identified (1) fear of infection; (2) disbelief in effectiveness of infection control measures to protect against HIV; (3) misconceptions regarding medical care for PLWHA; (4) fear of secondary stigma; and (5) moral judgments toward PLWHA and negative connotations related to HIV. Interventions targeting health ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Burden and Determinants of Severe Anemia among HIV-Infected Adults: Results from a Large Urban HIV Program in Tanzania, East Africa
Conclusion: There was a high prevalence of severe anemia among adults infected with HIV. Focused identification of anemia should be based on the hemoglobin and mean corpuscular volume measurements. (Source: Journal of the International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care (JIAPAC))
Self-Report Measures in the Assessment of Antiretroviral Medication Adherence: Comparison with Medication Possession Ratio and HIV Viral Load
Conclusion: These data suggest various SRA measures hold clinical value in screening for poor ART adherence. (Source: Journal of the International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care (JIAPAC))
Predictors of Nonadherence to Antiretroviral Therapy among HIV-Infected Adults in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Conclusions: Targeted interventions should be developed to improve ART adherence among healthier, younger, and more experienced patients who are on ART for longer durations within HIV care and treatment programs. Social support for patients on ART should be emphasized. (Source: Journal of the International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care (JIAPAC))
Nutritional Status and Other Baseline Predictors of Mortality among HIV-Infected Children Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy in Tanzania
Conclusions: To sustain the obtained benefit of ART in this setting, interventions to improve nutritional status may be used as an adjunct to ART. (Source: Journal of the International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care (JIAPAC))
Cost Estimation of First-Line Antiretroviral Therapy with Zidovudine/Stavudine as the Nucleoside Backbone in India: A Pilot Study
Conclusion: Current treatment is associated with toxicity, increasing treatment costs and imposing a significant economic burden. (Source: Journal of the International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care (JIAPAC))<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Impact of Poor Retention in HIV Medical Care on Hepatitis B Vaccination
Conclusion: Poor retention in HIV care is strongly associated with suboptimal hepatitis B vaccination. (Source: Journal of the International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care (JIAPAC))
Online Dating Among Australian Gay and Bisexual Men: Romance or Hooking Up?
Abstract Increasingly, gay and bisexual men (GBM) meet casual sex partners online and this has been associated with sexual risk behavior. How do GBM meet regular partners? This online anonymous survey of 4215 GBM included 2562 men with a primary regular partner (PRP) who were included in these analyses. Mean age of the sample was 38.1 years. 60.3 % had met their PRP at least 2 years earlier. Meeting their PRP online increased from 14.0 % before 2001 to 79.9 % in 2013?2014. At all time points, men who met their PRP online were somewhat older than those who met their PRP offline. Regardless of how they met their PRP, most men met casual sex partners online. Among GBM, meeting sexual and romantic partners online has replaced other methods, for all age groups. The population o...
Examining Adherence Among Challenging Patients in Public and Private HIV Care in Argentina
This study examined the most challenging patients in Buenos Aires, Argentina, those non-adherent to HIV care. Men (n = 61) and women (n = 59) prescribed antiretrovirals (ARVs) and non-adherent to treatment in the prior 3?6 months were enrolled and assessed regarding adherence, knowledge, motivation and attitudes regarding treatment. Private clinic patients had lower viral load and higher self-reported adherence than public clinic patients. Motivations to be adherent and positive beliefs regarding ARVs were associated with increased adherence in public clinic participants. Increased self-efficacy was associated with increased adherence among participants from both clinics. Results support patient and provider interventions that strengthen the characteristics supporting adherence, eng...
Less Invasive Quick Open Stenting using a J Graft Open Stent for Distal Arch Aneurysms.
Authors: Hata M, Akiyama K, Orime Y, Wakui S, Nakamura T, Shiono M Abstract A new device of aortic stent graft made in Japan has been available since July 2014. Here, we describe a novel, unique surgical technique named "less invasive quick open stenting" at a rectal temperature of 28°C without any cerebral perfusion for treating distal arch aneurysms. All 12 patients were discharged from the intensive care unit within 24 hours after surgery without any complications. This technique aids in the exclusion of atherosclerotic plaques on the aortic wall and shortens the duration of circulatory arrest; moreover, it represents a very attractive option to prevent recurrent nerve injury. PMID: 25785769 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeo...
Understanding Miralax: The parents? guide on how to approach constipation
Increase water intake and exercise, adopt and maintain a fiber-rich diet and avoid foods that bind you. These are common ways to find relief from constipation. But sometimes a child needs more to keep the digestive ?engines,? (or bowels) moving. To ease the discomfort of chronic childhood constipation, pediatricians often prescribe an over-the-counter laxative called Miralax, the brand name for the generic drug polyethylene glycol 3350. The odorless, tasteless powder is typically mixed with 8 ounces of water or other liquid-of-choice and prescribed to children for use once or twice daily. Common side effects include loose bowel movements and sometimes diarrhea, bloating or nausea. These side effects typically improve when dosing is adjusted. Miralax under the microscope However, Mir...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Zimbabwe: Prisoners Living 'Like Rats' - Parly
[New Zimbabwe] INMATES in Zimbabwe's prisons are living "like rats" and are being fed "substandard food" posing a serious danger to those who are living with HIV/AIDS, Parliament has reported. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Herpes Drug Might Help Control Spread of HIV, Too
Researchers found that Valtrex appeared to reduce viral levels Source: HealthDay Related MedlinePlus Pages: HIV/AIDS, Herpes Simplex, Medicines (Source: MedlinePlus Health News)
Comparison of Rates of Death Having any Death-Certificate Mention of Heart, Kidney, or Liver Disease Among Persons Diagnosed with HIV Infection with those in the General US Population, 2009-2011.
CONCLUSION: Persons with HIV infection have a higher risk of death with liver and kidney diseases reported as causes than the general population. PMID: 25767634 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
LETTER TO THE EDITOR Performance of the ViroSeq® HIV-1 Genotyping System v2.0 in Central Africa.
Authors: Mouafo LC, Péré H, Ndjoyi-Mbiguino A, Koyalta D, Longo Jde D, Mbopi-Kéou FX, Kane CT, Bélec L Abstract Resistance genotypes in pol gene of HIV-1 were obtained by the ViroSeq(®) HIV-1 Genotyping System v2.0 (Celera Diagnostics, Alameda, CA, USA) in 138 of 145 (95%) antiretroviral treatment-experienced adults in virological failure living in Central Africa (Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Gabon). HIV-1 group M exhibited broad genetic diversity. Performance of the 7 ViroSeq(®) sequencing primers showed high failure rate, from 3% to 76% (D: 76%; F: 17%; A and H: 15%; G and B: 4%; C: 3%). These findings emphasize the need of updating the ViroSeq(®) HIV-1 genotyping system for non-B subtypes HIV-1. PMID: 25767633 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
Nigeria: Kebbi Records Drop in HIV/Aids
[Daily Trust] Birnin Kebbi -Secretary to the Kebbi State Government and Chairman, State Agency for the Control of AIDs (SACA), Alhaji Garba Rabiu said yesterday that the state has recorded a steady reduction in HIV/AIDS infection. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Africa: Japan to Host Key Global Fund Meeting
[Global Fund] Tokyo -The Government of Japan today announced it would host the Global Fund's Replenishment Preparatory Meeting in December 2015, an important milestone in the three-year funding cycle aimed at ending AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria as epidemics. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: NACA, Sure-P Partner to Stem Scourge of HIV/Aids
[Independent (Lagos)] The scourge of HIV/ AIDS and its impact on the socio-economic well being of the citizenry as well as its effect on the economy of the country has been a source of worry to the Federal Government for a long time now. Recently the National Agency for the Control of AIDS (NACA)/ Subsidy Reinvestment and Empowerment Programme (SURE-P) HIV/AIDS Programme held a stakeholders meeting in Abia State which brought together civil societies, clergy, legal, religious among others to rub minds on the NACA/SURE-P HIV and (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Kenya: HIV /TB in Adolescents Needs a Different Approach
[The Star] Do you remember that time when you had just passed thirteen years of age but were still below eighteen? You weren't technically an adult but neither were you a child. Your parents and relatives probably told you how 'now' you have become an adult and if you were a boy, that came with a certain sense of pride "You are now a man" but if you were a girl, the message was laced with caution, "You are now a woman, you have to be more careful." Being a teenager has never been easy and it's probably more difficult (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Penicillin is the drug of choice to treat all stages of syphilis despite a paucity of clinical trials data for the treatment of some stages, pregnant women and HIV-infected people
Commentary on: Clement ME, Okeke NL, Hicks CB. Treatment of syphilis: a systematic review. JAMA 2014;312:1905&ndash;17. Context Syphilis rates are increasing particularly in men, many of whom are HIV co-infected. In some areas, syphilis continues to affect women leading to high rates of congenital infections. Non-treponemal serological tests are still the mainstay of staging and assessing response to therapy. These tests are, at best, an indirect marker of disease activity. In some cases, changes in non-treponemal titres may reflect factors other than syphilis infection.1 In the pre-antibiotic era, people with early syphilis, whose non-treponemal antibody tests failed to revert to negative (ie, remained &lsquo;serofast&rsquo;), had a worse long-term prognosis. This systematic review examin...
Effect of Leflunomide, Cidofovir and Ciprofloxacin on replication of BKPyV in a salivary gland in vitro culture system
In conclusion, treatment of human salivary gland cells with each of the three drugs produced modest decreases in BKPyV genome replication. These data highlight the need for continued studies to discover more effective and less toxic drugs that inhibit BKPyV replication in salivary gland cells. (Source: Antiviral Therapy)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Depressive Symptoms Mediate the Effect of HIV-Related Stigmatization on Medication Adherence Among HIV-Infected Men Who Have Sex with Men
This study tested the hypothesis that depressive symptoms would mediate the association of HIV-related stigma to medication adherence. We recruited HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM; N = 66; 66 % White, 23 % African-American) from an outpatient infectious disease clinic, and asked them to complete self-report measures. Mediational analyses showed that depressive symptoms fully mediated the association between HIV-related stigma and adherence. That is, stigma-related experiences were positively associated with depressive symptoms and negatively associated with adherence, and, in the final model, depressive symptoms remained a significant correlate of adherence while stigma did not. A test of the indirect effect of stigma on adherence through depressive symptoms was also signif...
Question: Is breastfeeding useful in the management of neonatal abstinence syndrome?
Case scenario A 23-year-old woman is admitted to the postnatal ward after she gave birth to a term infant of 3&nbsp;kg. During pregnancy, she is known to have used methadone. There is no known use of other illicit drugs or prescription medication. The midwife who is taking care of this woman and her baby asks if she can encourage the mother to breastfeed her child. Structured clinical question Can a mother who used methadone during pregnancy (patient) breastfeed her newborn (intervention) to help the management of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) (outcome)? Search Search strategy: terms used: Breastfeeding AND neonatal abstinence syndrome -&gt;65 results (16 reviews and systematic reviews) -&gt;5 relevant.1&ndash;5 The results were excluded if they were not about methadone use, not in En...
Gorilla origin of the HIV-1 group O [Microbiology]
HIV-1, the cause of AIDS, is composed of four phylogenetic lineages, groups M, N, O, and P, each of which resulted from an independent cross-species transmission event of simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) infecting African apes. Although groups M and N have been traced to geographically distinct chimpanzee communities in southern... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
[Communication with children : Practical hints and tools for the anesthesiology routine].
CONCLUSION: Meeting at eye level, talking to the child instead of just about it, a language appropriate for children but not childish, comprehensible information and explanations, return of control and care more than pure technical distance, all play an important role. A serious look into such communication strategies can help the anesthetist to overcome uncertainties that a child can easily sense. PMID: 25776207 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Der Anaesthesist)
Meta-Analysis and Time Series Modeling Allow a Systematic Review of Primary HIV-1 Drug-Resistant Prevalence in Latin America and Caribbean.
Authors: Campos Coelho AV, De Moura RR, Da Silva RC, Kamada AJ, Guimarães RL, Cavalcanti Brandão LA, Campos Coelho HF, Crovella S Abstract Here we review the prevalence of HIV-1 primary drug resistance in Latin America and Caribbean using meta-analysis as well as time-series modeling. We also discuss whether there could be a drawback to HIV/AIDS programs due to drug resistance in Latin America and Caribbean in the next years. We observed that, although some studies report low or moderate primary drug resistance prevalence in Caribbean countries, this evidence needs to be updated. In other countries, such as Brazil and Argentina, the prevalence of drug resistance appears to be rising. Mutations conferring resistance against reverse transcriptase inhibitors were the most frequent i...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Sendai Conference Stresses Importance of Women?s Leadership
Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe says boosting women?s leadership in disaster risk reduction would be a key element of the country?s new programme of international support. Credit: Jamshed Baruah/IPSBy Jamshed Baruah and Katsuhiro AsagiriSENDAI, Japan, Mar 16 2015 (IPS)Women play a critical role in reducing disaster risk and planning and decision-making during and after disasters strike, according to senior United Nations, government and civil society representatives.In fact, efforts at reducing risks can never be fully effective or sustainable if the needs and voices of women are ignored, they agreed.WFP Executive Director Ertharin Cousin underscored that the ?global reset? that began on Mar. 14 in Sendai must include steps to place women at the centre of disaster risk reduction...
A National Webinar on Patient-Centered Outcomes Research (PCOR) and the Use of Decision Aids to Facilitate Shared Decision Making
Registration is open for this webinar, being held Wednesday Mar 18, 2015 from 03:30 pm to 04:30 pm EDT (Source: HSR Information Central)
Kenya: Churches' Claims to Heal HIV Put Lives At Risk
[Key Correspondents] "After living with AIDS for ten years I now stand here thanking the Lord for healing me and saving me from death through AIDS!" testifies John, a junior pastor of New Life Church. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Adenovirus Vectors as HIV-1 VaccinesAdenovirus Vectors as HIV-1 Vaccines
This article examines the possibility of adenovirus vectors as HIV-1 vaccines. AIDS (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
Namibia: People Being Tested for HIV in Their Homes
[New Era] The Total Control of the Epidemic (TCE) fieldworkers, who are part of the Development Aid from People to People (DAPP), daily endure harsh weather conditions. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
The Gambian despot who 'cured HIV-AIDS' and his British homoeopath allies
President Yahyah Jammeh, the dictator who has defied medical opinion since 2007 by claiming to have found a cure for HIV-AIDS, has found allies in a British homoeopathic group sponsored by the official suppliers of homoeopathic medicine to the Royal family (Source: Telegraph Health)
Zimbabwe: Faith Healers Urged to Encourage ART
[Zimbabwe Standard] The Parliamentary Thematic Committee on HIV and Aids has recommended that traditional and faith healers should encourage people to take anti-retroviral treatment (ART) even after undergoing herbal or spiritual healing. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Prophylaxis for Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia: is it a necessity in pulmonary patients on high-dose, chronic corticosteroid therapy without AIDS?
Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine, Volume 9, Issue 2, Page 171-181, April 2015. (Source: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine)
Zimbabwe: Complications, Even Death As Patients Default
[The Herald] THERE comes a time when someone on chronic medication gets fatigue from taking their daily doses and feel like giving up. For anyone with a chronic condition be it hypertension, diabetes, is HIV positive or has kidney ailment, one needs to have a 'medic buddy'. A 'medic buddy' is someone who reminds one to take their medication on time and this buddy does not tire of telling one that its time to take medication. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Africa: Global Fund Work Falling Short On Gender-Related Issues
[Key Correspondents] The Global Fund's efforts to put women and girls at the center of its work on HIV, TB and malaria have yet to bear significant fruit at the country level, according to the ATHENA Network. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Tanzania: HIV/Aids Counselors Seek Capacity Building
[Daily News] Mwanza -THE government is urged to recognise lay counselors who care for and treat people living with HIV/AIDS. Chairman of The National Council for People Living with HIV/AIDS Tanzania (NACOPHA), Mr Vitalis Makayula said here on Wednesday that the counselors are doing great, so there is a need to roll out the program countrywide. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Quadruple Burden of HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, Chronic Intestinal Parasitoses, and Multiple Micronutrient Deficiency in Ethiopia: A Summary of Available Findings.
Authors: Amare B, Moges B, Mulu A, Yifru S, Kassu A Abstract Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), tuberculosis (TB), and helminthic infections are among the commonest public health problems in the sub-Saharan African countries like Ethiopia. Multiple micronutrient deficiencies also known as the "hidden hunger" are common in people living in these countries either playing a role in their pathogenesis or as consequences. This results in a vicious cycle of multiple micronutrient deficiencies and infection/disease progression. As infection is profoundly associated with nutritional status resulting from decreased nutrient intake, decreased nutrient absorption, and nutrient losses, micronutrient deficiencies affect immune system and impact infection and diseases progression. As a result, ...
Trends on epidemiological, virological, and clinical features among newly diagnosed HIV?1 persons in Northwest Spain over the last 10 years
To describe temporal trend and characteristics of newly HIV?diagnosed patients in a medical care area in Northwest Spain over the last 10 years. All newly diagnosed patients for HIV?infection from 2004 to 2013 at a reference medical care area in Northwest of Spain were identified. Epidemiological, virological, immunological, and clinical data, as well as HIV genotype and drug resistance information were recorded. A total of 565 newly HIV?diagnosed patients were identified. The number of new cases increased in the last 5 years (66?cases/year). Overall, 53.1% had a median CD4 counts?&lt;?350?cells/µl and 33.6% had an AIDS defining criteria. Non?B variants were found in 34.4% of patients being subtype F (25.8%) the most common non?B subtype. The rate of transmitted drug res...
Dynamics of T?cell subsets and their relationship with oral and systemic opportunistic infections in HIV/AIDS patients during the first year of HAART in Guangxi, China
To analyze the dynamic changes in Th1, Th2, Tc1, and Tc2 of HIV/AIDS patients during the first year of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and to explore their relationship with oral and systemic opportunistic infections, a cohort study was carried out among HIV/AIDS patients in Guangxi, China. Ninety HIV/AIDS patients and 30 healthy controls (HC) were included. The enrolled HIV/AIDS patients were examined at baseline and after 3, 6, and 12 months of HAART. On each visit, oral and systemic opportunistic infections were recorded, oral Candida load and plasma viral load (VL) were counted, differential T?cell counts and flow cytometric analysis of T?cell subsets were performed. During the first year of HAART, the total number of opportunistic infections decreased steadily with th...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Application of bioprocessing techniques (sourdough fermentation and technological aids) for brewer?s spent grain breads
Publication date: Available online 7 March 2015 Source:Food Research International Author(s): Anastasia Ktenioudaki , Laura Alvarez-Jubete , Thomas J. Smyth , Kieran Kilcawley , Dilip K. Rai , Eimear Gallagher A comprehensive study into the potential of bioprocessing techniques (sourdough fermentation and technological aids) for improving the technological, sensory, and nutritional properties of breads made using brewer?s spent grain (BSG) was undertaken. Xylanase and dough conditioner altered the mixing and pasting properties of the flours, improved the specific volume and texture of breads and delayed staling in BSG breads when added to both sourdough and non-sourdough BSG breads. The aromatic properties were determined by volatile analysis and were influenced by sourdough fermentati...
Monitoring treatment outcomes in patients with chronic disease: lessons from tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS care and treatment programmes
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Tropical Medicine and International Health)
Braces and orthoses for treating osteoarthritis of the knee.
CONCLUSIONS: Evidence was inconclusive for the benefits of bracing for pain, stiffness, function and quality of life in the treatment of patients with medial compartment knee OA. On the basis of one laterally wedged insole versus no treatment study, we conclude that evidence of an effect on pain in patients with varus knee OA is lacking. Moderate-quality evidence shows lack of an effect on improvement in pain, stiffness and function between patients treated with a laterally wedged insole and those treated with a neutral insole. Low-quality evidence shows lack of an effect on improvement in pain, stiffness and function between patients treated with a valgus knee brace and those treated with a laterally wedged insole. The optimal choice for an orthosis remains unclear, and long-term implicat...
Integrase Interactor 1 in Health and Disease.
Authors: Das S Abstract Integrase interactor 1 (INI1/hSNF5) is a core component of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex that alters the structure of chromatin in order to facilitate DNA-dependent cellular processes like transcription, replication, and repair. INI1/hSNF5 plays an important role in a variety of cellular processes. Inactivation of the Snf5 gene in mice leads to embryonic lethality suggesting a critical role for INI1/hSNF5 in cellular function, viability, and development. Biallelic loss-of-function of INI1/hSNF5 leads to certain cancers, most frequently rhabdoid tumors, demonstrating that INI1/hSNF5 is a tumor suppressor gene. INI1/hSNF5 regulates several essential steps in the propagation of the HIV-1 virus within the host cell, particularly HIV-1 integration. The...
Increased monocyte turnover is associated with interstitial macrophage accumulation and pulmonary tissue damage in SIV-infected rhesus macaques.
Authors: Cai Y, Sugimoto C, Liu DX, Midkiff CC, Alvarez X, Lackner AA, Kim WK, Didier ES, Kuroda MJ Abstract We recently reported that increasing blood monocyte turnover that was associated with tissue macrophage death better predicts terminal disease progression in adult SIV-infected macaques than does declining CD4(+) T cell levels. To understand better mechanisms of pathogenesis, this study relates severity of lung-tissue damage to the ratio, distribution, and inflammatory responses of lung macrophage subsets during SIV infection in rhesus macaques exhibiting varying rates of monocyte turnover. In vivo BrdU incorporation was used to evaluate kinetics of monocyte/tissue macrophage turnover. Tissue damage was scored microscopically from H&E-stained lung-tissue sections, and cy...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Cannabis in cancer care.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 25777363 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics)
N-glycans and metastasis in galectin-3 transgenic mice.
Authors: More SK, Srinivasan N, Budnar S, Bane S, Upadhya A, Thorat R, Ingle A, Chiplunkar S, Kalraiya RD Abstract Poly-N-acetyl-lactosamine (polyLacNAc) on N-glycans facilitate lung specific metastasis of melanoma cells by serving as high affinity ligands for galectin-3, expressed in highest amounts in the lungs, on almost all its tissue compartments including on the surface of vascular endothelium. PolyLacNAc not only aids in initial arrest on the organ endothelium but in all the events of extravasation. Inhibition of polyLacNAc synthesis, or competitive inhibition of its interaction with galectin-3 all inhibited these processes and experimental metastasis. Transgenic galectin-3 mice, viz., gal-3(+/+) (wild type), gal-3(+/-) (hemizygous) and gal-3(-/-) (null) have been used to pr...
Effect of Leflunomide, Cidofovir and Ciprofloxacin on replication of BKPyV in a salivary gland in vitro culture system.
In conclusion, treatment of human salivary gland cells with each of the three drugs produced modest decreases in BKPyV genome replication. These data highlight the need for continued studies to discover more effective and less toxic drugs that inhibit BKPyV replication in salivary gland cells. PMID: 25790744 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Antiviral Research)
"An unspoken world of unspoken things": a study identifying and exploring core beliefs underlying self-stigma among people living with HIV and AIDS in Ireland.
CONCLUSIONS: This study helps fill identified gaps in knowledge about self-stigma as experienced by PLHIV. By understanding the core beliefs driving self-stigma, it will be possible to create targeted interventions to challenge and overcome such beliefs, supporting PLHIV to achieve improved wellbeing and lead productive lives free of self-limitation and self-judgement. PMID: 25768695 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Swiss Medical Weekly)
Proximate Context of HIV Stigma and Its Association with HIV Testing in Sierra Leone: A Population-Based Study
Abstract The extent to which HIV stigma at the community level remains a barrier to greater uptake in HIV testing services is poorly understood. We used nationally representative data from the 2008 Sierra Leone Demographic and Health Survey. The primary outcome was HIV testing (past 12 months). Our explanatory variable was HIV stigmatizing attitudes (5-item scale). After multivariable adjustment, HIV testing had an inverse association with HIV stigmatizing attitudes measured at the individual [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.94; 95 % CI 0.87?1.01] and community level (AOR 0.70; 95 % CI 0.58?0.85). HIV stigma had a stronger negative association with HIV testing when modeled at the community rather than individual level. (Source: AIDS and Behavior)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Increased risk of non-AIDS-related events in HIV subjects with persistent low CD4 counts despite cART in the CoRIS cohort
Publication date: Available online 9 March 2015 Source:Antiviral Research Author(s): Y.M. Pacheco , I. Jarrin , I. Rosado , A.A. Campins , J. Berenguer , J.A. Iribarren , Maria Rivero , L. Muñoz-Medina , E. Bernal-Morell , F. Gutiérrez , M. Leal The aim was to analyze clinical complications in HIV-infected subjects who persistently maintain low CD4 levels despite virological response to cART in the Spanish CoRIS cohort. The main inclusion criteria were CD4 counts &lt;200cells/mm3 at cART-initiation and at least 2years under cART achieving a viral load &lt;500copies/mL. Those patients with CD4 counts &lt;250cells/mm3 2years after cART were classified as the Low-CD4 group, and clinical events were collected from this time-point. Poisson regression models were used to calculat...
Persistent High Mortality in Advanced HIV/TB Despite Appropriate Antiretroviral and Antitubercular Therapy: an Emerging Challenge
Abstract Approximately 1.1 million, or 13 %, of all TB cases in 2013 were coinfected with HIV, and in some African countries, such as Botswana and Swaziland, 60?80 % of TB cases are coinfected with HIV. Effective therapies for both HIV and TB exist, yet patients presenting with TB and advanced HIV still experience high rates of morbidity and mortality despite initiation of both antitubercular and antiretroviral therapy (ART). Previous reviews and research have focused largely on TB-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) as a type of complicated outcome on ART in advanced HIV/TB, but recent data indicate that immunologic failure despite suppressive ART is associated with early mortality. In this review, we examine recent findings regarding early mortal...
Clinical and Psychological Effects of Early Mobilization in Patients Treated in a Neurologic ICU: A Comparative Study*
Conclusions: A neurologic ICU early mobility protocol increased highest neurologic ICU mobility and discharge home and decreased length of stay, but did not improve quality metrics or psychological profile. (Source: Critical Care Medicine)
Zimbabwe: MSU Students Spread HIV - NAC
[The Herald] MIDLANDS State University students' reckless sexual behaviour has been singled out as the major driver of the sharp increase in the province's HIV prevalence that shot up from last year's 20 to 23 percent this year. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Psychometric Testing of the Chinese Version of the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey among people living with HIV/AIDS in China
To assess the psychometric properties of the Chinese (Mandarin) version of the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey (MOS-SSS-CM) among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Mainland China. (Source: Applied Nursing Research : ANR)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
A School with iPad
Publication date: 20 February 2015 Source:Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, Volume 176 Author(s): Annarita Miglietta The learning of science has always been a major obstacle for our Italian students. The cause is probably not to be found in the complexity of the content, but rather in the particular in which way learners are usually initiated in these subjects. The purpose of this study is to focus our attention on the possible positive effects that digital teaching aids can have on learning-related scientific disciplines. In fact, it is thought that the new digital tools can be a bridge between students? prerequisites and the teacher's, and ensure the achievement of objectives that do not concern only the content, but above all the means of achieving path to achieve them. In ...
Exploring Students? Learning Style at a Gulf University: A Contributing Factor to Effective Instruction
This study will also determine related factors (hand use, gender, and study streams) and their impact, as well as make recommendations to improve teaching and learning at the University. (Source: Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences)
Physical Medicine Interventions as Alternatives to Invasive Airway Tubes
This article describes the use of physical medicine noninvasive inspiratory and expiratory muscle aids to prevent ventilatory/respiratory failure and to permit the extubation and tracheostomy tube decannulation of patients with little or no autonomous ability to breathe (i.e., who are ?unweanable? from ventilator support). Noninvasive airway pressure aids can provide up to continuous ventilatory support and effective cough flows for patients with severely dysfunctional respiratory muscles. (Source: PM and R)
Peering into the literature: a systematic review of the roles of people who inject drugs in harm reduction initiatives
People who inject drugs have a long history of organizing and have been central to the development of harm reduction initiatives in regions including North America, Europe, Oceania, and East and South-East Asia (Curtis, 2004; Southwell, 2002). Referred to by terms that include peer workers, peer helpers, or natural helpers (Wye, 2006), people with lived experience of drug use work both behind the scenes and at the forefront of needle distribution services, harm reduction education, peer support, and community-based research initiatives (Canadian AIDS Society and Canadian Harm Reduction Network, 2008; Hunt et al., 2010; Jain et al., 2014; Thangsing, 2012). (Source: Drug and Alcohol Dependence)
The prognostic role of systemic inflammatory markers on HIV-infected patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma, a multicenter cohort study
Conclusions: GPS, mGPS, PI and PNI are independent prognostic factors for survival of HIV patients with NHL. (Source: Journal of Translational Medicine)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
HIV-1 non-macrophage-tropic R5 envelope glycoproteins are not more tropic for entry into primary CD4+ T-cells than envelopes highly adapted for macrophages
Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that T/F, early or late disease non-mac-tropic R5 Envs do not preferentially mediate infection of primary CD4+ T-cells compared to highly mac-tropic Envs from brain tissue. We conclude that non-macrophage-tropism of HIV-1 R5 Envs in vitro is determined predominantly by a reduced capacity to target myeloid cells via low CD4 rather than a specific adaptation for T-cells entry that precludes macrophage infection. (Source: Retrovirology)
Acid Attack Survivors Pose As 'Calendar Girls' To Redefine Beauty
You don't see too many burns on the faces of calendar models, but that's exactly why the women featured in "Bello" are smiling big for the camera. The calendar -- featuring women who survived acid attacks -- was created as part of the Stop Acid Attacks campaign by the Chhanv Foundation in India, Quartz reported. Funds raised from the sales are expected to help the rehabilitation of Indian survivors of the crime. "In a society as insensitive as ours, it doesn't take much for the acid attack victims to lose their self-confidence," the calendar's website states, noting the calendar was launched in recognition of International Women's Day on March 8. "Apathy of the attackers give birth to the acid attack. The apathy of relatives, 'friends' and neighbors generates burns everyday. The calendar...
Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group expands scope to include HIV/AIDS research
The Cochrane HIV/AIDS External link for more information:&nbsp; http://cidg.cochrane.org/welcome Contributor&#039;s Information Contributor&#039;s name:&nbsp; Cochrane CEAD Email address:&nbsp; cead@lists.cochrane.org read more (Source: The Cochrane Collaboration - Current news at The Cochrane Collaboration)
Nigeria: NPA Intensifies Campaign Against HIV/Aids
[This Day] Nigeria Ports Authority (NPA) has intensified enlightenment campaign on prevention of HIV/AIDS in the country. To this end, the authority, as part of its corporate social responsibility (CSR) has joined forces with the Abidjan-Lagos Corridor Organisation (ALCO) began a sensitisation campaign for stakeholders in the Nigerian transport and maritime sector on how to prevent HIV/ AIDS. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
South Africa: Brother's Death Leaves a Legacy of Commitment
[Health-e] February marked the one-year anniversary of her brother's death due to AIDS-related illnesses, but Sazi Mnyageni says she keeps her brother's memory alive every time she counsels a person on HIV. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
HHS Panel on Antiretroviral Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents Welcomes New Panel Members
The HHS Panel on Antiretroviral Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents (a working group of the Office of AIDS Research Council) is pleased to welcome 5 new scientific members and 1 new community member to the Panel who will begin a 4-year term starting in April 2015. Roger Bedimo, MD (University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas, TX) Charles Hicks, MD (University of California-San Diego, San Diego, CA) Tim Horn, BA (Treatment Action Group, New York, NY) Michael Kozal, MD (Yale University, New Haven, CT) Susan Swindells, MD (University of Nebraska, Omaha, NE) Melanie Thompson, MD (AIDS Research Consortium of Atlanta, Atlanta, GA) The Panel would like to express our gratitude and appreciation to the following outgoing members for the many years of dedication and contributions in the...
March 20 is National Native HIV/AIDS Awareness Day
National Native HIV/AIDS Awareness Day is an annual observance that highlights the impact of HIV/AIDS on American Indian, Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian communities. &nbsp; According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), compared to members of other ethnic or racial groups, the Native Hawaiian, American Indian, and Alaska Native communities have the highest proportion of people diagnosed with AIDS within 12 months of receiving an HIV diagnosis, suggesting that they may be diagnosed late in the course of their HIV infection. This highlights the need to educate these communities about HIV prevention, testing, and treatment. &nbsp; Explore our National Native HIV/AIDS Awareness Day webpage [en espa&ntilde;ol] to learn more about the observance. (Source: AIDSinfo At-a-Gl...
Physical Medicine Interventions as Alternatives to Invasive Airway Tubes
This article describes the use of physical medicine noninvasive inspiratory and expiratory muscle aids to prevent ventilatory/respiratory failure and to permit the extubation and tracheostomy tube decannulation of patients with little or no autonomous ability to breathe (i.e., who are ?unweanable? from ventilator support). Noninvasive airway pressure aids can provide up to continuous ventilatory support and effective cough flows for patients with severely dysfunctional respiratory muscles. (Source: PMandR)
Use of Surveillance Data on HIV Diagnoses with HIV-Related Symptoms to Estimate the Number of People Living with Undiagnosed HIV in Need of Antiretroviral Therapy
Conclusions The method is straightforward to implement within a short period once a surveillance system of all new HIV diagnoses, collecting data on HIV-related symptoms at diagnosis, is in place and is most suitable for estimating the number of undiagnosed people with CD4 count (Source: PLoS One)
Essay: A Lesson in Living
Abstract This 2013 Consortium of Universities for Global Health essay examines the ethical dilemmas encountered by a public health worker engaged in HIV/AIDS prevention and health promotion in a rural Tanzanian community. Is the professional objective of improving the health and well-being of the population so simple? (Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Comparison of home and hospital deaths among patients on anti-retroviral therapy (ART): A clinical and verbal autopsy study
Conclusion Strategies for improving adherence, prevention and treatment of TB should be explored. (Source: HIV and AIDS Review)
Sexual practices and the prevalence of HIV and syphilis among men who have sex with men in Lanzhou, China.
Authors: Gao W, Li Z, Li Y, Qiao X Abstract To assess the risk of sexual practices and explore the determinants of the prevalence of HIV and syphilis among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Lanzhou, China, a survey was conducted among 600 MSM from March 2008 to December 2009, demographic information and sexually behavioral factors were collected with snowball sampling technology and blood samples were obtained. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to determine the predictors of HIV and syphilis infection. The sera-prevalence of HIV, syphilis, HCV and co-infection of HIV with syphilis was 6.0%, 18.0%, 1.3% and 2.5% respectively. Inconsistent utilization of condom in vaginal sex was higher than that in anal sex, buying sex or selling sex. Multivariate analysis shows tha...
An Update of the Review of Neuropsychological Consequences of HIV and Substance Abuse: A Literature Review and Implications for Treatment and Future Research.
Authors: Norman LR, Basso M Abstract Neuropyschological dysfunction, ranging from mild cerebral indicators to dementia has been a consistent part of the medical picture of HIV/AIDS. However, advances in medical supervision, particularly as a result of antiretroviral (ARV) treatment, have resulted in some mitigation of the neuropsychological effects of HIV and necessitate re-evaluation of the pattern and nature of HIV-related cognitive or mental deficits. The associated enhancements in morbidity and mortality that have occurred as a result of ARV medication have led to a need for interventions and programs that maintain behaviors that are health and stop the resurgence of the risk of HIV transmission. Risk factors such as mental illness and substance use that may have contributed to...
Implementation and Operational Research: The Impact of Option B+ on the Antenatal PMTCT Cascade in Lilongwe, Malawi
Conclusions: Although several improvements in PMTCT program performance were noted with implementation of B+, challenges remain at several critical steps along the cascade requiring innovative solutions to ensure an AIDS-free generation. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Risk Factors for HCV Acquisition Among HIV-Positive MSM in Belgium
Conclusions: Our study confirmed fisting and suffering from other STIs as risk factors for HCV and suggested an increased risk of HCV associated with serosorting. Furthermore, we identified anal douching as being associated with HCV infection. The role that douching plays in the acquisition of HCV infection and other STIs requires further research, as well as the effect of serosorting on STI transmission. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Cancer Risk and Use of Protease Inhibitor or Nonnucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor?Based Combination Antiretroviral Therapy: The D: A: D Study
Conclusions: Cumulative use of PIs may be associated with a higher risk of anal cancer and possibly other NADC. Further investigation of biological mechanisms is warranted. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Evades Vaccine-Elicited Antibody Responses to V2 Region
Conclusions: The yeast surface displayed library allows the mapping of SIV-specific linear and conformational MAD. The MVTTgpe-based regimen induces antibodies targeting mainly to 6 antigenic domains covering the entire gp160. Critically, this regimen induced a uniquely predominant antibody response against a distinct MAD in variable region 2 (V2) as compared with the Ad5gpe-based vaccine and SIVmac239 infection. This MAD was associated with a higher titer of anti-V2 antibody responses, which was inversely correlated with peak and set-point viral loads. Unexpectedly, the pathogenic SIVmac239 challenge evaded the vaccine-elicited anti-V2 antibody response. Instead of recalling B-cell memory responses to the V2 MAD, viral infection directed anti-V1V2 antibodies primarily to V1 region. Moreov...
Gambia: First Lady Zineb Jammeh Talks About Ending HIV/Aids By 2030
[The Point] First Lady Zineb Yahya Jammeh on 8 March, in a statement she delivered, talked about ending HIV/AIDS by 2030. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Aptamer-siRNA Chimeras for HIV.
Authors: Takahashi M, Burnett JC, Rossi JJ Abstract Since 1980s, HIV/AIDS has escalated into a global pandemic. Although combinatorial antiretroviral therapy (cART) regimens can suppress plasma virus levels to below the detection limit and the survival rate of HIV-1 infected patients has been improving, long-term cART holds the potential to cause a number of chronic diseases. RNA interference (RNAi) is considered as a powerful method for developing new generation of therapeutics. Discovery of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) shed light on limitations of targets that are "undruggable" with current technologies. However, delivery remains a major hurdle of siRNA-based therapy. Recent progress in technology of engineering nucleic acid enables a targeted delivery of siRNAs using aptamers...
C peptides as entry inhibitors for gene therapy.
In conclusion, C peptide gene therapeutics may provide a strong benefit to AIDS patients and could present an effective alternative to current antiretroviral drug regimens. PMID: 25757622 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
HIV Latency and the Noncoding RNA Therapeutic Landscape.
Authors: Saayman S, Roberts TC, Morris KV, Weinberg MS Abstract The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) belongs to the subfamily of lentiviruses that are characterized by long incubation periods and chronic, persistent infection. The virus integrates into the genome of infected CD4+ cells and, in a subpopulation of cells, adopts a transcriptionally silent state, a process referred to a viral latency. This property makes it exceedingly difficult to therapeutically target the virus and eradicate infection. If left untreated, the inexorable demise of the infected individual's immune system ensues, a causal result of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Latently infected cells provide a reservoir that maintains viral infection indefinitely. In this chapter we explore the role of n...
Editing CCR5: A Novel Approach to HIV Gene Therapy.
Authors: Cornu TI, Mussolino C, Bloom K, Cathomen T Abstract Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a life-threatening disorder caused by infection of individuals with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Entry of HIV-1 into target cells depends on the presence of two surface proteins on the cell membrane: CD4, which serves as the main receptor, and either CCR5 or CXCR4 as a co-receptor. A limited number of people harbor a genomic 32-bp deletion in the CCR5 gene (CCR5?32), leading to expression of a truncated gene product that provides resistance to HIV-1 infection in individuals homozygous for this mutation. Moreover, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation with CCR5?32 donor cells seems to confer HIV-1 resistance to the recipient as well. However, si...
Nigeria: Nigeria's Doing Well With HIV Control, But... - Camara, UNAIDS Coordinator
[Independent (Lagos)] BILALI CAMARA is the UNAIDS Country Coordinator in Nigeria, also doubles as the UNAIDS Focal Point for ECOWAS. In this interview with our Correspondent, HASSAN ZAGGI, Camara x-rays the current HIV situation in Nigeria, efforts of the government in the fight the scourge and what UNAIDS is doing to ensure ARVs are produced in Nigeria. He also spokes on many other issues. Excerpts: (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Women and HIV: the urgent need for more research and policy attention in the Middle East and North Africa region.
Authors: DeJong J, Battistin F PMID: 25753933 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Nigeria: NACA, SURE-P Begin Free Medical Outreach in Kogi
[Guardian] THE National Agency for the Control of AIDS (NACA), in collaboration with the Subsidy Reinvestment and Empowerment Programme (SURE-P) has commenced a four-Day free medical outreach campaign in Dekina Local Area of Kogi State. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Malawi: Mk540 Million for HIV and Aids, Nutrition Issues in KK
[Malawi News Agency] Nkhotakota -Issues arising from malnutrition as well as HIV and AIDS in Nkhotakota are expected to decrease as the district has received US$1 210 880.7 (about MK544 million) for such activities within a two year period commencing March 2015. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Ethiopia: AU to Set Up African Centre for Disease Control
[Ethiopian Herald] Dr. Marie Goreti Harakeye, Head of HIV/AIDS, TB & OID Division Under the AU Department of Social Affairs (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
North Carolina Program on Health Literacy
Provides an overview of health literacy, literacy assessment instruments, health communication and teaching aids, and the Health Literacy Universal Precautions Toolkit. (Source: PHPartners.org)
Zimbabwe: Global Health Partners Hail Zim
[The Herald] Representatives of four global development partners visiting Zimbabwe have commended Zimbabwe for leading in mobilising domestic funds to finance HIV and AIDS programmes. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Zimbabwe: Zim Commended for Fighting Diseases Head-On
[The Herald] Over the years, HIV and AIDS as well as malaria have taken so much, from so many, and Zimbabwe saw a great loss of years in life expectancy in the 1990s. And since then, this country has fought back. It has taken nearly 20 years of grit and determination, wisdom and foresight, to climb back up and to attack this epidemic head-on. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
AIDS to Ebola, report confronts key challenge: Maintaining US leadership in global health technology
(Burness Communications) Today, the world is looking to the US for cutting-edge diagnostics, drugs, and vaccines that could have the last word on an Ebola outbreak that is down but not out. With funding at risk for global health R&D at places like the National Institutes of Health, a new report probes the perils of this underinvestment and the rewards to be gained at home and abroad from renewing US leadership in global health technology development. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)
Bayesian modeling of the covariance structure for irregular longitudinal data using the partial autocorrelation function
We describe a Bayesian approach, discuss computational issues, and apply the proposed methods to CD4 count data from a pediatric AIDS clinical trial. © 2015 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. (Source: Statistics in Medicine)
Fabrication and In vivo evaluation of Nelfinavir loaded PLGA Nanoparticles for enhancing oral bioavailability and therapeutic effect
Publication date: Available online 11 March 2015 Source:Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal Author(s): D. Nagasamy Venkatesh , Mahendran Baskaran , V.V.S. Narayana Reddy Karri , Sai Sandeep Mannemala , Kollipara Radhakrishna , Sandip Goti Nelfinavir mesylate (NFV) is an anti-viral drug, used in the treatment of Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Poor oral bioavailability and shorter half-life (3.5 to 5 h) remains a major clinical limitation of NFV leading to unpredictable drug bioavailability and frequent dosing. In this context, the objective of the present study was to formulate NFV loaded poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs), which can increase the solubility and oral bioavailability along with sustained release of the drug. NFV loaded PLGA-NPs were prepared by n...
Feasibility of Using an iPod Touch Device and Acceptability of a Stigma Reduction Intervention with HIV-Infected Women in the Deep South
Abstract As with many infectious diseases throughout history, stigma is a part of the trajectory of the HIV disease process. HIV-related stigma impedes women from being tested for HIV. Once infected, HIV-related stigma hinders women from disclosing their HIV status to sexual partners and health care providers, engaging in medical care, effectively self-managing the disease after infection, and adhering to anti-retroviral therapy. After three decades of the HIV epidemic, no evidenced-based, culturally relevant, gender-specific interventions exist to help women infected with HIV manage the stigma associated with HIV infection. This manuscript reports the feasibility of using an iPod touch device and acceptability of a stigma reduction intervention with HIV-infected women in the Deep...
Enhancing Our Understanding of Current Therapies for Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)
Abstract Great progress has been made in understanding the HCV genome and its molecular virology. This understanding has culminated in the development of direct-acting antiviral (DAA) agents targeting HCV viral proteins. Telaprevir (TVR) and boceprevir (BOC) were the first DAAs introduced for treatment of genotype 1 HCV in 2011; when used in combination with pegylated interferon (pegIFN) and ribavirin (RBV), these protease inhibitors improved efficacy in patients with chronic HCV infection compared to the traditional dual therapy. However, this combination was associated with adverse events that often led to early termination of therapy. In late 2013, the FDA approved a second wave of DAAs, sofosbuvir (SOF) and simeprevir (SMV). The use of SOF with SMV opened the door for IFN-free...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Evaluation of late presentation for HIV treatment in a reference center in Belo Horizonte, Southeastern Brazil, from 2008 to 2010
Conclusion The proportion of patients who were late attending a clinic for HIV treatment is still high, and effective strategies to improve early HIV detection with a special focus on the vulnerable population are urgently needed. (Source: The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases)
The Clinical Role and Cost-Effectiveness of Long-Acting Antiretroviral Therapy
Conclusions.&nbsp;LA-ART could improve survival of HIV patients, especially those with poor daily ART adherence. At an annual cost of $40 000&ndash;$70 000, LA-ART will offer good value for patients with multiple prior failures. To be a viable option for first- or second-line therapy, however, its cost must approach that of currently available regimens. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Poorer Cognitive Performance in Perinatally HIV-Infected Children Versus Healthy Socioeconomically Matched Controls
Conclusions.&nbsp;Our results show that cognitive performance of HIV-infected children is poor compared with that of SES-matched healthy controls. Gaining insight into these cognitive deficits is essential, as subtle impairments may progress to more pronounced complications that will influence future intellectual performance, job opportunities, and community participation of HIV-infected children. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Trends in CD4 Count at Presentation to Care and Treatment Initiation in Sub-Saharan Africa, 2002-2013: A Meta-analysis
Conclusions.&nbsp;CD4 counts at presentation to care and at ART initiation in sub-Saharan Africa have not increased over the past decade. Barriers to presentation, diagnosis, and linkage to HIV care remain major challenges that require attention to optimize population-level benefits of ART. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Editorial Commentary: Immunodeficiency at Start of Antiretroviral Therapy: The Persistent Problem of Late Presentation to Care
(Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
HIV-Risk Related Attitudes and Behaviors Among Older Impoverished Women Living in Puerto Rico
This study examines the relationship between age and HIV-related attitudes and risk behaviors among female public housing residents in Puerto Rico. Using a self-administered survey instrument, 1,138 female public housing residents were surveyed between April and August 2006. Bivariate results showed that older women (aged 50+ years) were significantly less likely to report HIV testing and to discuss safer sex with their most recent ?steady? sex partner than women under the age of 50 years. Older women were also more likely to express anxiety associated with condoms and more barriers to using condoms. The older versus younger groups did not significantly differ regarding condom use, which was extremely low across the groups. In the past three and 12 months, older women were less likel...
?How do you care for technology?? ? Care professionals' experiences with assistive technology in care of the elderly
Publication date: April 2015 Source:Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Volume 93 Author(s): Maxine Saborowski , Ingrid Kollak The needs of elderly people and their relatives, as well as the problems they face in using assistive technology, are taken into account to some extend when such devices are designed. However, another important group is overlooked in most of the research and technical development: care professionals. They use assistive devices every day. To consider them as users and facilitators of assistive technology has become even more important, since new capacities of technology and comprehensive visions of robotics have started to change the relation between care workers and technology significantly. In Berlin, Germany, we conducted a series of qualitative interv...
Cancer incidence and mortality for all causes in HIV-infected patients over a quarter century: a multicentre cohort study
Conclusions: In HIV infected patients, ADC but not NADC incidence rates were higher than the general population. Although overall mortality in HIV infected subjects decreased over time, it is about three-fold higher than the general population at present. (Source: BMC Public Health)
TEFM is a potent stimulator of mitochondrial transcription elongation in vitro
A single-subunit RNA polymerase, POLRMT, transcribes the mitochondrial genome in human cells. Recently, a factor termed as the mitochondrial transcription elongation factor, TEFM, was shown to stimulate transcription elongation in vivo, but its effect in vitro was relatively modest. In the current work, we have isolated active TEFM in recombinant form and used a reconstituted in vitro transcription system to characterize its activities. We show that TEFM strongly promotes POLRMT processivity as it dramatically stimulates the formation of longer transcripts. TEFM also abolishes premature transcription termination at conserved sequence block II, an event that has been linked to primer formation during initiation of mtDNA synthesis. We show that POLRMT pauses at a wide range of sites in a giv...
Ethical and practical considerations in providing critical care to patients with Ebola virus disease.
Authors: Torabi-Parizi P, Davey RT, Suffredini AF, Chertow DS Abstract Abstract: Infectious disease epidemics in the past have given rise to psychological and emotional responses among health care workers stemming from fear of infection during patient care. Early experiences in the AIDS epidemic provide an example where fear of contagion resulted in differential treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. However, with a deeper understanding of AIDS pathogenesis and treatment, fear and discrimination diminished. Parallels exist between early experiences with AIDS and the present outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa particularly in regards to discussions of medical futility in seriously ill patients. We provide a historical perspective on healt...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Decision aids for localized prostate cancer treatment choice: Systematic review and meta?analysis
In conclusion, scant evidence at high risk of bias suggests the variable impact of existing decision aids on a limited set of decisional processes and outcomes. Because current decision aids provide information but do not directly facilitate shared decision making, subsequent efforts would benefit from user?centered design of decision aids that promote shared decision making. CA Cancer J Clin 2015. © 2015 American Cancer Society. (Source: CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians)
Antiviral Medication in Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Part II: HIV.
Authors: Majewska A, Mlynarczyk-Bonikowska B, Malejczyk M, Mlynarczyk G, Majewski S Abstract This is a second part of a review under a main title Antiviral medication in sexually transmitted diseases. In the part we published in Mini Rev Med Chem. 2013,13(13):1837-45, we have described mechanisms of action and mechanism of resistance to antiviral agents used in genital herpes and genital HPV infection. The Part II review focuses on therapeutic options in HIV infection. In 1987, 6 years after the recognition of AIDS, the FDA approved the first drug against HIV - zidovudine. Since then a lot of antiretroviral drugs are available. The most effective treatment for HIV is highly active antiretroviral therapy - a combination of several antiretroviral medicines that cause a reduction of H...
Uganda: Ugandans Angry at Lack of ARVs
[Observer] Despite testing for HIV/Aids, residents of the city suburb of Kamwokya are angry they can't get anti-retroviral treatment from hospitals or NGOs. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Zambia: Mwandi NGO Shelters Orphans, Widows
[Times of Zambia] A NON-GOVERNMENTAL Organisation (NGO), Home for AIDS Orphans, based in Mwandi Western Province, has built 140 houses for orphans and vulnerable widows in the area.Home for AIDS Orphans coordinator Paula Vanzyl said her organisation, which is run by volunteers, had been taking care of orphans and vulnerable mothers in Mwandi by building them houses. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Complex single step skull reconstruction in Gorham¿s disease - a technical report and review of the literature
Conclusions: A single step excisional craniectomy and cranioplasty can be an effective treatment for patients with Gorham?s disease affecting the skull vault only. Preoperative planning by a density graded CT aids to design a synthetic bone flap and is beneficial in skull reconstruction. Systemic involvement is variable in this patient?s population. (Source: BMC Surgery)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Trends in Causes of Adult Deaths among the Urban Poor: Evidence from Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System, 2003?2012
Abstract What kills people around the world and how it varies from place to place and over time is critical in mapping the global burden of disease and therefore, a relevant public health question, especially in developing countries. While more than two thirds of deaths worldwide are in developing countries, little is known about the causes of death in these nations. In many instances, vital registration systems are nonexistent or at best rudimentary, and even when deaths are registered, data on the cause of death in particular local contexts, which is an important step toward improving context-specific public health, are lacking. In this paper, we examine the trends in the causes of death among the urban poor in two informal settlements in Nairobi by applying the InterVA-4 softwa...
Hearing Loss and Cognition: The Role of Hearing Aids, Social Isolation and Depression
by Piers Dawes, Richard Emsley, Karen J. Cruickshanks, David R. Moore, Heather Fortnum, Mark Edmondson-Jones, Abby McCormack, Kevin J. Munro Hearing loss is associated with poor cognitive performance and incident dementia and may contribute to cognitive decline. Treating hearing loss with hearing aids may ameliorate cognitive decline. The purpose of this study was to test whether use of hearing aids was associated with better cognitive performance, and if this relationship was mediated via social isolation and/or depression. Structural equation modelling of associations between hearing loss, cognitive performance, social isolation, depression and hearing aid use was carried out with a subsample of the UK Biobank data set (n = 164,770) of UK adults aged 40 to 69 years who completed a heari...
Nurses Can Facilitate Safer Sexual Behavior Counseling for Persons Living With HIV: Strategies for Success
Patients living with HIV who are on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and who are adherent can now lead longer and healthier lives, with decreased AIDS-related complications (Panel on Antiretroviral Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents, 2014; Walensky et al., 2006). Despite these improved outcomes, the rate of new HIV infections remains steady at about 50,000 cases in the United States each year (Blair et al., 2014). Using transmission rate modeling, Hall, Holtgrave, and Maulsby (2012) estimated that persons living with HIV who were unaware of their infection transmitted about half of new HIV infections. (Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)
Prevalence of Intermediate-Stage Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Patients with the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
To evaluate the prevalence of intermediate-stage age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). (Source: American Journal of Ophthalmology)
Complex single step skull reconstruction in Gorham&#8217;s disease - a technical report and review of the literature
Conclusions: A single step excisional craniectomy and cranioplasty can be an effective treatment for patients with Gorham?s disease affecting the skull vault only. Preoperative planning by a density graded CT aids to design a synthetic bone flap and is beneficial in skull reconstruction. Systemic involvement is variable in this patient?s population. (Source: BMC Surgery)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Size and Distribution of Lymph Nodes in Rectal Cancer Resection Specimens
This study aimed to determine the size and distribution of lymph nodes in rectal cancer resection specimens. DESIGN: This was a prospective, observational study of rectal cancer resection specimens analyzed by a single histopathologist. SETTING: This study was conducted from January 2007 to July 2013 at the authors? institution. PATIENTS: Two hundred forty-four consecutive patients underwent resection for rectal cancer. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The size and distribution of lymph nodes in the resection specimens and the anatomical position of mesorectal lymph nodes in relation to the peritoneal reflection, tumor, and anal verge were recorded. RESULTS: A total of 10,473 lymph nodes were retrieved in 244 patients (75 women; median age, 68 years (interquartile range, 59?75 years)). One hundr...
New HIV Testing AlgorithmNew HIV Testing Algorithm
A new HIV testing algorithm has the potential to improve the prevention of HIV/AIDS in the United States. CDC Expert Commentary (Source: Medscape Hiv-Aids Headlines)
Treatment of Menière?s Disease
Opinion statement Diagnosis of Menière?s disease is made with a characteristic patient history, including discrete episodes of vertigo lasting 20 min or longer, accompanied by sensorineural hearing loss, which is typically low frequency at first, aural fullness, and tinnitus. Workup includes audiometry, a contrast enhanced MRI of the internal auditory canals, and exclusion of other diseases that can produce similar symptoms, like otosyphilis, autoimmune inner ear disease, perilymphatic fistula, superior semicircular canal syndrome, Lyme disease, multiple sclerosis, vestibular paroxysmia, and temporal bone tumors. A history of migraine should be sought as well because of a high rate of co-occurrence (Rauch, Otolaryngol Clin North Am 43:1011?1017, 2010). Treatment begins with...
Psychosocial perspectives on sexual recovery after prostate cancer treatment
Nature Reviews Urology 12, 167 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrurol.2015.29 Authors: Lauren M. Walker, Richard J. Wassersug & John W. Robinson Many therapies for erectile dysfunction (ED) after prostate cancer treatment improve erectile firmness, yet, most couples stop using aids within 1&#8211;2 years. Patients and partners who expect immediate and complete success with their first ED treatment can be demoralized when they experience treatment failure, which (Source: Nature Reviews Urology)
Priority setting in HIV/AIDS control in West Java Indonesia: an evaluation based on the accountability for reasonableness framework
Conclusions To increase fairness in HIV/AIDS priority setting, West Java should make improvements on all four conditions of the A4R framework. (Source: Health Policy and Planning)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
A total market approach for condoms in Myanmar: the need for the private, public and socially marketed sectors to work together for a sustainable condom market for HIV prevention
Conclusion The market for male condoms was stagnant in Myanmar due to: limited demand for condoms among key populations, the dominance of free and socially marketed condoms on the market and a neglected commercial sector. Subsidies for socially marketed and free condoms have prevented the growth of the private sector, an unintended consequence. A TMA is needed to grow and sustain the condom market in Myanmar, which requires close co-ordination between the public, socially marketed and commercial sectors. (Source: Health Policy and Planning)
Prevalence and factors associated with late HIV diagnosis
While highly active antiretroviral therapy has been successful in delaying progression into AIDS, late HIV diagnosis remains a major contributor to the mortality and morbidity of AIDS. An epidemiological study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence and factors of late diagnosis and the characteristics of those individuals with late diagnosis in Liuzhou city. Patients with late diagnosis were defined as either those who were diagnosed with AIDS at the time of HIV diagnosis or as those who developed AIDS no more than 1 year after HIV diagnosis. Of 899 participants, 72.6% had a late diagnosis. Common characteristics of those who experienced late diagnosis included older participants, those who were unexpectedly diagnosed while seeking other medical attention, participants who believed they ...
Lymphoid Fibrosis Occurs in Long-Term Nonprogressors and Persists With Antiretroviral Therapy but May Be Reversible With Curative Interventions
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication causes lymphoid tissue (LT) fibrosis, which causes CD4+ T-cell depletion. It is unknown whether people who spontaneously control HIV replication have LT fibrosis. We measured LT fibrosis and CD4+ T cells in 25 HIV controllers, 10 noncontrollers, 45 HIV-positive individuals receiving therapy, and 10 HIV-negative individuals. Controllers had significant LT fibrosis and CD4+ T-cell depletion, similar to noncontrollers, but the so-called Berlin patient (in whom HIV infection was cured) had near normal LT. Thus, LT fibrosis occurs in all HIV-infected subjects, and current therapy does not reverse it. Reversal of fibrosis during a curative intervention suggests that ongoing low-level virus production may maintain LT fibrosis. (Source: The Journal of...
In vitro susceptibility testing of amphotericin B for Cryptococcus neoformans variety grubii AFLP1/VNI and Cryptococcus gattii AFLP6/VGII by CLSI and flow cytometry

Multi-color reflectance imaging of middle ear pathology in vivo.
Authors: Valdez TA, Spegazzini N, Pandey R, Longo K, Grindle C, Peterson D, Barman I Abstract Otoscopic examination using white-light illumination has remained virtually unchanged for well over a century. However, the limited contrast of white-light otoscopy constrains the ability to make accurate assessment of middle ear pathology and is subject to significant observer variability. Here, we employ a modified otoscope with multi-color imaging capabilities for superior characterization of the middle ear constituents in vivo and for enhanced diagnosis of acute otitis media and cholesteatoma. In this pilot study, five patients undergoing surgery for tympanostomy tube placement and congenital cholesteatoma excision were imaged using the custom-designed multi-color video-rate reflectanc...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
A direct method to evaluate the time?dependent predictive accuracy for biomarkers
Summary Time?dependent receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and their area under the curve (AUC) are important measures to evaluate the prediction accuracy of biomarkers for time?to?event endpoints (e.g., time to disease progression or death). In this article, we propose a direct method to estimate AUC(t) as a function of time t using a flexible fractional polynomials model, without the middle step of modeling the time?dependent ROC. We develop a pseudo partial?likelihood procedure for parameter estimation and provide a test procedure to compare the predictive performance between biomarkers. We establish the asymptotic properties of the proposed estimator and test statistics. A major advantage of the proposed method is its ease to make inference and to compare the predi...
Evaluation of late presentation for HIV treatment in a reference center in Belo Horizonte, Southeastern Brazil, from 2008 to 2010.
CONCLUSION: The proportion of patients who were late attending a clinic for HIV treatment is still high, and effective strategies to improve early HIV detection with a special focus on the vulnerable population are urgently needed. PMID: 25769736 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Braz J Infect Dis)
When Robots Begin to Care
This past week, in an article titled "Be Calm, Robots Aren't About to Take Your Job, MIT Economist Says," the Wall Street Journal spoke with my colleague, economist David Autor, on the subject of robotics and the labor force. Autor provided a number of compelling reasons not to worry about robots stealing jobs from humans, chiefly: ? There's a serious skill gap between robots and people when it comes to jobs that require a human touch. ? Automation increases the productivity of the entire economy, allowing society as a whole to produce more wealth, which is a good thing. He's right on both counts--for now--and as I'll explain, even if robots do achieve human skills and take over some jobs sooner than expected, it might be exactly what our aging society needs. Expanding on Autor's ...
Opinion: The World Sees Progress Against Undernutrition, but it?s Uneven
Nepal has one of the highest rates of malnutrition in the world. Over 41 percent of the country?s children suffer from chronic malnutrition, predominantly in rural areas. Credit: Naresh Newar/IPSBy Jomo Kwame SundaramROME, Mar 9 2015 (IPS)In 2014, an estimated 805 million people ? one in nine people worldwide ? were estimated to be chronically hungry. All but 14 million of the world?s hungry live in developing countries, i.e., 791 million are in developing countries, where the share of the hungry has declined by less than half ? from 23.4 per cent (1990-1992) to 13.5 per cent (2012-2014).Progress unevenOverall progress has been highly uneven. Some countries and regions have seen only slow progress in reducing hunger, while the absolute number of hungry has even increased in sever...
HIV's hiding places at last revealed by simple scan
Drugs can clear HIV from the blood, but the virus can hide out around the body. Now we have a way to reveal its hiding places ? the first step to getting rid of it fully (Source: New Scientist - HIV and AIDS)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Why Compassion Matters
A few weeks ago during a medical writing seminar I teach, Dr. Gerald Friedland, an infectious disease expert, spoke with my undergraduates about caring for AIDS patients in the earliest days of the epidemic. One of my students asked him this: When there were no treatments, what was there for a doctor to do? "There's always something you can do for people," Dr. Friedland said in his soft-spoken way. He proceeded to explain how he would pull up a chair by the bedside so he and his patients were talking on the same level rather than he literally talking down to them; how he would help families cope with the poor prognosis; how he told the truth even when it wasn't easy. Doctors rarely cure diseases, he added. For the most part, they manage them. He told my students that being a good phy...
Nigeria: Boko Haram Insurgency Hampering Fight Against HIV/Aids - - Adamawa Govt.
[Premium Times] Stephen John, the Executive Secretary of Adamawa State Agency for the Control of Aids, has expressed concern over the adverse effect of the current insurgency on the fight against HIV/AIDs in the state. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Malawi: Irish Ambassador Underscores Significance of Community Empowerment
[Malawi News Agency] Nkhotakota - Irish Ambassador to Malawi Aine Hearns has said community empowerment is crucial in ensuring that most vulnerable households are supported and are enabled to support themselves to participate in making decisions that affect their lives. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Factors Responsible for Incomplete Linkage to Care After HIV DiagnosisFactors Responsible for Incomplete Linkage to Care After HIV Diagnosis
Linkage to care after HIV diagnosis is an important obstacle that needs to be overcome to control the HIV epidemic. HIV Medicine (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
HSJ Live: CCG becomes first in country to ration access to hearing aids
North Staffordshire Clinical Commissioning Group has become the first CCG in the country to restrict access to NHS funded hearing aids, plus the rest of today?s news and comment (Source: HSJ)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
HIV infection in the aspect of psychiatric practice
Publication date: Available online 9 March 2015 Source:HIV &amp; AIDS Review Author(s): Magdalena Wi?d?ocha , Piotr Marcinowicz , Bart?omiej Sta?czykiewicz Presentation of the psychopathological signs and psychological dysfunctions associated with HIV infection is the aim of this review. Current neuropathological theories and psychiatric aspects of antiretroviral treatment have been outlined. Diagnostics and adequate treatment of psychiatric conditions concomitant to HIV infection are difficult because of the unspecific character of symptoms; thus, emphasis has been put on the characteristic psychopathological features that a clinician may encounter. We aimed to shed light on neuropathology of HIV and provide a wide variety of conclusions from current research topics. The descrip...
Race, Poverty, and Medicine in the United States
I spent most of my career at the Boston City Hospital, now known as Boston Medical Center, that has emphasized ?exceptional care without exception.? At Boston City Hospital the 2 worlds of race and poverty collide on an almost daily basis. Under the 4-decade leadership of 2 pediatric chairs, Joel Alpert, MD, and Barry Zuckerman, MD, and continuing under the current chair Robert Vinci, MD, the Department of Pediatrics expanded the boundaries of traditional medicine. In addition to providing care for medical problems such as asthma, HIV/AIDS, seizures, prematurity, and sickle cell disease, the department is committed to addressing issues of poverty, violence, poor housing, and food insecurity. (Source: JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association)
Shared Decision Making and Use of Decision Aids for Localized Prostate Cancer Perceptions From Radiation Oncologists and Urologists
ImportanceThe current attitudes of prostate cancer specialists toward decision aids and their use in clinical practice to facilitate shared decision making are poorly understood.ObjectiveTo assess attitudes toward decision aids and their dissemination in clinical practice.Design, Setting, and ParticipantsA survey was mailed to a national random sample of 1422 specialists (711 radiation oncologists and 711 urologists) in the United States from November 1, 2011, through April 30, 2012. Main Outcomes and MeasuresRespondents were asked about familiarity, perceptions, and use of decision aids for clinically localized prostate cancer and trust in various professional societies in developing decision aids. The Pearson ?2 test was used to test for bivariate associations between physician characte...
Spinal RyR2 pathway regulated by the RNA-binding protein HuD induces pain hypersensitivity in antiretroviral neuropathy.
Authors: Sanna MD, Peroni D, Quattrone A, Ghelardini C, Galeotti N Abstract The antiretroviral toxic neuropathy, a distal sensory polyneuropathy associated with antiretroviral treatment, is a frequently occurring neurological complication during treatment of patients with AIDS and often leads to discontinuation of antiretroviral therapy. The mechanisms by which antiretroviral drugs contribute to the development of neuropathic pain are not known. Using drugs that reduce intracellular calcium ions (Ca(2+)), we investigated the hypothesis that altered cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration contributes to the 2',3'-dideoxycytidine (ddC)-evoked painful neuropathy. Administration of ddC induced mechanical and cold allodynia, which were abolished by intrathecal administration of TMB-8, a blocker ...
Increased risk of non-AIDS-related events in HIV subjects with persistent low CD4 counts despite cART in the CoRIS cohort.
Authors: Pacheco YM, Jarrin I, Rosado I, Campins AA, Berenguer J, Iribarren JA, Rivero M, Muñoz-Medina L, Bernal-Morell E, Gutiérrez F, Leal M, CoRIS Abstract The aim was to analyze clinical complications in HIV-infected subjects who persistently maintain low CD4 levels despite virological response to cART in the Spanish CoRIS cohort. The main inclusion criteria were CD4 counts &lt;200cells/mm(3) at cART-initiation and at least 2years under cART achieving a viral load &lt;500copies/mL. Those patients with CD4 counts &lt;250cells/mm(3) 2years after cART were classified as the Low-CD4 group, and clinical events were collected from this time-point. Poisson regression models were used to calculate incidence rate ratios of death, AIDS-defining events, serious non-AIDS-defining events ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
An assessment of adverse drug reactions among HIV positive patients receiving antiretroviral treatment in South Africa.
CONCLUSION: More realistic time-to-event models for recurrent events data have been used to analyse timing of ADR events in HIV patients taking ARV treatment. Age, antiretroviral regimen type and period of initiation of ART were associated with the timing of HIV/AIDS drug related adverse reactions regardless of the analysis model used. This study has public health policy implications in addressing the added morbidity among HIV patients taking ARV treatment in the context of universal scaling up of ARV treatment. PMID: 25745501 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Therapy)
?I was thinking too much?: experiences of HIV?positive adults with common mental disorders and poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy in Zimbabwe
ConclusionsBetter understanding of the local expression of mental disorders and of underlying stressors can inform the development of culturally sensitive interventions to reduce common mental disorders and poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Tropical Medicine and International Health)
Residents¿ perceptions of their own sadness - a qualitative study in Norwegian nursing homes
Conclusions: Nursing home nurses and doctors should identify and respond to sadness that is a rational response to manageable causes. Further, identifying and supporting residents? resources and coping strategies is a salutogenetic approach that may alleviate sadness. (Source: BMC Geriatrics)
Residents? perceptions of their own sadness - a qualitative study in Norwegian nursing homes
Conclusions: Nursing home nurses and doctors should identify and respond to sadness that is a rational response to manageable causes. Further, identifying and supporting residents? resources and coping strategies is a salutogenetic approach that may alleviate sadness. (Source: BioMed Central)
The stories we tell: Qualitative research interviews, talking technologies and the ?normalisation? of life with HIV
Publication date: April 2015 Source:Social Science &amp; Medicine, Volume 131 Author(s): Fadhila Mazanderani , Sara Paparini Since the earliest days of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, talking about the virus has been a key way affected communities have challenged the fear and discrimination directed against them and pressed for urgent medical and political attention. Today, HIV/AIDS is one of the most prolifically and intimately documented of all health conditions, with entrenched infrastructures, practices and technologies ? what Vinh-Kim Nguyen has dubbed ?confessional technologies? ? aimed at encouraging those affected to share their experiences. Among these technologies, we argue, is the semi-structured interview: the principal methodology used in qualitative social science resear...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Importance of formal education and family income in the accession process to the use of hearing devices in children under 12 years
CONCLUSION: the family income or education of parents or guardians does not influence the adherence to the use of hearing aids in children up to 12 years seen in University Hospital. (Source: Revista CEFAC)
Frequency compression on speech recognition in elderly people with possible cochlear dead regions
CONCLUSION: in silence, both groups presented significant improvement in performance using hearing aids with frequency compression. In noise, there was no difference between the results without or with frequency compression. Comparing the groups, the measurement obtained in noise with hearing aids without the algorithm was the only one that presented a significant difference, in which the group with cochlear dead regions presented a better performance. (Source: Revista CEFAC)
The HIV care cascade: models, measures and moving forward.
CONCLUSIONS: There is no "one size fits all" model as the provision of services may differ based on a range of factors. Nonetheless, measures informed by global guidelines are needed to more consistently evaluate the scope of and factors associated with delays to each stage of the cascade. Doing so will help identify how practitioners can best deliver services and facilitate access to and continued engagement in care. PMID: 25735869 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Africa: 'Free Sugars' Pose New Threat to Africa's Health
[The Herald] Africa is long known for high rates of hunger, under-nutrition and infectious diseases like HIV/AIDS but a disturbing new threat of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) associated with overweight, obesity and diet-related NCDs is emerging in many countries. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
HIV eradication symposium: will the brain be left behind?
Abstract On 18 July 2014, the National Institute of Mental Health in collaboration with ViiV Health Care and Boehringer Ingelheim supported a symposium on HIV eradication and what it meant for the brain. The symposium was an affiliated event to the 20th International AIDS Conference. The meeting was held in Melbourne, Australia, and brought together investigators currently working on HIV eradication together with investigators who are working on the neurological complications of HIV. The purpose of the meeting was to bring the two fields of HIV eradication and HIV neurology together to foster dialogue and cross talk to move the eradication field forward in the context of issues relating to the brain as a potential reservoir of HIV. The outcomes of the symposium were that there was...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Improvement of HAART in Brazil, 1998¿2008: a nationwide assessment of survival times after AIDS diagnosis among men who have sex with men
Universal and free access to Highly active antiretroviral therapy has helped achieve impressive declines in AIDS mortality in Brazil but differential AIDS-related mortality continue to exist suggesting efforts are needed to eliminate these health disparities. (Source: BMC Public Health)
Parent¿child communication about sexual and reproductive health: evidence from the Brong Ahafo region, Ghana
Conclusions: Parents in the Brong Ahafo region of Ghana do talk to children about sex, but their conversations cover limited topics. While abstinence is the most widely discussed sexual topic, condoms and contraception were rarely discussed. Sex educational programmes ought to encourage parents to expand sexual communication to cover more topics. (Source: Reproductive Health)
A rare presentation of reversible ALS in HIV infection
Publication date: Available online 7 March 2015 Source:HIV &amp; AIDS Review Author(s): Aju Abraham John , Suryanarayana Sharma , B.K. Madhusudhan , Rohan Mahale , Mahendra Javali , R. Srinivasa Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common type of motor neuron disease (MND) [1]. It is usually associated with an irreversible course, and treatable causes of ALS are rare. Here, we present a case report of a 35-year-old male, with progressive weakness and wasting of muscles in all four limbs with fasciculation and electro diagnostic features compatible with a diagnosis of probable ALS. He was later diagnosed to have HIV infection and initiated on anti-retroviral therapy. On 6 months follow-up, he had a weight gain of 8kg and electro diagnostic studies revealed near total normal...
The prevalence of malaria among HIV seropositive individuals and the impact of the co- infection on their hemoglobin levels
Conclusion: It was revealed that almost all the patients with malaria infection were anemic. (Source: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials)
NIH-led study to assess community-based hepatitis C treatment in Washington, D.C.
The study is being conducted as part of the D.C. Partnership for HIV/AIDS Progress. (Source: National Institutes of Health (NIH) News Releases)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Feeling sleepy? Might be the melatonin
Melatonin supplements are commonly used as sleep aids; however, our bodies also make melatonin naturally, and until a recent study using zebrafish, no one knew how -- or even if -- this melatonin contributed to our natural sleep. The new work suggests that even in the absence of a supplement, naturally occurring melatonin may help us fall and stay asleep. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)
What kills more women than AIDS and breast cancer? Dirty water
NEW YORK (Thomson Reuters Foundation) - Diseases spread through dirty water and poor sanitation are the fifth biggest killer of women worldwide, causing more deaths than AIDS, diabetes or breast cancer, researchers say. (Source: Reuters: Health)
New tool aids US conservation, management of whales, dolphins and porpoises
Researchers have identified more than 100 areas within US waters that should be considered biologically important when making management and regulatory decisions about human activities that could affect whales, dolphins and porpoises. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)
Hypersexual, Sexually Compulsive, or Just Highly Sexually Active? Investigating Three Distinct Groups of Gay and Bisexual Men and Their Profiles of HIV-Related Sexual Risk
We examined data from 370 highly sexually active GBM to assess how the three groups compare across a range of risk factors for HIV infection. Comparisons focused on psychosexual measures?temptation for condomless anal sex (CAS), self-efficacy for avoiding CAS, sexual excitation and inhibition?as well as reports of actual sexual behavior. Nearly half (48.9 %) of this highly sexually active sample was classified as Neither SC nor HD, 30 % as SC Only, and 21.1 % as Both SC and HD. While we found no significant differences between the three groups on reported number of male partners, anal sex acts, or anal sex acts with serodiscordant partners, the Both SC and HD group reported higher numbers of CAS acts and CAS acts with serodiscordant partners and also had a higher proportion of their...
CDC Observes National Women and Girls HIV/AIDS Awareness Day
March 10 is National Women and Girls HIV/AIDS Awareness Day (NWGHAAD), a time when organizations and communities across the United States come together to offer support, encourage discussion, and teach women and girls about the prevention of HIV, the importance of getting tested, and how to live with and manage HIV infection. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Learn what you can do to support National Women's and Girls HIV/AIDS Awareness Day
March 10 is National Women and Girls HIV/AIDS Awareness Day (NWGHAAD), a time when organizations and communities across the United States come together to offer support, encourage discussion, and teach women and girls about the prevention of HIV, the importance of getting tested, and how to live with and manage HIV infection. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
Refine your presenting skills
Does the thought of presenting your work in public fill you with fear? We are offering early career members the opportunity to attend a Presentation Skills training session on 18 May 2015 to give you the knowledge and confidence to present your work effectively. Organised by the Society of Biology, this course will help you structure a presentation to keep your audience&rsquo;s attention, give you some top tips on body language, and advise on how to make the best use of visual aids. The Society for Endocrinology can fund up to five places (subject to availability), including reasonable travel expenses. If you&rsquo;d like to attend please email Omar Jamshed:&nbsp;omar.jamshed@endocrinology.org (Source: Society for Endocrinology)
South Africa: Proteas Come Out to Bat Against HIV Stigma
[SA Info] Players and officials at the International Cricket Council (ICC) Cricket World Cup 2015, being held in Australia and New Zealand, are raising awareness around HIV in efforts to eliminate discrimination and increase solidarity around ending the AIDS epidemic. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Kenya: 75 Years for Man Who Defiled Daughter, Infected Her With HIV
[Capital FM] Nakuru -A man has been jailed for 75 years by a court in Nakuru for defiling his 12-year-old daughter. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: Medical and Psychosocial Support for Teenagers With HIV
[MSF] Despite the medical progress, teenagers living with HIV continue to face a raft of challenges. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Zimbabwe: Stigma, Confusion, Silence - Life As a Young Girl With HIV
[MSF] Telling a child that they have HIV can be a long and delicate process. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: States, LGs Frustrating Fight Against HIV/Aids in Nigeria - Ogungbemi
[Independent (Lagos)] Dr Kayode Ogungbemi is Director Strategic knowledge management of the National Agency for the Control of AIDS (NACA). In this encounter with our Correspondent, Hassan Zaggi, he explains the effort of the agency in the fight against HIV and the frustration it has to bear due to the lack of support from states and Local Government Areas (LGAs). Excerpts: (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Feeling sleepy? Might be the melatonin
(California Institute of Technology) Melatonin supplements are commonly used as sleep aids; however, our bodies also make melatonin naturally, and until a recent Caltech study using zebrafish, no one knew how -- or even if -- this melatonin contributed to our natural sleep. The new work suggests that even in the absence of a supplement, naturally occurring melatonin may help us fall and stay asleep. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
New tool aids US conservation and management of whales, dolphins and porpoises
(NOAA Northeast Fisheries Science Center) Researchers have identified more than 100 areas within US waters that should be considered biologically important when making management and regulatory decisions about human activities that could affect whales, dolphins and porpoises. The creation of Biologically Important Areas (BIAs) are described in a special issue of the journal Aquatic Mammals. Expert judgment was combined with published and unpublished data to identify 131 BIAs covering 24 species, stocks or populations in seven regions of the US. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
What kills more women than AIDS and breast cancer? Dirty wate
NEW YORK (Thomson Reuters Foundation) - Diseases spread through dirty water and poor sanitation are the fifth biggest killer of women worldwide, causing more deaths than AIDS, diabetes or breast cancer, researchers say. (Source: Reuters: Health)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
How 'Dumb Phones' Can Help Stop The Spread Of Ebola
A basic cell phone may not be able to snap the best selfies, but it can be a vital tool in preventing the spread of deadly viruses. In Ebola-stricken West Africa -- a region where a lack of resources makes spreading information more challenging -- UNICEF is helping young people stay safe through its U-Report initiative. The free social tool, accessible through any cell phone that can make calls and send texts, lets users voice opinions on issues affecting their community. Launched in May 2011 in Uganda, U-Report has been used to spread information on various topics, like education, sanitation, youth unemployment and HIV/AIDS. But more recently it's been utilized in the fight against Ebola in Liberia. After a user downloads U-Report on their mobile device, UNICEF sends them a weekly pol...
[In Depth] Doubts dispelled about HIV prevention
Nearly 5 years ago, a large study showed that taking an anti-HIV pill each day can protect people at high risk of becoming infected. But despite several confirmatory trials and approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, so-called pre-exposure prophylaxis, or PrEP, hasn't been used much. New studies reported last week at a major HIV/AIDS conference in Seattle, Washington, promise to make PrEP far more popular. The studies once again show that PrEP offers solid protection for men who have sex with men and heterosexuals?if it is used as prescribed. But they go further and show novel ways to take advantage of PrEP, including "on-demand" usage right before and after having sex. A new model also shows how PrEP can be used to bend the curves of local epidemics. Author: Jon Cohen (Source...
[In Depth] Drug flushes out hidden AIDS virus
Purge the reservoirs! That's the battle cry of HIV researchers attempting to cure infected people, and a novel drug study in monkeys took important steps toward that elusive goal. The reservoir refers to cells that harbor latent HIV DNA woven into their chromosomes that are impervious to antiretroviral (ARV) drugs and invisible to the immune system. Researchers have been searching for drugs that "shock" latent HIV to produce new viruses, which would kill those reservoir cells or target them for immune destruction. This new drug targets what's known as toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) on immune cells. Researchers infected four monkeys with the simian AIDS virus, treated with the ARVs to fully suppress the infections, and then tried to mop up the reservoirs with the TLR7 drug. Although they did n...
Pilot study to evaluate children with hearing aids through PEACH and TEACH in a rural community
This study was done to evaluate the use of functional measures in hearing aid benefit assessment of children (n =60) in a rural community. Children with age ranging from 6months to 15years with moderately severe to profound hearing loss were evaluated. They were evaluated by functional measures PEACH and TEACH which were translated into local language (Tamil). The relationship between PEACH and TEACH was calculated using SPSS and Chi-square tests. It was found that PEACH and TEACH questionnaires can be easily administered in the rural community and gives a quantitative measure of the effect of amplification. It gave caregivers a motivation to take an active part in the rehabilitation. This model of using functional evaluation tools to evaluate the suitability and effectiveness of amplifica...
Clinical characteristics of abnormal savda syndrome type human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome patients: A cross-sectional investigation in Xinjiang, China
Conclusion Abnormal savda syndrome is the dominant syndrome among HIV/AIDS patients, and they present a more sever clinical manifestation. (Source: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Multiplex diagnosis of viral infectious diseases (AIDS, hepatitis C, and hepatitis A) based on point of care lateral flow assay using engineered proteinticles
Publication date: 15 July 2015 Source:Biosensors and Bioelectronics, Volume 69 Author(s): Jong-Hwan Lee , Hyuk Seong Seo , Jung-Hyuk Kwon , Hee-Tae Kim , Koo Chul Kwon , Sang Jun Sim , Young Joo Cha , Jeewon Lee Lateral flow assay (LFA) is an attractive method for rapid, simple, and cost-effective point of care diagnosis. For LFA-based multiplex diagnosis of three viral intractable diseases (acquired immune deficiency syndrome and hepatitis C and A), here we developed proteinticle-based 7 different 3D probes that display different viral antigens on their surface, which were synthesized in Escherichia coli by self-assembly of human ferritin heavy chain that was already engineered by genetically linking viral antigens to its C-terminus. Each of the three test lines on LFA strip contains th...
Effects of age and task difficulty on ERP responses to novel sounds presented during a speech-perception-in-noise test
While the treatment of hearing loss with hearing aids has considerably improved over the last decades due to the development of digital signal-processing and noise-reduction algorithms, there is increasing awareness that the impact of hearing loss and the outcome of hearing aid provision are not fully captured by routine audiometric assessment alone (Mackersie and Cones, 2011; McGarrigle et al., 2014). Pure-tone audiograms and speech audiometry provide hearing thresholds, percent correct speech recognition scores and signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), but they do not provide information about the stress under which the listener produced this performance (Mackersie and Cones, 2011). (Source: Clinical Neurophysiology)
Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems: A Policy Statement From the American Association for Cancer Research and the American Society of Clinical Oncology [ASCO SPECIAL ARTICLES]
Combustible tobacco use remains the number-one preventable cause of disease, disability, and death in the United States. Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), which include electronic cigarettes, are devices capable of delivering nicotine in an aerosolized form. ENDS use by both adults and youth has increased rapidly, and some have advocated these products could serve as harm-reduction devices and smoking cessation aids. ENDS may be beneficial if they reduce smoking rates or prevent or reduce the known adverse health effects of smoking. However, ENDS may also be harmful, particularly to youth, if they increase the likelihood that nonsmokers or former smokers will use combustible tobacco products or if they discourage smokers from quitting. The American Association for Cancer Researc...
Prevalence of shingles and its association with PTSD among HIV-infected women in Rwanda
Conclusions Our study found a significant independent relationship between PTSD and reported shingles, suggesting that PTSD may be associated with immune compromise that can result in herpes zoster reactivation. Further study is needed. It also confirmed previous findings of a strong relationship between shingles and greater immunosuppression in women with HIV infection. (Source: BMJ Open)
Assessing the validity of respondents' reports of their partners' ages in a rural South African population-based cohort
Conclusions Rural South Africans reported their sexual partners&rsquo; ages imperfectly, but with less error than in some other African settings. Further research is required to determine how generalisable these findings are. Self-reported data on age disparity in sexual relationships can be used with caution for research, intervention design, and targeting in this and similar settings. (Source: BMJ Open)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Is the promise of methadone Kenya's solution to managing HIV and addiction? A mixed-method mathematical modelling and qualitative study
Conclusions Methadone offers HIV prevention potential, but there is a need to better model the effects of sexual HIV transmission in mediating the impact of OST among PWID in settings characterised by a combination of generalised and concentrated epidemics. We find that individual and community narratives of methadone as hope for recovery coexist with policy narratives positioning methadone primarily in relation to HIV prevention. Our analyses show the value of mixed methods approaches to investigating newly-introduced interventions. (Source: BMJ Open)
The Implementation of a Tobacco Use Registry in an Academic Family Practice
Conclusions: The tobacco use decision support tool resulted in an increase in provider confidence in prescribing cessation medications without lengthening the duration of patients' visits, and the tool continues to be used routinely in the practice 2 years after introduction, indicating sustainability. The use of a tobacco use registry and decision support tool aids in standardizing care and overcoming barriers to cessation counseling. (Source: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine)
Analysis of RNA decay factor mediated RNA stability contributions on RNA abundance
Conclusions: Integrative analysis of ChIP-seq, RNA-seq and our BRIC-seq showed that transcriptional regulation and RNA degradation are independently regulated. In addition, RNA stability is an important determinant of eventual transcript levels. RNA binding proteins, such as UPF1, STAU1 and EXOSC5 may play active roles in such controls. (Source: BMC Genomics)
The Value of Personalizing Medicine: Medical Oncologists' Views on Gene Expression Profiling in Breast Cancer Treatment.
CONCLUSION: Oncologists valued the test as a treatment-decision support tool despite their concerns about its cost, over-reliance, overuse, and inappropriate use by other oncologists, as well as patients' limited understanding of GEP. The results identify a need for decision aids to support patients' understanding and clinical practice guidelines to facilitate standardized use of the test. PMID: 25746345 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Oncologist)
Top takeaways from TEDxBirmingham
The theme of climbing mountains at this year's TEDxBirmingham resounded through many of the dozen or so speeches from mostly local business and civic leaders. Ways to overcome obstacles were offered before a packed crowd of about 400 at the event at Alys Stephens Center on Feb. 28. Talking about health care and changes needed, Dr. Michael Saag, one of the leading physician researchers in the fight against HIV/AIDS at the University of Alabama at Birmingham, said the American health care system? (Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Biotechnology headlines)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Liberia: Features USAID-Supported HIV Research International Journal
[Inquirer] The U.S. Government, through the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), and in partnership with the Johns Hopkins University Center for AIDS Research, the Foundation for AIDS Research, and the National Institutes of Health, announces the release of a special issue of the Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (JAIDS) entitled, "HIV Risks and Vulnerabilities among Key Populations in West and Central Africa--Evidence to Inform HIV Prevention, Treatment, and Care." (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Using feedback from patient-reported outcome measures in mental health services: a scoping study and typology.
CONCLUSIONS: The proposed procedural typology helps explain the diversity of results from studies reporting on the effects of PROM feedback, by highlighting that PROM feedback appears to be more effective when integrated in a formalized and structured manner. Future work is required to isolate these effects from common procedural correlates, such as monitoring of the therapeutic alliance. PMID: 25727110 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Psychiatric Services)
South Africa: Cricketers Team Up to Support Efforts to End the Aids Epidemic
[UNAIDS] Auckland/Geneva -At the Cricket World Cup 2015, cricketing champions show their commitment to raise awareness around HIV and break down stigma and discrimination (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Kenya: Make ARVs Available to Deserving Women and Teenagers - President Kenyatta
[Kenya Presidency] President Uhuru Kenyatta has directed County Commissioners to help identify HIV/AIDS positive women and teenagers to be placed on life-saving medication. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Nigeria: Cancer Kills More People Than Malaria, HIV and TB, Expert Says
[This Day] Cancer kills more people globally than malaria, HIV and Tuberculosis (TB) combined, and impacts on low to middle- income countries like Nigeria. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: 'AIDS Was Passed to Humans From African Gorillas, Chimpanzees'6
[Guardian] The origin of HIV has baffled scientists since 1984 when it was first shown it causes AIDS. Evidence soon pointed to Africa and a similar virus in chimpanzees. Many scientists suspect that the chimp virus jumped into humans who hunt and butcher these great apes. But gorillas are now emerging as having played a supporting role in the AIDS epidemic - possibly by humans hunting them. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: USAID-Supported HIV Research Features in International Journal
[Guardian] THE United States Government, acting through the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), in partnership with the Johns Hopkins University Center for AIDS Research, the Foundation for AIDS Research, and the National Institutes of Health, announces the release of a special issue of the Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (JAIDS) titled "HIV Risks and Vulnerabilities among Key Populations in West and Central Africa--Evidence to Inform HIV Prevention, Treatment, and Care." (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Botswana: Sowa Town Uses Drama to Fight HIV/Aids
[Botswana Daily News] Sowa -Sowa Town Primary Health Care services under the Ministry of Health has partnered with Shadows Arts production to disseminate information and sensitise employees about the effects of HIV and AIDS at the work place. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: HIV/Aids - NACA Commends FG for Anti-Stigma Law
[This Day] The Director-General, National Agency for the Control of AIDS (NACA), Professor John Idoko has commended President Goodluck Jonathan for signing the HIV and AIDS Anti-discrimination ACT 2014 into law. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
The comparative efficacy of first? versus second?generation electronic cigarettes in reducing symptoms of nicotine withdrawal
ConclusionsSecond?generation e?cigarettes seem to be more effective in reducing symptoms of nicotine withdrawal than do first?generation e?cigarettes. (Source: Addiction)
Updated HHS Pediatric Antiretroviral Treatment Guidelines Released
The HHS Panel on Antiretroviral Therapy and Medical Management of HIV-Infected Children announces the release of the updated Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in Pediatric HIV Infection.&nbsp; For a complete preview of key updates to the guidelines, please see What's New in the Guidelines. Additions and revisions are also highlighted in yellow throughout the text and tables of the guidelines. To view or download the guidelines, go to the Pediatric Guidelines section of AIDSinfo. Separate PDF files of the tables or recommendations can also be downloaded from the page. Your Feedback Is Welcome&nbsp; Feedback on the latest revisions to the Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in Pediatric HIV Infection is welcome. Please send your comments with the subject line &l...
An assessment of adverse drug reactions among HIV positive patients receiving antiretroviral treatment in South Africa
This study aimed at modelling the timing of ADR events in HIV patients on ART using correlated time-to-event models. Methods: The data concern 590 HIV patients registered onto the Medunsa National ARV Pharmacovigilance Surveillance System within 6 months of ART initiation between February 2007 and July 2011. Recurrent times of ADRs and baseline characteristics: patient gender, and age, ART regimen, clinic and initiation period were extracted from the data. The recurrent ADR events data were modelled using both shared frailty and marginal models on the five patients? characteristics as covariates. Results: Out of 590 patients, 67% were female, 68% started on regimen: Stavudine, Lamivudine and Efavirenz; 37% had experienced at least one ADR and 67% started ART in 2009?2011. Age (p-value...
Promoting Health Literacy in an HIV-infected Population: Creating Staff Awareness
It is becoming increasingly apparent that a lack of health literacy has significant consequences for patients. Health literacy has a considerable impact on patient health. A number of health outcomes are associated with lack of health literacy, including risk for hospitalization and risk for mortality (Ownby, Waldrop-Valverde, & Taha, 2012). With the advent of highly effective antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV has become a chronic, manageable disease. There is evidence that, for patients to live well with chronic disease, health literacy is essential (Dister, Gallagher & Davidson, 2012; Shaw, Huebner, Armin, Orzech, & Vivian, 2009). (Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)
Caught in the Middle: The Contested Politics of HIV/AIDS and Health Policy in Vietnam
Drawing on the changing landscape of responses to HIV in Vietnam, this article describes the key players and analyzes the relationships between global players and local interests, including both the omnipresent state and an emerging civil society presence. We discuss the critical importance of timing for policy intervention and the role of health policy in shaping the broader social terrain. The interventions of external actors such as the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) and the Global Fund were instrumental in improving both policies and programs at a critical juncture, when the national responses to the epidemic had been ineffective. At the same time, those global interventions met resistance and led to unintended consequences, both welcome and unwelcome. Furthermo...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
International Institutions and China's Health Policy
This article examines the role of international institutional actors in China's health policy process. Particular attention is paid to three major international institutional actors: the World Bank, the World Health Organization, and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Through process tracing and comparative case studies, the article looks at how international institutions contribute to policy change in China and seeks to explain different outcomes in the relationship between international institutions and China's health policies. It finds that despite the opaque and exclusive authoritarian structure in China, international institutions play a significant role in the country's domestic health governance. By investing their resources and capabilities selectively and str...
The occurrence and characteristics of pain in HIV-1 positive persons ? A challenge in the aging population
Conclusion Almost 40% of respondents reported chronic pain. We have found a strong correlation between age and chronic pain in the HIV infected population with the 7% increase in the odds of experiencing pain with each year of age. (Source: HIV and AIDS Review)
Mechanisms of prolonged lithium therapy-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.
Authors: Behl T, Kotwani A, Kaur I, Goel H Abstract Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is a clinical sub-type of a diversely expounded disorder, named diabetes insipidus. It is characterized by inability of the renal cells to sense and respond to the stimulus of vasopressin. Amongst its various etiologies, one of the most inevitable causes includes lithium-induced instigation. Numerous studies reported marked histological damage to the kidneys upon long-term treatment with lithium. The recent researches have hypothesized many lithium-mediated mechanisms to explain the damage and dysfunction caused in the kidneys following lithium exposure. These mechanisms, widely, intend to justify the lithium-induced electrolyte imbalance, its interference with some vital proteins and a specific ster...
HIV and adolescents: focus on young key populations.
Authors: Bekker LG, Hosek S PMID: 25726947 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Regional Variation in HIV Clinical Trials Participation in the United States.
CONCLUSIONS: Significant regional variations in knowledge of and participation in HIV clinical trials exist. Our results suggest that increasing awareness and understanding of research studies, particularly among African Americans in the South, may facilitate HIV clinical trial participation that is more representative of the HIV-infected population across the United States. PMID: 25688896 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Southern Medical Journal)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Migration patterns among Floridians with AIDS, 1993-2007: implications for HIV prevention and care.
CONCLUSIONS: A sizable percentage of people, particularly younger people and people with a transmission mode of IDU and IDU&MSM, migrated at least once between the time of their AIDS diagnosis and death. This has important implications for care and treatment, as well as efforts to prevent the disease. Further research is needed to explore barriers and facilitators to access to care upon migration and to assess the need for programs to help people transfer their human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS care, ensuring continuity of care and adherence. PMID: 25188615 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Southern Medical Journal)
Event Information: A National Webinar on Patient-Centered Outcomes Research (PCOR) and the Use of Decision Aids to Facilitate Shared Decision Making
Registration is required for this webinar, being held Wednesday, March 18, 2015 at 3:30 pm (ET). (Source: HSR Information Central)
Nigeria: FG Earmarks N8 Billion for HIV/Aids Project
[Daily Trust] Enugu -The federal government said it had set aside N8 billion for funding of HIV/AIDS intervention project, with the aim of taking over owner-ship. Deputy Director, Finance, Natio-nal Agency for the Control of AIDS (NACA), Dr. Kenneth Kalu, said this during a stakeholders' meeting in Umuahia, Abia State. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Uganda: HIV/Aids Complicates Fight Against Kala-Azar
[Observer] As if suffering from the deadly kala-azar, a neglected tropical disease, was not bad enough, both Bernard Argaw and Mulat Meseret* are also victims of the HIV/Aids pandemic, which further complicates global efforts to fight these two fatal illnesses. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Botswana: NACA Introduces Catch Model to Fight HIV
[Botswana Daily News] Maun -In an effort to promote HIV Testing and Counselling Campaign, National Aids Coordinating Agency (NACA) has come up with a new initiative dubbed 'CATCH model' which aims to develop a comprehensive HIV prevention delivery plan. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Nigeria: 'HIV/Aids Could Be Eradicated By 2020'
[Guardian] Ilorin -AS states commit to greater awareness creation among citizens and researches improving globally, a complete eradication of HIV/AIDS in Nigeria could be feasible by the year 2020, Kwara State Commissioner for Health, Kayode Issa, has said. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Zimbabwe: 'All In' to End HIV, Aids Epidemic Among Adolescents
[The Herald] While major advances have been made in almost every area in response to HIV, progress for adolescents is falling behind, say leaders in the global response to end the AIDS epidemic. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: HIV Trial Holds Promise for Preventing Infection
[SciDev.Net] Although antiretroviral drugs are not a cure, they can stop people infected with HIV from developing AIDS by keeping the amount of virus in the body low. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Zimbabwe: Farmers Blasted for Using ARVs in Chicken Feed
[The Herald] The National Aids Council has warned poultry farmers against using anti-retroviral drugs to fast-track the growth of their chickens as doing so has a long term effects on consumers. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Zimbabwe: Man Kills Self After Testing HIV Positive
[New Zimbabwe] A NYANGA man, who could not cope with testing positive for HIV, recently took his own life by drinking a pesticide. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Medicationdiscountcard.com recognizes sleep awareness week with...
Rest Easy During Sleep Awareness Week With Discount Cards on Top Sleep Aids From Medicationdiscountcard.com(PRWeb March 03, 2015)Read the full story at http://www.prweb.com/releases/sleep/lunesta-sonata-ambien/prweb12557379.htm (Source: PRWeb: Medical Pharmaceuticals)
Toxoplasma gondii: A rare pathogen causing a neurological immune inflammatory reconstitution syndrome in HIV infected patient
We report a case of cerebral toxoplasmosis-IRIS in an HIV infected patient with a favorable outcome. (Source: HIV and AIDS Review)
The HIV-1 transgenic rat model of neuroHIV
Publication date: Available online 27 February 2015 Source:Brain, Behavior, and Immunity Author(s): Michael Vigorito , Kaitlyn P. Connaghan , Sulie L. Chang Despite the ability of current combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART) to limit the progression of HIV-1 to AIDS, HIV-positive individuals continue to experience neuroHIV in the form of HIV-associated neurological disorders (HAND), which can range from subtle to substantial neurocognitive impairment. NeuroHIV may also influence substance use, abuse, and dependence in HIV-positive individuals. Because of the nature of the virus, variables such as mental health co-morbidities make it difficult to study the interaction between HIV and substance abuse in human populations. Several rodent models have been developed in an attempt to stu...
Optical reading aids for children and young people with low vision.
CONCLUSIONS: There is a lack of good quality evidence regarding the use of optical low vision aids in children and young people. As such, no implications for practice can be drawn. We believe future research should include functional outcome measures such as reading speed, accuracy and comprehension, as well as the effect of low vision aids on quality of life, in order to truly assess and compare the effect of these devices on a child's life and development. PMID: 25738963 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews)
Willingness to Take PrEP and Potential for Risk Compensation Among Highly Sexually Active Gay and Bisexual Men
Abstract Once-daily Truvada (Emtricitabine/Tenofovir) as a method of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is one of the most promising biomedical interventions to eliminate new HIV infections; however, uptake among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men has been slow amidst growing concern in popular/social media that PrEP use will result in reduced condom use (i.e., risk compensation). We investigated demographic, behavioral, and psychosocial differences in willingness to use PrEP as well as the perceived impact of PrEP on participants? condom use in a sample of 206 highly sexually active HIV-negative gay and bisexual men. Nearly half (46.1 %) said they would be willing to take PrEP if it were provided at no cost. Although men willing to take PrEP (vs. others) reported ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Bone-conduction hearing aids in an elderly population: complications and quality of life assessment
Abstract To determine whether an elderly population with hearing impairment can be adequately rehabilitated with a bone-conduction hearing aid and whether the putative relationship between the elderly and an increased complication rate is justified. The study design was a retrospective case note review with a postal and telephone questionnaire, which was carried out in a tertiary centre. All patients aged 60 or over underwent implantation with a bone-conduction aid between 2009 and 2013 for conductive, SSD or mixed hearing loss. Outcome measures were complication rates and quality of life assessment using the Glasgow Benefit Inventory. The influence of patient and surgical factors on the complication rate was assessed. Fifty-one patients were implanted. Mean age was 67 years (ran...
After cochlear implant surgery, Isabelle celebrates two birthdays in one month
February is a pretty special month for Isabelle. She and her twin sister Jasmine celebrated their seventh birthdays on February 20. But February 4 belongs to Isabelle alone.  ?We call it her hearing birthday. It?s one year from the date when her cochlear implants were activated,? says Isabelle?s mother Vicki Labriola. &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; Diagnosed with progressive hearing loss shortly after birth, Isabelle was fitted with hearing aids at six weeks of age. But cochlear implants?surgically implanted devices that provide a sense of sound to the profoundly deaf or hard of hearing?were the best option. As her hearing loss progressed, hearing aids could no longer meet her needs. The implanted devices, provided in concert with services from Boston Children?s Cochlear Implant Prog...
Nigeria: Kaduna Records Improvement in HIV Care, Prevention
[Daily Trust]Kaduna -The Kaduna State government has recorded quality improvement in HIV care and reduced the rate of mother-to-child transmission. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Patients With HIV More Likely to Smoke, Less Likely to QuitPatients With HIV More Likely to Smoke, Less Likely to Quit
More than 4 in 10 of US adults receiving medical care for HIV infection are current smokers. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)
Nigeria: Islamic Teacher Infects Students With HIV/Aids
[Independent (Lagos)]Yola -An Islamic teacher, Mallam Alhassan Adamu, with the Tappare-Ganye Community Islamic Centre in Yola has been arrested by the Adamawa State Police Command for allegedly rapping and infecting some of the students with HIV/AIDS. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Nigeria: On National Response to HIV/Aids
[Independent (Lagos)]This Newspaper believes that more should be done in the area of giving information on the consequences of unprotected sex... On the whole stakeholders must join hands with NACA to get HIV/AIDS infection to zero discrimination, zero new infections and zero AIDS-related deaths (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Zimbabwe: Zimbabweans Shun Free Condoms, Says Govt Official
[New Zimbabwe]THE ministry of health has expressed concern at the low uptake of condoms provided for free in public health institutions with most people apparently opting for those sold by vendors on the streets. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Risk Perception and Knowledge About Osteoporosis: Well Informed But Not Aware? A Cross-Sectional Study
Abstract Identify the level of knowledge and risk perception of developing osteoporosis (OP) and its association with socio-demographic variables and risk factors. Individuals older than 18 years living in Mexico City were surveyed. The sample, which was designed to be representative of this population, was randomly selected and stratified by socioeconomic level, age, and sex. The Multiple Osteoporosis Prevention Survey, designed to assess OP-related knowledge, risk perception, was used. Four hundred and fifty-five individuals, homogeneously distributed according to defined strata, were surveyed. Almost 29 % (28.9 %) of subjects consumed tobacco, and 13.4 % had a family history of OP. Most subjects reported a lower-than-recommended calcium daily intake. Fifty-three and a half ...
Payment delays dent India's flagship health, AIDS programmes
The funds involved amounted to about one-third of the total federal spending on health, and led to further deterioration in India's tattered public health system. (Source: The Economic Times)
Exclusive: Payment delays dent India's flagship health, AIDS programs
NEW DELHI (Reuters) - India's main public health programs, aimed at millions of rural poor, have been in disarray for months because the government changed the way that over $1.3 billion in federal funds were distributed, according to data and letters seen by Reuters. (Source: Reuters: Health)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Neonatal pustular dermatosis: An overview
Sangita GhoshIndian Journal of Dermatology 2015 60(2):211-211Neonatal pustular eruption is a group of disorders characterized by various forms of pustulosis seen in first 4 weeks of life. Its presentation is often similar with some subtle differences, which can be further established by few simple laboratory aids, to arrive at a definite diagnosis. Given their ubiquitous presentation, it is sometimes difficult to differentiate among self-limiting, noninfectious, pustular dermatosis such as erythema toxicum neonatorum, transient neonatal pustular melanosis, miliaria pustulosa, etc., and potentially life threatening infections such as herpes simplex virus and varicella zoster virus infections. This review article tries to address the chronological, clinical, morphological, and histological d...
Physical Activity is Associated with Better Neurocognitive and Everyday Functioning Among Older Adults with HIV Disease
We examined the association between physical activity (PA), neurocognitive impairment (NCI), and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) among older HIV+ persons. One hundred older HIV+ adults completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, a neurocognitive battery, and IADL scale. Higher levels of moderate PA were associated with lower odds of NCI (p = 0.01), even when covariates were modeled. The association between moderate PA and NCI was driven by executive function (p = 0.04). Higher levels of moderate PA were also associated with lower odds of IADL Dependence (p = 0.03), although this fell to a trend (p = 0.08) when including covariates. Follow-up analysis showed those with both NCI and IADL Dependence had lower moderate PA than those with neither (p =...
Providing ART to HIV Seropositive Persons Who Use Drugs: Progress in New York City, Prospects for ?Ending the Epidemic?
We examined progress in placing HIV seropositive persons who inject drugs (PWID) and HIV seropositive non-injecting drug users (NIDU) onto antiretroviral treatment (ART) in New York City over the last 15 years. We recruited 3511 PWID and 3543 NIDU from persons voluntarily entering drug detoxification and methadone maintenance treatment programs in New York City from 2001 to 2014. HIV prevalence declined significantly among both PWID and NIDU. The percentage who reported receiving ART increased significantly, from approximately 50 % (2001?2005) to approximately 75 % (2012?2014). There were no racial/ethnic disparities in the percentages of HIV seropositive persons who were on ART. Continued improvement in ART uptake and TasP and maintenance of other prevention and care services shoul...
HIV Among Indigenous peoples: A Review of the Literature on HIV-Related Behaviour Since the Beginning of the Epidemic
Abstract From the early days of the HIV epidemic, Indigenous peoples were identified as a population group that experiences social and economic determinants?including colonialism and racism?that increase exposure to HIV. There are now substantial disparities in HIV rates between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples in some countries. We conducted a comprehensive literature review to assess the evidence on HIV-related behaviors and determinants in four countries?Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States?in which Indigenous peoples share important features of colonization and marginalization. We identified 107 articles over more than 20 years. The review highlights the determinants of HIV-related behaviors including domestic violence, stigma and discrimination, ...
Half of Known Strains of HIV Originated in Gorillas
Two of four classes of the AIDS-causing virus arose in these large primates, international study finds Source: HealthDay Related MedlinePlus Page: HIV/AIDS (Source: MedlinePlus Health News)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
A cross-sectional assessment of the prevalence of multiple chronic conditions and medication use in a sample of community-dwelling adults with fibromyalgia in Olmsted County, Minnesota
Conclusions The results of our study highlight the problem of multiple chronic conditions and high prevalence of polypharmacy in fibromyalgia. Clinicians who care for patients with fibromyalgia should take into consideration the presence of multiple chronic conditions when recommending medications. (Source: BMJ Open)
Baseline traits of patients presenting at a low vision clinic in Shanghai, China
Conclusions: The majority of the patients in our low vision clinic were young, the main causes of visual impairment were congenital and hereditary diseases. Stand magnifiers were the most commonly dispensed LVAs. High price was the major reason for refusing LVAs. (Source: BMC Ophthalmology)
Exclusive: Payment delays dent India's flagship health, AIDS programs
NEW DELHI (Reuters) - India's main public health programs, aimed at millions of rural poor, have been in disarray for months because the government changed the way that over $1.3 billion in federal funds were distributed, according to data and letters seen by Reuters. (Source: Reuters: Health)
Study finds gorilla origins in half of human AIDS virus lineages
WASHINGTON (Reuters) - Revealing new details about the origins of AIDS, scientists said on Monday half the lineages of the main type of human immunodeficiency virus, HIV-1, originated in gorillas in Cameroon before infecting people, probably via bushmeat hunting. (Source: Reuters: Health)
AIDS was passed to humans from gorillas as well as chimpanzees
Two of the four known strains of viruses that cause HIV have been traced back to western lowland gorillas that share 98 per cent of human DNA, Pennsylvania University scientists found. (Source: the Mail online | Health)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
The HIV Test at 30: More Essential Than Ever
Early in the AIDS epidemic, there was so much we didn't know -- what caused the disease, how it was spread or how to treat it. But, once scientists were able to isolate and establish a virus -- HIV -- as the cause of AIDS, that all began to change. For one thing, knowing what to look for allowed scientists to begin developing a test to detect HIV. Thirty years ago today -- on March 2, 1985 -- the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved the first commercial HIV blood test. This was a major breakthrough. Testing meant that the blood supply could be essentially freed of HIV, and helped scientists and public health officials determine the extent of the epidemic. Testing also gave individuals the power of knowing their status, and enabled them to protect their partners, if infected. Earl...
Gambia: 'No One Should Be Left Behind in Accessing Treatment'
[The Point]Ms Sirah Ndow, country director UNAIDS, has said universal access calls for comprehensive provision of HIV services, including access to treatment services that are accessible, acceptable, affordable, available, equitable, and sustainable as well as free from any form of stigma or discrimination. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Mon Valley Hospital aids cancer patients with co-pays
Dealing with cancer is bad enough without having to worry about the cost of prescription drugs. That was the thinking at Monongahela Valley Hospital, where the staff helps patients find independent sources of funding for prescription drug co-pays and other bills. And the program has been remarkably successful: During the past three years alone, the hospital staff has helped patients find $1.6 million in co-pay assistance and free chemotherapy prescriptions. It all started eight years ago when a? (Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Biotechnology headlines)
Tanzania: Poor Nutrition Fuelling Aids Patients Deaths
[Arusha Times]When people suffering from HIV and Aids succumb to the disease, sometimes it is not due to infections only, if the Arusha situation is anything to by, they could be dying also because of poor nutrition (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Zimbabwe: Stamps Blames Catholics, SDA for HIV Stigma
[New Zimbabwe]HEALTH Advisor to the President and Cabinet Dr Timothy Stamps has blamed the churches for the persistence of HIV related stigma and the country's failure to effectively deal with the pandemic. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Nigeria: Police Arrest Teacher for Allegedly Raping, Infecting Victim With HIV
[Premium Times]The Adamawa State Police Command has confirmed the arrest of Alhassan Adamu, a teacher at Tappare-Ganye Community Islamic Centre, for allegedly raping and infecting at least one student of the centre with HIV/AIDS. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: Nigeria's HIV/Aids Situation May Worsen - Naca
[Independent (Lagos)]Abuja -Despite the decline in the prevalence rate of HIV/AIDS in Nigeria, the behavioural pattern of Nigerians has not changed as the National Agency for the Control of AIDS (NACA) has said that illicit sex, among all categories of age groups, is on the rise in the country. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: Rotary Empowers Widows, Orphans, HIV Positive Persons
[Leadership]As part of its family of Rotary International day celebrations, the Rotary Club of Abuja Maitama, marked the day in a grand style, by empowering widows, orphans and HIV positive persons in the Vantaged Teen Centre, Bwari. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: UNAIDS Hails Nigeria's Signing of HIV Anti-Discrimination Law
[Guardian]AHEAD of the World Zero Discrimination Day tomorrow, the Joint United Nations Programme on AIDS (UNAIDS) has expressed full support of the Federal Government of Nigeria for her commitment towards ending stigma and discrimination against people living with and affected by Human Immuno-deficiency Virus (HIV), even as the world body hails President Goodluck Jonathan for signing the HIV/AIDS Anti-Discrimination Law. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Improving Neurocognitive Outcomes in HIV-Infected ChildrenImproving Neurocognitive Outcomes in HIV-Infected Children
Children with HIV are vulnerable to subtle-to-severe neurocognitive problems. Early viral suppression may improve those outcomes. AIDS (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
VG Life Sciences granted key composition of matter patent
(Viral Genetics, Inc.) VG Life Sciences, Inc., a biotechnology company developing therapies for autoimmune and infectious diseases, has been issued an important composition of matter patent covering methods for modulating immune system function through the targeting of CLIP. The US patent covers the targeted peptide technology underlying VG Life Sciences' VG1177, a synthetic peptide which has the ability to displace CLIP that plays a key role in chronic inflammation and autoimmune diseases, including HIV/AIDS, hypertension, preeclampsia and TBI. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Gorilla origins of the last two AIDS virus lineages confirmed
(University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine) Two of the four known groups of human AIDS viruses (HIV-1 groups O and P) have originated in western lowland gorillas, according to an international team of scientists. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)
Building our youth for the future.
Authors: Bekker LG, Johnson L, Wallace M, Hosek S Abstract Adolescents and young adults are at increased risk for HIV due to the many developmental, psychological, social, and structural transitions that converge in this period of the lifespan. In addition, adolescent deaths resulting from HIV continue to rise despite declines in other age groups. There are also young key populations (YKPs) that bear disproportionate burdens of HIV and are the most vulnerable, including young men who have sex with men (MSM), transgender youth, young people who inject drugs, and adolescent and young adult sex workers. As a society, we must do more to stop new HIV infections and untimely HIV-related deaths through both primary and secondary prevention and better management approaches. Using an interw...
Providing comprehensive health services for young key populations: needs, barriers and gaps.
Discussion: YKP require comprehensive, integrated services that respond to their specific developmental needs, including health, educational and social services within the context of a human rights-based approach. The recent WHO Consolidated Guidelines on HIV Prevention, Diagnosis, Treatment and Care for Key Populations are an important first step for a more comprehensive approach to HIV programming for YKP, but there are limited data on the effective delivery of combined interventions for YKP. Significant investments in research and implementation will be required to ensure adequate provision and coverage of services for YKP. In addition, greater commitments to harm reduction and rights-based approaches are needed to address structural barriers to access to care. PMID: 25724511 [PubMe...
"We don't need services. We have no problems": exploring the experiences of young people who inject drugs in accessing harm reduction services.
Conclusions: The consultations provide a rare insight into the lived experiences of adolescents who inject drugs and highlight the dissonance between their reality and current policy and programmatic approaches. Findings suggest that harm reduction and HIV policies and programmes should adapt the comprehensive package to reach young people and explore linkages to other sectors such as education and employment to ensure they are fully supported and protected. Continued participation of the community of young people who inject drugs can help ensure policy and programmes respond to the social exclusion and denial of rights and prevent HIV infection among adolescents who inject drugs. PMID: 25724510 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Young key populations and HIV: a special emphasis and consideration in the new WHO Consolidated Guidelines on HIV Prevention, Diagnosis, Treatment and Care for Key Populations.
Authors: Baggaley R, Armstrong A, Dodd Z, Ngoksin E, Krug A PMID: 25724509 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
"First, do no harm": legal guidelines for health programmes affecting adolescents aged 10-17 who sell sex or inject drugs.
Conclusions: Controlling international law specifies that protective interventions among KPs aged 10-17 must not only include low-threshold, voluntary services but also "protect" adolescent KPs from the harms attendant to law-enforcement-based interventions. Going forward, health practitioners must honour the right to health by adjusting programmes according to principles of minimum intervention, due process and proportionality, and duly limit juvenile justice and child protection involvement as a measure of last resort, if any. PMID: 25724508 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Tailored combination prevention packages and PrEP for young key populations.
Conclusions: Reductions in HIV incidence will only be achieved through the implementation of combinations of interventions that include biomedical and behavioural interventions, as well as components that address social, economic and other structural factors that influence HIV prevention and transmission. PMID: 25724507 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
HIV testing and linkage to services for youth.
Conclusions: Young people worldwide need more routine access to HIV testing services that effectively address the developmental, socio-political and other issues faced by young women and men. PMID: 25724506 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Mental health and support among young key populations: an ecological approach to understanding and intervention.
Conclusions: We put forth recommendations for future research and strategies to address the mental wellbeing of YKPs, including the need for integrated interventions that address the multiplicity of risk factors inherent in the multiple group membership, rather than single-focus interventions whilst addressing the unique needs or challenges of YKPs. PMID: 25724505 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Adolescent girls and young women: key populations for HIV epidemic control.
Conclusions: There is an urgent need to meet the HIV prevention needs of adolescent girls and young women, particularly those who are unable to negotiate monogamy, condom use and/or male circumcision. Concerted efforts to expand the prevention options available to these young women in terms of the development of novel HIV-specific biomedical, structural and behavioural interventions are urgently needed for epidemic control. In the interim, a pragmatic approach of integrating existing HIV prevention efforts into broader sexual reproductive health services is a public health imperative. PMID: 25724504 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Review: An urgent need for research on factors impacting adherence to and retention in care among HIV-positive youth and adolescents from key populations.
Conclusions: There is an urgent need for more systematic research in YKP. Current limited evidence suggests that healthcare delivery should be tailored to the unique needs of YKP. Thus, research on YKP could be used to inform future interventions to improve access to treatment and management of co-morbidities related to HIV, to ease the transition from paediatric to adult care and to increase uptake of secondary prevention methods. PMID: 25724503 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
HIV Care Continuum for HIV-Infected Emergency Department Patients in an Inner-City Academic Emergency Department
Conclusion To our knowledge, this study is the first to quantify gaps in HIV care for an ED patient population, with the HIV Care Continuum as a framework. Our findings identified distinct phases (ie, testing, provider awareness of HIV diagnosis, and linkage to care) in which the greatest opportunities for intervention exist, if appropriate resources were allocated. This schema could serve as a model for other indolent treatable diseases frequently observed in EDs, where continuity of care is critical. (Source: Annals of Emergency Medicine)
Changing Policy and Practice in the Control of Pediatric Schistosomiasis
Schistosomiasis is a chronic disease that affects ~200 million people. The extended health impact of the disease has been estimated to exceed that of malaria or tuberculosis and to be nearer to that of HIV/AIDS. Within endemic areas, children carry the heaviest burden of infection. Infection/disease is controlled by the treatment of infected subjects with the anthelminthic drug praziquantel. Global initiatives from Partners of Parasite Control, including the World Health Organization (WHO), advocate regular school-based deworming strategies to reduce the development of severe morbidity, promote school&ndash;child health and development, and improve the cognitive potential of children. Until recently, preschool-aged children were excluded from schistosome treatment, creating a health inequi...
Compulsory Licensing Often Did Not Produce Lower Prices For Antiretrovirals Compared To International Procurement [Drug Pricing]
Compulsory licensing has been widely suggested as a legal mechanism for bypassing patents to introduce lower-cost generic antiretrovirals for HIV/AIDS in developing countries. Previous studies found that compulsory licensing can reduce procurement prices for drugs, but it is unknown how the resulting prices compare to procurements through the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria; UNICEF; and other international channels. For this study we systematically constructed a case-study database of compulsory licensing activity for antiretrovirals and compared compulsory license prices to those in the World Health Organization&rsquo;s (WHO&rsquo;s) Global Price Reporting Mechanism and the Global Fund&rsquo;s Price and Quality Reporting Tool. Thirty compulsory license cases were anal...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Zimbabwe: Patients to Monitor Aids Services At Hospitals
[New Zimbabwe]THE Zimbabwe HIV and AIDS Activist Union Community Trust ZHAAU-CT is setting up committees led by people living with HIV with the intention of monitoring access to and availability of AIDS services in the country's heath care centres. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: UNAIDS Charges Religious, Traditional Leaders to Support HIV/Aids Patients
[Independent (Lagos)]Abuja -The Country Director of United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) for Nigeria, Dr. Bilali Camara, has called on traditional and religious leaders in the country to add their voices to the call for more compassion, tolerance and peace for people living with or affected by HIV/AIDS in the country. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Knowledge, Attitudes, Beliefs, and Practices in Registered Nurses and Care Aids About Urinary Incontinence in Korean Nursing Homes: A Cross-sectional Survey
CONCLUSIONS: Attitude plays an important role in continence care practice for both RNs and care aids in Korean nursing homes. In addition, continence care practice of RNs may be influenced by updating clinical competencies. For care aids, continence care practice can be influenced by improving basic knowledge of urinary incontinence. (Source: Journal of Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nursing)
Multilevel Drivers of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Among Black Philadelphians: Exploration Using Community Ethnography and Geographic Information Systems
This study was a first step to disentangle relationships between community-level factors and potential risk for HIV in an HIV epicenter. The findings also highlight stark sociodemographic differences within and across racial groups and further substantiate the need for comprehensive, community-level HIV prevention interventions. These findings from targeted U.S. urban communities have potential applicability for examining the distribution of HIV/AIDS in broader national and international geosocial contexts. (Source: Nursing Research)
Treatment of Tobacco Use Disorders in Smokers with Serious Mental Illness: Toward Clinical Best Practices
Abstract: Addiction to tobacco-derived nicotine remains highly prevalent in the United States, with 18% using daily, and 53% of those with serious mental illness using daily. While smokers with serious mental illness have been excluded from most large nicotine-dependence treatment studies, a growing evidence base is available to guide clinicians in assisting their patients with psychiatric illness to quit smoking. The aim of this review is to present the evidence on safety and efficacy of smoking cessation interventions for those with serious mental illness. Smokers with schizophrenia spectrum disorders should receive varenicline or bupropion with or without nicotine replacement therapy in combination with behavioral treatment. Although more research is needed, preliminary evidence suggest...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Why do patients regret their prostate cancer treatment? A systematic review of regret after treatment for localized prostate cancer
ConclusionsThis is the first systematic review of regret following treatment for localized prostate cancer. Suggestions for the future study of regret in this setting can be made. These include the use of a standardized scale; recognizing levels of regret as low, medium or high; and separately identifying the decision made when patients have combinations of treatments such as surgery followed by radiotherapy. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. (Source: Psycho-Oncology)
Hear Better? Never Say Never When?if ever?is a child who successfully uses bilateral hearing aids a candidate for cochlear implants?
Courtesy of Advanced Bionics LLC (Source: The ASHA Leader Online)
Boning Up on BAIs How do you answer when a parent asks you: When is a bone-anchored implant the right choice for my child?and why choose this option over traditional hearing aids or a cochlear implant? We talked with a pediatric audiologist for the latest intelligence.
Image provided courtesy of Cochlear Americas, © 2014 Cochlear Americas. (Source: The ASHA Leader Online)
Cognitive Aids in Medicine Assessment Tool (CMAT): preliminary validation of a novel tool for the assessment of emergency cognitive aids
Summary Applying human factors principles to the design of clinical emergency guidelines is important. The UK Civil Aviation Authority uses a Checklist Assessment Tool for evaluating the content and usability of emergency drills before introduction into service on aircraft. We hypothesised that this model could be used to develop a generic medical tool. A three?stage modified Delphi process was used to adapt the above tool for use in designing medical emergency guidelines. The resulting Cognitive aids in Medicine Assessment Tool was then used to score and rank seven published difficult airway guidelines; the scores were used to assess its validity and reliability. Pearson's rank coefficient between these scores and scores from independent assessors was 0.89 (p = 0.007). Internal consis...
Uptake of HIV Testing in Substance Use Disorder Treatment Programs That Offer On-Site Testing
Abstract Increasing rates of HIV testing within substance use disorder (SUD) treatment clients is an important public health strategy for reducing HIV transmission rates. The present study examined uptake of HIV testing among 1,224 clients in five SUD treatment units that offered on-site testing in Florida, New York, and California. Nearly one-third (30 %) of the participants, who had not previously tested positive, reported not having been tested for HIV within the past 12 months. Women, African Americans, and injection drug users had a higher likelihood of having been tested within the past 12 months. The SUD treatment program was the most frequently identified location of participants? last HIV test. Despite the availability of free, on-site testing, a substantial propor...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
The Effects of Sexual Sensation Seeking and Alcohol Use on Risky Sexual Behavior Among Men Who Have Sex with Men
Abstract Men who have sex with men (MSM) remain most at risk for developing HIV infection. The best prevention in this population is to identify risk factors associated with unprotected sex. Recent research suggests that sexual sensation seeking (SSS) and level of average drinking moderates the relationship between drinking alcohol in the context of sex and risky sexual behavior in a young MSM population (ages 16?20 years). Current study is an exploratory analysis using multilevel modeling to examine if these results are consistent across a MSM population with a wider range of ages who are also heavy drinkers. Participants (n = 181) included MSM (ages 18?75 years) from a longitudinal clinical research trial. Results indicate that MSM with higher SSS were more likely to ha...
Behavioral Economic Decision Making and Alcohol-related Sexual Risk Behavior
This study examined questionnaire-based indices of both types of discounting in relation to sexual risk taking in an emergency department sample of hazardous drinkers who engage in risky sexual behavior. More impulsive delay discounting was significantly associated with increased sexual risk-taking during a drinking episode, but not general sexual risk-taking. Probability discounting was not associated with either form of sexual risk-taking. These findings implicate impulsive delay discounting with sexual risk taking during alcohol intoxication and provide further support for applying this approach to HIV risk behavior. (Source: AIDS and Behavior)
HIV Testing Behaviors and Perceptions of Risk of HIV Infection Among MSM with Main Partners
Abstract Male couples represent a high priority group for HIV prevention interventions because primary partners have been identified as the source of one-third to two-thirds of HIV infections among men who have sex with men (MSM). HIV testing is an important component of the U.S. National AIDS Strategy. In previous research rates of HIV testing among partnered MSM have been found to be lower compared to other MSM. In this paper, we use a sample of 906 MSM recruited through internet advertisements to contrast HIV testing behavior, perceived risk of HIV infection and confidence in remaining HIV sero-negative between single MSM and MSM who report having a main partner. We also examine associations between sexual agreements and HIV testing and perceived risk among partnered MSM. Alth...
Computer-Based Video to Increase HIV Testing Among Emergency Department Patients Who Decline
This study delivered a 16-min video-based intervention to 160 patients who declined HIV tests in a high volume, urban ED. One third of participants (n = 53) accepted an HIV test post-intervention. Interviews with a subset of participants (n = 40) show that before the video, many were unaware HIV testing could be conducted without drawing blood, or that results could be delivered in 20 min. (Source: AIDS and Behavior)
Differential Risk Factors for HIV Drug and Sex Risk-Taking Among Non-treatment-seeking Hospitalized Injection Drug Users
Abstract Injection drug users (IDUs) are at increased risk of contracting HIV. From a clinical trial assessing an intervention to enhance the linkage of hospitalized patients to opioid treatment after discharge, we conducted multivariate analysis of baseline data from hospitalized IDUs with a history of opioid dependence (n = 104) to identify differences in factors predicting HIV drug and sex risk behaviors. Factors significantly associated with HIV drug risk were being non-Hispanic Caucasian and recent cocaine use. Being female, binge drinking, and poorer mental health were significantly associated with higher sex risk. Because factors predicting HIV sex risk behaviors differ from those predicting HIV drug risk, interventions aimed at specific HIV risks should have different b...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Factors Associated with HIV-Testing and Acceptance of an Offer of Home-Based Testing by Men in Rural Zambia
The objective of this study is to describe HIV-testing among men in rural Lusaka Province, Zambia, using a population-based survey for a cluster-randomized trial. Households (N = 120) were randomly selected from each of the 42 clusters, defined as a health facility catchment area. Individuals aged 15?60 years were invited to complete questionnaires regarding demographics and HIV-testing history. Men testing in the last year were defined as recent-testers. After questionnaire completion adults were offered home-based rapid HIV-testing. Of the 2,828 men, 53 % reported ever-testing and 25 % recently-testing. Factors independently associated with ever- and recent-testing included age 20+ years, secondary/higher education, being married or widowed, a history of TB-treatment and higher s...
Intoxication at Last Sexual Intercourse and Unprotected Sex among HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Individuals in Uganda: An Event-Level Analysis
This study examined, for the first time, the association between intoxication at last sexual intercourse and unprotected sex separately among HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals. Data were derived from a nationally-representative survey of Uganda in 2011. Multivariable logistic regression analyses of the intoxication-unprotected sex association included adjustment for sociodemographic and behavioral covariates that were also examined as moderators of the association. Among HIV-positive individuals, intoxication was associated with unprotected sex, whereas among HIV-negative individuals, the intoxication-unprotected sex association was moderated by knowledge that condoms prevent HIV transmission. The odds of unprotected sex was 2.67 times greater among HIV-negative individuals who wer...
Efficacy of an HIV/AIDS and HIV Testing Video for Spanish-Speaking Latinos in Healthcare and Non-Healthcare Settings
Abstract We assessed the efficacy of a Spanish-language HIV/AIDS and HIV testing video as a substitute for comparable orally-delivered information in healthcare and non-health care settings for Spanish-speakers regardless of health literacy level. In a non-inferiority clinical trial, Spanish-speaking Latinos from an emergency department, a clinic, and community-based organizations were randomly assigned to receive HIV/AIDS and HIV testing information orally or from a video. Comprehension of the information was measured using a questionnaire. Of the 150 participants, 39 % met criteria for lower health literacy and 75 % previously had been tested for HIV. Mean scores on the questionnaire for the video (20.4; 95 % CI 19.5 ~ 21.3) and the orally-delivered information arms (20.6;...
Daily Associations Between Alcohol Use and Unprotected Anal Sex Among Heavy Drinking HIV-Positive Men Who Have Sex with Men
This study explored daily associations between alcohol use and sexual behavior among heavy drinking HIV-positive MSM using a 30-day Timeline Followback interview. Results of generalized estimating equations indicated that greater alcohol consumption on a given day was associated with a linear increase in the odds of having unprotected anal sex with partners of any HIV status. However, the odds of reporting unprotected anal sex with HIV-negative or HIV-status unknown partners increased in a curvilinear fashion, occurring primarily at very heavy levels of use (12+ drinks). Results suggest that very heavy drinking increases the risk of engaging in sexual behavior that has the potential for transmitting HIV to other men. (Source: AIDS and Behavior)
[Adolescents with cerebral palsy and their contact with the GP and the habilitative services].
Authors: Ramstad K, Jahnsen RB, Diseth TH Abstract BACKGROUND Cerebral palsy (CP) often entails a need for health and social services throughout life. Upon scrutiny, it has been found that the transition from services for children and adolescents to services for adults is particularly challenging. The study investigates contact between adolescents with CP and their GPs/habilitative services up to and after the age of 18 years, and the percentage who have an individual habilitation plan (IHP).MATERIAL AND METHOD An attempt was made to identify all those with CP born in 1992 and 1993 and resident in southeast Norway. Seventy-four patients were included (time point I, interview and clinical examination). Forty-two (57 %) responded at the follow-up examination (time point II, question...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Advances in non?invasive techniques as aids to the diagnosis and monitoring of therapeutic response in plaque psoriasis: a review
Abstract Plaque psoriasis is a common, chronic, inflammatory disease with a multifactorial etiopathogenesis. Although its diagnosis is often based on clinical features, in ambiguous cases a biopsy with histopathologic confirmation may be necessary. Advanced high?definition imaging techniques may be useful in the study of skin properties in vivo and may facilitate therapeutic monitoring. Available imaging tools vary in their resolution, depth of penetration and visual representation (horizontal, vertical, three?dimensional), and in the type of skin structures visualized. The purpose of this review is to analyze a variety of non?invasive techniques that may assist in establishing definitive diagnoses, as well as in the therapeutic monitoring of psoriasis. These include dermoscopy, vide...
Hearing Loss Among HIV-Seropositive and HIV-Seronegative Men and Women
Conclusions and RelevanceThe HIV+ adults had significantly poorer lower-frequency and higher-frequency hearing than HIV? adults. High-frequency hearing loss is consistent with an accelerated aging (presbycusis); low-frequency hearing loss in middle age is unexpected. Because some vowels and consonants have predominantly low-frequency acoustic energy, poor low-frequency hearing may impair communication in HIV+ individuals. (Source: JAMA Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery)
Visual Aids to Learning in a Second Language: Adding Redundant Video to an Audio Lecture
SummaryKorean high school students (Experiment 1) and college students (Experiment 2a) received a 16?minute lesson on Antarctica that consisted of English audio only (audio group) or English audio with corresponding video depicting the scenes and objects described in the audio (audio?+?video group). The audio?+?video group scored significantly (d?=?0.33 in Experiment 1) or marginally higher (d?=?0.42 in Experiment 2a) than the audio group on a subsequent comprehension test. The mean difficulty rating of the audio?+?video group was significantly less than that of the audio group (d?=?0.62 in Experiment 1 and d?=?0.96 in Experiment 2a); the mean effort rating of the audio?+?video group was significantly greater than that of the audio group (d?=?0.60 in E...
Molecular Characteristics and Drug Susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates from Patients Co-infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Beijing, China.
In this study, M. tuberculosis and NTM strains isolated from AIDS patients with TB-like symptoms were identified and genotyping analysis indicated that Beijing genotype was the predominant genotype. In addition, the prevalence of drug-resistant TB, especially the prevalence of XDR-TB, was higher than that in TB patients without HIV infection. PMID: 25800448 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences : BES)
Top-Line Questions From Moms About MMR
We all want our children to be safe and healthy. Measles is a serious and highly contagious disease, but, fortunately, we can prevent it with immunizations. The measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine is safe and the best way to protect your child against measles and other diseases. I understand that some parents are concerned about vaccines. The evidence about the vaccine's safety and benefits is strong and consistent. There is a lot of inaccurate information circulating about the measles vaccine, so let's make sure we separate the facts from the myths. If you have any concerns or questions, talk to your child's health care provider. In the meantime, here are some answers to the most commonly asked questions I get: How easy is it to get measles if you aren't vaccinated? If you aren'...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Untreatable tuberculosis: is surgery the answer?
According to the 2014 World Health Organization (WHO) Global Report, tuberculosis (TB) continues to be the most important infectious disease in terms of incidence and mortality, along with HIV/AIDS: 9&nbsp;million new cases and 1.5 million deaths are estimated to have occurred in 2013 [1]. (Source: European Respiratory Journal)
Baseline Attitudes About Prostate Cancer Screening Moderate the Impact of Decision Aids on Screening Rates.
CONCLUSIONS: The decision aids amplified the impact of men's baseline attitudes about limitations of screening: Compared to the usual care arm, men in both decision aid arms were less likely to be screened when they perceived more limitations of screening. PMID: 25724634 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Annals of Behavioral Medicine)
Comparison of four international cardiovascular disease prediction models and the prevalence of eligibility for lipid lowering therapy in HIV infected patients on antiretroviral therapy.
Conclusion. In our sample, agreement between the high DAD CVD risk score and other CVD high risk scores was not very good. The ACC/AHA guidelines would recommend statins more often than ESC/EAS and EACS guidelines. Current recommendations on treatment of dyslipidemia should be applied with caution in the HIV infected population. PMID: 25727038 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Croatian Medical Journal)
Nigeria: 10,000 HIV/Aids Pregnant Women to Benefit From Sure-P Intervention in Abia, Taraba
[Independent (Lagos)]The Subsidy Reinvestment Programme (SURE-P) of the Federal Government has commenced a stakeholder meeting that would ensure that it takes over fully the funding of activities associated with HIV/AIDS across the country, as a prelude to ensuring that states take over the programme in the near future. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Risk of death among those awaiting treatment for HIV infection in Zimbabwe: adolescents are at particular risk.
CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents present to ART services at a later clinical stage than adults and are at an increased risk of death prior to commencing ART. Improved and innovative HIV case-finding approaches and emphasis on prompt ART initiation in adolescents are urgently needed. Following registration, defaulter tracing should be used, whether or not ART has been commenced. PMID: 25712590 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
7 Ways to Permanently Banish Belly Fat
Sixty-nine percent of Americans adults are overweight, and over 35 percent are obese. Obesity increases your risk for numerous conditions including heart disease, stroke, Type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, and cancer. Sadly, about 3.4 million adults die each year from being overweight or obese. Globally obesity now kills about the same as tobacco and all wars, terrorism and violence. Nearly all people who are overweight already have "pre-diabetes" and have significant risks of disease and death. They just don't know it. When you begin to put on weight, especially lethal belly fat, your biology shifts out of balance, veering into the unstable and unhealthy territory of disease -- which in turn makes you fatter. A vicious, deadly cycle ensues unless you take control of your weight.  I...
HIV testing and clinical status upon admission to a specialized health care unit in Pará, Brazil
CONCLUSIONS Despite the increased awareness of the number of HIV/AIDS cases, these patients have identified their serological status late and were admitted to health care units with active disease. The HIV/AIDS epidemic in Pará presents specificities in its progression that indicate the complex characteristics of the epidemic in the Northern region of Brazil and across the country. OBJETIVO Analisar as características clínicas e laboratoriais de indivíduos infectados pelo HIV na admissão em serviço de referência em saúde. MÉTODOS Estudo transversal realizado entre 1999 e 2010, com 527 indivíduos com diagnóstico sorológico confirmado de infecção pelo HIV, matriculados em serviço de saúde ambulatorial, em Santarém, PA, Brasil. Foram coletadas informações de prontuários re...
Antiretrovirals Linked to Cumulative Kidney RiskAntiretrovirals Linked to Cumulative Kidney Risk
The chance of developing chronic kidney disease increases steadily in patients taking tenofovir, ritonavir-boosted atazanavir, or ritonavir-enhanced lopinavir, researchers warn. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)
Ureteral Reimplantation through the use of a Running Stitch
In this video, we describe ureteral reimplantation into the bladder through the use of a novel technique that aids with positioning of the ureter as well as the utilization of a running stitch. (Source: The Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology)
VelaSense Wireless Technology Helps Vision Impaired
The blind and visually impaired often have to rely on others for help with basic life tasks such as matching clothing, distinguishing bills or reading a menu at a restaurant. There's some technology that can help, but it often involves purchasing expensive devices or carrying around specific equipment for each purpose. (Source: Disabled World)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Zimbabwe: War to End Child Marriages
[The Herald]"Everyone knows how to slaughter a hen. Likewise people should know how to end HIV and AIDS! Why is it that when people are tasked to catch a hen for a relish, it is quickly done but when we are tasked to end HIV, it takes forever," were the words of Headman Chiveso of Musana, Bindura. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Adolescents? Communication with Parents, Other Adult Family Members and Teachers on Sexuality: Effects of School-Based Interventions in South Africa and Tanzania
Abstract Cluster-randomized controlled trials were carried out to examine effects on sexual practices of school-based interventions among adolescents in three sites in sub-Saharan Africa. In this publication, effects on communication about sexuality with significant adults (including parents) and such communication as a mediator of other outcomes were examined. Belonging to the intervention group was significantly associated with fewer reported sexual debuts in Dar es Salaam only (OR 0.648). Effects on communication with adults about sexuality issues were stronger for Dar es Salaam than for the other sites. In Dar, increase in communication with adults proved to partially mediate associations between intervention and a number of social cognition outcomes. The hypothesized medi...
Reply to ?How does weight influence tenofovir disoproxil-fumarate induced renal function decline??
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
How does weight influence tenofovir disoproxil-fumarate induced renal function decline?
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Sexual networks, HIV, race and bacterial vaginosis
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Reply to ?Sexual networks, HIV, race and bacterial vaginosis?
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Evaluating potential T-cell epitope peptides for detecting HIV-specific T cell responses in a highly diverse HIV-1 epidemic from Cameroon
HIV genetic diversity is a major obstacle for vaccine development. To define whether potential T-cell epitope (PTE) peptide usage improves the detection of T cell responses in a highly diverse HIV-1 epidemic, we compared the magnitude, breadth and depth of group M PTE peptide responses to consensus M peptides in Gag and Nef proteins. Gag PTE responses were detected at a higher magnitude, more Nef PTE responses were detected at a cohort (but not individual) level and depth was detected in both Gag and Nef responses. (Source: AIDS)
The evolving HIV epidemic among people who inject drugs in India and the need for a heightened response
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Impact of HIV on lung tumorigenesis in an animal model
Many HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy have controlled viremia and restored (albeit partially) immunity. Yet, they have high rates of lung cancer, even after controlling for smoking. We tested the hypothesis that HIV proteins accelerate development/progression of lung cancer in an immunocompetent HIV transgenic mouse model. The expression of HIV proteins did not enhance lung tumorigenesis caused by two different tobacco carcinogens, suggesting that incompletely restored immunity and/or inflammation, which persist(s) in most HIV patients despite controlled viremia, underlie(s) excess risk of lung cancer. Adjuvant therapies that restore immunity and lower inflammation may decrease lung cancer mortality in HIV patients. (Source: AIDS)
Pubertal development in HIV-infected African children on first-line antiretroviral therapy
Objectives: To estimate age at attaining Tanner stages in Ugandan/Zimbabwean HIV-infected children initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in older childhood and investigate predictors of delayed puberty, particularly age at ART initiation. Design: Observational analysis within a randomized trial. Methods: Tanner staging was assessed every 24 weeks from 10 years of age, menarche every 12 weeks and height every 4?6 weeks. Age at attaining different Tanner stages was estimated using normal interval regression, considering predictors using multivariable regression. Growth was estimated using multilevel models with child-specific intercepts and trajectories. Results: Median age at ART initiation was 9.4 years (inter-quartile range 7.8, 11.3) (n?=?582). At the first assessment, the majori...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
High HIV burden among people who inject drugs in 15 Indian cities
Conclusions: The burden of HIV infection is high among PWIDs in India, and may be increasing in cities where injecting drug use is emerging. Women who inject drugs were at substantially higher risk for HIV than men ? a situation that may be mediated by dual injection-related and sexual risks. (Source: AIDS)
Effects of a social network HIV/STD prevention intervention for MSM in Russia and Hungary: a randomized controlled trial
Conclusion: Even where same-sex behavior is stigmatized, it is possible to reach MSM and deliver HIV prevention through their social networks. (Source: AIDS)
Influence of lifelong cumulative HIV viremia on long-term recovery of CD4+ cell count and CD4+/CD8+ ratio among patients on combination antiretroviral therapy
Objective: We explored the impact of lifelong cumulative HIV viremia on immunological recovery during antiretroviral therapy, according to the timing of treatment initiation. Methods: We estimated lifelong cumulative HIV viremia in patients followed in the ANRS PRIMO cohort since primary infection, including 244 patients who started treatment during PHI and had at least one treatment interruption, and 218 patients who started treatment later but with no interruptions. The impact of cumulative viremia on current immunological status was analysed using linear and logistic regression models. Results: At the last visit on treatment, median CD4+ cell count was 645?cells/?l in the early/intermittent treatment group (median time from infection 9.5 years, 4.8 years of continuous treatment since...
Cerebrospinal fluid metabolomics implicate bioenergetic adaptation as a neural mechanism regulating shifts in cognitive states of HIV-infected patients
Conclusion: These CSF metabolic results suggest that worsening cognitive status in HIV-infected patients is associated with increased aerobic glycolysis, and improvements in cognitive status are associated with a shift to anaerobic glycolysis. Dietary, lifestyle and pharmacologic interventions that promote anaerobic glycolysis could protect the brain in setting of HIV infection with combined antiretroviral therapy. (Source: AIDS)
Faldaprevir and pegylated interferon ?-2a/ribavirin in individuals co-infected with hepatitis C virus genotype-1 and HIV
Objective: Faldaprevir is a potent, once-daily hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3/4A protease inhibitor. STARTVerso4 assessed the efficacy and safety of faldaprevir and response-guided pegylated interferon ?-2a/ribavirin (PegIFN/RBV) in individuals with HCV/HIV co-infection. Design: A phase 3 open-label study (NCT01399619). Methods: Individuals (N?=?308) co-infected with HCV genotype 1 (treatment-naive or prior interferon relapsers) and HIV [96% on antiretroviral therapy (ART)] received faldaprevir 120?mg (N?=?123) or 240?mg (N?=?185) and PegIFN/RBV. Those receiving a protease inhibitor or efavirenz ART were assigned to faldaprevir 120 or 240?mg, respectively. Individuals achieving early treatment success (ETS; HCV RNA (Source: AIDS)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Multivariate normative comparison, a novel method for more reliably detecting cognitive impairment in HIV infection
Conclusion: Prevalence of cognitive impairment in HIV-1-infected men with suppressed viremia on cART estimated by MNC was much higher than that estimated by Gisslén criteria, while the false positive rate was greatly reduced compared with the Frascati criteria. Video abstract: http://links.lww.com/QAD/A633 (Source: AIDS)
HIV-associated mucosal gene expression: region-specific alterations
Conclusion: These data demonstrate persistent, proinflammatory changes in the intestinal mucosa of virally suppressed HIV-infected individuals. These changes in intestinal gene expression may be the consequence of or contribute to barrier dysfunction and intestinal dysbiosis observed in HIV. (Source: AIDS)
Low SAMHD1 expression following T-cell activation and proliferation renders CD4+ T cells susceptible to HIV-1
Conclusion: We demonstrate that SAMHD1 expression is decreased during CD4+ T-cell activation and proliferation. Also, CD4+ T-cell subsets known to be more susceptible to HIV-1 infection, for example, T-helper 17 and follicular helper T cells, display lower levels of SAMHD1. These results pin point a role for SAMHD1 expression in HIV-1 infection and the concomitant depletion of CD4+ T cells. (Source: AIDS)
Up-regulation of Tim-3 on T cells during acute simian immunodeficiency virus infection and on antigen specific responders
Conclusion: Rhesus macaques show constitutive expression of Tim-3 primarily on innate immune cells, but markedly lower levels on T cells compared to humans. Nevertheless, Tim-3 expression on T cells is transiently up-regulated during acute, but not chronic, SIV infection, and appears to be a marker of antigen-specific effector cells. The exact role and contribution of Tim-3 to the modulation of antiviral responses in vivo will require additional investigation. (Source: AIDS)
The HLA-C*04: 01/KIR2DS4 gene combination and human leukocyte antigen alleles with high population frequency drive rate of HIV disease progression
Conclusion: These results highlight the impact of population allele frequency on viral control and identify a novel association between HLA-C*04?:?01 in combination with KIR2DS4f and uncontrolled HIV infection. Our data further support the importance of the interplay of markers of the adaptive and innate immune system in viral control. (Source: AIDS)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
South Africa: Life With HIV - "I Need to Take the Blood Tests, but I Also Need the Job"
[The Daily Vox]HIV can have a devastating effect on people and their families, particularly if they are poor and unemployed. Without treatment you may be too ill to work, but without money you might not get the treatment you need. MBALI JILI* (25) told Zimasa Matiwane about her struggle to get onto treatment and hold down a job at the same time. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: Zero Discrimination Day to Be Celebrated Around the World
[UNAIDS]Geneva -Discrimination continues to affect the lives of millions of people around the world. On 1 March, Zero Discrimination Day, people from all corners of the world will unite under the theme of Open Up, Reach Out in order to celebrate diversity and reject discrimination in all its forms. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: A Research Agenda for HIV Survivors
[SciDev.Net]Chronic disease among HIV positive people has been overlooked, say K. M. Venkat Narayan and Sten Vermund. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Swaziland: Mswati's HIV-Aids Idiocy Highlights Our Bitter Struggle
[COSATU]Swaziland's absolute ruler, [i]Mswati III, adds a grotesque twist to Marx's observation that history repeats itself, first as tragedy and then as farce. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
U.S. Push for Abstinence in Africa Is Seen as Failure Against H.I.V.
The government?s $1.3 billion program to stop HIV infection in Africa is not cost effective, a new study by a Stanford student shows. (Source: NYT Health)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
A rapid and highly specific method to evaluate the presence of 2-(2-phenylethyl) chromones in agarwood by supercritical fluid chromatography-mass spectrometry.
In this study, we developed a method using super- critical fluid chromatography in combination with mass spectrometry (SFC-MS). Tropylium ions, the characteristic product ions of 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones in tandem mass spectrometric experiments, were selected for the targeted detection of 2-(2-phenylethyl) chromones. This method used precursor ion scans for tropylium ions with different possible substitutions on a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer. To evaluate the usefulness of the developed method, a diethyl ether extract from a Chinese agarwood "Qi-Nan" sample was first separated using SFC, and the elutes were later subjected to precursor ion scans, which searched for 15 common substituted tropylium ions to evaluate the 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones. In the precursor ion scans, a total ...
Request for Information (RFI) Seeks Input Regarding the Strategic Vision for the National Library of Medicine (NLM)
Please take advantage of this opportunity to provide input to the Working Group of Advisory Committee to the NIH Director as they develop a strategic vision for NLM. &nbsp; http://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/notice-files/NOT-OD-15-067.html &nbsp; This Request for Information (RFI) seeks input regarding the strategic vision for the NLM to ensure that it remains an international leader in biomedical data and health information. In particular, comments are being sought regarding the current value of and future need for NLM programs, resources, research and training efforts, and services (e.g., databases, software, collections) &ndash; collectively referred to in this RFI hereafter as "NLM elements." &nbsp; Your comments can include but are not limited to the following topics: &nbsp; Current N...
Recent HIV/AIDS News from CDC, FDA, and NIAID
News from CDC February 24, 2015: CDC statement on IPERGAY trial of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention among men who have sex with men February 23, 2015: 9 in 10 new U.S. HIV infections come from people not receiving HIV care News from FDA February 18, 2015: Isentress (raltegravir) label update re: aluminum and/or magnesium hydroxide-containing antacids News from NIAID February 26, 2015: HIV controls its activity independent of host cells&nbsp;&nbsp; February 18, 2015: NIH-funded scientists create potential long-acting HIV therapeutic February 18, 2015: NIH-sponsored HIV vaccine trial launches in South Africa February 18, 2015: NIH-supported clinical trials to evaluate long-acting, injectable antiretroviral drugs to prevent HIV infection (Source: AID...
March 10 is National Women and Girls HIV/AIDS Awareness Day
National Women and Girls HIV/AIDS Awareness Day is a nationwide observance to promote HIV prevention, testing, and treatment to protect women and girls from HIV. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), at the end of 2010, women accounted for one in four people living with HIV infection in the United States. &nbsp; Browse our National Women and Girls HIV/AIDS Awareness Day webpage [en espa&ntilde;ol]&nbsp;to learn more about the annual observance and to find HIV/AIDS-related information specific to women and girls.&nbsp; (Source: AIDSinfo At-a-Glance: Offering Information on HIV/AIDS Treatment, Prevention, and Research, A Service of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS))
The HIV-1 transgenic rat model of neuroHIV.
Authors: Vigorito M, Connaghan KP, Chang SL Abstract Despite the ability of current combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART) to limit the progression of HIV-1 to AIDS, HIV-positive individuals continue to experience neuroHIV in the form of HIV-associated neurological disorders (HAND), which can range from subtle to substantial neurocognitive impairment. NeuroHIV may also influence substance use, abuse, and dependence in HIV-positive individuals. Because of the nature of the virus, variables such as mental health co-morbidities make it difficult to study the interaction between HIV and substance abuse in human populations. Several rodent models have been developed in an attempt to study the transmission and pathogenesis of the HIV-1 virus. The HIV-1 transgenic (HIV-1Tg) rat is a r...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
APOBEC3H polymorphisms associated with the susceptibility to HIV-1 infection and AIDS progression in Japanese

Next-Gen Tenofovir for HIV Kinder on Kidneys and BonesNext-Gen Tenofovir for HIV Kinder on Kidneys and Bones
Plasma levels are much lower with the prodrug version of tenofovir, which has an improved safety profile and helped the drug become a candidate for use in pre-exposure prophylaxis and in children. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)
Increased mortality after a first myocardial infarction in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients; a nested cohort study.
CONCLUSIONS: HIV infection was associated with a significantly increased risk of all-cause mortality one year after incident AMI. PMID: 25705241 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Therapy)
HIV prevention finally has a game-changer, and it?s called Truvada
If the NHS and policymakers are bold, it could spell the end for HIV in the UK Continue reading... (Source: Guardian Unlimited Science)
Nigeria: More Evidence Back Preventing HIV Infection in High-Risk Persons With Aids Drugs
[Guardian]THE proposed plan by the National Agency for Control of AIDS (NACA) and its global partners to give antiretroviral drugs (ARV) to high-risk persons, especially men having sex with men (MSM), to prevent new Human Immuno-deficiency Virus (HIV) infections has been backed by more evidence. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Nigeria: HIV/Aids - More Prevention of Mother Child Transmission Centres Established in Gombe
[Independent (Lagos)]Gombe State Agency for the Control of HIV/AIDS (GOMSACA) has said it had increased the number of Prevention of Mother Child Transmission (PMCT) centres from 185 to 225 in the state. Project Managerof the agency, Dr Suraj Abdulkarim, told the News Agency of Nigeria (NAN) in Gombe at the weekend that the centres were sited across the state. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: New Studies 'Significant Breakthrough' in HIV Prevention, Says UN Agency Combating Virus
[UN News]The United Nations programme working to combat HIV/AIDS welcomed yesterday the results of a number of recent clinical studies of the effects of antiretroviral medicines on preventing new HIV infections, which were presented at a conference on viruses held in Seattle. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
A Meta-Analysis of Risky Sexual Behaviour among Male Youth in Developing Countries.
Authors: Berhan Y, Berhan A Abstract The purpose of this meta-analysis was to assess the association between risky sexual behaviour and level of education and economic status in male youth. Previous tests of the association of risky sexual behaviour with levels of education and economic status have yielded inconsistent results. Using data from 26 countries, from both within and outside Africa, we performed a meta-analysis with a specific focus on male youths' risky sexual behaviour. We applied a random effects analytic model and calculated a pooled odds ratio. Out of 19,148 males aged 15-24 years who reported having sexual intercourse in the 12 months preceding the survey, 75% engaged in higher-risk sex. The proportion of higher-risk sex among male youth aged 15-19 years was nearly...
Zimbabwe: Prioritise Employee Well-Being
[The Herald]At the Institute of People Management in Zimbabwe's Labour Briefing held on November 19 2014, the Ministry of Public Service, Labour and Social Welfare announced that it had promulgated a new Statutory Instrument (SI 105 of 2014) to regulate issues on HIV/AIDS at the workplace. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Zimbabwe: Aids Union Launched
[The Herald]HEALTH Advisor in the Office of The President and Cabinet Dr Timothy Stamps has launched the Mashonaland East chapter of the Zimbabwe HIV/ AIDS Activist Union Trust (ZHAAUCT) to help address the needs of people living with HIV in rural areas. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
The end of AIDS?
Publication date: March 2015 Source:The Lancet HIV, Volume 2, Issue 3 Author(s): The Lancet HIV (Source: The Lancet HIV)
How can we end paediatric AIDS?
Publication date: March 2015 Source:The Lancet HIV, Volume 2, Issue 3 Author(s): Francesca Celletti , Jennifer Cohen , Catherine Connor , Marc Lallemant , Janice Soo Fern Lee (Source: The Lancet HIV)
Genome editing strategies: potential tools for eradicating HIV-1/AIDS
Abstract Current therapy for controlling human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection and preventing acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) progression has profoundly decreased viral replication in cells susceptible to HIV-1 infection, but it does not eliminate the low level of viral replication in latently infected cells, which contain integrated copies of HIV-1 proviral DNA. There is an urgent need for the development of HIV-1 genome eradication strategies that will lead to a permanent or ?sterile? cure of HIV-1/AIDS. In the past few years, novel nuclease-initiated genome editing tools have been developing rapidly, including zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and the CRISPR/Cas9 system. These surgical knives, which ca...
Taking Pill Before, After Sex Cuts HIV Infection for Gay Men: Study
Research suggests that Truvada doesn't need to be taken daily, but more study still needed (Source: Fertility News - Doctors Lounge)
Direct enzyme assay evidence confirms aldehyde reductase function of Ydr541cp and Ygl039wp from Saccharomyces cerevisiae
This study presents partially purified proteins of two ORFs, YDR541C and YGL039W, and direct enzyme assay evidence against aldehyde?inhibitory compounds commonly encountered during lignocellulosic biomass fermentation processes. Each of the partially purified proteins encoded by these ORFs showed a molecular mass of approximately 38?kDa, similar to Ari1p, a protein encoded by aldehyde reductase gene. Both proteins demonstrated strong aldehyde reduction activities toward 14 aldehyde substrates, with high levels of reduction activity for Ydr541cp toward both aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes. While Ydr541cp was observed to have a significantly higher specific enzyme activity at 20 U/mg using co?factor NADPH, Ygl039wp displayed a NADH preference at 25 U/mg in reduction of butylaldehyde. ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
New frontiers in the future of palliative care: real-world bioethical dilemmas and axiology of clinical practice
Conclusions: This investigation opens up new horizons in a career path where professional wearing is rampant. The rediscovery of values and virtues in palliative clinical practice will renew and replenish the motivation of healthcare providers who carry out these duties, giving them a new professional and personal perspective of growth. (Source: BMC Medical Ethics)
Diagnostic accuracy of 2 cone-beam computed tomography protocols for detecting arthritic changes in temporomandibular joints
Conclusions Based on the results of this study, the 180° CBCT acquisition protocol can detect small and large arthritic lesions with high reliability and is comparable with the 360° spin acquisition. (Source: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics)
Trends of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Lyon University Hospitals from 1985 to 2011: continuous decrease since the introduction of HAART
(Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Recall of Nadir CD4 Cell Count and Most Recent HIV Viral Load Among HIV-Infected, Socially Marginalized Adults
Abstract Lower nadir CD4 cell counts and higher HIV viral loads are associated with increased risks of adverse events in the progression of HIV disease. In cases where medical records are inaccessible or incomplete, little evidence is available regarding whether nadir CDR cell count or HIV viral load is reliably reported in any patient population. We compare survey data collected from 207 HIV-infected individuals detained in San Francisco jails to data collected from electronic medical records (EMR) kept by the jails and community health providers. The sensitivity of self-reported nadir CD4 cell count less than 200 was 82 % [95 % confidence interval (CI) 68, 88], and the sensitivity of reporting an undetectable most recent HIV viral load was 93 % (95 % CI 84, 97). This suggest...
Alcohol-Related Diagnoses and All-Cause Hospitalization Among HIV-Infected and Uninfected Patients: A Longitudinal Analysis of United States Veterans from 1997 to 2011
Abstract Individuals with HIV infection are living substantially longer on antiretroviral therapy, but hospitalization rates continue to be relatively high. We do not know how overall or diagnosis-specific hospitalization rates compare between HIV-infected and uninfected individuals or what conditions may drive hospitalization trends. Hospitalization rates among United States Veterans were calculated and stratified by HIV serostatus and principal diagnosis disease category. Because alcohol-related diagnoses (ARD) appeared to have a disproportional effect, we further stratified our calculations by ARD history. A multivariable Cox proportional hazards model was fitted to assess the relative risk of hospitalization controlling for demographic and other comorbidity variables. From...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Understanding Gay Community Subcultures: Implications for HIV Prevention
We examined men?s participation in gay community subcultures, and its association with risk behavior. In a cross-sectional survey, 849 GBM provided information about men in their personal networks. We devised measures of their participation in five subcultural groupings and explored their associations with sexual behavior. We identified five subcultural groupings: sexually adventurous; bear tribes; alternative queer; party scene; and sexually conservative. Higher scores on the sexually adventurous measure was associated with being older, having more gay friends, being HIV-positive, and being more sexually active. It was also independently associated with unprotected anal intercourse with casual partners (AOR 1.82; 95 % CI 1.20?2.76; p = 0.005). HIV prevention strategies need to acco...
The ?Fears? of Disclosing HIV Status to Sexual Partners: A Mixed Methods Study in a Counseling Setting in Ghana
This study aimed at determining the disclosure rate and factors that influence disclosure in Cape Coast, Ghana. In-depth interviews of 15 peer educators and a survey of 510 PLHIV were used in a mixed methods study design. Majority of the study participants (78.6 %) had disclosed their HIV positive status to their sexual partners. Although peer educators in this study portrayed the overall outcome of disclosure to be negative, 84.0 % of disclosers were accepted by their partners without negative consequences after disclosure. This study suggests that the existing support services ill prepares newly diagnosed HIV positive clients and hampers disclosure initiatives. Providing comprehensive support services and re-training peer educators may be crucial in creating a safe disclosure environme...
A Systematic Review of HIV and STI Behavior Change Interventions for Female Sex Workers in the United States
Abstract The lives of female sex workers (FSW) in the US are typically marked by substance abuse, violence, trauma, and poverty. These factors place FSW at risk for acquiring and transmitting HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The purpose of this systematic review is to examine HIV/STI interventions conducted in the US that aim to reduce sexual- or drug-related risk behavior among FSW. Eighteen studies describing 19 unique interventions met our selection criteria: five exclusively targeted FSW, two reported stratified data for FSW, and 12 included at least 50 % FSW. Results indicate that 15 interventions provided HIV/STI information, 13 provided substance abuse prevention information, and few included content tailored to specific needs of FSW. Our findings sugg...
?If I don?t use a condom ? I would be stressed in my heart that I?ve done something wrong?: Routine Prevention Messages Preclude Safer Conception Counseling for HIV-Infected Men and Women in South Africa
Discussions about pregnancy focused on maternal and child health, not sexual HIV transmission; no participants had received tailored safer conception advice. Although participants welcomed safer conception counseling, barriers to client-initiated discussions included narrowly focused prevention messages and perceptions that periconception transmission risk is not modifiable. Supporting providers to assess clients? fertility intentions and offer appropriate advice, and public health campaigns that address sexual HIV transmission in the context of conception may improve awareness of and access to safer conception strategies. (Source: AIDS and Behavior)
Efficacy of genotypic drug resistance testing in patients with low-level plasma HIV-1 viremia
Conclusions Success rate for genotyping at low plasma viremia levels is high and allows to guide treatment optimization. As drug resistance is commonly found at low viral loads, genotyping should be attempted in every virologically failing patient regardless the plasma viremia. (Source: HIV and AIDS Review)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Research captures transient details of HIV genome packaging
Researchers have employed a recently developed technique to capture how a viral protein, Gag, selectively extracts and packages viral RNA into the viral particles that exported to new cells. More &#187; (Source: The Rockefeller University Newswire)
Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Halts Real-world HIV TransmissionPre-exposure Prophylaxis Halts Real-world HIV Transmission
Prophylactic treatment with tenofovir and emtricitabine is highly effective and likely has no effect on risk behavior, two new studies show. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)
Taking Pill Before, After Sex Cuts HIV Infection for Gay Men
Research suggests that Truvada doesn't need to be taken daily, but more study still neededSource: HealthDay Related MedlinePlus Pages: Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender Health, HIV/AIDS Medicines (Source: MedlinePlus Health News)
Botswana: NACA Coordinator Mobilises Community Leaders
[Botswana Daily News]Gaborone -NACA coordinator, Ms Grace Muzila, says there is need for community leadership to take part in the fight against the HIV/AIDS scourge so as to address HIV prevention from grassroots. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Gambia: HIV/Aids Community Treatment Training Is Underway
[Foroyaa]A five day training of community treatment activists on HIV/AIDS commenced yesterday, Monday, 23rd February 2015 at the Paradise Suites hotel in Kololi. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Kenya: Parents Oppose Proposal On Children's Condoms
[The Star]Parents in Kisumu county have opposed a proposal to provide condoms to school children. Maseno School Parents Teachers Association chairman James Obondi said the proposal will affect education. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Malawi: Mangochi Council Chair for Paradigm Shift On HIV/Aids Fight
[Malawi News Agency]Chairperson for the Mangochi District Council, Councillor Yusuf Kusweje has tipped stakeholders involved in the fight against the HIV/AIDS pandemic to emphasise on abstinence, condom use and faithfulness among couples. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: HIV/Aids Prevalence Rate in Nigeria Drops to 3.4 Percent - NACA
[Leadership]The HIV/AIDS prevalence rate in Nigeria has dropped from 5.1 per cent to 3.4 per cent, the National Agency for the Control of AIDS (NACA) has said. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
South Africa: Vaginal Gel Fails to Protect Against HIV Despite Earlier Trial
[Health-e]In a blow for HIV prevention, a vaginal gel that showed some effect against HIV in an earlier trial has failed to protect women in a big follow-up trial. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
New studies show ?significant breakthrough? in HIV prevention, says UN agency combating virus
The United Nations programme working to combat HIV/AIDS welcomed yesterday the results of a number of recent clinical studies of the effects of antiretroviral medicines on preventing new HIV infections, which were presented at a conference on viruses held in Seattle. (Source: UN News Centre - Health, Poverty, Food Security)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Concurrent partnerships in Cape Town, South Africa: race and sex differences in prevalence and duration of overlap.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that in this population the prevalence of CPs is relatively high and is characterized by overlaps of long duration, implying there may be opportunities for HIV to be transmitted to concurrent partners. PMID: 25697328 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Trials Show HIV Drugs to Be Effective
New findings from clinical trials show how well drugs meant to treat the AIDS virus can protect people, but the trials also show the limits of certain prevention methods. (Source: WSJ.com: Health)
Low-vision Service Provision by Optometrists: A Canadian Nationwide Survey
Conclusions: This is the first comprehensive study of LVS provision by optometrists in Canada. In order for optometrists to become more involved in LVS, there is a need for more LV education, provincial health coverage of optometric LVS, and better collaboration communication between LV providers. (Source: Optometry and Vision Science)
Community perspective on the INSIGHT Strategic Timing of AntiRetroviral Treatment (START) trial
Determining when to start antiretroviral treatment (ART) is vitally important for people living with HIV. Yet the optimal point at which to start to maximize clinical benefit remains unknown. In the absence of randomized studies, current guidelines rely on conflicting observational data and expert opinion, and consequently diverge on this point. In the USA, ART is recommended irrespective of CD4 cell count. The World Health Organization now recommends starting ART at a CD4 cell count of 500?cells/?L, while the threshold for the UK and South Africa remains at 350?cells/?L. The Strategic Timing of AntiRetroviral Treatment (START) study, one of the largest clinical trials on the treatment of HIV infection, will answer this question. START compares two treatment strategies: immediate tre...
Stigma, subsistence, intimacy, face, filial piety, and mental health problems among newly HIV-diagnosed men who have sex with men in China
High rates of mental health problems among people living with HIV (PLWH) have been widely reported in the literature, however an understanding of the socio-ecological contexts of these presentations remains limited, particularly in China. In order to explore potential socio-ecological factors associated with mental health problems among newly diagnosed HIV-infected migrant men who have sex with men (MSM), we employed a life profile approach conducting semi-structured in-depth interviews with 31 newly diagnosed HIV-infected MSM residing in a city in Southern China. (Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
A Preliminary Evaluation of a Community-Based Campaign to Increase Awareness of Concurrency and HIV Transmission in African American and African-Born Communities
Abstract We evaluate an innovative grassroots community-based campaign in Seattle, WA focused on educating African American and African-born communities about concurrent partnerships and HIV transmission. Respondents completed a short self-administered questionnaire on a handheld personal digital assistant to evaluate the reach, acceptability and preliminary efficacy of the campaign. Of those who remembered seeing the campaign materials (82 %), social networks were the most common source of exposure (80 %). Respondents rated campaign materials very visually attractive (86 %), very interesting (91 %), and very important for themselves (90 %) and their community (93 %). Respondents reported that the campaign increased their knowledge about concurrency (84 %), changed their at...
Cash Payments Fail to Improve H.I.V. Drug Adherence, Researchers Say
Scientists at an AIDS conference in Seattle said paying patients as much as $280 a year to take AIDS-prevention drugs failed to significantly improve adherence or infection rates. (Source: NYT Health)
Study That Paid Patients to Take H.I.V. Drugs Fails
Scientists at an AIDS conference in Seattle said paying patients as much as $280 a year to take AIDS-prevention drugs failed to significantly improve adherence or infection rates. (Source: NYT Health)
Impact of Age on Retention in Care and Viral Suppression
Conclusions: These results have important implications for improving viral control among younger adults, emphasizing the crucial role retention in care plays in supporting viral suppression in this population. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Preventative treatment dramatically reduces HIV risk in gay men
LONDON (Reuters) - Gay men at high risk of HIV who took a daily dose of a Gilead AIDS drug as a preventative measure cut their risk of infection by 86 percent, according to results of a British trial released on Tuesday. (Source: Reuters: Health)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Rwanda: Police Training School Houses New Blood Collection Site
[Focus]The National Center for Blood Transfusion (NCBT) has opened a center for blood collection in the main police training school in Gishari, Rwamagana. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
HIV Care Slammed by Ebola (CME/CE)
(MedPage Today) -- Even when care was available, patients stayed away. (Source: MedPage Today HIV/AIDS)
Daily pill Truvada cuts spread of HIV by 86%, study shows
Study looking at transmission among men who have sex with men recruited 545 participants at high risk of contracting HIV A daily pill can effectively protect gay men against infection with HIV, a UK trial has shown, which experts say now offers hope of reversing the virus?s spread.Taking the drug, called Truvada, could become a daily routine for men who have sex with men in the same way that the contraceptive pill is for women, some believe. NHS England will now study the results to determine whether it is cost effective to provide it for men at risk of infection. Continue reading... (Source: Guardian Unlimited Science)
South Africa: Speech - Gauteng 2015 State of the Province Address
[Health-e]Gauteng Premier David Makhura reveals how Gauteng health facilities stack up in his latest State of the Province Address. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Gambia: Training Under Way On Community Treatment for PlHIV
[The Point]A-six-day training session organised for People Living with HIV by the Gambia Network of AIDS Support Societies and funded by the German Agency for International Cooperation, through the International Treatment Preparedness Coalition, commenced on Monday at the Paradise Suites Hotel. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Nigeria: Nigeria's HIV/Aids Prevalence Drops to 3.4 Percent
[Independent (Lagos)]Uyo -The National Agency for the Control of AIDS (NACA) has said the HIV/AIDS prevalence rate in Nigeria has dropped from 5.1 per cent to 3.4 per cent. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: Govt Backs Anti - HIV/Aids War With N8 Billion
[Vanguard]Umuahia -The Federal Government has provided N8 billion to take ownership and sustain the drive against HIV/AIDS. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: Govt to Spend N8 Billion On HIV/Aids in Taraba, Abia
[Daily Trust]Jalingo -The federal government has released N8 billion for the fight of HIV/AIDS in Taraba and Abia states through the National Agency for Control of HIV/AIDS SURE-P implementation programme. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
South Africa: Know Your Status
[SAnews.gov.za]Pretoria -The Department of Higher Education and Training has launched its First Things First campaign at the Waterberg Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) College at Lebowakgomo campus, Limpopo. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
A Developing Framework for the Development, Implementation and Maintenance of HIV Interventions in the African American Church.
Authors: Stewart JM Abstract The African American church has promoted the health of African Americans through supporting interventions that target a wide variety of diseases, and it is a crucial community partner in the development of HIV prevention interventions. Although research has described the development of church-based HIV interventions, there is a significant lack of frameworks and approaches available to guide the implementation and maintenance of HIV interventions within church-based settings. A developing framework of a comprehensive church-based intervention, derived from an ethnographic study about the development, implementation, and maintenance of an HIV/AIDS Ministry within an African American church is presented. This approach can provide guidance to support the d...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Lapses in Diagnoses, Care Tied to 91% of New HIV InfectionsLapses in Diagnoses, Care Tied to 91% of New HIV Infections
Focusing prevention efforts on diagnosing and keeping patients on antiretrovirals could greatly decrease spread in the United States, but would come with considerable difficulty and cost. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)
Nigeria: WHO Urges Single-Use Syringes, Action Over Mers Virus
[Guardian]DETERMINED to protect people from infections acquired through unsafe injections such as hepatitis B and C, and Human Immuno-deficiency Virus (HIV), the World Health Organisation (WHO), yesterday, called for all health-care programmes to switch to syringes that cannot be used more than once. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: How Airtel Backing Campaign Against HIV/Aids - Naca DG
[Independent (Lagos)]The Director General of the National Agency for Control of Aids (NACA), Professor John Idoko, has showered encomiums on leading telecommunications services provider, Airtel Nigeria, for its leading role in providing practical, relevant and continuous assistance in the fight against the dreaded HIV/AIDS. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
HBsAg seroprevalence among Senegalese militaries
Conclusions: The high prevalence of HBsAg in the military requires the implementation of an effective prevention and care program to reduce the risk of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma and contribute to reducing the burden of communicable diseases, such as hepatitis and HIV/AIDS, and non-communicable diseases. (Source: Epidemiologic Perspectives and Innovations)
Focusing National Institutes of Health HIV/AIDS Research for Maximum Population Impact
Progress in advancing research on the pathophysiology, prevention, treatment, and impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is threatened by the decaying purchasing power of National Institutes of Health (NIH) dollars. A working group of the NIH Office of AIDS Research Advisory Council was charged by the NIH Director with developing a focused and concise blueprint to guide the use of limited funding over the next few years. Science priorities outlined by the working group and reported here are intended to maximally address individuals, groups, and settings most affected by the epidemic, and to redress shortcomings in realizing population-level HIV prevention, treatment, and eradication goals. Optimizing these priorities requires that traditional silos&mdash;defined by topic focus and by...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
End-Stage Renal Disease Among HIV-Infected Adults in North America
Conclusions.&nbsp;The risk of ESRD remains high among HIV-infected individuals in care but is declining with improvements in virologic suppression. HIV-infected black persons continue to comprise the majority of cases, as a result of higher viral loads, comorbidities, and genetic susceptibility. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Comparison of the Prognostic Value of Liver Biopsy and FIB-4 Index in Patients Coinfected With HIV and Hepatitis C Virus
Conclusions.&nbsp;FIB-4 outperformed LB as a predictor of OD and LRE. These findings are of relevance for clinical practice and research and call into question the role of LB as a gold standard for assessing prognosis in HIV/HCV coinfection. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Prevalence, Correlates, and Outcomes of Cryptococcal Antigen Positivity Among Patients With AIDS, United States, 1986-2012
Conclusions.&nbsp;The prevalence of cryptococcal infection among advanced AIDS patients in the United States was high and above the published cost-effectiveness threshold for routine screening. We recommend routine CrAg screening among human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with a CD4 count &le;100 cells/&micro;L to detect and treat early infection. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
HBsAg seroprevalence among Senegalese militaries
Conclusions The high prevalence of HBsAg in the military requires the implementation of an effective prevention and care program to reduce the risk of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma and contribute to reducing the burden of communicable diseases, such as hepatitis and HIV/AIDS, and non-communicable diseases. (Source: Military Medical Research)
ACOG Guideline Aids Transition From Pediatric to Adult CareACOG Guideline Aids Transition From Pediatric to Adult Care
Asking young women about sleep, sex, drugs, exercise, and eating habits can identify preventive care needs. The ACOG's recommendations also address schedules for breast and pelvic exams. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Most HIV Infections Come From Undiagnosed or Untreated People: Study
Findings suggest there's a long way to go in containing spread of the disease (Source: Fertility News - Doctors Lounge)
Most HIV Infections Come from Undiagnosed or Untreated People
Findings suggest there's a long way to go in containing spread of the disease Source: HealthDay Related MedlinePlus Page: HIV/AIDS (Source: MedlinePlus Health News)
Pediatric Hearing Aid Use: Parent-Reported Challenges
Conclusions: Parents reported an array of challenges, even after their child had been wearing hearing aids for a prolonged time, revealing critical implications for how to provide audiological care. Audiologists have an important role in partnering with parents to identify and jointly problem-solving challenges related to their child?s hearing aid use. Supporting parents includes not only addressing technical aspects of hearing testing and hearing aid function but also addressing parent thoughts, feelings, and emotions. (Source: Ear and Hearing)
Development of the Adaptive Music Perception Test
Conclusion: The AMP test revealed differences in a wide range of music perceptual abilities between NH and HI listeners. The recognition of meter was more difficult for HI listeners when the listening task was based on frequency discrimination. The HI group was less sensitive to changes in harmony and had more difficulties with distinguishing melodies in a background of music. In addition, the thresholds to discriminate timbre were significantly higher for the HI group in brightness and spectral irregularity dimensions. The AMP test can be used as a research tool to further investigate music perception with hearing aids and compare the benefit of different music processing strategies for the HI listener. Future testing will involve larger samples with the inclusion of hearing aided conditi...
Time when Southwest was wet and Northwest was dry aids efforts to predict future rainfall patterns
The first comprehensive map of the topsy-turvy climate in the western U.S, 21,000 years ago has been developed by researchers. They focus on when the Southwest was wet and the Northwest was dry, testing it to improve the global climate models that have been developed to predict how precipitation patterns will change in the future. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Updated Basic Statistics from the 2013 HIV Surveillance Report
The Basic Statistics page has been updated with information from the CDC HIV Surveillance Report: Diagnoses of HIV infection and AIDS in the United States and Dependent Areas, 2013. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
Updated Statistics Overview from the 2013 HIV Surveillance Report
The Statistics Overview page has been updated with information from the CDC HIV Surveillance Report: Diagnoses of HIV infection and AIDS in the United States and Dependent Areas, 2013. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
Updated Surveillance Slide Set: HIV Surveillance by Race/Ethnicity (through 2013)
This report, published by the Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention (DHAP), summarizes information about HIV infection by race in the United States and dependent areas. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
Updated Surveillance Slide Set: HIV Surveillance in Women (through 2013)
This report, published by the Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention (DHAP), summarizes information about HIV infection in females in the United States and dependent areas. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
Updated Surveillance Slide Set: HIV Surveillance - Epidemiology of HIV Infection (through 2013)
This report, published by the Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention (DHAP), summarizes information about the epidemiology of HIV infection in the United States and dependent areas. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
New HIV Surveillance Report: Diagnoses of HIV Infection in the United States and Dependent Areas, 2013
The annual surveillance report, published by the Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention (DHAP), summarizes information about diagnosed HIV infection in the United States and dependent areas. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
Updated Basic Statistics from the 2013 HIV Surveillance Report
The Basic Statistics page has been updated with information from the CDC HIV Surveillance Report: Diagnoses of HIV infection and AIDS in the United States and Dependent Areas, 2013. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
Updated Statistics Overview from the 2013 HIV Surveillance Report
The Statistics Overview page has been updated with information from the CDC HIV Surveillance Report: Diagnoses of HIV infection and AIDS in the United States and Dependent Areas, 2013. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
What's Working: Public Health Progress Since the Haiti 2010 Earthquake
The hardest moment of my 6 years as CDC director was telling the family of Diane Caves, a young professional staff member at CDC, that she had died in the Haiti earthquake. Diane was one of many who lost their lives in this devastating earthquake. The 7.0 magnitude earthquake that hit Haiti in January 2010 killed more than a hundred thousand people and displaced another 1.5 million. It also decimated the country's already fragile health care system, and was followed by a devastating cholera outbreak that affected more than 725,000 people. As a country, Haiti has faced and continues to face enormous difficulties, but it has also proven remarkably resilient. Addressing the public health needs of Haiti and helping them recover has been a daunting task, but it's one that CDC, along with th...
Africa: How the HIV Response Is Failing Teens Across Southern Africa
[Key Correspondents]Also published on healthnewsng.com (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Kenya: New Pregnancy HIV Prevention Tools On the Way
[The Star]Janet is a young woman who is in primary school and already has two children. Janet's mother worries that she has not stopped seeing men despite the many talks they have had and the many counselling sessions she has taken her to. She worries that Janet is not using any protection to avoid pregnancy. Out of desperation, she took Janet to a family planning clinic to be initiated on contraceptives (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Swaziland: Media Back King's False HIV Promise
[Swazi Media]Newspapers in Swaziland lost their critical faculties when they reported that King Mswati 'would personally' eradicate HIV and AIDS in the kingdom by 2022. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
HIV Transmission and the History of HIV/AIDS
(Source: eMedicineHealth.com)
Ineffective Use of Oral Pre-exposure Prophylaxis in WomenIneffective Use of Oral Pre-exposure Prophylaxis in Women
Does ineffective use of oral HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis lead to antiretroviral drug resistance? AIDS (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
Single-Class Maintenance Therapy After Standard Triple ARTSingle-Class Maintenance Therapy After Standard Triple ART
HIV patients with dyslipidemia may benefit from a single-class NRTI regimen after successful induction with standard ART. HIV Medicine (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
[Comment] Combination HIV prevention and the battle of the sexes
1·6 million new HIV infections occur every year in sub-Saharan Africa.1 Transmission is predominantly heterosexual, and women (by comparison with men) are disproportionately infected. The international agencies that propose policy guidelines for control of the HIV pandemic, such as WHO and the Joint UN Programme on HIV and AIDS, have recognised the crucial need to reduce the number of new infections in women and girls and mother-to-child transmission of HIV.2 (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Critique and Lessons Learned from using Multiple Methods to Estimate Population Size of Men who have Sex with Men in Ghana
Abstract Population size estimation of key populations at risk of HIV is essential to every national response. We implemented population size estimation of men who have sex with men (MSM) in Ghana using a three-stage approach within the 2011 Ghana Men?s Study: during the study?s formative assessment, the larger integrated bio-behavioral surveillance (IBBS) survey; and during the stakeholder meeting. We used six methods in combination within the three-stage approach (literature review, mapping with census, unique object multiplier, service multiplier, wisdom of the crowd, and modified Delphi) to generate size estimates from 16 locations (4 IBBS survey sites and 12 other locations) and used the estimates from the 16 sites to extrapolate the total MSM population size of Ghana. We...
Rwanda: Week in Health - First Rapid Ebola Test Developed
[New Times]A rapid test that takes 15 minutes should now allow Ebola patients to be identified, isolated and cared for as quickly as possible. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
The Impact of Clinical, Demographic and Risk Factors on Rates of HIV Transmission: A Population-based Phylogenetic Analysis in British Columbia, Canada
Conclusions.&nbsp;Hotspots of ongoing HIV transmission can be characterized in near real time by the secondary analysis of HIV resistance genotypes, providing an important potential resource for targeting public health initiatives for HIV prevention. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Alternative Effector-Function Profiling Identifies Broad HIV-Specific T-Cell Responses in Highly HIV-Exposed Individuals Who Remain Uninfected
The characterization of host immune responses to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in HIV controllers and individuals with high exposure but seronegativity to HIV (HESN) is needed to guide the development of effective preventive and therapeutic vaccine candidates. However, several technical hurdles severely limit the definition of an effective virus-specific T-cell response. By using a toggle-peptide approach, which takes HIV sequence diversity into account, and a novel, boosted cytokine staining/flow cytometry strategy, we here describe new patterns of T-cell responses to HIV that would be missed by standard assays. Importantly, this approach also allows detection of broad and strong virus-specific T-cell responses in HESN individuals that are characterized by a T-helper type 1 cytokine&...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Potent Immune Responses in Rhesus Macaques Induced by Nonviral Delivery of a Self-amplifying RNA Vaccine Expressing HIV Type 1 Envelope With a Cationic Nanoemulsion
Self-amplifying messenger RNA (mRNA) of positive-strand RNA viruses are effective vectors for in situ expression of vaccine antigens and have potential as a new vaccine technology platform well suited for global health applications. The SAM vaccine platform is based on a synthetic, self-amplifying mRNA delivered by a nonviral delivery system. The safety and immunogenicity of an HIV SAM vaccine encoding a clade C envelope glycoprotein formulated with a cationic nanoemulsion (CNE) delivery system was evaluated in rhesus macaques. The HIV SAM vaccine induced potent cellular immune responses that were greater in magnitude than those induced by self-amplifying mRNA packaged in a viral replicon particle (VRP) or by a recombinant HIV envelope protein formulated with MF59 adjuvant, anti-envelope b...
Isolated MCA Disease in Patients Without Significant Atherosclerotic Risk Factors: A High-Resolution Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study [Clinical Sciences]
Conclusions&mdash; In our cohort of young patients with minimal risk factors, atherosclerosis seems to be an uncommon pathology of middle cerebral artery stenosis. HR-MRI aids us to make a more reliable diagnosis. (Source: Stroke)
AIDS epidemic began in Cameroon in 1908 says Chimp and River book by David Quammen
David Quammen traces the history of AIDS in his new book, The Chimp and the River. He says AIDS began in Cameroon around 1908 when a hunter in the rainforest was infected by a chimp he killed. (Source: the Mail online | Health)
Malawi: ARV Shortages Hit Hospitals
[Malawi24]The lifelong sustaining drug, Anti Retro Viral (ARV) drugs given to people living with HIV/AIDS in Malawi has become scarce in the country's hospitals putting at risk lives of millions of people. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Cohort Profile: HAART Observational Medical Evaluation and Research (HOMER) Cohort
Since 1986, antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been available free of charge to individuals living with HIV in British Columbia (BC), Canada, through the BC Centre of Excellence in HIV/AIDS (BC-CfE) Drug Treatment Program (DTP). The Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) Observational Medical Evaluation and Research (HOMER) cohort was established in 1996 to maintain a prospective record of clinical measurements and medication profiles of a subset of DTP participants initiating HAART in BC. This unique cohort provides a comprehensive data source to investigate mortality, prognostic factors and treatment response among people living with HIV in BC from the inception of HAART. Currently over 5000 individuals are enrolled in the HOMER cohort. Data captured include socio-demographic charact...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance mutations among antiretroviral therapy-Naïve individuals in Surabaya, Indonesia
Conclusion: This study clarified the predominance of the CRF01_AE strain in Surabaya, Indonesia. The prevalence of TDR was below 5%, indicating that the currently available first-line regimen is still effective in Surabaya. However, the prevalence might be underestimated since we detected only major population of HIV-1 in individuals. Therefore, continuous surveillance is required in order to detect the emergence of TDR in the early phase. (Source: AIDS Research and Therapy)
Increased mortality after a first myocardial infarction in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients; a nested cohort study
Conclusions: HIV infection was associated with a significantly increased risk of all-cause mortality one year after incident AMI. (Source: AIDS Research and Therapy)
The Oswestry Risk Index ? internal validation study
The Oswestry Spinal Risk Index (OSRI) has been shown to predict survival in patients with spinal metastases. It aids with difficult decision making in this complex group of patients. (Source: The Spine Journal)
The effect of acute exercise on cigarette cravings while using a nicotine lozenge
Conclusion These findings demonstrate that an acute bout of exercise provides additional craving relief to the nicotine lozenge in recently quit smokers. We recommend smokers who attempt to quit employ both cessation aids simultaneously to maximize reductions in cravings. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Long-Term Consequences of Hepatitis C Viral Clearance on the CD4 (+) T Cell Lymphocyte Course in HIV/HCV Coinfected Patients.
Authors: Dazley J, Sison R, Slim J Abstract The long-term impact of pegylated-interferon plus ribavirin treatment outcome on CD4 T cell course in patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus is largely unclear in the literature. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of HCV-RNA clearance by standard anti-HCV therapy on long-term CD4 cells recovery in HIV/HCV patients on successful combined antiretroviral therapy. We retrospectively enrolled HIV/HCV-coinfected patients on HIV medications and treated for hepatitis C. CD4 + T cell counts were registered at baseline and after hepatitis C therapy. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to identify independent predictors of CD4 + T cell change following the anti-HCV treatment outcome...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Institutional Review of Compliance With NCCN Guidelines for Breast Cancer: Lessons Learned From Real-Time Multidimensional Synoptic Reporting.
CONCLUSIONS: High compliance with NCCN Guidelines was demonstrated. Reasons for noncompliance were identifiable. Compliance and nonadherence can be evaluated quickly with electronic synoptic reporting. This allows real-time action plans to address quality concerns and aids national risk adjustment for comparison and benchmarking. PMID: 25691610 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network : JNCCN)
Chronic lymphocytic lymphoma presenting with recurrent demodicidosis
Demodex folliculorum is a common obligatory human ectoparasite commonly seen in areas of high sebum production that does not commonly present with clinical symptoms in the immunocompetent patient. Demodicidosis presents clinically as a rosacea-like rash when a high density of Demodex mites are present in the pilosebaceous glands. This clinical manifestation of Demodex folliculorum has been associated with primary, acquired, and malignant immunocompromised states. Although most commonly reported in patients with AIDS and pediatric patients with leukemia, it is not often seen in adults with chronic lymphocytic leukemia as the presentation before the initiation of chemotherapy. (Source: Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology)
The impact of sporotrichosis in HIV-infected patients: a systematic review
Abstract Sporotrichosis is a fungal infection of man and animals caused by Sporothrix complex. It usually presents as a lymphocutaneous form, but disseminated disease may occur. Given the paucity of data about HIV/AIDS and sporotrichosis co-infection, a systematic review of reported cases of HIV-associated sporotrichosis found via Pubmed (1984?2013) was done. A total of 39 papers were included, and 58 patients? data analyzed. Thirty-three (56.9 %) cases were from Brazil and 18 (31 %) from the USA. Patients? mean age was 37.8 ± 10.4 years; males predominated (84.5 %). The median CD4+ cell count was 97 cells/mm3. The most common clinical forms were disseminated and disseminated cutaneous with 33 (56.9 %) and 10 (17.5 %) patients, respectively. There was a correlation...
BiNChE: A web tool and library for chemical enrichment analysis based on the ChEBI ontology
Conclusions: BiNChE aids in the exploration of large sets of small molecules produced within Metabolomics or other Systems Biology research contexts. The open-source tool provides easy and highly interactive web access to enrichment analysis with the ChEBI ontology tool and is additionally available as a standalone library. (Source: BMC Bioinformatics)
This Week in Science: Martian Mystery, Rock-Hard Snail Teeth, and the Big Apple Underwater
Seven days, lots of science in the news. Here's our roundup of some of the week's most notable and quotable items: Illustration by Sarah Peavey Scientists think a mysterious plume seen above Mars might be a large cloud or an aurora--but neither of these explanations squares with what we think we know about the Martian upper atmosphere. Scientists now think sea snail teeth (not spider silk) are the strongest natural material. A red dwarf star passed through the edge of our solar system a mere 70,000 years ago. The tails on the wings of a luna moth may serve as decoys to divert the sonic tracking of predatory bats. Researchers created a protein that is extremely effective at blocking the AIDS virus from attaching to cells, making it an attractive candidate for an HIV vaccine. Cont...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Like Aids, we can turn the tide on dementia
It will be a huge task, but this can be the best country in the world in which to grow old (Source: Telegraph Health)
The Origin Story of the Worldwide AIDS Epidemic [Excerpt]
Author David Quammen traces HIV from a forest in Africa in his new book, investigating how it came to infect more than 60 million people -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com (Source: Scientific American - Official RSS Feed)
Inadequate Monitoring and Attrition Among Patients on ARTInadequate Monitoring and Attrition Among Patients on ART
What are the patient risk factors for failure to follow-up in HIV care? Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
Improving Retention in Care and Quality of Life in HIVImproving Retention in Care and Quality of Life in HIV
Dr Benjamin Young discusses the issue of patients lost during follow-up, as well as the long-term disability of aging with HIV. Medscape HIV/AIDS (Source: Medscape Hiv-Aids Headlines)
Active and latent tuberculosis among HIV-positive injecting drug users in Indonesia.
CONCLUSIONS: HIV-positive individuals with a history of IDU in Indonesia have more active tuberculosis, with similar rates of LTBI. Within the HIV clinic, LTBI screening and isoniazid preventive therapy may be prioritized to patients with a history of IDU. PMID: 25690530 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Uganda: How Poverty and Stigma Are Hindering HIV Treatment for Uganda's Adolescents
[Key Correspondents]Also published on ovcsupport.net (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: New Approach to Blocking HIV Raises Hopes for Aids Vaccine
[Guardian]Abuja -A new compound has blocked Human Immuno-deficiency Virus (HIV) infection so well in monkeys that it may be able to function as a vaccine against Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), the scientists who designed it reported midweek. The study was published online by the journal Nature. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
South Africa: ANC Calls for 'Deregistration of TAC'
[GroundUp]The ANC Youth League Free State has called for the Treatment Action Campaign (TAC) to be deregistered. This follows TAC's "Fire Benny" campaign, which calls for the dismissal of the province's Health MEC Benny Malakoane. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Namibia: Criminal Law Not Effective Against HIV
[Namibian]THE CONFESSIONS of the 40-year-old man who went on a "deliberate spree to infect as many other people as possible" in 2002 (The Namibian, 14 January 2015) sparked a series of media reports in the past few weeks, which featured calls from the public for the enactment of an HIV-specific crime of intentional transmission of HIV. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
'Fit' New Recombinant HIV Strain Progresses Rapidly to AIDS'Fit' New Recombinant HIV Strain Progresses Rapidly to AIDS
An aggressive new recombinant HIV-1 strain appears to be more pathogenic than other strains and leads to full-blown AIDS within just 3 years of infection. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Hearing the way: Requirements and preferences for technology-supported navigation aids.
Authors: Lewis L, Sharples S, Chandler E, Worsfold J Abstract Many systems have been developed to assist wayfinding for people with sight problems. There is a need for user requirements for such systems to be defined. This paper presents a study which aimed to determine such user requirements. An experiment was also conducted to establish the best way of guiding users between locations. The focus group results indicated that users require systems to provide them with information about their surroundings, to guide them along their route and to provide progress information. They also showed that users with sight conditions interact with systems differently to sighted users, thereby highlighting the importance of designing systems for the needs of these users. Results of the experimen...
Seroprevalence of trichodysplasia spinulosa-associated polyomavirus in Japan
Polyomaviruses are non-enveloped viruses with a circular double-stranded DNA genome of approximately 5-kb. To date, 13 polyomaviruses have been discovered in humans and at least four human polyomaviruses are associated with disease. BK virus (BKV) and JC virus (JCV) are considered to be pathogens that cause nephropathy in renal transplant recipients1 and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in AIDS patients [2], respectively. Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) is integrated in approximately 80% of Merkel cell carcinoma [3,4], an uncommon, aggressive skin cancer. (Source: Journal of Clinical Virology)
Acquired immunodeficiencies and tuberculosis: focus on HIV/AIDS and diabetes mellitus
Summary The spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection within Africa led to marked increases in numbers of cases of tuberculosis (TB), and although the epidemic peaked in 2006, there were still 1.8 million new cases in 2013, with 29.2 million prevalent cases. Half of all TB cases in Africa are in those with HIV co?infection. A brief review of the well?documented main immunological mechanisms of HIV?associated increased susceptibility to TB is presented. However, a new threat is facing TB control, which presents itself in the form of a rapid increase in the number of people living with type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM), particularly in areas that are already hardest hit by the TB epidemic. T2DM increases susceptibility to TB threefold, and the TB burden attributable to T2...
Shared responsibility for ensuring appropriate management of incidental findings: a case study from South Africa
We report the case of an HIV prevention clinical trial participant who was referred to a local hospital for investigation and management of an incidental finding unrelated to her study participation. This case illustrates the complexities in the management of incidental findings within the context of clinical trials and highlights the importance of ethical oversight of trials. Trial registration number Protocol number ISRCTN64716212. (Source: Journal of Medical Ethics)
Are You Sleepy ALL the Time? Don't Panic!
A good night's sleep is one of the most effective tools known to enhance mental and physical stamina. A chronic lack of sleep can be linked to certain symptoms, including poor concentration, dizziness, headaches, weight gain, depression and general fatigue throughout the day.  With maturity comes change, including the amount of time we are able to devote to regular sleep cycles.  Sleep deprivation may seem like a minor inconvenience, but it's much more than a nuisance!  In fact, research tells us that those with ongoing insomnia may be at a higher risk for developing serious chronic illnesses, such as Diabetes and Alzheimer's. According to the National Sleep Foundation, people 50 and over require between 7 to 9 hours of restful sleep each night to maintain good health and mental focu...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Facebook Must Shut Down the Anti-Vaxxers
Mark Zuckerberg has never been famous for his reading choices. No one knows or cares if the founder of Facebook got around to Moby Dick when he was at Harvard. But in January, Zuckerberg launched an online book club, offering reading recommendations to members every two weeks. Earlier suggestions included such important works as Steven Pinker&#8217;s The Better Angels of Our Nature and Sudhir Venkatesh&#8217;s Gang Leader for a Day. But Zuckerberg dropped something of a small bombshell with his most recent&mdash;and most excellent&mdash;choice, On Immunity by Eula Biss. It&#8217;s a thoughtful exploration of what&#8217;s behind the irrational fear and suspicion in the anti-vaccine community, as well as a full-throated call for parents to heed medical wisdom and get their kids vaccinated. &...
Alternative to HIV Vaccine Blocks Infection in Animal ModelsAlternative to HIV Vaccine Blocks Infection in Animal Models
A genetically engineered fusion protein gave vaccine-like protection against an immunodeficiency virus in monkeys, despite repeated viral challenges. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Hiv-Aids Headlines)
Auranofin: Repurposing an Old Drug for a Golden New Age
Abstract Drug discovery, development and registration is an expensive and time-consuming process associated with a high failure rate [Pessetto et al. (Mol Cancer Ther 12:1299?1309, 2013), Woodcock and Woosley (Annu Rev Med 59:1?12, 2008)]. Drug ?repurposing? is the identification of new therapeutic purposes for already approved drugs and is more affordable and achievable than novel drug discovery [Pessetto et al. (Mol Cancer Ther 12:1299?1309, 2013)]. Auranofin is a drug that is approved for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis but is being investigated for potential therapeutic application in a number of other diseases including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, HIV/AIDS, parasitic infections and bacterial infections [Tejman-Yarden et al. (Antimicrob Agents Chemothe...
DFS70/LEDGFp75: an enigmatic autoantigen at the interface between autoimmunity, AIDS, and cancer
Anamika Basu, Tino Wilson Sanchez and Carlos A Casiano (Source: Frontiers in Immunology)
Aging, Cognitive Load, Dementia and Hearing Loss
Sensorineural systems play a crucial role in the diagnosis, treatment and management of several neurological disorders. The function of the eye and ear represents a unique window for testing various conditions in cognitive decline or dementia. Touch and smell have also been found to be strongly involved in neurodegenerative conditions, and their decline has been significantly associated with the progression of the disease; hence, the idea that restoring sensory function in cognitively impaired adults might enable a significant improvement in their cognitive status, reducing the worldwide incidence and prevalence of dementia. Not all sensorineural ?windows' can benefit equally from the same procedures; however, hearing and vision can certainly gain the most from dependable therapeutic and...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Quality of Life Outcomes for Cochlear Implantation in the Elderly
Conclusions: People >60 years of age suffering from profound, bilateral, sensorineural hearing loss show improved hearing performance following cochlear implantation. Using the implanted system includes some limitations that should be studied and overcome.Audiol Neurotol 2014;19(suppl 1):36-39 (Source: Audiology and Neurotology)
Molecule Shows Ability to Block AIDS Virus
Scientists have engineered a new molecule they say can block infection with the virus that causes AIDS, a discovery that could lead potentially to a new therapy for patients as well as an alternative to a vaccine. (Source: WSJ.com: Health)
Africa: Youth Must Be Central to New Campaign to End Aids
[Key Correspondents]Leaders from around the world met in Nairobi on 17 February, to launch a new global campaign to tackle adolescent AIDS, the second leading cause of death among teens globally. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Nigeria: HIV/Aids - Maximising Local Research for Herbal Solution
[Independent (Lagos)]Abuja -Over the years, there has been consistent effort by scientists all over the world to get a permanent orthodox solution to the dreaded HIV/AIDS scourge. But, all these efforts had ended in vain. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Transmitted drug resistance in recently infected HIV-positive Individuals from four urban locations across Asia (2007-2010) - TASER-S.
CONCLUSIONS: The observed proportion of TDRM in TASER-S patients from Hong Kong, Thailand and the Philippines was low to moderate during the study period. Regular monitoring of TDRM should be encouraged, especially with the scale-up of ART at higher CD4 levels. PMID: 25685169 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Therapy)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Botswana: DMSAC Encourages Couple Testing
[Botswana Daily News]Selebi Phikwe -Couples have been encouraged to test together as a way of reducing the spread of HIV/AIDS. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Effect of using Audio and Visual Aids for Instructing Patients about Middle Eastern Hemodialysis Diet on Knowledge and Understanding
(Source: Journal of Renal Nutrition)
Rwanda: Life Goes On for HIV-Positive Widow Who Endured Gang Rape During Genocide
[New Times]Rather than reveal her tragedy to her children, Marie toyed with the idea of suicide. It was while contemplating suicide that she realised that after surviving such a harrowing ordeal that has left her a Genocide widow, survivor, and a mother of three living with HIV/Aids, she had endured too much to succumb to a 'weak thought' such as taking her own life for fear of 'shame'. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Louisiana soldier fights HIV/AIDS battle in Uganda
Ten years ago, Army Reserve Capt. Frank Musisi went home to Uganda, to the village where he grew up. He was still at the beginning of a career that began when he came to America to go to school. (Source: WDSU.com - Health)
Experimental AIDS vaccine blocks HIV in monkeys
Drug compound protects lab animals against the AIDS virus; will it work in people? (Source: Health News: CBSNews.com)
Insights from a decade of biophysical studies on MutL: Roles in strand discrimination and mismatch removal
Publication date: Available online 18 February 2015 Source:Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology Author(s): Alba Guarné , Jean-Baptiste Charbonnier DNA mismatch repair (MMR) is a conserved pathway that safeguards genome integrity by correcting replication errors. The coordinated actions of two proteins (MutS and MutL) initiate the mismatch repair response and defects in the genes encoding for these proteins have been linked to sporadic and hereditary cancers. The basic steps to repair a mismatch include recognizing the mismatch, discriminating the newly synthesized from the parental strand, removing and re-synthesizing the erroneous strand. Although the DNA mismatch repair pathway has been extensively studied over the last four decades, the strand discrimination mechanism has rem...
The impact of hormonal therapy on sexual quality of life in men receiving intensity modulated radiation therapy for prostate cancer
Conclusions Although ADT adversely affected short-term sexual function, there was no significant difference in global score and most sexual symptoms by 24 months. These data are useful for anticipatory guidance regarding expectations after IMRT. (Source: Practical Radiation Oncology)
Sensitization of enteric neurons to morphine by HIV?1 Tat protein
Conclusions & InferencesOverall, these data suggest that the sensitivity of enteric neurons to morphine is enhanced in the presence of Tat. Opiates and HIV?1 may uniquely interact to exacerbate the deleterious effects of HIV?1?infection and opiate exposure on GI function. The present study demonstrates that HIV?1 Tat significantly increases neuronal sensitivity to morphine in enteric neurons by modulating sodium channel availability. Additionally, the effects of morphine on gastrointestinal (GI) motility are significantly enhanced in the presence of Tat in vivo. In the setting of HIV?1 infection, this sensitization needs to be considered for opioid therapy in these patients. (Source: Neurogastroenterology and Motility)
High degree of concordance between flow cytometry and geno2pheno methods for HIV-1 tropism determination in proviral DNA
Publication date: Available online 18 February 2015 Source:The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases Author(s): Alex José Leite Torres , Luis Fernando de Macedo Brígido , Marcos Herculano Nunes Abrahão , Ana Luiza Dias Angelo , Gilcivaldo de Jesus Ferreira , Luana Portes Coelho , João Leandro Ferreira , Célia Regina Mayoral Pedroso Jorge , Eduardo Martins Netto , Carlos Brites Use of CCR5 antagonists requires previous viral tropism determination. The available methods have high cost, are time-consuming, or require highly trained personnel, and sophisticated equipment. We compared a flow cytometry-based tropism assay with geno2pheno method to determine HIV-1 tropism in AIDS patients, in Bahia, Brazil. We tested peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 102 AIDS patients under antiretr...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Predictors of HIV enacted stigma among Chilean women
ConclusionsThe findings reflected the presence of HIV enacted stigma among Chilean women. Identifying the significant predictors of HIV enacted stigma can help the nursing community to design HIV prevention interventions that include the reduction in HIV enacted stigma. HIV evidence?based prevention interventions should incorporate contents related to stigma to contribute to prevent HIV enacted stigma at individual and community levels in accordance with the bioecological model. Relevance to clinical practiceThe results of this study could serve to develop HIV prevention interventions that target the reduction in HIV enacted stigma. (Source: Journal of Clinical Nursing)
Probability of a false-negative HIV antibody test result during the window period: a tool for pre- and post-test counselling
Failure to understand the risk of false-negative HIV test results during the window period results in anxiety. Patients typically want accurate test results as soon as possible while clinicians prefer to wait until the probability of a false-negative is virtually nil. This review summarizes the median window periods for third-generation antibody and fourth-generation HIV tests and provides the probability of a false-negative result for various days post-exposure. Data were extracted from published seroconversion panels. A 10-day eclipse period was used to estimate days from infection to first detection of HIV RNA. Median (interquartile range) days to seroconversion were calculated and probabilities of a false-negative result at various time periods post-exposure are reported. The median (i...
Correlates of prevalent sexually transmitted infections among participants screened for an HIV incidence cohort study in Kisumu, Kenya
We determined the prevalence of four sexually transmitted infections and the demographic and behavioural correlates associated with having one or more sexually transmitted infections among participants in an HIV incidence cohort study in Kisumu, western Kenya. Participants were enrolled from a convenience sample and underwent aetiologic sexually transmitted infection investigation. Demographic and behavioural information were collected and basic clinical evaluation performed. Multiple regression analysis was done to determine variables associated with having one or more sexually transmitted infections. We screened 846, 18- to 34-year-olds. One-third had at least one sexually transmitted infection with specific prevalence being: syphilis, 1.6%; gonorrhoea, 2.4%; herpes simplex virus type-2,...
Douching practices among female sex workers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia
This report provides preliminary data about the prevalence and frequency of douching among female sex workers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Survey data were obtained from 81 female sex workers who were taken into custody due to engagement in commercial sex from March to June 2011. Results showed that 91% of participants douched. The mean numbers of times douched before sex and after sex per 10 sex episodes were 4.43 (SD = 3.87) and 4.63 (SD = 3.94), respectively. Half of the participants thought that douching could help to prevent sexually transmitted infections including HIV; 24% were unsure about this. Usually, douching after sex was associated with ever obtaining an HIV test (p = .012) and was marginally associated (although not statistically significant) with a higher average number of clie...
Persistent HIV-related stigma among an outpatient US clinic population
Despite advancements in the public&rsquo;s understanding of HIV infection, felt stigma towards individuals living with HIV persists. Stigma has been associated with adverse health outcomes, including poor adherence to care, and increased participation in HIV transmission risk behaviours. We evaluated the level of felt stigma and its relationship to other psychosocial and medical factors among a sample of 201 individuals with HIV engaged in care. The overall mean stigma score, as measured by the Reece Stigma Scale, was 21.7 (SD 8.7). In univariate analysis, felt stigma scores were higher among women, African Americans, younger participants, and individuals with less education. Higher felt stigma scores were also found among individuals who reported having fair to poor overall health, modera...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Microscopy outperformed in a comparison of five methods for detecting Trichomonas vaginalis in symptomatic women
In the UK, despite its low sensitivity, wet mount microscopy is often the only method of detecting Trichomonas vaginalis infection. A study was conducted in symptomatic women to compare the performance of five methods for detecting T. vaginalis: an in-house polymerase chain reaction (PCR); Aptima T. vaginalis kit; OSOM &reg;Trichomonas Rapid Test; culture and microscopy. Symptomatic women underwent routine testing; microscopy and further swabs were taken for molecular testing, OSOM and culture. A true positive was defined as a sample that was positive for T. vaginalis by two or more different methods. Two hundred and forty-six women were recruited: 24 patients were positive for T. vaginalis by two or more different methods. Of these 24 patients, 21 patients were detected by real-time PCR (...
Depression and patterns of self-reported adherence to antiretroviral therapy in Rwanda
We determined the prevalence of depression in HIV-infected adults on antiretroviral therapy in rural Rwanda and measured the association of depression with non-adherence. In all, 292 patients on antiretroviral therapy for &ge;6 months were included. Adherence was self-reported by four-day recall, two- and seven-day treatment interruptions, and the CASE Index, which is a composite score accounting for difficulty taking medications on time, the average number of days per week a dose is missed, and the most recent missed dose. A total of 84% and 87% of participants reported good adherence by the four-day recall and CASE Index, respectively; 13% of participants reported two-day treatment interruptions; and 11% were depressed. Depression was significantly associated with two-day treatment inter...
Predictors of glycaemic control among HIV-positive veterans with diabetes
Antiretroviral therapy has decreased HIV-related mortality. However, the incidence of diabetes as a co-morbidity is increasing as HIV-positive patients age. The purpose of this study was to assess the correlation between markers of HIV-infection and diabetes and to determine the proportion of patients achieving an haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) goal &lt;7% according to specific antiretroviral therapy regimens and adherence. In this retrospective study, HIV-positive veterans with diabetes from 2007 to 2012 were identified. Patients were required to be on the same antiretroviral therapy and diabetes regimen for &ge;3 months. In 56 patients, it was identified that for each unit increase in log10 viral load, HbA1c increased 0.67 units (p = 0.0085). Only 38% of patients prescribed a protease inhibitor...
When can HIV clinical trials detect treatment effects on drug resistance?
Methods of sampling patients for resistance testing, and statistical analyses of HIV drug resistance, have not been standardised in HIV clinical trials. We analysed methods of genotyping and rates of treatment-emergent drug resistance from 27 clinical trials identified from a MEDLINE search. Sample size calculations were conducted using NQUERY software, assuming 5% significance level, 80% power and 1:1 randomisation. The percentage of patients with treatment-emergent IAS&ndash;USA mutations after 96 weeks ranged from 1.8% to 9.1% for first-line 2NRTI/NNRTI treatments, 0.6% to 6.3% for first-line 2NRTI/PI/r treatments and 0.0% to 2.0% in switch trials of boosted PIs. The prevalence of drug resistance was higher in trials with no screening for drug resistance at baseline, where the HIV RNA c...
Soft tissue augmentation with PMMA-microspheres for the treatment of HIV-associated buttock lipodystrophy
Progression of lipodystrophy syndrome is a big challenge in HIV treatment. Nowadays, fat loss at the lower part of buttocks has become another problem as patients have started to complain that it is painful to be seated for a long time and/or on hard surfaces. We developed a method for buttock lipoatrophy treatment with PMMA-microspheres, as silicone prostheses and autologous fat transplant were not completely efficient. The treatment consisted of net-crossed injections, in the subcutaneous layer, of a 30% PMMA-microspheres solution on the atrophic areas of the buttock. One hundred and fifty-four patients were included. The amount of PMMA-microspheres used to treat buttock lipoatrophy depended on the degree of atrophy and size of the area to be treated. Patients were satisfied with this tr...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
An interesting case of 'diabetic foot ulcer' in an HIV-positive patient
We present here a 70-year-old white British male patient, who was under the care of the podiatric team for longstanding &lsquo;diabetic foot ulcers&rsquo;. He was later referred to the Dermatology team who took a biopsy; this revealed features of Kaposi sarcoma which prompted an HIV test which was positive. This patient had previously presented to several healthcare professionals with symptoms suggestive of HIV infection. He was started on antiretroviral therapy and the HIV and human herpesvirus-8 viral loads became undetectable in the blood within weeks and he showed significant clinical improvement. This case report is a reminder to clinicians to have a high index of suspicion in patients presenting with symptoms and signs suggestive of HIV infection. (Source: International Journal of ST...
Central nervous system infection due to Mycobacterium haemophilum in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
We report a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome who had central nervous system infection due to M. haemophilum. The diagnosis required brain tissue procurement and molecular identification method while the treatment outcome was unfavourable. (Source: International Journal of STD and AIDS)
Highlights from this issue
After a gap, we are delighted this month to announce the return of Clinical Roundup.1 "Sexually Transmitted Infections" dates back to 1925 as you can see by logging on to our archive at sti.bmj.com. We began as a journal that served a developing profession, in a pre-antibiotic age when the complications of syphilis and gonorrhoea ravaged the military and (more discreetly recorded) their wives and lovers. First the "British Journal of Venereal Diseases", we later became "Genitourinary Medicine" and eventually "Sexually Transmitted Infections". In all of these guises, we have sought to meet the needs of our clinical readers to be well-briefed on contemporary challenges in the care of those afflicted by the wounds of sexual desire. We have also tried to broaden the perspectives of local pract...
STIF Advanced Competency
was launched in October 2014 and is the second work-based training and assessment module in the STIF portfolio. It builds on the knowledge and skills acquired through completion of STIF Intermediate Competency by further developing the knowledge, skills, experience and competence of healthcare professionals to diagnose and manage sexually transmitted infections (STIs). It is designed for those who wish to lead and deliver a Level 21 standard sexual health service and hence is suitable for senior doctors from non-GUM settings such as sexual and reproductive health or primary care as well as specialist sexual health nurses in Level 3 GUM services training to become advanced nurse practitioners. Registrants for STIF Advanced must first complete STIF Intermediate as well as have a specified a...
Home-based counseling and testing for HIV and syphilis - an evaluation of acceptability and quality control, in remote Amazonas State, Brazil
Conclusions HBCT was acceptable and successful in reaching untested individuals. However, there were concerns with the quality of test performance, highlighting the need for continual evaluation and retraining of community HCW. As Brazil scales up HIV and syphilis testing, our findings highlight how HBCT can maximise coverage in similar remote areas and improve knowledge about prevalence of these infections. (Source: Sexually Transmitted Infections)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Cervical ectopy: associations with sexually transmitted infections and HIV. A cross-sectional study of high school students in rural South Africa
Conclusions In conclusion, cervical ectopy is associated with Chlamydia trachomatis infection and HIV in the youngest women. (Source: Sexually Transmitted Infections)
A network analysis of relationship dynamics in sexual dyads as correlates of HIV risk misperceptions among high-risk MSM
Conclusions Couple-based HIV intervention efforts among MSM should consider that less trust and more commitment are protective factors in sexual partnerships. (Source: Sexually Transmitted Infections)
Syphilis infection, sexual practices and bisexual behaviour among men who have sex with men and transgender women: a cross-sectional study
Conclusions The prevalence of syphilis infection and risk sexual behaviour were high in the two samples, especially among TW. High levels of bisexual behaviours and low rates of consistent condom use indicate potential HIV/STIs transmission into the heterosexual population. This finding indicates the need and urgency for implementing more effective integrated programmes targeting MSM/TW for the prevention of syphilis and other STIs. (Source: Sexually Transmitted Infections)
Clinical update
Since October, clinical research teams around the UK have been busy prescribing Truvada as HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for participants in the PROUD study who were originally randomised to defer at the time of enrolment. At the time of writing, we have a press release reporting that PrEP is highly protective against HIV: protective enough to amend the protocol and offer PrEP immediately to all participants.1 By the time this round-up is published, it is likely that the interim results will be in the public domain. The trial was originally set up as a pilot with the assumption that the sample size of 545 might be too small to see a difference between arms. That the trial is being amended early means one or both of two things: that the participants were at higher risk of HIV than ant...
Telomere-Regulating Genes in Familial Cancers
Telomeres are repetitive sequence structures at the ends of linear chromosomes that consist of double-stranded DNA repeats followed by a short single-stranded DNA protrusion. Telomeres need to be replicated in each cell cycle and protected from DNA-processing enzymes, tasks that cells execute using specialized protein complexes such as telomerase (that includes TERT), which aids in telomere maintenance and replication, and the shelterin complex, which protects chromosome ends. These complexes are also able to interact with a variety of other proteins, referred to as the telomere interactome, to fulfill their biological functions and control signaling cascades originating from telomeres. Given their essential role in genomic maintenance and cell-cycle control, germline mutations in telomere...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Novel ?-amyloid aggregation inhibitors possessing a turn mimic.
Authors: Hamada Y, Miyamoto N, Kiso Y Abstract Amyloid ? peptide, the main component of senile plaques found in the brain of Alzheimer disease (AD) patients, is a molecular target for AD therapeutic intervention. A number of potential AD therapeutics have been reported, including inhibitors of ?-secretase, ?-secretase, and A? aggregation, and anti-amyloid agents, such as neprilysin, insulin degrading enzyme (IDE), and A? antibodies. Recently, we reported potent small-sized ?-secretase (BACE1) inhibitors, which could serve as anti-AD drugs. However AD is a progressive disorder, where dementia symptoms gradually worsen over several decades, and therefore may require many years to get cured. One possible way to achieve a greater therapeutic effect is through simultaneous adminis...
Doctors Pinpoint Why Child Who Appeared Free of HIV Suffered Relapse
Virus hid deep within 'memory cells' of immune system, where it couldn't be detected (Source: Fertility News - Doctors Lounge)
Sofosbuvir Plus Ribavirin May Benefit Patients Co-Infected With HIV and HCVSofosbuvir Plus Ribavirin May Benefit Patients Co-Infected With HIV and HCV
Sofosbuvir plus ribavirin may effectively treat patients co-infected with HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes 1-4, a new industry-funded study suggests. Reuters Health Information (Source: Medscape Gastroenterology Headlines)
Doctors Pinpoint Why Child Who Appeared Free of HIV Suffered Relapse
Virus hid deep within 'memory cells' of immune system, where it couldn't be detected Source: HealthDay Related MedlinePlus Pages: HIV/AIDS, HIV/AIDS Medicines, HIV/AIDS and Pregnancy (Source: MedlinePlus Health News)
L carnitine in patients with HIV AIDS and fatigue
Cruciani RA, Revuelta M, Dvorkin E, Homel P, Lesage P, Esteban-Cruciani N (Source: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Drug proves to be 'astonishingly effective' shield against AIDS in monkeys
Scientists led by the Scripps Research Institute in Florida said that the eCD4-Ig also works on human HIV when tested in a lab dish.They are hoping to start human trials 'soon'. (Source: the Mail online | Health)
New HIV drug prevents infection in monkeys
Brooks HaysJUPITER, Fla., Feb. 18 (UPI) -- Scientists at the Scripps Research Institute say a new drug designed to combat HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, is strong enough to work as a vaccine. (Source: Health News - UPI.com)
New Approach to Blocking H.I.V. Raises Hopes for an AIDS Vaccine
A new compound has blocked H.I.V. infection so well in monkeys that it may be able to function as a vaccine against AIDS, scientists say. (Source: NYT Health)
Zimbabwe: Court Asked to Decreminalise HIV Transmission
[New Zimbabwe]THE Zimbabwe Lawyers for human Rights (ZLHR) has approached the constitutional court seeking an order decriminalising the 'transmission' of HIV as stated in section 79 of the criminal Law codification and reform Act. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Zimbabwe: Court Reserves Judgment On Wilful HIV Transmission
[The Herald]The Constitutional Court today reserved judgment in a case in which two women are challenging the constitutionality of the law that criminalises the transmission of HIV. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Africa: Daily Press Briefing By the Office of the Spokesperson for the Secretary-General
[UN]The following is a near-verbatim transcript of today's noon briefing by Farhan Haq, Deputy Spokesman for the Secretary-General. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Malawi: High Condom Use in Flood Camps, People Demand More
[Malawi News Agency]There is high condom use in many flood victims' camps in Chikwawa, and people there are appealing for more of this protective gear, Malawi News Agency-Mana has established. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Zimbabwe: Midlands Traditional Doctors Request to Give Sick Leave
[New Zimbabwe]TRADITIONAL healers in the Midlands province are seeking authority to give leave off work to HIV positive patients, a provincial National Aids Council (NAC) report has revealed. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Malawi: Nkhata Bay Man Commits Suicide After Testing HIV Positive
[Malawi News Agency]Nkhata Bay -A 35 year old man in Nkhata Bay District recently resorted to end his life by hanging in his house after testing HIV positive. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Malawi: M'mbelwa District Council Fight HIV/Aids Through Sports Bonanza
[Malawi News Agency]Mzimba -M'mbelwa District Council, through District Aids Coordinating Committee (DACC), has taken a different approach to fight HIV/AIDS amongst the youths by introducing football and netball Bonanza to enhance message transmission. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Rwanda: Association of People Living With HIV Seek Support to Revive Failed Honey Project
[New Times]For Tubeho, an association of people living with HIV/Aids, December 2011 will remain a memorable month. That time, the members saw their apiary project proposal receive $13,000 (about Rwf7 million) funding from the American Pepfar (President's Emergency Plan for Aids Relief) to assist them produce honey. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: Africa Must Talk to Teens About Sex to Avert New Aids Crisis
[Thomson Reuters Foundation]Nairobi -The HIV/AIDS epidemic in Africa will explode again unless parents and teachers start talking to teenagers about sex, experts warned on Tuesday. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: UN Launches 'All In' Initiative to End Adolescent Aids
[UN News]In the fight against HIV/AIDS, progress for adolescents has fallen behind, world leaders gathered at a United Nations meeting in Nairobi, Kenya, stressed today, as they launched a global initiative that aims to end the second leading cause of death among young people worldwide. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Uganda: Forty to 70 HIV Infections Seen in Pregnant Women in Wakiso Weekly
[Observer]Forty to 70 HIV-positive statuses are recorded in pregnant women in Wakiso district every week, Musa Bungudu, the UNAIDS country coordinator for Uganda, revealed last week. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: Leaders From Around the World Are All in to End the Aids Epidemic Among Adolescents
[UNAIDS]Nairobi -UNAIDS, UNICEF, UNFPA, WHO, PEPFAR, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, the MTV Staying Alive Foundation and youth movements represented by PACT and Y+ join President Uhuru Kenyatta to launch All In, a new platform for action against the adolescent AIDS epidemic. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Kenya: Uhuru Orders Provision of Drugs to All Kids With HIV
[Capital FM]Nairobi -President Uhuru Kenyatta on Tuesday gave the Ministries of Health and Education a year to ensure all HIV positive children in the country get on Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART). (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emission Data in Perinatally HIV-infected and HIV-exposed but Uninfected Children and Adolescents in the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study
The effect of perinatal HIV infection and exposure on sub-clinical auditory function can be measured with distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs). DPOAEs were obtained at 4 frequency bins (1, 2, 3 and 4 kHz) and categorized by a signal-to-noise ratio. HIV infection was not associated with poorer DPOAEs. Among HIV-infected children, HIV viral load ?400 copies/mL had significantly lower odds of better DPOAEs. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Kenya: President Launches Global Anti-HIV/Aids Campaign
[Kenya Presidency]Nairobi -- President Uhuru Kenyatta today launched the 'Global All In', a campaign aimed at reducing new HIV/AIDS infections among adolescents and young women. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Next-Generation HIV and Hep C Treatment Plans Ahead at CROINext-Generation HIV and Hep C Treatment Plans Ahead at CROI
Researchers spell out what's next for antiretroviral therapy after excitement about the Mississippi infant fades. Hepatitis C experts target genotype 3 as the next population needing therapies. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Hiv-Aids Headlines)
New, Rapidly Progressing Strain of HIV Identified in Cuba (FREE)
By Amy Orciari Herman Edited by David G. Fairchild, MD, MPH, and Lorenzo Di Francesco, MD, FACP, FHM A new strain of HIV-1 that progresses to AIDS within just 3 years has been identified in Cuba, researchers report in ? (Source: Physician's First Watch current issue)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
An Exploratory Study to Find the Perception Towards HIV/AIDS in Pakistan
Publication date: 27 January 2015 Source:Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, Volume 172 Author(s): Fawad Khan The purpose of this exploratory research is to present the perceptions towards HIV/AIDS in Pakistan. Data was collected from 939 respondents. The aim of this analysis was to identify the common patterns related to perception towards HIV based on responses. Five major perception groups were emerging from the analysis, i.e., a) Commoners b) Prescriptive c) Callous d) Seclusion and d) Tribulation. The result suggests people have a sympathetic attitude towards the disease and also people are not willing to get in contact with an HIV infected person. Also, people have the perception that community should be informed about HIV/AIDS patients. (Source: Procedia Social and Behavior...
HIV: Tied down by its own receptor
Nature advance online publication 18 February 2015. doi:10.1038/nature14205 Author: Nancy L. Haigwood An engineered protein that binds to the envelope of HIV viruses protects monkeys against infection with a simian&#8211;human virus that causes AIDS. This gene-therapy approach might provide an alternative to elusive HIV vaccines. (Source: Nature AOP)
High Levels of Concomitant Behavioral Health Disorders Among Patients Presenting for HIV Non-occupational Post-exposure Prophylaxis at a Boston Community Health Center Between 1997 and 2013
Abstract A paucity of information regarding mental health exists for patients presenting for HIV non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis (nPEP). We reviewed electronic medical records of 894 adult nPEP patients seen at a large Boston community health center between 1997 and 2013. Of 821 patients with consensual sexual exposures, 88.3 % were men who have sex with men, and 40.0 % had a mental health diagnosis. Diagnoses included: depression (24.4 %), anxiety (21.9 %), attention deficit disorder (7.8 %), post-traumatic stress disorder (3.3 %), and psychotic disorders (3.3 %). Of 129 patients with substance use disorders, alcohol dependence (65.9 %) and crystal methamphetamine (43.4 %) predominated. Unprotected receptive anal intercourse was associated with psychotic disor...
Improvement of distal symmetrical polyneuropathy in patient with AIDS after switch from protease inhibitor containing antiretroviral treatment to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, emtricitabine and rilpivirine (EVIPLERA®) therapy ? Case report
Publication date: Available online 18 February 2015 Source:HIV &amp; AIDS Review Author(s): Dariusz Bielec , S?awomir Kiciak , Anna Przyby?a , Justyna Stempkowska In this paper we present a 29-year-old male patient with AIDS stage C3 according to CDC (esophageal candidiasis). He received combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) with lopinavir/ritonavir and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine. Almost 2log reduction of viral load was observed after 1 month of cART, but the patient developed distal symmetrical polyneuropathy. Therapy was switched to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine/rilpivirine (EVIPLERA®). During this therapy HIV-RNA became undetectable, CD4 T cell count increased and distal symmetrical polyneuropathy symptoms improved and then disappeared completely...
Neuro-endocrine immune networks leading to HIV-associated cardiovascular abnormalities: Role of leptin
Publication date: Available online 18 February 2015 Source:HIV &amp; AIDS Review Author(s): T.N. Kathyayani , A. Harinatha Reddy , B. Sri Lakshmi , B. Venkatappa Patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus exhibit many risk factors like atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction and hypertension for cardiovascular disease. As the homeostatic mechanisms in body are regulated by the integrated actions of cytokines and hormones, the normal function of a human heart is also governed by the neuro-endocrine immune interactions. Patients suffering from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome manifest alterations in the neural immune networks mediated by human immunodeficiency virus and leptin, which incline them to suffer from congestive heart failure. Networks that disrupt the cardiovascu...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Assessment of long-term safety and effectiveness of atazanavir (ATV) in the first antiretroviral treatment regimen in POLCA cohort
Conclusion In POLCA cohort long term treatment with ATV was safe and effective, and observed drug-induced toxicities were similar or smaller than reported in literature. (Source: HIV and AIDS Review)
Management of severe acute malnutrition in low-income and middle-income countries
Kwashiorkor and marasmus, collectively termed severe acute malnutrition (SAM), account for at least 10% of all deaths among children under 5&nbsp;years of age worldwide, virtually all of them in low-income and middle-income countries. A number of risk factors, including seasonal food insecurity, environmental enteropathy, poor complementary feeding practices, and chronic and acute infections, contribute to the development of SAM. Careful anthropometry is key to making an accurate diagnosis of SAM and can be performed by village health workers or even laypeople in rural areas. The majority of children can be treated at home with ready-to-use therapeutic food under the community-based management of acute malnutrition model with recovery rates of approximately 90% under optimal conditions. A ...
Neurodevelopmental outcomes of preterm singletons, twins and higher-order gestations: a population-based cohort study
Conclusions Premature infants from multiple gestation pregnancies appear to have comparable neurodevelopmental outcomes to singletons. (Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood - Fetal and Neonatal Edition)
Inducible HSP70 Is Critical in Preventing the Aggregation and Enhancing the Processing of PMP22
In this study, we show that activation of the chaperone pathway in fibroblasts from PMP22 duplication-associated Charcot&ndash;Marie&ndash;Tooth disease type 1A patient with an FDA-approved small molecule increases HSP70 expression and attenuates proteasome dysfunction. Using cells from an HSP70.1/3&ndash;/&ndash; (inducible HSP70) mouse model, we demonstrate that under proteotoxic stress, this chaperone is critical in preventing the aggregation of PMP22, and this effect is aided by macroautophagy. When examined at steady-state, HSP70 appears to play a minor role in the trafficking of wild-type-PMP22, while it is crucial for preventing the buildup of the aggregation-prone Trembler-J-PMP22. HSP70 aids the processing of Trembler-J-PMP22 through the Golgi and its delivery to lysosomes via Rab...
Critical Design Elements of E-Health Applications for Users With Severe Mental Illness: Singular Focus, Simple Architecture, Prominent Contents, Explicit Navigation, and Inclusive Hyperlinks
Conclusions: The FEDM provides evidence-based guidelines to design e-health applications for person with SMI, including: minimize an application&rsquo;s layers or hierarchy, use explicit text, employ navigational memory aids, group hyperlinks in 1 area, and minimize the number of disparate subjects an application addresses. (Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
HIV: Tied down by its own receptor
Authors: Nancy L. Haigwood An engineered protein that binds to the envelope of HIV viruses protects monkeys against infection with a simian&#8211;human virus that causes AIDS. This gene-therapy approach might provide an alternative to elusive HIV vaccines. See Letter p.87 (Source: Nature)
Subsidized optimal ART for HIV-positive temporary residents of Australia improves virological outcomes: results from the Australian HIV Observational Database Temporary Residents Access Study.
Conclusions: The immunological and virological improvements highlight the importance of supplying optimal ART to this vulnerable population. The increase in proportion with undetectable HIV viral load shows the potentially significant impact on HIV transmission in addition to the personal health benefit for each individual. PMID: 25680919 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
2077416 Skene's Gland Duct Cysts: the Utility of Vaginal/Transperineal Imaging In Diagnosis And Mapping For Surgery. a Case Series And Review of The Literature
We aim to demonstrate that with the advent of improved high frequency probes pelvic floor imaging is a useful diagnostic tool and aids in preoperative surgical mapping. (Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology)
Kenya: New Platform for Action On Adolescent Aids Must Tackle Disclosure
[Key Correspondents]As leaders from around the world gather in Nairobi to launch 'All In' to end adolescent AIDS, Lucy Maroncha explores the issue of HIV disclosure, a key issue this initiative must tackle. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Africa: Global Fund Supports "All In" to End the Aids Epidemic Among Adolescents
[Global Fund]While major advances have been made in almost every area of the response to HIV, progress for adolescents is falling behind, said leaders in the global response to end the AIDS epidemic. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
JoVE Introduces Powerful Tool Linking Scientific Videos to 4.5 Million...
JoVE Visualize aids reproducibility, adding video dimension to universe of scientific research.(PRWeb February 17, 2015)Read the full story at http://www.prweb.com/releases/2015/02/prweb12520577.htm (Source: PRWeb: Medical Pharmaceuticals)
Cuba fighting highly aggressive strain of HIV
A recent study has found that HIV-infected people in Cuba developed AIDS within three years, much faster than the most common strains of the virus (Source: Health News: CBSNews.com)
Africa: Ending the HIV/Aids Epidemic Requires a Focus On Adolescents
[Daily Maverick]The apparent invincibility of youth has been dealt a devastating blow by HIV/Aids. But all is not lost. We can make a difference to this epidemic, if we know where to target our attempts at beating it. By ANTHONY LAKE, UNICEF Executive Director and MICHEL SIDIBÉ, UNAids Executive Director. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
UN launches ?All In? initiative to end adolescent AIDS
In the fight against HIV/AIDS, progress for adolescents has fallen behind, world leaders gathered at a United Nations meeting in Nairobi, Kenya, stressed today, as they launched a global initiative to end the second leading cause of death among young people worldwide. (Source: UN News Centre - Women, Children, Population)
Trends in the HIV Epidemic Among African American Men Who Have Sex with Men, San Francisco, 2004?2011
Abstract African American men who have sex with men have been disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic in the United States and remain to this day one of the groups with highest HIV prevalence and incidence. Our goal was to clarify the current state of HIV risk, sexual behaviors, and structural/network?network level factors that affect black MSM?s population risk of HIV, enabling the formulation of targeted and up-to-date public health messages/campaigns directed at this vulnerable population. Our approach maximized the use of local data through a process of synthesis and triangulation of multiple independent and overlapping sources of information that are sometimes separately published and often not examined side-by-side. Among African American MSM, we observed stable ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Prevalence of malnutrition and Its associated factors among adult people living with HIV/AIDS receiving anti-retroviral therapy at Butajira Hospital, Southern Ethiopia
The prevalence of malnutrition among HIV/AIDS patients receiving anti-retroviral therapy in Ethiopia is high and intestinal parasite co-infection is found important risk factor associated with malnutrition. (Source: Epidemiologic Perspectives and Innovations)
An analysis of the effectiveness of WASH interventions in relation to diarrhoeal diseases in Chipinge district, Zimbabwe
The objectives of the study were to determine the existing WASH interventions in the ward, to assess the KAP on WASH interventions as a mitigation measure against diarrhoeal disease, to analyse the trend of diarrhoea from 2005 to 2011 and to analyse the behaviour change attributed to WASH interventions. Data was collected using interviews, questionnaires, FGDs and observation checklists. Data was analysed using SPSS version 16.0 and qualitative data was analysed by developing themes related to specific objectives. Results showed that WASH interventions were in place in all the villages of ward 22 though they were inadequate. The interventions among others included borehole rehabilitation, latrine construction and Participatory Health and Hygiene Education (PHHE). The cases of diarrhoea wer...
Contraceptive options for HIV?positive women: making evidence?based, patient?centred decisions
ConclusionsEffective, reliable contraception is important for HIV?positive women. Efficacy, toxicity, drug interactions, and potential impacts on HIV disease progression, transmission, and acquisition must be assessed when making clinical decisions. (Source: HIV Medicine)
Knowing HIV Status Crucial in Cancer Treatment
People living with HIV infection have a high incidence of AIDS-related cancers?Kaposi sarcoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and cervical cancer?and they?re at increased risk for other cancers as well. Yet only 41% of cancer survivors have been tested for HIV, including nearly half of patients with AIDS-related cancers. Clinicians should know a cancer patient?s HIV serostatus to improve cancer outcomes, reduce mortality, and identify secondary cancers that may result from co-infections with hepatitis B and C and Epstein-Barr virus. (Source: JAMA)
Case Report and Review of Immunodeficiency-Associated Burkitt Lymphoma
Human immunodeficiency virus?associated Burkitt lymphoma (HIV-BL) is a highly aggressive lymphoma. Compared with other acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs), its clinical presentation is less predictable and is characterized by rapid clinical changes. The paradigm shift to treat HIV-BL with highly effective intensive chemotherapy regimens and to manage immunosuppression has enabled physicians to offer and achieve remission and long-term survival. The authors present a challenging case of a 33-year- old HIV-positive (HIV+) man with advanced-stage BL. (Source: Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma and Leukemia)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
High degree of concordance between flow cytometry and geno2pheno methods for HIV-1 tropism determination in proviral DNA.
Authors: Torres AJ, de Macedo Brígido LF, Abrahão MH, Angelo AL, de Jesus Ferreira G, Coelho LP, Ferreira JL, Jorge CR, Netto EM, Brites C Abstract Use of CCR5 antagonists requires previous viral tropism determination. The available methods have high cost, are time-consuming, or require highly trained personnel, and sophisticated equipment. We compared a flow cytometry-based tropism assay with geno2pheno method to determine HIV-1 tropism in AIDS patients, in Bahia, Brazil. We tested peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 102 AIDS patients under antiretroviral therapy by using a cytometry-based tropism assay and geno2pheno assay. Cellular membrane receptors were identified by using CXCR4, CCR5 and CD4 monoclonal antibodies, while detection of cytoplasmic mRNAs for gag and pol HIV r...
Stimulating High Impact HIV-Related Cardiovascular Research Recommendations From a Multidisciplinary NHLBI Working Group on HIV-Related Heart, Lung, and Blood Disease
The clinical challenges confronting patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have shifted from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related illnesses to chronic diseases, such as coronary artery disease, chronic lung disease, and chronic anemia. With the growing burden of HIV-related heart, lung, and blood (HLB) disease, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) recognizes it must stimulate and support HIV-related HLB research. Because HIV offers a natural, accelerated model of common pathological processes, such as inflammation, HIV-related HLB research may yield important breakthroughs for all patients with HLB disease. This paper summarizes the cardiovascular recommendations of an NHLBI Working Group, Advancing HIV/AIDS Research in Heart, Lung, and Blood Disease...
New, aggressive strain of HIV discovered in Cuba
Health officials are worried about a new form of HIV that progresses to AIDS three times faster (Source: Health News: CBSNews.com)
Many African Americans Still Only Dream of High Quality Health Care
Recently, AARP conducted a study to determine how perceptions of key social issues ranked in importance to African Americans age 50 and over. Ninety-one percent gave the answer "high quality health care." Eighty-nine percent gave the answer, "Access to high quality health care information." We were not surprised at the high percentage of either response. Why wouldn't the foremost issue on the minds of African Americans be the key issue that would prolong, enhance or save lives? Why wouldn't the dominant issue on the minds of Black people age 50 and over be their health; even more so than education, employment and access to technology. The only issue that even rivaled health in the survey was "having a financially secure retirement," which also came in at 91 percent. But, it all connects....
For older adults, a solution to sleepless nights

New aggressive strain of HIV can progress to AIDS in just three years, scientists warn
Experts say the new strain, identified in Cuba, causes patients to progress to AIDS within three years - so rapidly, they may not even realise they have been infected. (Source: the Mail online | Health)
Dolutegravir Efficacy in Treatment-Naive HIV PatientsDolutegravir Efficacy in Treatment-Naive HIV Patients
Is dolutegravir effective as a first-line antiretroviral therapy in HIV-positive individuals? AIDS (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
Malawi: "Why I Am Not Scared of Knowing My HIV Status"
[Key Correspondents]As UNAIDS and UNICEF launch All In! on 17 February, a global initiative to reduce the unnecessary deaths of adolescents living with HIV, James Odongo reports on the realities faced by teens in Uganda. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Kenya: 'All In' Global HIV Campaign Begins Tomorrow
[The Star]Kenya will tomorrow launch a new campaign to fight rising HIV infections and deaths among adolescents. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: Nigeria Will Soon Get Herbal Solution to HIV/Aids - Researchers
[Independent (Lagos)]Abuja -If the current efforts by local scientists and researchers are sustained and encouraged by the Federal Government, very soon Nigeria will get an indigenous herbal remedy that will be accepted internationally for the management of HIV/AIDS. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Rwanda: Week in Health - RBC, Media Heighten Efforts to Halve HIV Cases
[New Times]The Rwanda Biomedical Centre (RBC) and the media fraternity, as part of the year-long campaign against HIV/Aids that began in December, have urged media practitioners to use their respective platforms to heighten the fight against the virus. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: Valentine - NACA Advises Youths to Avoid Risky Behaviours
[Guardian]AS Nigerians join the world to mark Valentine's Day Saturday, the Director General, National Agency for the Control of AIDS (NACA), Prof. John Idoko, has urged fun-seekers to avoid risky behaviours. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
[Patients'adherence-related beliefs about medicines prescribed for long-term conditions in HIV patients.]
Conclusion: Higher concerns are associated with higher self-reported adherence to long-term medicines in HIV infected-patients. PMID: 25680432 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Farmacia Hospitalaria)
Rwanda: Play Your Role in Combating HIV Prevalence, Scribes Told
[New Times]Media practitioners have been urged to use their respective platforms and clout within society to heighten the fight against HIV/Aids (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Utility of bone marrow examination for workup of fever of unknown origin in patients with HIV/AIDS
Conclusions This study supports the use of diagnostic BMAB as a rapid decision-making tool in patients with HIV and FUO in the proper clinical setting. BMAB demonstrated infection-related evidence prior to positive bone marrow culture in 75% of cases. Special stains and blood cultures had similar diagnostic yield, but BMAB offers faster results. Thus, this procedure assists in clinical decision making and the refinement of treatment in a more timely manner. (Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
US approves internal tissue glue
Urethane-based TissuGlu aids healing after abdominal surgery (Source: Chemistry World | Latest News)
Dose Response for Starting and Stopping HIV Preexposure Prophylaxis for Men Who Have Sex With Men
Conclusions.&nbsp;High PrEP activity for MSM was achieved by approximately 1 week of daily dosing. Although effective intracellular drug concentrations persist for several days after stopping PrEP, a reasonable recommendation is to continue PrEP dosing for 4 weeks after the last potential HIV exposure, similar to recommendations for postexposure prophylaxis. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Differential Body Composition Effects of Protease Inhibitors Recommended for Initial Treatment of HIV Infection: A Randomized Clinical Trial
Conclusions.&nbsp;We found no major differences between atazanavir/ritonavir and darunavir/ritonavir in efficacy, clinically relevant side effects, or plasma cholesterol fractions. However, atazanavir/ritonavir led to higher triglycerides and more total and subcutaneous fat than darunavir/ritonavir. Also, fat gains with atazanavir/ritonavir were associated with insulin resistance. Clinical Trials Registration.&nbsp;NCT01274780. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Seroprevalence of TORCH infections in antenatal and HIV positive patient populations
Conclusions The study showed a high seroprevalence of the infections caused by the TORCH complex amongst pregnant women and HIV/AIDS patients despite improved hygiene conditions and health awareness. Maximum seroprevalence for CMV was observed followed by Rubella and HSV infection. (Source: Medical Journal Armed Forces India)
Complementary and alternative medicine in multiple sclerosis: Payment policy perspectives
This article identifies payment policy perspectives of the American Academy of Neurology's guideline on complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in multiple sclerosis (MS). The guideline is a reliable repository of information for advocating or not recommending certain CAM treatments in MS. It eases the burden of searching for information on each separate CAM treatment. It frequently emphasizes the need for patient counseling. To provide such generally undervalued, but needed, cognitive services, neurologists could use advanced practice providers and patient-friendly visual aids during or between visits. They should also rely on evaluation and management codes that recognize time spent predominantly on counseling or coordination of care. The guideline's categorization of probable effec...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents for diabetic cystoid macular oedema.
CONCLUSIONS: The review did not identify any RCTs investigating the effects of topical NSAIDs in the treatment of diabetic CMO. Most of the studies identified through the electronic searches had been conducted to analyse the effect of topical NSAIDs for pseudophakic CMO.In the absence of high quality evidence, clinicians need to use their clinical judgement and other low level evidence, such as observational non-randomised trials, to decide whether to use topical NSAIDs in cases of diabetic CMO.More research is needed to better understand the cause of this condition and its pathophysiology. This systematic review has identified the need for well designed, adequately powered RCTs to assess possible beneficial and adverse effects of topical NSAIDs in people with diabetic CMO. Future trials s...
Now that you want to take your HIV/AIDS vaccine/biological product research concept into the clinic: What are "cGMP"?
Now that you want to take your HIV/AIDS vaccine/biological product research concept into the clinic: What are "cGMP"? Vaccine. 2015 Feb 16; Authors: Sheets RL, Rangavajhula V, Pullen JK, Butler C, Mehra V, Shapiro S, Pensiero M Abstract The Division of AIDS Vaccine Research Program funds the discovery and development of HIV/AIDS vaccine candidates. Basic researchers, having discovered a potential vaccine in the laboratory, next want to take that candidate into the clinic to test the concept in humans, to see if it translates. Many of them have heard of "cGMP" and know that they are supposed to make a "GMP product" to take into the clinic, but often they are not very familiar with what "cGMP" means and why these good practices are so important. As members of the Vaccine...
Spontaneous intraneural hematoma of the sural nerve
We present a previously healthy 36-year-old female who developed an atraumatic, spontaneous intraneural hematoma of her sural nerve. Sural dysfunction was elicited from the patient?s history and physical examination. The diagnosis was confirmed with magnetic resonance imaging, and surgical decompression provided successful resolution of her preoperative symptoms. To our knowledge, this entity has not been reported previously. Our case highlights the importance of having a high index of suspicion for nerve injury or compression in patients whose complaints follow a typical peripheral nerve distribution. Prior studies have shown that the formation of intraneural hematoma and associated compression of nerve fibers result in axonal degeneration, and surgical decompression decreases axonal de...
Gene expression changes during retinal development and rod specification.
CONCLUSIONS: This study aids in understanding gene expression differences between rod photoreceptor progenitors versus cultured RPCs that have lost photoreceptor potential. The results provide insights into rod photoreceptor development and should expedite the development of cell-based treatments for RP. Furthermore, the data set includes a large number of retinopathy genes; less-well-characterized genes within this data set are a resource for those seeking to identify novel retinopathy genes in patients with RP (GEO accession: GSE59201). PMID: 25678762 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Molecular Vision)
Evaluating the Progression of Osteolysis After Total Knee Arthroplasty.
Authors: Dalling JG, Math K, Scuderi GR Abstract Osteolysis around the knee following total knee arthroplasty continues to be a leading cause for revision total knee arthroplasty. Risk factors for periprosthetic knee osteolysis are associated with excessive polyethylene wear and include, but may not be limited to, malalignment of the mechanical axis, early-generation polyethylene sterilization techniques, excessive backside polyethylene wear, metal-backed patellar components, patient age, and an elevated body mass index. The initial diagnosis of osteolysis is frequently discovered on routine surveillance radiographs. The location, size, progressive nature, and associated symptomatology of the defect guides treatment. Surgical indications and timing are predicated on the risk of fai...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Prevalence and correlates of HIV among men who have sex with men in Tijuana, Mexico.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that MSM are a key sub-population in Tijuana at higher risk for HIV. Tijuana would also appear to have the highest proportion among upper-middle-income countries of HIV-positive MSM who are unknowingly infected. More HIV prevention research on MSM is urgently needed in Tijuana. PMID: 25669423 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Zambia: Govt Targets Zero New HIV Infections
[Times of Zambia]COMMUNITY Development, Mother and Child Health Minister Emerine Kabanshi says the Government will continue fighting HIV and AIDS in order to reach the target of zero new infections. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Aggressive new HIV strain detected in Cuba
Denise Royal Researchers have detected a new strain of HIV in patients in Cuba. The progression to AIDS happens much faster than in other strains of the virus. (Source: Health News - UPI.com)
Sacral Stimulation Aids Bowel Function After Spinal InjurySacral Stimulation Aids Bowel Function After Spinal Injury
Sacral anterior root stimulation (SARS) appears to help bowel emptying in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI), according Danish and German researchers. Reuters Health Information (Source: Medscape General Surgery Headlines)
Proportions of Patients With HIV Retained in Care and Virally Suppressed in New York City and the United States: Higher Than We Thought
Conclusions: Using 2 newly developed methods, we were able to report more accurate estimates of the proportions of patients retained in care and virally suppressed. Other local health jurisdictions should consider using these new methods to measure care outcomes and monitor the National HIV/AIDS Strategy. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Early HIV Infections Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Five Cities in the United States
Abstract We tested blood samples from men who have sex with men (MSM) to detect early HIV infection. Early HIV included both acute (infected past 30 days) and recent (estimated recency past 240 days). Acute infections were defined as screen immunoassay (IA) negative/NAAT-positive or IA-positive/Multispot-negative/NAAT-positive. Recent infections were defined as avidity index cutoff &lt;30 % on an avidity-based IA and, (1) not reporting antiretroviral therapy use or, (2) HIV RNA &gt;150 copies/mL. Of 937 samples, 26 % (244) were HIV-infected and of these 5 % (12) were early. Of early infections, 2 were acute and 10 recent; most (8/12) were among black MSM. Early infection was associated with last partner of black race [adjusted relative risk (ARR) = 4.6, confidence interval...
An unusual presentation: A case of Multicentric Castleman's disease presenting as bilateral pleural effusions
Publication date: Available online 14 February 2015 Source:HIV &amp; AIDS Review Author(s): Priya K. Simoes , Narender Annapureddy , Vaidehi Avadhani , Gangajal Kasnia , Girish N. Nadkarni A 30-year-old male with AIDS with worsening dyspnea and leg swelling, extensive lymphadenopathy and anasarca. CT revealed new pleural effusions and lymphadenopathy. Lymph node biopsy showed Multicentric Castleman's disease with Kaposi's sarcoma. (Source: HIV and AIDS Review)
Prevalence and risk factors for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in an HIV-positive cohort
Conclusions Even with high MRSA prevalence, the proportion identified through nares surveillance alone was low, indicating the importance of screening multiple anatomic sites. Associations were not found with same-sex coupling or black race. MRSA prevention might be a benefit of ART in PLWH. (Source: American Journal of Infection Control)
Impact evaluation of a community-based intervention to reduce risky sexual behaviour in female sex workers in Shanghai, China
Conclusion: Following a preventive intervention among Shanghai FSWs, our findings demonstrate that a simple, community-based educational intervention improved overall condom use, HIV and STI knowledge, and attitudes in relation to HIV/AIDS. The intervention should be implemented widely after tailoring educational materials regarding condom negotiation with different partner types (e.g., clients and primary partners). (Source: BMC Public Health)
Decisive Criteria Between Stapedotomy and Cochlear Implantation in Patients with Far Advanced Otosclerosis
Conclusion: Although cochlear implantation gives better overall results, stapedotomy with hearing aids can still be very effective in the management of patients with far-advanced otosclerosis. It should therefore be proposed as a first-line treatment. (Source: Otology and Neurotology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Diagnostic aids in the screening of oral cancer.
The World Health Organization has clearly indentified prevention and early detection as major objectives in the control of the oral cancer burden worldwide. At the present time, screening of oral cancer and its pre-invasive intra-epithelial stages, as well as its early detection, is still largely based on visual examination of the mouth. There is strong available evidence to suggest that visual inspection of the oral mucosa is effective in reducing mortality from oral cancer in individuals exposed to risk factors. Simple visual examination, however, is well known to be limited by subjective interpretation and by the potential, albeit rare, occurrence of dysplasia and early OSCC within areas of normal-looking oral mucosa. As a consequence, adjunctive techniques have been suggested to increa...
Auditory brainstem implant: Hearing experts break sound barrier for children born without hearing nerve
Medical researchers are breaking sound barriers for children born without a hearing nerve. Hearing loss manifests in various forms, most of which can be partially restored through hearing aids and cochlear implants. Those devices cannot help a small population of individuals who do not have a cochlear, or hearing, nerve -- these people are unable to perceive sound, no matter how loud, outside of feeling vibration. The ABI is considered revolutionary because it stimulates neurons directly at the human brainstem, bypassing the inner ear entirely. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)
Pharmacokinetics of Etravirine Combined with Atazanavir/Ritonavir and a Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor in Antiretroviral Treatment-Experienced, HIV-1-Infected Patients.
Conclusions. Etravirine 200?mg?bid can be combined with atazanavir/ritonavir 300/100?mg?qd and an NRTI in HIV-1-infected, treatment-experienced patients without dose adjustment. PMID: 25664185 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Nigeria: Mobile HIV Counselling, Tests Begin in Ondo
[Independent (Lagos)]In its drive to further reduce the spread of HIV among residents in the state, the Ondo State government, through its Agency for the Control of AIDS (ODSACA) in collaboration with the Local Action Committee on AIDS (LACA) on Thursday flagged off a mobile HIV counseling and testing service among rural dwellers in the state. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
South Africa: 2014 SONA Claims Revisited - Zuma On HIV/Aids
This report looks back at the claims he made about service delivery. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Cipla awarded $188.95 million tender by Global Fund for ARV drugs to treat HIV/AIDS
Cipla has been awarded $188.95 million tender for anti-retrovirals drugs by Global Fund which would enable it to supply the medicines to over 140 countries. (Source: The Economic Times Healthcare and Biotech News)
Africa: Cancer's Deadly Grip On Africa, Yet It's Barely Noticed
[IPS]Harare -Hidden by the struggles to defeat Ebola, malaria and drug-resistant tuberculosis, a silent killer has been moving across the African continent, superseding infections of HIV and AIDS. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Nigeria: Fresh Rumble Over Court Judgement On Abalaka's HIV Vaccine Claim
[Guardian]ABOUT 16 years after the Federal Government placed a ban on the use of his controversial HIV vaccine, Dr. Jeremiah Abalaka, appears not ready to give up the fight. He is still insisting that efficacy of his vaccine is not in doubt. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Rwanda: Cricket Without Boundaries to Conduct Training Clinics
[New Times]A group of seven members from UK Charity group Cricket Without Boundaries are in the country to train local coaches and also educate the youth about the dangers of sexually transmitted diseases like HIV/Aids. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Cancer Locks a Deadly Grip on Africa, Yet It?s Barely Noticed
Many specialist doctors and nurses in Africa are migrating to greener pastures, leaving cancer patients with few options. Credit: Jeffrey Moyo/IPSBy Jeffrey MoyoHARARE, Feb 13 2015 (IPS)Hidden by the struggles to defeat Ebola, malaria and drug-resistant tuberculosis, a silent killer has been moving across the African continent, superseding infections of HIV and AIDS.World Cancer Day commemorated on Feb. 4 may have come and gone, but the spread of cancer in Africa has been worrying global health organisations and experts year round. The continent, they fear, is ill-prepared for another health crisis of enormous proportions.By 2020, according to the World Health Organisation (WHO), approximately 16 million new cases of cancer are anticipated worldwide, with 70 percent of them in developing c...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Case Report and Review of Immunodeficiency Associated Burkitt Lymphoma
Publication date: Available online 9 January 2015 Source:Clinical Lymphoma Myeloma and Leukemia Author(s): Daniel H. Johnson , Thomas Reske , Marco Ruiz HIV associated Burkitt lymphoma (HIV-BL) is a highly aggressive lymphoma. Compared to other AIDS related non-Hodgkin lymphomas, its clinical presentation is less predictable and characterized by rapid clinical changes. The paradigm shift to treat HIV-BL with highly effective intensive chemotherapy regimens and manage immunosuppression has enabled physicians to offer and achieve remission and long-term survival. The authors present a challenging case of a 33-year old HIV+ male with advanced stage BL. The patient presented with severe cachexia, clinical symptomatic cord compression, an ECOG performance status of 4 and his care involved pro...
HIV/AIDS?related stigma and information behaviour: an ethnographic study in the UK
Abstract This feature explores the information behaviour of people infected with or affected by HIV/AIDS. It investigates specifically the difficult issue of stigma and how this shapes the ways in which people interact with vital information. The study adopted an ethnographic whereby the researcher worked as a part?time volunteer at an HIV support centre in the North of England for over a year. This is the first time that such an approach has been reported in this feature and is interesting from this perspective alone. The very rich data which was gathered as a result of the approach is also instructive. The study formed part of a PhD thesis, which Robinah Kalemeera Namuleme completed at the University of Sheffield in March 2013. (Source: Health Information and Libraries Journal)
HIV-Positive Status Disclosure in Patients in Care in Rural South Africa: Implications for Scaling Up Treatment and Prevention Interventions
Abstract A nuanced understanding of HIV-positive status disclosure is urgently needed to inform the implementation of prevention interventions, including TasP and PrEP. To provide such understanding for the high HIV-burden setting of rural KwaZulu-Natal, we conducted a prospective cohort study to characterize determinants and trends in HIV-positive status disclosure. 687 consenting HIV-positive individuals (73.2 % female; 60.3 % ART initiated) were enrolled. Reports of any incidence of disclosure to either a family member or sexual partner at enrollment and follow-up visits (median 4.4 months post-enrolment) were common (91.0 %); however, reports of disclosure specifically to sexual partners were relatively rare (34.1 %), especially in women (29.8 %). Participants not en...
2015 Avant-Garde Awards Offer Extraordinary Ideas in HIV/AIDS Research
"With proposals ranging from innovative therapies to the development of unique organoid models of the brain, five scientists have been selected to receive the 2015 Avant-Garde Award for HIV/AIDS Research from the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), part of the National Institutes of Health. The five scientists will each receive $500,000 per year for five years to support their research. NIDA's annual Avant-Garde Award competition, now in its eighth year, is intended to stimulate high-impact research that may lead to groundbreaking opportunities for the prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS in drug users." &nbsp; View the list of awardees and learn more about their research in this NIH news release. (Source: AIDSinfo At-a-Glance: Offering Information on HIV/AIDS Treatment, Prevention, a...
FDA Approves Dutrebis, Though It Is Not Commercially Marketed in U.S. at This Time
"On February 6, 2015, the FDA approved Dutrebis a fixed dose combination tablet containing 150 mg of lamivudine and 300 mg of raltegravir. Dutrebis tablet is approved for use in combination with other antiretroviral products for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in adults and pediatric patients greater than or equal to 6 years of age weighing at least 30 kg. &hellip;&nbsp; &nbsp; "According to the manufacturer, Merck Pharmaceuticals, Dutrebis, will not be made commercially available in the U.S. at this time." &nbsp; For more information, view the FDA news release. (Source: AIDSinfo At-a-Glance: Offering Information on HIV/AIDS Treatment, Prevention, and Research, A Service of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS))<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
AIDS incidence and AIDS-related mortality in British Columbia, Canada, between 1981 and 2013: a retrospective study
Publication date: Available online 13 February 2015 Source:The Lancet HIV Author(s): Viviane D Lima , Lillian Lourenço , Benita Yip , Robert S Hogg , Peter Phillips , Julio S G Montaner Background Appropriate use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART) can substantially decrease the risk of progression to AIDS and of premature mortality. We aimed to characterise the trends between 1981 and 2013 in AIDS-defining illnesses (ADIs) and the number AIDS-related deaths in British Columbia, Canada, where ART has been fully subsidised since 1996. Methods We included data on HIV-positive individuals, aged 19 years or older, from four administrative databases in British Columbia: the British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS, St Paul's Hospital, the British Columbia Vital Statistic...
End of AIDS on the horizon, but innovation needed to end HIV
Publication date: Available online 13 February 2015 Source:The Lancet HIV Author(s): Stefano Vella (Source: The Lancet HIV)
Gene Expression Ratio Test Distinguishes Normal Lung from Lung Tumors in Solid Tissue and FNA Biopsies
This study supports the hypothesis that the gene-ratio approach reliably distinguishes normal lung from cancerous tissues in FNA samples and can be optimized to diagnose benign nodules. (Source: The Journal of Molecular Diagnostics)
Can local communities 'sustain' HIV/AIDS programmes? A South African example
Globally, there is a renewed interest in building the local sustainability of HIV/AIDS programmes to ensure that once funders withdraw, local communities can sustain programmes. While the &lsquo;local sustainability assumption&rsquo; is widespread, little research has assessed this. In this article, we assess the sustainability of the Entabeni Project, a community-based intervention that sought to build women's local leadership and capacity to respond to HIV/AIDS through a group of volunteer carers, 3 years after external support was withdrawn. Overall, the sustainability of the Entabeni Project was limited. The wider social and political context undermined volunteer carers' sense that they could affect change, with little external support for them from government and NGOs, who struggled t...
Barriers to Cervical Cancer Screening in Rural Kenya: Perspectives from a Provider Survey
We examined the barriers to screening through a survey of 106 healthcare staff. The most frequently cited barriers to service delivery included staffing shortages, lack of trained staff, insufficient space, and supply issues. The patient barriers commonly perceived by the staff included inadequate knowledge, wait time, discomfort with male providers, and fear of pain with the speculum exam. Despite multilateral efforts to implement cervical cancer screening, staff face significant challenges to service provision and increased education is needed for both providers and patients. (Source: Journal of Community Health)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
IJERPH, Vol. 12, Pages 2120-2134: Exploring the Care Relationship between Grandparents/Older Carers and Children Infected with HIV in South-Western Uganda: Implications for Care for Both the Children and Their Older Carers
The care of children orphaned by HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa is often undertaken by grandparents, yet little is known about the care relationship between grandparent and grandchild. Our aim was to examine this relationship to understand the needs and responsibilities of both the HIV positive child and older carer and the nature of the relationship, and to assess the implications for care for the children and the older carers. A qualitative study was conducted with 40 purposively sampled children (13?17 years) and their older carers (50 years and above). Participants were recruited from two clinics in south-western Uganda. Up to three semi-structured interviews were held with each participant. Data were analysed using a thematic framework approach. We found that the care relationship w...
HIV-1 diversity in an antiretroviral treatment naïve cohort from Bushbuckridge, Mpumalanga Province, South Africa
Conclusions: The phylogenetic analysis of the HIV sequences revealed that, by 2009, patients in the Bushbuckridge, Mpumalanga were predominantly infected with HIV-1 subtype C. However, the generalized, explosive nature of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in South Africa, in the context of extensive mobility by South Africans who inhabit rural areas, renders the continued molecular monitoring and surveillance of the epidemic imperative. (Source: Virology Journal)
Global stability of an infection-age structured HIV-1 model linking within-host and between-host dynamics.
Authors: Shen M, Xiao Y, Rong L Abstract Although much evidence shows the inseparable interaction between the within-host progression of HIV-1 infection and the transmission of the disease at the population level, few models coupling the within-host and between-host dynamics have been developed. In this paper, we adopt the nested approach, viewing the transmission rate at each stage (primary, chronic, and AIDS stage) of HIV-1 infection as a saturated function of the viral load, to formulate an infection-age structured epidemic model. We explicitly link the individual and the host population scale, and derive the basic reproduction number R0 for the coupled system. To analyze the model and perform a detailed global dynamics analysis, two Lyapunov functionals are constructed to prove...
Transmitted drug resistance in recently infected HIV-positive Individuals from four urban locations across Asia (2007¿2010) ¿ TASER-S
Conclusions: The observed proportion of TDRM in TASER-S patients from Hong Kong, Thailand and the Philippines was low to moderate during the study period. Regular monitoring of TDRM should be encouraged, especially with the scale-up of ART at higher CD4 levels. (Source: AIDS Research and Therapy)
Aggressive form of HIV uncovered in Cuba: HIV to AIDS in three years
Engaging in unprotected sex with multiple partners increases the risk of contracting multiple strains of HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. Once inside a host, these strains can recombine into a new variant of the virus. One such recombinant variant observed in patients in Cuba appears to be much more aggressive than other known forms of HIV. Patients progress to AIDS within three years of infection -- so rapidly that they may not even realize they were infected. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Malawi: Where Do Prayers and Food Stand in HIV Treatment?
[Key Correspondents]I first met Ruth Namadzi on World Aids Day of 2014 and my first impression was that of a nutritionist or still someone who owns a restaurant. She had in front of her various food dishes, which not only gave sweet smell but also had an attractive look. There was nsima made from whole maize grain, fried meat together with a variety of vegetables and milk, among others. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Well: Chains Pull Dietary Aids Off Shelves After Inquiry
The New York attorney general had issued subpoenas to Target, Walgreens, GNC and Walmart over claims made on their packaging of dietary supplements. (Source: NYT)
Nigeria: Smartphone Accessory Diagnoses HIV, Syphilis in 15 Minutes
[Guardian]A NEW smartphone accessory capable of diagnosing Human Immuno-deficiency Virus (HIV) and syphilis has been developed and successfully field-tested in Rwanda. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Tanzania: NGO Introduces Project to Support HIV+ People
[Daily News]WOMEN Creative Solutions Association (WCSA) has introduced a project known as Sauti Yetu, aimed at helping people living with HIV/ Aids in urban and rural areas. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
An aggressive form of HIV uncovered in Cuba
(KU Leuven) Engaging in unprotected sex with multiple partners increases the risk of contracting multiple strains of HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. Once inside a host, these strains can recombine into a new variant of the virus. One such recombinant variant observed in patients in Cuba appears to be much more aggressive than other known forms of HIV. Patients progress to AIDS within three years of infection -- so rapidly that they may not even realize they were infected. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory levan produced from Acetobacter xylinum NCIM2526 and its statistical optimization
In this study, we have demonstrated the microbial production of therapeutically potential levan by batch fermentation process in sucrose rich medium using Acetobacter xylinum NCIM 2526. The produced Levan was characterized using various physicochemical techniques such as FTIR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR spectroscopy, TGA and HPLC. The biomedical potential of the isolated A. xylinum levan for its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities was exploited in vitro. Further the present study also focused on the optimization of levan production using one factor at a time approach followed by a statistical method, central composite design (CCD) with selected variables. The yield of levan was increased significantly from 0.54 to 13.25g/L with the optimized variables. (Source: Carbohydrate Polymers)
Estimation of the Standardized Risk Difference and Ratio in a Competing Risks Framework: Application to Injection Drug Use and Progression to AIDS After Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy
We present an example estimating the effect of injection drug use on 6-year risk of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) after initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy between 1998 and 2012 in an 8-site US cohort study with death before AIDS as a competing risk. We estimate the risk standardized to the total study sample by combining inverse probability weights with the cumulative incidence function; estimates of precision are obtained by bootstrap. In 7,182 patients (83% male, 33% African American, median age of 38 years), we observed 6-year standardized AIDS risks of 16.75% among 1,143 injection drug users and 12.08% among 6,039 nonusers, yielding a standardized risk difference of 4.68 (95% confidence interval: 1.27, 8.08) and a standardized risk ratio of 1.39 (95% confidenc...
Positive Charge: Filling the Gaps in the U.S. HIV Continuum of Care
This study describes three PC programs, the characteristics of their participants, and the continuum of engagement in care for their participants. Eighty-eight percent of participants were engaged in care post PC enrollment. Sixty-nine percent were retained in care, and 46 % were virally suppressed at follow-up. Older participants were more likely to be engaged, retained, and virally suppressed. Differences by race and gender in HIV care and treatment varied across PC programs, reflecting the diverse target populations, locations, and strategies employed by the PC grantees. There is an urgent need for programs that promote HIV care and treatment among vulnerable populations, including young people living with HIV. There is also an urgent need for additional research to test the effectiven...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Macaque species susceptibility to simian immunodeficiency virus: increased incidence of SIV central nervous system disease in pigtailed macaques versus rhesus macaques
Abstract Immune pressure exerted by MHC class I-restricted cytotoxic T cells drives the development of viral escape mutations, thereby regulating HIV disease progression. Nonetheless, the relationship between host immunity and HIV central nervous system (CNS) disease remains poorly understood. The simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) macaque model recapitulates key features of HIV infection including development of AIDS and CNS disease. To investigate cell-mediated immunity regulating SIV CNS disease progression, we compared the incidence of SIV encephalitis and the influence of MHC class I allele expression on the development of CNS disease in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) versus pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina). After inoculation with the immunosuppressive swarm SIV/Delt...
The role of health?related claims and health?related symbols in consumer behaviour: Design and conceptual framework of the CLYMBOL project and initial results
The objective of the European Union?funded project Role of health?related?CLaims?and?sYMBOLs?in consumer behaviour (CLYMBOL) is to determine how health?related information provided through claims and symbols, in their context, can affect consumer understanding, purchase and consumption. To do this, a wide range of qualitative and quantitative consumer research methods are being used, including product sampling, sorting studies (i.e. how consumers categorise claims and symbols according to concepts such as familiarity and relevance), cross?country surveys, eye?tracking (i.e. what consumers look at and for how long), laboratory and in?store experiments, structured interviews, as well as analysis of population panel data. EU Member States differ with regard to their histor...
Novel laboratory diagnostic tests for tuberculosis and their potential role in an integrated and tiered laboratory network
Lack of laboratory capacity in high-burden countries presents a significant barrier in providing diagnosis and treatment to patients infected with HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis (TB), and malaria. Strengthening laboratory services in these settings via implementation of novel diagnostic tests is especially indispensable to battle against TB and MDR/XDR-TB.Novel TB diagnostic assays have to be applicable to field conditions, affordable and accessible to all patients at different levels of the tiered laboratory network. (Source: Tuberculosis)
Advocates of preventative HIV drug discuss use, benefits in New Orleans
Three decades after it launched the biggest health scare in a generation, AIDS remains a disease without a cure. (Source: WDSU.com - Health)
Kidneys from HIV Donors May Be OK for HIV Patients, Study Finds
South African researchers report 'impressive' results in 27 cases Source: HealthDay Related MedlinePlus Pages: HIV/AIDS, Kidney Diseases, Kidney Transplantation (Source: MedlinePlus Health News)
Zimbabwe: Zisco Workers HIV Drugs Locked Inside Homes
[New Zimbabwe]WORKERS at the troubled former Zimbabwe Iron and Steel Company, Ziscosteel now NewZimsteel had their anti-retroviral drugs locked in their houses last year when the Redcliff Council locked out tenants in rental arrears, a report has revealed. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Hearing aids to rationed by crisis-stricken NHS
Another 41 per cent of trusts will only offer patients one hearing aid unless they specifically ask for two, while after-care checks, staff numbers, and access to appointments have also been cut. (Source: the Mail online | Health)
New technology could help patients make better decisions on care
(McMaster University) Traditional decision aids to help patient-doctor discussions have drawbacks, but a new electronic model developed by McMaster University researchers holds promise of revolutionizing shared decision-making in the doctor's office with the touch of an electronic tablet. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Funds for HIV/AIDS healthcare contracts reduced by L.A. County
Los Angeles County officials cut back Tuesday on contracts to provide medical care to AIDS and HIV patients, citing increased numbers of people now insured under the federal government's overhaul of healthcare. (Source: Los Angeles Times - Science)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Poor access to primary care impacts the health of deaf people
Study finds that deaf people have poorer health than hearing population Related items from OnMedicaHearing aids only worn by one in five of middle aged who need themHearing loss linked to cognitive declineHair cells in the cochlea can be regenerated, study showsMental health needs of deaf people neglected, review showsGenetic fault at root of inherited deafness (Source: OnMedica Latest News)
The Nigeria wealth distribution and health seeking behaviour: evidence from the 2012 national HIV/AIDS and reproductive health survey
Conclusion The wealth quintiles showed a great disparity in the standard of living of Nigerian households across geo-political zones, states and rural?urban locations which had greatly influenced household health seeking behavior. (Source: Health Economics Review)
The role of quantitative ADME proteomics to support construction of physiologically?based pharmacokinetic models for use in small molecule drug development
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved (Source: Proteomics. Clinical Applications)
Sexual Violence Against Men Who Have Sex with Men in Brazil: A Respondent-Driven Sampling Survey
Abstract We estimated the prevalence of sexual violence (SV) experience among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Brazil and identified its associated risk factors. We recruited 3859 MSM through respondent driven sampling. A multivariable hierarchical analysis was performed using an ecological model. The prevalence of having ever experienced SV was 15.9 % (95 % confidence interval [CI] 14.7?17.1). SV experience was independently associated with discrimination due to sexual orientation (odds ratio [OR] 3.05; 95 % CI 2.10?4.42), prior HIV testing (OR 1.81; 95 % CI 1.25?2.63), ?14 years at first sex (OR 1.86; 95 % CI 1.28?2.71), first sex with a man (OR 1.89; 95 % CI 1.28?2.79), presenting STI symptoms (last year) (OR 1.66; 95 % CI 1.12?2.47), and having suicidal...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
A Comparison of Referred Sexual Partners to Their Community Recruited Counterparts in The BROTHERS Project (HPTN 061)
Abstract The BROTHERS Project (HPTN 061) was established to determine the feasibility and acceptability of a multi-component intervention among African American MSM to reduce HIV incidence. The goal of this analysis was to determine if the sexual partner referral approach used in HPTN 061 broadened the reach of recruitment with regards to characteristics associated with higher infection rates and barriers to quality health care. Overall, referred sexual partners had notable structural barrier differences in comparison to community-recruited participants: lower income, less education, higher unemployment, HIV positive diagnosis, incarceration history, and no health insurance. The study?s findings pose implications for utilizing the sexual partner referral approach in reaching Afr...
Partner Age-Disparity and HIV Incidence Risk for Older Women in Rural South Africa
Abstract While sexual partner age disparity is frequently considered as a potential risk factor for HIV among young women in Africa, no research has addressed this question among older women. Our aim was thus to determine whether sex partner age disparity was associated with subsequent HIV acquisition in women over 30 years of age. To achieve this aim we conducted a quantitative analysis of a population-based, open cohort of women in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa (n = 1,737) using Cox proportional hazards models. As partner age rose, HIV acquisition risk fell significantly: compared to a same-aged partner, a 5-year older partner was associated with a one-third reduction [hazard ratio (HR) 0.63, 95 % CI 0.52?0.76] and a 10-year older partner with a one-half reduction (HR ...
Disclosure of HIV status to perinatally-infected adolescents in urban Uganda: A qualitative study on timing, process, and outcomes
Disclosure of HIV status to children and adolescents living with HIV remains a challenge in pediatric HIV care. Many of the current disclosure guidelines from national and international bodies recommend that perinatally-infected children be informed of their HIV status prior to adolescence, but rates of disclosure in both high- and low-income countries remains low. The applicability of the recommendations to low-income countries remains largely unknown, as few studies have explored the disclosure process in these settings. (Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)
Evaluation of an HPV/Anal Cancer Screening Awareness Program for HIV-infected Men Who Have Sex With Men
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is considered a risk factor for anal cancer. Men who have sex with men (MSM) have been reported to be 20 times more likely to be diagnosed with anal cancer, and HIV-infected MSM have been reported to be 40 times more likely to be diagnosed with anal cancer. Even prior to the HIV epidemic, MSM were reported to have a significantly higher incidence of anal cancer compared with the general population (Klencke & Palefsky, 2003). However, soon after the HIV epidemic began, it was further noted that rates of anal cancer for HIV-infected MSM were significantly higher than anal cancer rates for MSM without HIV infection. (Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)
Kenya: Kenwa Rescues Children's Home From Closure
[The Star]THE Kenya Network of Women With Aids has reinstated its support for a children's home in Murang'a town, Kiharu. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Malawi: Cassper Nyovest Concerts to Spearhead HIV/Aids and Gender Based Violence Awareness
[Malawi News Agency]Cassper Nyovest, a South African hip-hop music superstar who is scheduled to perform in Blantyre on Saturday, 21st March 2015 at College of Medicine Sports Complex and 22nd March 2015 in Lilongwe at Alexander's Pub Courtyard will spearhead HIV/AIDS and Gender Based Violence (GBV) awareness to the audiences. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Malawi: State Confronts Challenges in Prioritising HIV Response
[Key Correspondents]Malawi has appointed new principal recipients to administer the $574 million it was allocated to fight HIV, as it seeks to turn the page on a financial scandal involving the National AIDS Commission. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Nigeria: 14 IDPs Test Positive to HIV in Yobe
[Vanguard]Fourteen out of the 2,109 Internally Displaced Persons, IDPs, screened for HIV in Yobe State, have tested positive to the virus. Following the screening carried out by the National Agency for the Control of AIDS, NACA, among those who tested positive were 10 in Nguru and four in Gashua, have been referred to Anti Retroviral Therapy, ART, at the Federal Medical Center, Nguru. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Zambia: Sondashi Pleads Case for His 'Hiv/Aids Remedy'
[Zambia Reports]Forum for Democratic Alternatives leader Ludwig Sondashi has pleaded his case for his HIV/AIDS remedy the Sondashi Formula 2000 to be accepted as a cure. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Zimbabwe: HIV/Aids Groups Blast Prophets, N'angas Over ARVs
[New Zimbabwe]ORGANISATIONS representing people living with HIV/Aids have accused Pentecostal churches and some apostolic sects of misleading their members into ditching life-prolonging medication for "anointing oils- holy water" and healing prayers. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Malawi: Health Ministry Assures Total Support Towards Flood Victims On ARV Treatment
[Malawi News Agency]The Ministry of Health has assured of total support to all Anti Retrial Viral Treatment (ARV) flood victims. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Development of a new assessment scale for measuring interaction during staff-assisted transfer of residents in dementia special care units
Conclusions: To enable assessment of transfer-related actions in dementia care dyads, our new scale shows potential for bridging the gap in this area. Results from this study could provide health care professionals working in dementia care facilities with a useful tool for assessing transfer-related actions. (Source: BioMed Central)
Finding HIV in Hard to Reach Populations: Mobile HIV Testing and Geospatial Mapping in Umlazi Township, Durban, South Africa
Abstract Mobile, community-based HIV testing may help achieve universal HIV testing in South Africa. We compared the yield, geographic distribution, and demographic characteristics of populations tested by mobile- and clinic-based HIV testing programs deployed by iThembalabantu Clinic in Durban, South Africa. From July to November 2011, 4,701 subjects were tested; HIV prevalence was 35 % among IPHC testers and 10 % among mobile testers (p &lt; 0.001). Mobile testers varied in mean age (22?37 years) and % males (26?67 %). HIV prevalence at mobile sites ranged from 0 to 26 %. Testers traveled further than the clinic closest to their home; mobile testers were more likely to test ?5 km away from home. Mobile HIV testing can improve testing access and identify testing sit...
Risk-Stratified Screening for Detection of Melanoma
Conclusions and Relevance Monitoring patients at extreme risk with TBP and SDDI assisted with early diagnosis of primary melanoma. Hypervigilance for difficult-to-detect thick melanoma subtypes is crucial.JAMA Dermatol. 2014;150(8):819-827. doi:10.1001/jamadermatol.2014.514. (Source: JAMA)
HPV Vaccination Does Not Appear to Boost Risky Teen Sex, Study Shows
After its introduction, increase in STD rates was same in vaccinated, unvaccinated girls (Source: Fertility News - Doctors Lounge)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
2015 Avant-Garde Awards offer extraordinary ideas in HIV/AIDS research NIH-funded research lays groundwork for next-generation prosthetics
NIH?s awards showcase potentially transformative research on prevention, immune system, drug development, and ?minibrain? models made of human tissue. (Source: National Institutes of Health (NIH) News Releases)
Pharma exports to reach Rs 1.1 lakh crore by FY'16
The pharmaceutical industry continues to benefit from lower cost of research and production which aids manufacturing for exports. (Source: The Economic Times Healthcare and Biotech News)
Nigeria: 'Nigeria's HIV Prevalence Down to 3.6 Percent'
[Daily Trust]Jos -The Institute of Human Virology, Nigeria (IHVN) says Nigeria has brought the prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) from 4.4 per cent to 3.6 per cent and has succeeded in reducing Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) from what was initially a "death sentence" to a chronic disease. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
HIV-Specific ADCC Antibodies in HIV PreventionHIV-Specific ADCC Antibodies in HIV Prevention
How can antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity antibodies prevent and control HIV infection? AIDS (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
Expression of Gut-homing B7 Receptor on T CellsExpression of Gut-homing B7 Receptor on T Cells
This article analyzes microbial translocation and expression of the gut-homing B7 receptor on peripheral T cells in HIV-1-infected individuals. HIV Medicine (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Nigeria: Stepping Up HIV/Aids Awareness in Nigeria
[Independent (Lagos)]Lagos -Nigeria has undoubtedly made some progress over the years in containing and creating awareness on the scourge of HIV/ AIDS. Many lives have been saved through the awareness campaigns and provision and access to the antiretroviral (AVR) drugs for people living with HIV/AIDS. However, research shows that only a quarter of children living with HIV have access to antiretroviral therapy, and in some countries coverage for children is half the coverage for adults. Available statistics indicate that up to 50 per (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: CAF President Issa Hayatou Receives UNAIDS Recognition for Commitment to "Protect the Goal" Campaign
[CAF]Bata, Equatorial Guinea, 7 February 2015 - The President of the Confederation of African Football (CAF) Issa Hayatou has been honoured with the prestigious 2015 Certificate of Achievement by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) on the occasion of the 2015 Africa Cup of Nations hosted by Equatorial Guinea. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Tanzania: What Are the Effects of Using Phones to Test for HIV/Aids?
[Daily News]THE title read 'Phones to be used to test for HIV soon' and I sighed and sat upright to read the story hoping to quickly get to the name of the phone application (app). (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
2015 Avant-Garde Awards offer extraordinary ideas in HIV/AIDS research
(NIH/National Institute on Drug Abuse) With proposals ranging from innovative therapies to the development of unique organoid models of the brain, five scientists have been selected to receive the 2015 Avant-Garde Award for HIV/AIDS Research from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, part of the National Institutes of Health. The five scientists will each receive $500,000 per year for five years to support their research. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
CD4/CD8 ratio normalisation and non-AIDS-related events in individuals with HIV who achieve viral load suppression with antiretroviral therapy: an observational cohort study

Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of maxilla ? A clinical rarity lending glimpses into embryonal myogenesis
We present a rare encounter with this entity in a young adult who reported with a rapidly growing swelling in the posterior maxilla, which on histological examination provided intriguing insights into embryonic myogenesis. (Source: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Medicine, and Pathology)
Observations on Chlamydia trachomatis and other microbes in reactive arthritis
There are problems in attributing causality in inflammatory arthritis. So far as C. trachomatis and sexually acquired reactive arthritis are concerned, there is much in favour of a causal relationship, although there are important caveats which need to be explored before it is possible to say unreservedly that C. trachomatis plays a causative role in reactive arthritis. For example, micro-organisms have never been cultured from synovial effusions in early disease, and only once has substantial benefit of antimicrobial treatment been reported. The claim that ocular strains of C. trachomatis are of over-riding importance in pathogenesis needs confirmation before it can be accepted. No conclusion can be made about the possibility of other small intracellular bacteria in joints having a role i...
Factors associated with HIV and syphilis co-infection among men who have sex with men in seven Chinese cities
HIV-syphilis co-infection is often cited as a major reason behind recent resurgence in syphilis prevalence among men who have sex with men in China. Most published literatures explore factors associated with either HIV or syphilis, but not their co-infection. We analysed data from a cross-sectional survey on men who have sex with men in seven Chinese cities. Snowball sampling was used to recruit participants for the survey. Socio-demographic and behavioural predictors for HIV-syphilis mono/co-infection were examined using ordinal logistic regression. Factor scores were used to summarise (1) HIV-related knowledge and (2) access to HIV preventive services. Prevalence of HIV, syphilis, and their co-infection, among 2936 self-identified men who have sex with men, were 7.7%, 14.3%, and 2.6%, re...
Prevalence and predictors of anaemia in patients with HIV infection at the initiation of combined antiretroviral therapy in Xinjiang, China
We retrospectively analysed routinely collected baseline data of 2252 patients with HIV infection registered in the National Free Antiretroviral Treatment Program in Xinjiang province, China, from 2006 to 2011 to estimate the prevalence and predictors of anaemia at the initiation of combined antiretroviral therapy. Anaemia was diagnosed using the criteria set forth by the World Health Organisation, and univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to determine its predictors. The prevalences of mild, moderate, and severe anaemia at the initiation of combined antiretroviral therapy were 19.2%, 17.1%, and 2.6%, respectively. Overall, 38.9% of the patients were anaemic at the initiation of combined antiretroviral therapy. The multivariate logistic regression analysis...
Depression symptoms, social support and overall health among HIV-positive individuals in Kenya
In conclusion, this study suggests that HIV clinics and interventions need to focus more on the psychological and/or mental health status of HIV-infected individuals while providing avenues such as social support groups that can be a buffer against the negative impact of HIV infection and depression on overall health outcomes. (Source: International Journal of STD and AIDS)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Do genitourinary physicians report notifiable diseases? A survey in South East England
Genitourinary medicine work requires public health actions. Notifiable infections may be seen in genitourinary medicine, but concerns over confidentiality could delay public health actions and outbreak management. To assess genitourinary medicine clinicians&rsquo; awareness of notification of infectious disease, reporting practices and liaison with Health Protection Units, we sent postal surveys to 140 genitourinary medicine clinicians (SE HPA region) that explored prior public health training, Health Protection Unit liaison and management of possible clinical scenarios. Fifty-seven respondents reported median genitourinary medicine experience of 12 years; 29% had prior public health training, nine on the British Association for Sexual Health and HIV course. A total of 90% had heard of Hea...
Can an asymptomatic screening pathway for men who have sex with men be introduced safely at a level 3 sexual health service in the UK?
This study aimed to establish whether omitting examination of asymptomatic men who have sex with men would lead to clinically significant diagnoses being missed. The notes of all men who have sex with men who attended a UK level 3 sexual health clinic between 1 July 2011 and 30 June 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Exclusion criteria included HIV-positive patients attending for HIV-related care, attendances for follow-up consultations not requiring a full sexual health screen, symptomatic patients, contacts of sexually transmitted infections and patients requesting an examination or a repeat prescription of a regularly used medication. In all, 920 consultations occurred during 12 months, of which 893 were reviewed; 476 (53.3%) consultations would have been eligible for screening on an a...
HIV infection and risk factors among the armed forces personnel stationed in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo
Despite recent declines in HIV incidence, sub-Saharan Africa remains the most heavily affected region in the global HIV/AIDS epidemic. Estimates of HIV prevalence in African military personnel are scarce and inconsistent. We conducted a serosurvey between June and September 2007 among 4043 Armed Forces personnel of the Democratic Republic of Congo (FARDC) stationed in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) to determine the prevalence of HIV and syphilis infections and describe associated risk behaviours. Participants provided blood for HIV and syphilis testing and responded to a demographic and risk factor questionnaire. The prevalence of HIV was 3.8% and the prevalence of syphilis was 11.9%. Women were more likely than men to be HIV positive, (7.5% vs. 3.6% respectively, aOR: 1.66, ...
Effects of rapid versus standard HIV voluntary counselling and testing on receipt rate of HIV test results: a meta-analysis
Rapid HIV voluntary counselling and testing (RVCT) is an alternative method of standard HIV voluntary counselling and testing (SVCT). Less is known about whether RVCT improves the receipt rate of HIV test results among clients who seek HIV counselling and testing. We aimed to evaluate effectiveness of RVCT on result receipt rate. We conducted a comprehensive search of databases containing Medline, EBSCO, Web of science, and Cochrane library to identify studies published up to August 2012. Reviewers extracted information independently. Risk of bias was evaluated with Cochrane Collaboration&rsquo;s tool for assessing study quality. Five randomised controlled trials were included and analysed for the result receipt rate using a random-effects model. The pooled receipt rate of HIV test results...
Autonomic neuropathy resulting in recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy in an HIV patient with Hodgkin lymphoma receiving vinblastine and antiretroviral therapy
We report a case of an adult patient with HIV who developed hoarseness of voice due to vocal cord paralysis during vinblastine treatment for Hodgkin lymphoma. Mediastinal and hilar lymph node enlargement in such patients may distract clinicians from considering alternative causes of recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy, with potential ensuing severe or even life-threatening stridor. (Source: International Journal of STD and AIDS)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
A case of severe thrombocytopaenia associated with acute HIV-1 infection
A 23-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with severe thrombocytopaenia. He had unprotected sexual contact 6 weeks earlier. He was diagnosed with acute HIV infection by means of HIV RNA viral load testing and HIV-associated thrombocytopaenia. Although his thrombocytopaenia improved immediately with short-term dexamethasone therapy, this effect was not sustained after cessation of therapy. Antiretroviral therapy including raltegravir was initiated, and the patient recovered from severe thrombocytopaenia within several days. The findings from this case suggest that acute HIV infection should be suspected with unexplained thrombocytopaenia, and that antiretroviral therapy is the treatment of choice for severe HIV-associated thrombocytopaenia, even when in the early period following acqui...
Etravirine: a good option for concomitant use with chemotherapy for Hodgkin's lymphoma
We report the successful use of an etravirine-based regimen in a patient treated with BEACOPP chemotherapy for advanced Hodgkin&rsquo;s lymphoma. Etravirine constitutes a valuable option for concomitant use with chemotherapy due to its moderate inducing effect on drug metabolising enzymes. (Source: International Journal of STD and AIDS)
Summary and highlights from the International Union against Sexually Transmitted Infections Congress 2014, Malta
(Source: International Journal of STD and AIDS)
Incidence of Sexually Transmitted Infections After Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Among Adolescent Females
Conclusions and RelevanceHuman papillomavirus vaccination was not associated with increases in STIs in a large cohort of females, suggesting that vaccination is unlikely to promote unsafe sexual activity. (Source: JAMA Internal Medicine)
Utilization of trifurcate arch graft in LVAD implantation via sternal sparing approach
Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) is now a routine therapy for advanced heart failure. Authors demonstrate a novel technique of utilization of trifurcate arch graft to facilitate LVAD implantation through sternal sparing bilateral anterior thoracotomies. The technique avoids cannulation of ascending aorta for cardio-pulmonary bypass, facilitates left ventricular venting and de-airing and aids keeping incisions minimally invasive. (Source: The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Antiretroviral penetration into the CNS and incidence of AIDS-defining neurologic conditions
(Source: Neurology)
Hck inhibitors as potential therapeutic agents in cancer and HIV infection.
This article summarizes Hck biological activities connected with malignancies and HIV infection, many of which have been only recently reported, and presents an overview of the compounds endowed with Hck inhibitory activity, especially focusing on the medicinal chemistry aspect. PMID: 25666803 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Medicinal Chemistry)
Methamphetamine decreases CD4 T cell frequency and alters pro-inflammatory cytokine production in a model of drug abuse.
Authors: Mata MM, Napier TC, Graves SM, Mahmood F, Raeisi S, Baum LL Abstract The reason co-morbid methamphetamine use and HIV infection lead to more rapid progression to AIDS is unclear. We used a model of methamphetamine self-administration to measure the effect of methamphetamine on the systemic immune system to better understand the co-morbidity of methamphetamine and HIV. Catheters were implanted into the jugular veins of male, Sprague Dawley rats so they could self-administer methamphetamine (n=18) or be given saline (control; n=16) for 14 days. One day after the last self-administration session, blood and spleens were collected. We measured serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, intracellular IFN-? and TNF-?, and frequencies of CD4(+), CD8(+), CD200(+) and CD11b/c(+) ...
Role of PD-1 co-inhibitory pathway in HIV infection and potential therapeutic options
Virus-specific CD8+ T cells play an important role in controlling viral infections including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. However, during chronic HIV infection, virus-specific CD8+ T cells undergo functional exhaustion, lose effector functions and fail to control viral infection. HIV-specific CD8 T cells express high levels of co-inhibitory molecule programmed death-1 (PD-1) during the chronic infection that is characterized by lower proliferation, cytokine production, and cytotoxic abilities. Although, antiretroviral therapy has resulted in dramatic decline in HIV replication, there is no effective treatment currently available to eradicate viral reservoirs or restore virus-specific T or B-cell functions that may complement ART in order to eliminate the virus. In recent y...
The effect of increased primary schooling on adult women's HIV status in Malawi and Uganda: Universal Primary Education as a natural experiment
Publication date: February 2015 Source:Social Science &amp; Medicine, Volume 127 Author(s): Julia Andrea Behrman This paper explores the causal relationship between primary schooling and adult HIV status in Malawi and Uganda, two East African countries with some of the highest HIV infection rates in the world. Using data from the 2010 Malawi Demographic Health Survey and the 2011 Uganda AIDS Indicator Survey, the paper takes advantage of a natural experiment, the implementation of Universal Primary Education policies in the mid 1990s. An instrumented regression discontinuity approach is used to model the relationship between increased primary schooling and adult women's HIV status. Results indicate that a one-year increase in schooling decreases the probability of an adult woman test...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
An Immunization Update for HIV-infected Adults in the United States: Review of the Literature
Persons living with HIV infection (PLWH) are experiencing near-normal lifespans due to the advances in antiretroviral treatment (ART) that have taken place over the past 30 years. In fact, it is estimated that more than half of PLWH in the United States will be greater than 50 years of age by 2015 (Effros et al., 2008). This transformation from an acute and often fatal disease to a chronic, though complex, illness in the United States offers clinicians the opportunity to direct greater attention to the primary care needs of an aging HIV-infected population. (Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)
Diversity is More Than Demographics
The Association of Nurses in AIDS Care (ANAC) Diversity Committee sponsored a roundtable entitled FACES: Fostering Awareness of Cultural Equity and Solidarity at the ANAC conference on November 7, 2014. The goal of the roundtable was to solicit members' thoughts about the meaning of diversity through interactive exercises. Participants felt it would be valuable to share their roundtable experience with the membership. (Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)
Living Longer With HIV: What Does It Mean?
As guest editors for this special issue, we weren't quite sure what types of articles we would receive when we circulated a special call for papers about living longer with HIV. Would all of the articles deal with aging issues? Would some of the papers focus on how children born with HIV transition into adulthood? Would some of the studies go beyond medication adherence to examine the broader domains of HIV self-management, including healthy dietary intake, exercise regimens, self-monitoring of health status, and stress reduction? Finally, we were hopeful that there were nurses and researchers out there working on innovative ways to help persons with HIV live long and fulfilling lives. (Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)
Position Statement: HIV Criminalization Laws and Policies Promote Discrimination and Must Be Reformed
The Association of Nurses in AIDS Care (ANAC) advocates for public health policy grounded in evidence, human rights, and the delivery of socially just health care. Current HIV criminalization laws and related policies promote discrimination and hinder HIV prevention, care, and treatment. Consequently, we call for the reform and/or repeal of unjust and harmful HIV criminalization statutes. It is the position of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care to support the following: (Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)
Cover 1
(Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Editorial Board
(Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)
Board of Directors
(Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)
Table of Contents
(Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)
HIV in Blacks: Mortality Rate High but Declining, CDC SaysHIV in Blacks: Mortality Rate High but Declining, CDC Says
The mortality rate among blacks with HIV declined by 28% from 2008 to 2012. In 2013, blacks accounted for 45% of CDC-funded HIV tests and 54.9% of people newly identified as having HIV. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)
Type I Interferon: Understanding Its Role in HIV Pathogenesis and Therapy
Abstract Despite over 30 years of research, the contribution of type I interferons (IFN-Is) to both the control of HIV replication and initiation of immunologic damage remains debated. In acute infection, IFN-Is, likely from plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), activate NK cells and upregulate restriction factors targeting virtually the entire HIV life cycle. In chronic infection, IFN-Is may also contribute to CD4 T cell loss and immune exhaustion. pDCs subsequently infiltrate lymphoid and mucosal tissues, and their circulating populations wane in chronic infection; IFN-I may be produced by other cells. Data from nonhuman primates indicate prompt IFN-I signaling is critical in acute infection. Whereas some studies showed IFN-I administration without combination antiretroviral the...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Risk Factors for HIV Acquisition in High Risk Women in a Generalised Epidemic Setting
Abstract In South Africa young women bear a disproportionate burden of HIV infection however, risk factors for HIV acquisition are not fully understood in this setting. In a cohort of 245 women, we used proportional hazard regression analysis to examine the association of demographic, clinical and behavioural characteristics with HIV acquisition. The overall HIV incidence rate (IR) was 7.20 per 100 women years (wy), 95 % confidence interval (CI) 4.50?9.80. Women 18?24 years had the highest HIV incidence (IR 13.20 per 100 wy, 95 % CI 6.59?23.62) and were almost three times more likely to acquire HIV compared to women 25 years and older [adjusted Hazard Ratio (aHR) 2.61, 95 % CI 1.05?6.47]. Similarly, women in relationships with multiple sex partners had more than t...
A Systematic Review of HIV Risk Behaviors and Trauma Among Forced and Unforced Migrant Populations from Low and Middle-Income Countries: State of the Literature and Future Directions
Abstract The aim of the current systematic review is to examine the relationship between trauma and HIV risk behaviors among both forced and unforced migrant populations from low and middle income countries (LMIC). We conducted a review of studies published from 1995 to 2014. Data were extracted related to (1) the relationship between trauma and HIV risk behaviors, (2) methodological approach, (3) assessment methods, and (4) differences noted between forced and unforced migrants. A total of 340 records were retrieved with 24 studies meeting inclusion criteria. Our review demonstrated an overall relationship between trauma and HIV risk behaviors among migrant populations in LMIC, specifically with sexual violence and sexual risk behavior. However, findings from 10 studies were not ...
CD4 Count is Still a Valid Indicator of Outcome in HIV-Infected Patients Undergoing Major Abdominal Surgery in the Era of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy
Conclusions HIV-infected patients on ART can now safely undergo major abdominal surgery with encouraging results though still relatively poorer than those of HIV-negative subjects. CD4 count remains a significant predictor of outcome and patients with a low CD4 count, however, still require closer pre- and post-operative monitoring. (Source: World Journal of Surgery)
Differential regulation of protein expression in response to polyunsaturated fatty acids in the liver of apoE-knockout mice and in HepG2 cells
Conclusion: This study indicates that PUFAs induced changes in the hepatic protein profile in vivo. Furthermore, n-3 PUFAs exert their anti-inflammatory properties through differential molecular mechanisms in hepatic cells. These results provide novel information regarding the roles of PUFAs in the liver at the tissue and cellular levels. (Source: Journal of Biomedical Science)
Clinical outcomes in breast cancer patients with HIV/AIDS: a retrospective study
Abstract The purpose of the study is to describe what is the presentation of breast cancer in women with HIV, their tolerance to therapy, the most common complications of treatment and their outcomes. Retrospective chart review of patients with HIV diagnosed with breast cancer between January 1, 1989 and December 31, 2013 at the University of Miami/Jackson Memorial Hospital (UM/JMH) 47 females and 1 male were included in the analysis. The median age of diagnosis was 46 years (IQR 41?52) and 64 % of the women were premenopausal. Median CD4+ count was 330 cells/µL (IQR 131?589 cells/µL). 41 % had AIDS at time of diagnosis. 94 % of patients presented with locoregional disease and 6 % with late stage breast cancer. 52 % had ER+ tumors. 6 % had HER-2/neu tumor expression...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Characteristics and trends of selected pollen seasons recorded in Parma (Northern Italy) from 1994 to 2011
This study examines variations in the start date, end date, duration, date of peak, peak value and Seasonal Pollen Index (SPI) of airborne pollen seasons recorded in Parma, Northern Italy, in relation to meteorological data (1994?2011). Pollen data were collected in the city of Parma by volumetric spore trap. The following taxa were analysed: Alnus, Ambrosia, Artemisia, Betula, Amaranthaceae, Corylus, Cupressaceae, Plantago, Platanus, Poaceae and Urticaceae. Spearman?s rank correlation tests were used to establish whether significant relationships existed between the different characteristics of the pollen seasons. Simple linear regression analysis was also carried out in order to investigate trends over time. Only 12 % of the 66 characteristics examined showed significant changes ove...
Sexual experiences of married HIV positive women in Osogbo, southwest Nigeria: role of inappropriate status disclosure
Conclusion: Inappropriate status disclosure due to poor HIV counseling and testing (HCT) practices resulted in sexual deprivation of married HIV positive women. Adequate training and retraining of health care workers on HCT and HIV status disclosure will reduce experience of sexual deprivation among married HIV positive women. (Source: BMC Women's Health)
Information and Decision-Making Needs Among People with Anxiety Disorders: Results of an Online Survey
Conclusion Our results confirm the importance of offering patient decision aids for people with anxiety disorders that encourage patients to participate in decision making by providing information about the pros and cons of evidence-based treatment options. (Source: The Patient - Patient-Centered Outcomes Research)
Implementation of a cystic fibrosis lung transplant referral patient decision aid in routine clinical practice: an observational study
Background: The decision to have lung transplantation as treatment for end-stage lung disease from cystic fibrosis (CF) has benefits and serious risks. Although patient decision aids are effective interventions for helping patients reach a quality decision, little is known about implementing them in clinical practice. Our study evaluated a sustainable approach for implementing a patient decision aid for adults with CF considering referral for lung transplantation. Methods: A prospective pragmatic observational study was guided by the Knowledge-to-Action Framework. Healthcare professionals in all 23 Canadian CF clinics were eligible. We surveyed participants regarding perceived barriers and facilitators to patient decision aid use. Interventions tailored to address modifiable identified bar...
Female and male differences in AIDS diagnosis rates among people who inject drugs in large U.S. metro areas from 1993 to 2007.
CONCLUSIONS: IARs among female PWID in large U.S. MSAs have declined more slowly than among male PWID. This suggests a need for increased targeting of prevention and treatment programs and for research on MSA level conditions that may drive differences in declining AIDS rates among female and male PWID. PMID: 25724830 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Annals of Epidemiology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Cytomegalovirus Identification and Quantification from the Saliva of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Seropositive and Seronegative Patients Using Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
In this study we quantified CMV in HIV seropositive patients and correlated it with oral lesions. (Source: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontics)
Human Herpesvirus-8 Oral Shedding in Amerindian Populations in the Brazilian Amazon Region
The oral cavity plays a vital role in the transmission of a large range of viroses including most human herpes viroses. EBV and CMV are common in the oral mucosa with periodontis lesions, but also HSV, HHV-6 and HHV-7 can be shed from a health oral mucosa. HHV-8 is associated with Kaposi's sarcoma, a form of cancer that became known through its diagnosis in patients with AIDS. The vírus is hyperendemic in Amerindian populations, but its modes of transmission are unknow. (Source: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontics)
National Black HIV/AIDS Awareness Day ? February 7, 2015
(Source: CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report)
The man who ate his hearing aids thinking they were cashews and other vision mishaps
Britain's College of Optometrists released the strangest situations that people found themselves in before seeking help (Source: Telegraph Health)
Socio-Demographic and Behavioral Factors Associated with the Desire to Procreate Among Patients Living with HIV in Gabon.
Authors: Okome-Nkoumou M, Guiyedi V, Dzeing-Ella A, Komba-Boussaga Y, Efire-Emagha N, Menguet-Abessolo MP, Ongali B, Akoume MY, Bissagnene E Abstract The desire to procreate in patients living with HIV (PLHIV) has been seldom investigated in Africa, particularly in Gabon. The aim of this transversal and descriptive study was to analyze the socio-demographic and behavioral factors associated with a desire to have children in a cohort of PLHIV. The study included 442 patients, predominantly females [79.9% (337/422)], and those with a secondary school education [64.2% 271/422)]. The highest prevalence of HIV was found in patients aged 30-39 years old (44.3%), of which 59% (249/422) were unemployed. The desire to have children was noted in 78% (329/422) of patients, of which 82.4% (271...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Nigeria: Five Displaced Persons Test HIV/Aids Positive At Maiduguri IDP Camps
[Guardian]FIVE Internally-Displaced Persons (IDPs) at the Maiduguri resettlement camps in Borno State have been tested positive to the (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Flu jab is not a 'waste of time'
?Flu jab given to millions is 'useless',? and &quot;Flu jab is a waste of time,&quot; are the irresponsible headlines in The Daily Telegraph and the Daily Mail. While recent research shows that the current seasonal flu vaccine only has 3% protection against the main circulating strain ? A(H3N2) ? in adults, it can still protect against other strains. Both papers also ignore the fact that another version of the flu vaccine, in the form of a nasal spray designed for vulnerable children, is also available. Discouraging parents of vulnerable children from getting vaccinated could increase the risk of serious childhood illnesses and possible hospitalisation.   Why is the flu vaccine not working? There are many strains of the influenza virus and each one can mutate. It takes time to ...
Nigeria: Ekiti State and HIV Test Before Marriage
[Guardian]THE move by the Ekiti State Government to ban clerics from demanding HIV status report from prospective couples before marriage is wrong given the fact that the HIV/AIDS pandemic is a deadly disease that poses great danger to human existence. Therefore, whatever could be done to curb the spread and in this case spare unborn babies, in particular, from the disease should be supported. The demand for HIV test has nothing to do with stigmatisation but purely a proactive step designed to save prospective coupl (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: 14 IDPs Tested Positive for HIV/Aids in Yobe
[Leadership]The National Agency for the Control of AIDS (NACA) on Thursday confirmed that 14 Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) tested positive out of 2,109 screened for HIV/AIDS in Yobe. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
$34 Smartphone Accessory Detects HIV, Syphilis Antibodies$34 Smartphone Accessory Detects HIV, Syphilis Antibodies
A microfluidic cassette attached to a smartphone mimicked ELISA to detect antibodies to HIV and Treponema in patients in Rwanda. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Hiv-Aids Headlines)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Screen Time is Associated with Depression and Anxiety in Canadian Youth
Conclusion Screen time may represent a risk factor or marker of anxiety and depression in adolescents. Future research is needed to determine if reducing screen time aids the prevention and treatment of these psychiatric disorders in youth. (Source: Preventive Medicine)
Herb?drug interaction between an anti-HIV Chinese herbal SH formula and atazanavir in vitro and in vivo
Conclusions Our study demonstrated for the first time that there is no metabolism-based herb-drug interaction between SH formula and ATV in rats, but this combination enhances the inhibition potentials against HIV protease activity. This observation may support the combinational use of anti-HIV treatment in human. Graphical abstract (Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology)
Response-Guided Boceprevir-based Triple Therapy in HIV/HCV-coinfected Patients: The HIVCOBOC-RGT Study
Conclusions.&nbsp;The majority of HIV/HCV-GT1 were eligible for response-guided shortening of treatment duration to W28 and all of these patients had a SVR12TND. If second-generation direct-acting antivirals are not available, W28 of BOC-based triple therapy may be recommended. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
HIV Status Disclosure to Sexual Partners, among People Living with HIV and AIDS on Antiretroviral Therapy at Sokodé Regional Hospital, Togo
Conclusion This study allowed us to note that the disclosure of HIV status to sexual partners is relatively low and to document the associated factors such as adherence to ART, sexual partner awareness of HIV sero-status and marital status. (Source: PLoS One)
Multiplex PCR in diagnosis of M. tuberculosis and M. avium co-infection from lymph node in an AIDS patient
K Sharma, A Mewara, N Gupta, A Sharma, S VarmaIndian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2015 33(5):151-153A 35-year-old, HIV-seropositive male (CD4 count 41 cells/mm 3 ) on highly active antiretroviral (&#x0026;#8202;HAART) presented with fever and weight loss for 3 months and new skin lesions. He was earlier diagnosed of TB and was on anti-tubercular therapy (ATT). The retroperitoneal lymph node aspirate showed acid-fast bacilli and epithelioid cell granulomas; however, cultures remained sterile. A dual infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium was diagnosed with multiplex polymerase chain reaction (MPCR). Clarithromycin was added to ATT, and on follow-up at 1 and 3 months, the patient responded well. Molecular methods like MPCR should be exploited for routine diagnos...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
An Educational Intervention to Reduce Pain and Improve Pain Management for Malawian People Living with HIV/AIDS and Their Family Carers: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Advances being made in improving access to HIV drugs in resource poor countries mean HIV patients are living longer, and, therefore, experiencing pain over a longer period of time. There is a need to provide effective interventions for alleviating and managing pain. (Source: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management)
HIV Testing Among Teens Attending Therapeutic Schools: Having a Personal Source of Information About HIV/AIDS Matters!
Abstract Being informed and using positive coping strategies are associated with engaging in health-promoting behaviors. We assessed whether the type of information source about HIV (personal or impersonal) and coping strategies (optimism, avoidance, or emotion-focused) are associated with HIV testing among adolescents attending therapeutic schools. Participants were 417 adolescents, ages 13?19, who attended one of 20 therapeutic day schools for emotionally/behaviorally disordered youth in two US cities (Providence, RI and Chicago, IL) and completed a baseline assessment for an HIV prevention study. Among adolescents in the study, 29 % reported having been tested for HIV. Adolescents were more likely to have been tested if they were older, female, Hispanic, identified as non-he...
Excess Cancers Among HIV-Infected People in the United States
Conclusions: The excess cancer burden in the US HIV population is substantial, and patterns across groups highlight opportunities for cancer control initiatives targeted to HIV-infected people. (Source: JNCI)
Mortality Among Blacks or African Americans with HIV Infection - United States, 2008-2012.
Authors: Siddiqi AE, Hu X, Hall HI Abstract A primary goal of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy is to reduce HIV-related health disparities, including HIV-related mortality in communities at high risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. As a group, persons who self-identify as blacks or African Americans (referred to as blacks in this report), have been affected by HIV more than any other racial/ethnic population. Forty-seven percent of persons who received an HIV diagnosis in the United States in 2012 and 43% of all persons living with diagnosed HIV infection in 2011 were black. Blacks also experienced a low 3-year survival rate among persons with HIV infection diagnosed during 2003-2008. CDC and its partners have been pursuing a high-impact prevention approach and supp...
Evaluation of herbal Medicines: Value addition to traditional medicines through metabolism, pharmacokinetic and safety studies.
Authors: Thelingwani R, Masimirembwa C Abstract The safety and efficacy of herbal medicines remain major issues of concern especially in the developing world where the use is high. The World Health Organisation estimates up to 80% of the population in Africa relies on herbal medicines for treatment of many diseases. Minimum safety evaluations need to be done for both the herbal and conventional drugs, in particular when there is a high likelihood of co-administration. This is particularly important in Africa where there is increased access to antiretrovirals in the treatment of HIV/AIDS, which are being used in a population background characterized by rampant use of herbal medicines. Many techniques used in the discovery and evaluation of conventional drugs can be adapted to herbal...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Understanding Frailty, Aging, and Inflammation in HIV Infection
This article provides an overview of our current understanding of frailty and its phenotypic characteristics and evidence that they are related to aging and to chronic inflammation that is associated with aging and also with long-term treated HIV infection. The etiology of this chronic inflammation is unknown but we discuss evidence linking it to persistent infection with cytomegalovirus in both geriatric populations and people living with HIV infection. (Source: Current HIV/AIDS Reports)
HIV Testing Updates and Challenges: When Regulatory Caution and Public Health Imperatives Collide
This article summarizes recent developments in HIV diagnostic testing technology, outlines their implications for clinical management and public health, describes current systems of regulatory oversight for HIV testing in the USA, and proposes alternatives that could expedite access to improved tests as they become available. (Source: Current HIV/AIDS Reports)
Response to "Rapid tests for HIV type discrimination in West Africa may perform differently".
Response to "Rapid tests for HIV type discrimination in West Africa may perform differently". J Int AIDS Soc. 2015;18(1):19380 Authors: Tchounga BK, Ekouevi DK, Eholie SP PMID: 25636349 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Blacks Account for More Than Half of New HIV Diagnoses: CDC
They also have highest death rate among those with HIV, despite the rate declining, reports say Source: HealthDay Related MedlinePlus Pages: African American Health, HIV/AIDS, Health Disparities (Source: MedlinePlus Health News)
New Smart Cameras Help People with Vision Disabilities
Standing in the grocery store, you scan the peanut butter jars looking for the one on your list. Your eyes flit from label to label until they land on the familiar red, blue and green jar, and you reach to pick it up and place it in your cart. Then, it?s on to the next item on your list. (Source: Disabled World)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Nigeria: NACA Commends Jonathan for Signing HIV/Aids Anti-Discrimination Law
[Guardian]NATIONAl Agency for Aids Control (NACA) has hailed the recent signing into law of human Immune Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Anti-Discrimination Act 2014 by President Goodluck Jonathan describing it as landmark legislation. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
E-cigarettes may make lungs vulnerable to infection
Conclusion This animal study has shown that the vapour from e-cigarettes contains free radicals, which are toxic to cells and are linked to cancer. Exposure to e-cigarettes caused inflammation in the lungs of mice, with increased numbers of macrophages, which mop up damaged and dead cells. Mice exposed to e-cigarette smoke also had a reduced ability to fight both bacterial and viral infections. Taken together, this is convincing evidence suggesting that e-cigarettes are not harmless. However, the effect of e-cigarettes was not compared to normal cigarettes in this study, so it is not clear how much safer they might be. The study was also not conducted in humans. An animal study such as this can give us a good idea of the effects that a chemical could have in humans. However, mice and human...
Nigeria: Five Test Positive to HIV/Aids in IDP Camps in Maiduguri
[This Day]Five persons were on Wednesday confirmed to have tested positive to the HIV/AIDS virus in some of the internally displaced persons (IDPs) camps in Maiduguri, the Borno State capital. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: Five Displaced Persons Test Positive to HIV/Aids in Borno
[Daily Trust]Maiduguri -Five internally displaced persons in Maiduguri, Borno State, have tested positive to HIV/AIDS. Their status was confirmed during screening for Malaria and HIV/AIDS by a non governmental organization. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: U.S. Budget Proposal Supports Global Health
[Global Fund]The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria said that President Barack Obama's budget request for 2016, which includes US$1.1 billion for the Global Fund, provides firm support for strengthening health systems all over the world. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Effect of compressibility of synthetic fibers as conditioning materials on dewatering of activated sludge
In this study, synthetic poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), polypropylene, and viscose rayon (VR) fibers were used as physical conditioners for activated sludge, and the effects of the fiber compressibility on the dewaterability of activated sludge collected from a laboratory-scale reactor were assessed. Based on expression experiments using a laboratory-scale apparatus, it was found that: (1) the rate of consolidation of sludge cakes increased after incorporation of synthetic fibers, particularly at the primary stage. (2) The porosity of the sludge cake was maintained only with fibers that required high pressures for compaction (i.e., PET and VR); thus, high dewaterability of the cakes was achieved with these fibers. It is proposed that the compressibility of the physical conditioner may...
Follow-up Evaluation of First Two Cohorts of Graduates of the Zambian HIV Nurse Practitioner Program
Conclusions Findings are consistent with findings from the limited number of other published studies suggesting that nurses can provide high-quality care for patients with HIV and AIDS. Further research is recommended to assess the impact of such programs on morbidity and mortality indicators, and on staff retention and job satisfaction of nurses and also of the HNPs. (Source: International Journal of Africa Nursing Sciences)
Reflections of affect in studies of information behavior in HIV/AIDS contexts: An exploratory quantitative content analysis
This study used quantitative content analysis to explore the degree to which information behavior studies across a range of disciplines actually include affect or emotion in their analyses. Findings suggest that most studies pay little or no attention to these variables, and that attention has not changed over the past 20years. Those studies that do account for emotion, however, provide excellent examples of information behavior research that can lead the way for future work. (Source: Library and Information Science Research)
Transactional Sex and the HIV Epidemic Among Men Who have Sex with Men (MSM): Results From a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Abstract Engagement in transactional sex has been hypothesized to increase risk of HIV among MSM, however conflicting evidence exists. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis comparing HIV prevalence among MSM who engaged in transactional sex to those who did not (33 studies in 17 countries; n = 78,112 MSM). Overall, transactional sex was associated with a significant elevation in HIV prevalence (OR 1.34, 95 % CI 1.11?1.62). Latin America (OR 2.28, 95 % CI 1.87?2.78) and Sub-Saharan Africa (OR 1.72, 95 % CI 1.02?2.91) were the only regions where this elevation was noted. Further research is needed to understand factors associated with sex work and subsequent HIV risk in Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa. (Source: AIDS and Behavior)
Assessment of Unconscious Decision Aids Applied to Complex Patient-Centered Medical Decisions
Conclusions: This research demonstrates a plausible benefit of unconscious thinking as a decision aid for complex medical decisions, and represents the first use of unconscious thought processes as a patient-centered medical decision aid. Further, the quality of decisions reached unconsciously does not appear to be affected by the amount of cognitive load participants experienced. (Source: Journal of Medical Internet Research)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
AIDS virus seeks refuge in B cell follicles
Nature Medicine 21, 111 (2015). doi:10.1038/nm.3795 Author: Hendrik Streeck A study of SIV-infected rhesus macaques suggests that T follicular helper (TFH) cells, a specialized CD4+ T cell subset within the B cell follicles, are a sanctuary for SIV that is largely inaccessible to CD8+ T cells. These findings may open new avenues for research aimed at eradicating HIV. (Source: Nature Medicine)
Female and Male Differences in AIDS Diagnosis Rates among People who Inject Drugs in Large US Metro Areas from 1993-2007
We estimated female and male incident AIDS diagnosis rates (IARs) among people who inject drugs (PWID) in US metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) over time to assess whether declines in IARs varied by sex after combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) dissemination. (Source: Annals of Epidemiology)
Vowel space characteristics of speech directed to children with and without hearing loss.
Conclusions: Given previously demonstrated associations between expanded vowel space in ID compared with AD speech and enhanced speech perception skills, this research supports a focus on vowel pronunciation in developing intervention strategies for improving speech-language skills in children with hearing impairment. PMID: 25658071 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of speech, language, and hearing research : JSLHR)
Assessment of Unconscious Decision Aids Applied to Complex Patient-Centered Medical Decisions
Conclusions: This research demonstrates a plausible benefit of unconscious thinking as a decision aid for complex medical decisions, and represents the first use of unconscious thought processes as a patient-centered medical decision aid. Further, the quality of decisions reached unconsciously does not appear to be affected by the amount of cognitive load participants experienced. (Source: Journal of Medical Internet Research)
Female and male differences in AIDS diagnosis rates among people who inject drugs in large U.S. metro areas from 1993 to 2007
We estimated female and male incident AIDS diagnosis rates (IARs) among people who inject drugs (PWID) in U.S. metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) over time to assess whether declines in IARs varied by sex after combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) dissemination. (Source: Annals of Epidemiology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Ebola Drug Aids Some in a Study in West Africa
Favipiravir has shown preliminary signs of effectiveness in a study, raising questions about its wider use and the testing of another therapy. (Source: NYT Health)
Smartphone Device Detects HIV, Syphilis
Low-cost accessory replicates laboratory-based blood test, researchers report (Source: Fertility News - Doctors Lounge)
West Africa: Hepatitis C more prevalent than HIV/AIDS or Ebola yet lacks equal attention
In this study, tribal scarring, home birthing and traditional as opposed to hospital based circumcision procedures, were associated with hepatitis C infection in Ghana.' (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)
Zimbabwe: Zimbabwe Launches New Plan for Voluntary Male Circumcision
[Key Correspondents]Zimbabwe has launched a voluntary medical male circumcision accelerated operational plan as part of a bigger process to fight HIV and AIDS in the country over the next four years. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Nigeria: Jonathan Signs HIV/Aids Anti-Discrimination Law
[Daily Trust]President Goodluck Jonathan has signed the HIV/AIDS anti-discrimination law, reflecting Nigeria's commitment to stopping all forms of stigmatization and discrimination targeted at people living with HIV. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Aging With HIVAging With HIV
What are the consequences of aging with HIV and how does it impact quality of life? Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
Application of gene-editing technologies to HIV-1
Purpose of review: This review will highlight some of the recent advances in genome engineering with applications for both clinical and basic science investigations of HIV-1. Recent findings: Over the last year, the field of HIV cure research has seen major breakthroughs with the success of the first phase I clinical trial involving gene editing of CCR5 in patient-derived CD4+ T cells. This first human use of gene-editing technology was accomplished using zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs). Zinc finger nucleases and the advent of additional tools for genome engineering, including transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENS) and the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9 system, have made gene editing remarkably simple and affordable. Here we will discu...
HIV-1 RNAs: sense and antisense, large mRNAs and small siRNAs and miRNAs
Purpose of review: This review summarizes recent findings concerning the ever-growing HIV-1 RNA population. Recent findings: The retrovirus HIV-1 has an RNA genome that is converted into DNA and is integrated into the genome of the infected host cell. Transcription from the long terminal repeat-encoded promoter results in the production of a full-length genomic RNA and multiple spliced mRNAs. Recent experiments, mainly based on next-generation sequencing, provided evidence for several additional HIV-encoded RNAs, including antisense RNAs and virus-encoded microRNAs. Summary: We will survey recent findings related to HIV-1 RNA biosynthesis, especially regulatory mechanisms that control initiation of transcription, capping and polyadenylation. We zoom in on the diversity of HIV-1 derived RNA...
Human genetic variation in HIV disease: beyond genome-wide association studies
Purpose of review: Rapid expansion of genomic technologies has resulted in an unprecedented ability to interrogate the impact of human genetic variation on disease. HIV-1 infection is a unique model for studying this impact because host genetic variation influences both clinical outcome and the genetic sequence and evolution of the pathogen itself. Recent findings: Several candidate gene studies have proposed novel associations with HIV acquisition and/or disease progression; however, many of these are not supported by larger genome-wide association studies. Thus, controversy remains as to which host and viral genetic factors truly impact HIV infection. Novel methods for assessing the genetic (viral and host) component of disease progression are becoming important areas of investigation. S...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Perspectives on pharmacogenomics of antiretroviral medications and HIV-associated comorbidities
Purpose of review: To summarize current knowledge and provide perspective on relationships between human genetic variants, antiretroviral medications, and aging-related complications of HIV-1 infection. Recent findings: Human genetic variants have been convincingly associated with interindividual variability in antiretroviral toxicities, drug disposition, and aging-associated complications in HIV-1 infection. Screening for HLA-B*5701 to avoid abacavir hypersensitivity reactions has become a routine part of clinical care, and has markedly improved drug safety. There are well established pharmacogenetic associations with other agents (efavirenz, nevirapine, atazanavir, dolutegravir, and others), but this knowledge has yet to have substantial impact on HIV-1 clinical care. As metabolic compli...
Contribution of recombination to the evolutionary history of HIV
Purpose of review: An improved understanding of how recombination affects the evolutionary history of HIV is crucial to understand its current and future evolution. The present review aims to disentangle the manifold effects of recombination on HIV by discussing its effects on the evolutionary history and the adaptive potential of HIV in the context of concepts from evolutionary genetics and genomics. Recent findings: The increasing occurrence of secondary contacts between divergent subtype populations (during coinfection) results in increased observations of recombinants worldwide. Recombination is heterogeneous along the HIV genome. Consequences of recombination of HIV evolution are, in combination with other demographic processes, expected to either homogenize the genetic composition of...
Dynamic models of viral replication and latency
Purpose of review: HIV targets primary CD4+ T cells. The virus depends on the physiological state of its target cells for efficient replication, and, in turn, viral infection perturbs the cellular state significantly. Identifying the virus?host interactions that drive these dynamic changes is important for a better understanding of viral pathogenesis and persistence. The present review focuses on experimental and computational approaches to study the dynamics of viral replication and latency. Recent findings: It was recently shown that only a fraction of the inducible latently infected reservoirs are successfully induced upon stimulation in ex-vivo models while additional rounds of stimulation make allowance for reactivation of more latently infected cells. This highlights the potential ...
Innate immune sensing of HIV-1 infection
Purpose of review: The innate immune system plays a critical role in the control of viral infections. Although the mechanisms involved in sensing and response to viral pathogens has progressed tremendously in the last decade, an understanding of the innate antiviral response to human retroviruses lagged behind. Recent studies now demonstrate that human retroviruses such as human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1) trigger a type I interferon antiviral response through novel cytosolic sensors that detect DNA intermediates of reverse transcription; in addition, these early host?pathogen interactions may trigger cell death pathways depending on the activation state of the target cell. The purpose of this review is to summarize the recent progress ...
Editorial introduction
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Genomics of HIV infection
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS)
Evolutionary genomics and HIV restriction factors
Purpose of review: To provide updated insights into innate antiviral immunity and highlight prototypical evolutionary features of well characterized HIV restriction factors. Recent findings: Recently, a new HIV restriction factor, Myxovirus resistance 2, has been discovered and the region/residue responsible for its activity identified using an evolutionary approach. Furthermore, IFI16, an innate immunity protein known to sense several viruses, has been shown to contribute to the defense to HIV-1 by causing cell death upon sensing HIV-1 DNA. Summary: Restriction factors against HIV show characteristic signatures of positive selection. Different patterns of accelerated sequence evolution can distinguish antiviral strategies ? offense or defence ? as well as the level of specificity of t...
Botswana: Art Critical Form of Communication
[Botswana Daily News]Gaborone -Batswana have been encouraged to spread the HIV/AIDS message and not lose hope as one day the country will attain the set zero transmission and zero tolerance goals. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Evaluation of the integrated disease surveillance and response system for infectious diseases control in northern Ghana
Conclusions: The DHIMS2 has improved the availability of IDSR reports, but the quality of data reported is not sufficient. Particularly the inconsistencies between weekly and monthly data need to be addressed. Moreover, support for and communication within the IDSR system is inadequate and calls for attention. (Source: BioMed Central)
Risk of Sexual Violence: Perspectives and Experiences of Women in a Hospital in the Democratic Republic of Congo
This study was conducted in order to explore the perceptions and experiences of the risk of sexual violence in the Democratic Republic of Congo. The study draws on qualitative, in-depth interviews with women at a hospital in Bukavu. The findings show that women suffered humiliation, torture and beatings during their rape. Most women were raped by a number of men and others were forced to have sex with close family members. The rapist often used extreme brutality against the women which had major long-term consequences for women including unwanted pregnancies and/or HIV/AIDS. Many of the women experienced great uncertainty about their future and that of their children. (Source: Journal of Community Health)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Essay: The Thrill Is Back (With Some Gray Hairs)
Abstract This 2013 Consortium of Universities for Global Health essay examines the challenges, personal cost, and ethical dilemmas of working as a medical officer at a district hospital in South Africa and confronting health issues such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and childhood sexual abuse. (Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Still bridging a divide.
Authors: Payne D Abstract I have been out as a gay man all of my career. At first, I experienced blunt homophobia regularly from colleagues; I was a nursing student in 1991 when Freddie Mercury died from AIDS, and I will never forget a colleague telling me that she thought he 'deserved it' because of his 'lifestyle'. PMID: 25649579 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Nursing Standard)
HIV?1 transmitted drug resistance and genetic diversity among patients from Piauí State, Northeast Brazil
HIV?1 transmitted?drug?resistance and genetic diversity are dynamic and may differ in distinct locations/risk groups. In Brazil, increased AIDS incidence and related mortality have been detected in the Northeast region, differently from the epicenter in the Southeast. This cross?sectional study describes transmitted?dru? resistance and HIV?1 subtypes in protease/PR and reverse transcriptase/RT regions among antiretroviral naïve patients from Piauí State, Northeast Brazil. Among 96 patients recruited 89 (92.7%) had HIV?1 PR/RT regions sequenced: 44 females and 45 males, 22 self?declared as men who have sex with men. Transmitted?drug?resistance was investigated by CPR tool (Stanford HIV?1 Drug Resistance/SDRM). HIV?1 subtypes were assigned by REGA and phylogenetic...
Low dose versus high dose stavudine for treating people with HIV infection.
CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review identified only three small trials that evaluated virologic efficacy and safety of high dose versus low dose stavudine. All three trials were conducted in developed countries and none reported from developing countries yet stavudine remains a component of ART combination therapy in many developing countries. It was not possible to perform a meta-analysis on these trails. Individual results from the trials were imprecise and have not identified a clear advantage in virologic efficacy or safety between low and high dose stavudine. Furthermore, enrolled participants were treatment experienced with sustained virologic suppression and so existing data cannot be generalized to settings where stavudine is currently used in ART naive patients with high viral loa...
Kenya: Nakuru Locals to Get Free HIV Tests, Care
[The Star]THE Nakuru government has partnered with a health agency to offer free residents HIV-Aids testing and treatment. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Tanzania: Stakeholders Intensify FGM Fight in Serengeti
[Daily News]Mugumu -A CRUCIAL stakeholders' meeting on gender-based violence (GBV) has been held in Mugumu town, the capital of Serengeti District in Mara Region. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Hepatitis C more prevalent than HIV/AIDS or Ebola yet lacks equal attention
In this study, tribal scarring, home birthing and traditional as opposed to hospital based circumcision procedures, were associated with hepatitis C infection in Ghana.' (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)
Nigeria: Ekiti State and Mandatory HIV Test Ban
[Independent (Lagos)]Everyone has a right to know what he or she is going into. With the medical help available to HIV/AIDS patients, theirs is a better case than that of Sicklers and Albinos who have had to live with stigmatisation with no real visible means of eradication (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
The Effects of Early Multiple-Time PN Counseling on Newly HIV-Diagnosed Men Who Have Sex with Men in Taiwan
Abstract Partner notification (PN) is an important method for controlling the AIDS epidemic worldwide. Here, we looked into the differences between two PN counseling modes for HIV (+) men who have sex with men in Taiwan. Using random assignment, we placed 42 of the 84 subjects into the experimental group where they received two sessions of PN counseling, while the control group (42) received only one session. All 84 subjects were single males with an average age of 28.06. The mean number of successful notified partner was 5.38 (SD = 3.44) in the experimental which was statistically significantly higher than 2.81 (SD = 1.62) in the control group (? = 0.650, p = 0.000). The notification success rate was 77.13 % in the experimental and 74.21 % in the control group (IRR 1.0...
Human Papillomavirus in the HIV-Infected Host: Epidemiology and Pathogenesis in the Antiretroviral Era
Abstract Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is associated with essentially all cervical cancers, 80?90 % of anal cancers, and a high proportion of oropharyngeal, vaginal, penile, and vulvar cancers. Malignancy is preceded by the development of precancerous lesions termed high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL). Men and women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are at high risk of HPV-related malignancies. The incidence of anal cancer in particular has markedly risen during the antiretroviral era due to the increased longevity of patients with HIV and the absence of anal malignancy screening programs. HIV infection may facilitate initial HPV infection by disrupting epithelial cell tight junctions. Once infection is established, HIV may promote HSIL dev...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Immune response to Leishmania antigens in an AIDS patient with mucocutaneous leishmaniasis as a manifestation of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS): a case report
Conclusion: The results suggest that the production of inflammatory cytokines by unstimulated T-lymphocytes could contribute to occurrence of leishmaniasis associated with IRIS. (Source: BMC Infectious Diseases)
HIV research productivity and structural factors associated with HIV research output in European Union countries: a bibliometric analysis
Conclusions HIV research productivity varies noticeably across EU countries, and this variation is associated with recognisable structural factors. (Source: BMJ Open)
A National Tragedy: Increases in Death by Suicide, Decreases in Other Major Causes of Death
The numbers are the most striking evidence of the lack of attention our society affords mental health, and specifically, suicide prevention. According the American Foundation for Suicide Prevention (2015) the national statistics for 2014 indicate that the rate of death by suicide from 2000?2011 increased by 31%. The suicide rate keeps climbing while death from other causes decreases. In this same time period, 2000?2011, the rate of death by heart disease decreased by 16%, and deaths by HIV/AIDs decreased by 42%. (Source: Archives of Psychiatric Nursing)
Modeling the Influence of Acoustic Coupling of Hearing Aids on FM Signal-to-Noise Ratio.
Conclusions: A model was developed to explore how complex variables contribute to SNR at the TM. One variable, HA coupling, is predicted to have only a minimal effect on SNR at the TM when there is HA gain. Further studies will be needed to assess the real-world effectiveness of an FM system coupled to an open- versus closed-fit HA. PMID: 25651525 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Audiology)
Addressing HIV/AIDS in Rural Communities
Thematic issue of the Psychology and AIDS Exchange Newsletter features seven articles focusing on HIV and AIDS in rural communities. Includes an examination of rural HIV prevalence, healthcare service delivery, HIV prevention efforts, barriers to treatment, and opportunities to improve care in rural communities. -- American Psychological Association (Source: Rural publications via the Rural Assistance Center)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Illusion aids understanding of autism
New research could lead to a better understanding of how the brain works in people with autism. Using the 'rubber-hand' illusion, the researchers examined how adults with autism experienced 'ownership' of a fake prosthetic hand. In the 'rubber-hand' illusion, one of the subject's hands is placed out of sight, while a rubber hand sits in front of them. By stroking the fake hand at the same time as the visible real one, the subject can be convinced the fake hand is theirs. The results of this experiment showed differences between those with autism and those without. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)
Grant Announcement for the National Resource Center for HIV/AIDS Prevention among Adolescents
The HHS Office of Adolescent Health (OAH) has issued a Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) with the purpose of funding an organization that will support the maintenance, operation, and re-launch of a national HIV/AIDS resource center. The Resource Center will promote practical strategies to assist in the implementation of evidence-based and evidence-informed interventions and best practices [&#8230;] (Source: NN/LM Middle Atlantic Region Blog)
Evaluation of a Socio-cultural Intervention to Reduce Unprotected Sex for HIV Among African American/Black Women
Abstract African American/Black (Black) women suffer disproportionately to other women from HIV. An HIV prevention intervention combining two previous evidenced-based intervention programs; ?Coping with Work and Family Stress? and ?Hip Hop 2 Prevent Substance Abuse and HIV?, was evaluated in a diverse sample of Black women (n = 205). Study participants at ten recruitment sites were assigned non-randomly to either the intervention or comparison group and then surveyed at baseline, immediate posttest, and 6-month follow-up. General Estimating Equation modeling revealed that participants in the comparison group reported less unprotected sex at immediate post-test and the intervention group less unprotected sex at 6-month follow-up. Despite the initial drop in reported unpro...
Effectiveness of Interventions Promoting HIV Serostatus Disclosure to Sexual Partners: A Systematic Review
Abstract Disclosure of HIV serostatus to sexual partners is mandated within certain states in the United States and other countries. Despite these laws implemented and public health efforts to increase disclosure, rates of disclosure to sexual partners among people living with HIV (PLWH) remain low, suggesting the need for interventions to assist PLWH with the disclosure process. We conducted a systematic review of studies testing whether HIV serostatus disclosure interventions increase disclosure to sexual partners. We searched six electronic databases and screened 484 records. Five studies published between 2005 and 2012 met inclusion criteria and were included in this review. Results showed that three of the HIV serostatus disclosure-related intervention studies were efficaciou...
A Remotely-Delivered CBT and Contingency Management Therapy for Substance Using People with HIV
Abstract Substance using HIV patients are at risk for non-adherence, and most prior interventions in this population have had only modest effects on adherence. Contingency management (CM) is a promising intervention. The Centralized Off-site Adherence Enhancement (CARE) program involved 12 telephone-delivered substance and adherence-targeted cognitive behavior therapy sessions coupled with CM for adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and counseling participation. CM involved 6 weeks of escalating reinforcement for taking prescribed doses followed by 6 weeks of tapering variable rate reinforcement, and separate reinforcement for counseling ($806 possible). Participants? adherence was measured by devices which wirelessly provided real-time notification of device-opening. HIV...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Botswana: Govt Committed to Fighting STIs
[Botswana Daily News]Hunhukwe -Government remains committed to the prevention of HIV/AIDS and other Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) through intervention programmes. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Malawi: First Lady Calls for Increased Political Will in Aids Fight
[Malawi News Agency]Malawi First Lady, Madamme Gertrude Mutharika has said the fight for an HIV free generation in Africa can only be achieved if the AU member state leaders deliberately put the fight against HIV as part of their political agendas. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Zambia: National Strategic Frameworks to Reduce New HIV Infections
[Times of Zambia]IN November 2010, the Government of the Republic of Zambia through the National HIV/AIDS/STI/TB Council (NAC) released the National AIDS Strategic Framework 2011 - 2015 (NASF). (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Rwanda: SFH Rwanda Injects Rwf11.5 Million in Anti-HIV Football Tourney
[New Times]Society for Family Health (SFH) Rwanda has partnered with the Rwanda Football Federation (Ferwafa) to organise a two-day football tournament slated for January 31 - February 1 involving last season's top four clubs. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Uganda: In the News Today - 31st January 2015
[Independent (Kampala)]1. The number of people starting the HIV/Aids anti-retroviral treatment (ART) in Uganda has hit 713,744. In just three months between June and September 2014, a total of 33,744 new people enrolled for HIV/Aids treatment, raising the overall number from the previous 680,000 to 713,744 people. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Combination ART Reduces the Risk of HPV in HIV+ WomenCombination ART Reduces the Risk of HPV in HIV+ Women
Combination ART may protect HIV+ women from cervical HPV infections. AIDS (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
Africa: African First Ladies Commit to Eliminate HIV Infections
[New Times]The First Lady, Mrs Jeannette Kagame, has called for intensified efforts in the fight against HIV/AIDS in order to eliminate new infections. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Rwanda: HIV Strain Reinfection, a Scary Burden
[New Times]Josee Nyiraneza was in her prime, twenty years ago, when she was diagnosed with HIV. Now 42, the then young Nyiranzeza had resigned herself to a life of loneliness. Twenty years ago, stigma was itself a harrowing ordeal, so she had found herself rejected from every side of the society. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Rwanda: APR Win Anti-HIV Football Tournament
[New Times]APR yesterday defeated rivals Police 2-1 to win a two-day anti-HIV football tournament sponsored by Society for Family Health Rwanda (SFH). (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Immune Suppression by Myeloid Cells in HIV Infection: New Targets for Immunotherapy.
Authors: Mehraj V, Jenabian MA, Vyboh K, Routy JP Abstract Over thirty years of extensive research has not yet solved the complexity of HIV pathogenesis leading to a continued need for a successful cure. Recent immunotherapy-based approaches are aimed at controlling the infection by reverting immune dysfunction. Comparatively less appreciated than the role of T cells in the context of HIV infection, the myeloid cells including macrophages monocytes, dendritic cells (DCs) and neutrophils contribute significantly to immune dysfunction. Host restriction factors are cellular proteins expressed in these cells which are circumvented by HIV. Guided by the recent literature, the role of myeloid cells in HIV infection will be discussed highlighting potential targets for immunotherapy. HIV i...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Recruitment of HIV-Positive Women in Research: Discussing Barriers, Facilitators, and Research Personnel's Knowledge.
CONCLUSION: There are differences in the approaches needed for the recruitment of HIV-positive women in research. For successful recruitment of HIV-positive women, a strong rapport between the research personnel and study participants is important. This rapport is facilitated by having study personnel who are respectful, trustworthy, empathetic, and flexible. Population-specific recruitment strategies are important to ensure adequate recruitment of minority groups in research with greater gender consideration for women requiring specific attention. PMID: 25624955 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
HIV and Cancer: A comparative retrospective study of Brazilian and U.S. clinical cohorts
Conclusions: In both cohorts, ADCs have decreased over time, though incidence of KS was higher at INI than VCCC. Rates of NADCs remained constant over time at both sites. (Source: Infectious Agents and Cancer)
Transfer learning with probabilistic mapping selection
When transferring knowledge between reinforcement learning agents with different state representations or actions, past knowledge must be efficiently mapped to novel tasks so that it aids learning. The majority of the existing approaches use pre-defined mappings provided by a domain expert. To overcome this limitation and enable autonomous transfer learning, this paper introduces a method for weighting and using multiple inter-task mappings based on a probabilistic framework. Experimental results show that the use of multiple inter-task mappings, accompanied with a probabilistic selection mechanism, can significantly boost the performance of transfer learning relative to 1) learning without transfer and 2) using a single hand-picked mapping. We especially introduce novel tasks for transfer...
On the sexual transmission dynamics of hepatitis B virus in China
Publication date: 21 March 2015 Source:Journal of Theoretical Biology, Volume 369 Author(s): Lan Zou , Shigui Ruan , Weinian Zhang In a previous study we noticed that there might be co-infections of HBV and HIV by comparing incidence rates of these two diseases in China. The comparisons between the incidence data of HBV and sexually transmitted diseases (including AIDS, HIV, syphilis and gonorrhea) in China demonstrate that sexual transmission is an important route of spread of HBV in China. On the basis of this fact, in this paper we propose a compartmental model including under-aged children, male adults, and female adults. The effect of sexual transmission on the spread and prevalence of HBV in China is studied. The model is employed to simulate the HBV incidence data reported by the ...
The roles of human values and generalized trust on stated preferences when food is labeled with environmental footprints: Insights from Germany
This study explores influences of human values and trust on stated preferences for food labeled with environmental footprints. We apply survey data to assess the impact of these individual-specific characteristics on German consumers? choices of potatoes, through an attribute-based choice experiment in which product alternatives are described by footprint labels and prices. We find that accounting for consumers? value systems, but not generalized trust beliefs, aids in understanding choices and identifying possible markets for footprint-labeled food products. (Source: Food Policy)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Global HIV Funding And Local Contexts [Letters]
(Source: Health Affairs)
Global HIV Funding: The Author Replies [Letters]
(Source: Health Affairs)
HIV Testing and Preventive Services Accessibility Among Men Who Have Sex With Men at High Risk of HIV Infection in Beijing, China
Abstract: The HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM) has been increasing at an alarming rate in most areas of China in recent years. Many Chinese MSM still lack sufficient access to HIV prevention services, despite ongoing scale-up of comprehensive HIV testing and intervention services. The purpose of this study was to investigate utilization of HIV testing and prevention services, and related factors that influence the MSM people to access HIV test or other services to prevent HIV among MSM in Beijing, China. Three successive cross-sectional surveys of MSM were conducted in Beijing from September 2009 to January 2010, September 2010 to January 2011, and September 2011 to January 2012. Demographic and behavioral data were collected and analyzed. Blood samples were tested for HI...
Follow-up Evaluation of First Two Cohorts of Graduates of the XXX HIV Nurse Practitioner Program
Conclusions Findings are consistent with findings from the limited number of other published studies suggesting that nurses can provide high-quality care for patients with HIV and AIDS. Further research is recommended to assess the impact of such programs on morbidity and mortality indicators, and on staff retention and job satisfaction of nurses and also of the HNPs. (Source: International Journal of Africa Nursing Sciences)

 

 


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