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CD4 Cells
By Afsath Jameela

CD4 Cells
Treatment centers need consulting rooms, offices, waiting rooms and secure storage for valuable drugs. They also require basic facilities to test for anemia, pregnancy, renal function, white blood cell counts and other factors that may affect treatment.
In developed countries, decisions about when to start treatment are based on the results of clinical tests called the CD4 test and the viral load test. Ideally these tests should be used everywhere, but in many parts of the world they are currently unavailable, as they require expensive equipment, electricity and trained technicians. In theory, decisions about when to start treatment may be based on symptoms alone. However in practice some treatment programmers provide medication only to people who have had a CD4 count.
There are two primary types of T-cells.
1. CD4 Cells-These cells have molecules called CD4 on its surface. These "helper" cells initiate the body's response to invading micro-organisms such as viruses.
2.CD8 Cells-These types of T-cells have a molecule called CD8 on their surface. CD8 cells destroy cells that have been infected with foreign invading micro-organisms. CD8 cells also produce antiviral substances (antibodies) that help fight off the foreign invader.
3.Normal values-In a healthy adult, a normal CD4 count can vary a great deal but is typically 600 to 1200 cells per cubic millimeter of blood
Between 600 and 350- In an HIV+ person, this range is considered "very good".
HIV medications are typically not be indicated.
Between 350 and 200-The immune system is weakened and therefore the HIV+ person may be at increased risk for infection and illness.
Function of T helper cells: Antigen presenting cells present antigen on their Class II MHC molecules. Helper T cells recognize these, with the help of their expression of CD4 co-receptor. The activation of a resting helper T cell causes it to release cytokines and other stimulatory signals. The importance of CD4 T cells is demonstrated with infection.
It has been proposed that during the non-symptomatic phase of infection, the virus has a relatively low affinity towards T cells (and has a higher affinity for macrophages), resulting in a slow kill rate of CD4+ T cells by the immune system. This is initially compensated for via the production of new helper T cells from thymus. Once the virus becomes T-tropic, it begins to infect CD4+ T cells far more efficiently, and

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A man was caught in Chembur after he allegedly tried to rape a mentally challenged woman, taking advantage of the fact that her house door was open and nobody was home. The Tilak Nagar police arrested him hours after he managed to escape from the house. The incident occurred around 11 pm on Saturday night, when Shahbaz Abdul Shahid Khan (35) was passing by the woman?s house. Noticing that the door was ajar and nobody was home, Khan let himself in. Bhagwat Sonawane, senior police inspector of Tilak Nagar police station, told mid-day, ?Khan was passing by the victim?s residence and as her house door was half open, he saw that she was alone at home. He sneaked in and started undressing the woman.? Khan is married and stays in the same neighbourhood. Ten minutes later, the 30-year-old woman?s parents returned home from the function they had gone to attend. When they switched on the lights, they found Khan and their daughter without their clothes. ?When the father confronted the accused, he pushed him and ran ...
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A new study has demonstrated that people who suffer from mental health disorders are twice as likely to suffer from heart disease or stroke. The study suggested that people who haven&apos;t developed heart disease or had a stroke are more likely to be at a high long-term risk of developing cardiovascular disease, when compared to the general population. Dr. Katie Goldie, lead author of the study and a postdoctoral fellow at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health in Toronto, said that this population was at high risk, and it was even greater for people with multiple mental health issues. People with mental health disorders often exhibit behavioural risk factors, including tobacco and alcohol use, poor diet and physical inactivity. Goldie said that psychiatric medications can induce weight gain and impair the breakdown of fats and sugars by the body and this could lead to obesity, high cholesterol and diabetes and the medications themselves account for a lot of risk in this group. Dr. Brian Baker, a ...
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the immune system is overwhelmed.
At this point, functional CD4+ T cell levels begin to decrease, eventually to a point where the CD4+ T cell population is too small to recognize the full range antigens that could potentially be detected. The lack of full antigen cover results in the core symptoms of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).CD4 T cell depletion during AIDS allows various pathogens to escape T cell recognition, thus allowing opportunistic infections that would normally elicit a helper T cell response to bypass the immune system. While these complete bypass situations only occur when the helper T cell response is absolutely necessary for infection clearance, most infections increase in severity and/or duration because the immune system's helper T cells provide a weaker contribution to a less efficient immune response.
Two components of the immune system are particularly affected in AIDS, due to its CD4+ T cell dependency:
CD8+ T cells are not stimulated as effectively during the AIDS period of infection, making AIDS patients very susceptible to most viruses, including itself. This decline in killing of CD4+ T cells results in the virus being produced for a longer period (the infected CD4+ T cells are not killed as quickly), increasing the proliferation of the virus, and accelerating the development of the disease.
Antibody class switching declines significantly once helper T cell function fails. The immune system loses its ability to improve the affinity of their antibodies, and are unable to generate B cells that can produce antibody groups such as IgG and IgA. These effects are primarily due to the loss of any helper T cell that can interact with the B lymphocyte correctly. Another symptom of AIDS is the reduction in antibody levels due to a decrease in Th2 cytokines (and less interactions by helper T cells). All of these complications result in an increased susceptibility to aggressive bacterial infections, especially in areas of the body not accessible by IgM antibodies.
If the patient does not respond to Treatment they will succumb usually to either cancers or infections; the immune system finally reaches a point where it is no longer coordinated or stimulated enough to deal with the disease.

 Keywords:  HIV,AIDS,HIV Cure,HIV Treatment,HIV Infection,HIV Dating,HIV Positive,HIV Symptoms.


Afsath Jameela is a successful lady writer from Kairo. She right now living in UK.

Russian Speaking Immigrants: Drug Use, Infectious Disease and Related Health Behavior
This article focuses on drug use, infectious disease and other factors comparing FSU males who became addicted before and after immigration to Israel. 810 drug users were surveyed in treatment centers from January 2002 to January 2012. The Addiction Severity Index and other data collection instruments were used. Those addicted before immigration have a higher level of infectious disease (i.e., HCV, HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis) and opiate use other than heroin. Those addicted after immigration reported higher rates of last 30 days sedative; cocaine and opiates other than heroin use. Injection drug use and ASI domain problem behavior were more prevalent among those addicted before immigration. Results evidence the impact of country of addiction origin on drug use patterns, infectious disease ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Transurethral Use of a Nephroscope Significantly Aids in the Surgical Management of an Intrauterine Device Eroding Into the Bladder
ConclusionsThe transurethral approach with the use of a nephroscope significantly aids in the removal of an IUD embedded into the bladder wall. (Source: Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery)
Etravirine in HIV-1-Infected Children and AdolescentsEtravirine in HIV-1-Infected Children and Adolescents
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DOCSS: doctors on-call smartphone study
Conclusion Smartphone usage is widespread among our intern cohort. The introduction of hospital applications with local guidelines would be welcomed; however, this may require informed patient consent regarding their use. (Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science)
Uganda: HIV-Negative Partners Face Infection Risk
[Independent (Kampala)]If a couple is in a long term sexual relationship and one of them is HIV-positive and the other is negative, scientists refer to them as a 'discordant couple'. Dr Raymond Mwebaze, a general physician at St. Raphael of St. Francis Hospital Nsambya, says discordant couples are becoming quite common. "It is common that you will find HIV discordant couples some of which are discordant by choice," he says. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
NIH-led Study Explores Prevention of Heart Disease in HIV-infected People
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Elton John has strong words for gay community
John explained to CBS News why he feels that certain members of the gay community have become too lax when it comes to AIDS and HIV (Source: Health News: CBSNews.com)
Nigeria: Amosun's Wife Uplifts 200 Vulnerable Children
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The One Way All Hospitals Can Save Lives And Money
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Could sex with 21 women 'cut prostate risk'?
ConclusionThis case-control study has suggested that having several female partners over a man?s lifetime is associated with a protective effect against prostate cancer, whereas having several male partners increased the risk.However, case-control studies like this one cannot prove that having several female partners reduces the risk of prostate cancer, or that having more male partners increases risk. When it comes to complex issues such as lifestyle, sexuality and cancer outcomes, there could be a wide range of contributing factors.If having multiple female partners reduced prostate cancer risk, it would be expected that the more partners you had the lower your risk would be. However, this study did not find such a relationship between number of female partners and associated risk. The...
Africa: Suppling Condoms Is One Thing - Getting People to Use Them Is Another
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Africa: The Witchcraft Potential of Foreskins
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Malawi: Concealing HIV Status Poses Challenge in HIV& Aids Fight - JB
[Malawi News Agency]Kasungu -President Dr. Joyce Banda Sunday said failure to disclose HIV status by highly ranked and well to do Malawians poses a challenge in the fight against HIV and AIDS in the country. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
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Africa: If It Works, We Should Use It
[What'sUpHIV]"While numbers and slogans are important in themselves, focus should also be given to interventions that are making positive impact," that's how Mitchell Warren, Executive Director of AVAC, opened the 2014 HIV R4P Advocates' Pre-Conference Workshop. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: No, This Is Not the Sexpo
[What'sUpHIV]There is lots of talk about sex at the Cape Town Convention Centre at the moment: words like anal sex; vaginas and penises are constantly popping up. No, this is not the Sexpo - it is HIV R4P, the archly-named international conference on biomedical methods of protecting ourselves against getting infected with HIV. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Africa: Jargon Watch - Meet Fiebig
[What'sUpHIV]There comes a time at every scientific conference where someone says something I've never heard before. Today that was "Fiebig Stage." Turns out, this is a series of phases of acute infection (another term that was a complete mystery when I first heard it--it means: someone who just got infected--like last week, yesterday, or within the very recent past.) (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: NACA Targets 5000 Taraba Residents for Counselling On HIV/Aids
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Angola: Over 50, 000 Tasted for HIV/Aids in Bie
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Tanzania: NGO Trains 5,700 Elderly People On Rights
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Immigrant women living with HIV in Spain: a qualitative approach to encourage medical follow-up
Conclusions: Social, cultural, and psychological aspects as well as self-perception of body changes, gender roles, and the relationship with the healthcare system, are key elements that may affect the adherence to medical treatment of immigrant women living with HIV.Qualitative research focused on the comprehensive experience of living with HIV can be useful for creating tools that pave the way to detect barriers and facilitators to medical follow-up in specific populations. (Source: BMC Public Health)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Effectiveness of Early Infant Diagnosis (EID) in Detecting the Serostatus of HIV-Exposed Infants and Children
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Uganda: My Turning Point As an HIV Activist - the Death of My Brother
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Morocco: Open Campaign Against a Secret Epidemic Starts with Diagnosis
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South Africa: November - TAC's Critical R10-Million Month
[Daily Maverick]In financial difficulty, the Treatment Action Campaign (TAC) plans to raise R10 million in November to keep the organisation afloat. It's relying on public donations, hoping big funders will then follow. Spare a dime? (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Op-Ed Contributor: Elton John on the Unfinished Fight Against AIDS
Are victories for gay marriage obscuring the challenge of H.I.V.? (Source: NYT Health)
Investing in health systems for universal health coverage in Africa
Conclusions: Substantial gaps exist in health systems and access to MDG-related health interventions. It is imperative that countries adopt the 2014 Luanda Commitment on UHC in Africa as their long-term vision and back it with sound policies and plans with clearly engrained road maps for strengthening national health systems and addressing the social determinants of health. (Source: BMC International Health and Human Rights)
The Quest for an Effective Adherence Intervention: A DOT-cART Case Study
The difficulties of adhering to antiretroviral medications for people living with HIV (PLWH) are well documented, and most clinicians working with PLWH know this first hand (Ammassari et al., 2002). Clinicians working with PLWH are confronted with the dilemma of how best to support complex patients with limited time, resources, and staff (Singh et al., 1999). It is often evident that the clinic-based appointment, even with the support of an interdisciplinary team, may not be enough to support patients who need more. (Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Building Consensus: The Role of Clinicians and Researchers in Challenging HIV Criminalization
On May 2, 2014, a Canadian consensus statement on HIV transmission in the context of criminal law was released at the annual conference of the Canadian Association for HIV Research (Loufty et al., 2014). This consensus statement emerged out of ?a concern that the criminal law is being used in overly broad fashion against people living with HIV (PLWH) in Canada because of, in part, a poor appreciation of the scientific understanding of HIV and its transmission? (Loufty et al., 2014, p.135). Endorsed by more than 70 physicians and medical researchers in Canada, it was developed as part of a collective effort to build a consensus on the state of science on HIV transmission and to challenge the scientific grounds on which PLWH have been, and continue to be, criminally prosecuted in Canad...
Recruitment Strategies to Engage African American Men in HIV Testing Randomized Controlled Trials in the Rural Southern United States
Of the estimated 1.1 million Americans living with HIV infection, about 18% are unaware of their infection (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2012). Routine HIV testing can facilitate early diagnosis and linkage to care for persons who may be unaware of their infection, thereby decreasing unintended ongoing HIV transmission (CDC, 2011; Hall, Holtgrave & Maulsby, 2012). African Americans, especially men, are disproportionately represented among both persons living with HIV and persons unaware of their infection (CDC, 2013). (Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)
Real-time Medication Adherence Monitoring Intervention: Test of Concept in People Living With HIV Infection
The Wisepill device (Wisepill Technologies, Somerset West, South Africa) is an emerging mobile health technology that may enhance antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence among people living with HIV. The Wisepill is an electronic pillbox that holds up to 30 large pills or 60 small pills. Opening the Wisepill sends a cellular signal to a Web-based server that can be accessed in real time by clinicians for monitoring purposes and to potentially trigger intervention. Previous studies have focused on the feasibility and acceptability of using the Wisepill device for patient monitoring in various settings. (Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)
The Affordable Care Act and Low-Income People Living With HIV: Looking Forward in 2014 and Beyond
There are approximately 1 million people living with HIV (PLWH) in the United States, with an estimated 50,000 new HIV infections occurring annually (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2012a). Racial and ethnic minorities, sexual minorities, and low-income populations bear a disproportionate burden of HIV (CDC, 2012a; 2012b). In the United States, African Americans and Hispanics/Latinos accounted for 44% and 21% of all new HIV infections in 2010 respectively, while men who have sex with men comprised an estimated 63% of all new HIV infections in the same year (CDC, 2012a). (Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)
Cover 1
(Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
ANAC ? A Vital Past ? A Dynamic Future
We write this as we return from the International AIDS Conference in Melbourne. A theme that started every presentation at AIDS2014 was to acknowledge and offer respect to the original owners of the lands, the peoples who came before us, and the elders who are among us. This acknowledgement of legacy is more than a fleeting thought, it is a heartfelt sentiment that recognizes the past and celebrates the future. During the AIDS2014 conference, the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care (ANAC), along with the Australasian Society of HIV Medicine, the Australian/New Zealand Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, and the Australasian Sexual Health and HIV Nurses Association, demonstrated the power of the collective nursing voice. (Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)
Parenting-Skills Program for HIV Prevention Among Thai Early Adolescents
As in a number of other countries, Thailand continues to be confronted with concerning trends regarding the HIV epidemic among youth, due to a dramatic rise in adolescent sexual activity and high rates of risky sexual behavior over recent decades. For example, according to the Thailand AIDS Response Progress Report (Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, 2012), data for 2010?2011, compared to 2008?2009, indicated that young people had increased risky behaviors such as low condom use, having more than one sex partner, and initiating sexual intercourse at a younger age. (Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)
Board of Directors
(Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)
Masthead
(Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)
Table of Contents
(Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Editorial Board
(Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)
Evaluating Abuse in the Patient with Dementia
For patients with dementia, abuse ranges from subtle scams to outright physical violence. As dementia progresses, abuse escalates. The stages of dementia?mild cognitive impairment, mild dementia, moderate dementia, and severe dementia?lend themselves to varied presentations of abuse. Knowing which types of abuse are more prominent at each stage aids the clinician in anticipating risk of abuse and patient and caregiver needs. Interviewing the victim is crucial in uncovering, documenting, and intervening in an abuse situation. A clinician who is skilled in drawing out the facts while remaining supportive of the patient is key in ending the victimization. (Source: Clinics in Geriatric Medicine)
Experimental Plug Aids Recovery From Cataract SurgeryExperimental Plug Aids Recovery From Cataract Surgery
The novel approach is a reasonable alternative to medicated eye drops, early research suggests. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)
Africa: Kerry, Elton John On Partnership Against HIV/Aids
[State Department]Secretary of State John Kerry and Sir Elton John Before Their Meeting (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Table of Contents
Abstract Use of easily available biomarker could predict antidepressant response Antipsychotics show differing risks of mortality in community?living elderly Oxcarbazepine?induced serious skin reaction Long?acting injectable aripiprazole comparable to oral medication in preventing relapse Adjunctive armodafinil shows promising results for bipolar depression Omega?3 fatty acids fail to prevent relapse in schizophrenia Lower?dose quetiapine safe and effective for personality disorder Varenicline aids smoking cessation in patients with bipolar disorder Older adults see heart benefits from antidepressant adherence Approvals (Source: The Brown University Psychopharmacology Update)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Public Health: AIDS Activists Oppose Cuomo on Ebola Quarantines
Gov. Andrew Cuomo has been hailed as a leader on H.I.V. prevention, but many of his allies on that issue are upset about his handling of Ebola. (Source: NYT)
HIV/AIDS Medical Practice Guidelines
Federally approved HIV/AIDS medical practice guidelines. (Source: PHPartners.org)
UNAIDS Data
Data and statistics on HIV/AIDS from surveys of pregnant women, population-based surveys, and other surveillance information. (Source: PHPartners.org)
South Africa: 'My Ignorance Cost Me My Baby's Life'
[Health-e]When Phindile Mashaba was diagnosed with HIV she could not believe it. She says that disbelief killed her daughter. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Nigeria: Naca to Screen 80million Nigerians for HIV
[Daily Independent]The Director General of the National Agency for the Control of AIDS (NACA), Prof. John Idoko, has disclosed that the agency would screen 80 million Nigerians for the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) between 2014 and 2015. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Uganda: Uganda's New Burden of HIV/Aids
[Independent]Government policies and spending key to achieving an HIV-free generation (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: 12 HIV Negative Babies Born to HIV Positive Women in Awka
[Daily Independent]No fewer than 12 HIV negative babies have been born to 12 HIV positive women attending antenatal health care at Saint Faith Hospital and Maternity, Awka, Anambra. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Kenya: 27,000 Kitui HIV Patients
[The Star]Two hundred and twenty eight people in Kitui county are infected with HIV every year, while 27,000 residents are living with the virus, an official has said. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: Abolish Incentive Funding, TRP Says
[GFO]Panel also calls for the allocation methodology to be revised (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Nigeria: 12 Babies Born HIV-Free From Positive Mothers in Awka
[Vanguard]Awka -No fewer than 12 HIV negative babies have been born to 12 HIV positive women attending antenatal health care at Saint Faith Hospital and Maternity, Awka, Anambra. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: Court Orders Husband to Re-Marry Wife He Infected With HIV
[Daily Trust]Kano -An upper Shari'a court sitting at Sabon Gari, Kano, has ordered a middle-aged man to re-marry the wife he divorced after infecting her with the HIV/AIDs virus. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Willingness to Use HIV PrEP Among Gay and Bisexual MenWillingness to Use HIV PrEP Among Gay and Bisexual Men
Are men who have an increased risk of HIV willing to use pre-exposure prophylaxis? JAIDS: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
When hearing aid users listen to music, less is more, says CU-Boulder study
(University of Colorado at Boulder) The type of sound processing that modern hearings aids provide to make speech more understandable for wearers may also make music enjoyment more difficult, according to a new study by the University of Colorado Boulder. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Implementing comprehensive prevention of mother-to-child transmission and HIV prevention for South African couples: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial
This study expands on a successful United States President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR)-supported PMTCT couples intervention pilot study conducted in the Mpumalanga province, targeting HIV-positive pregnant women and their partners, the primary objective being to determine whether male partner involvement plus a behavioral intervention will significantly reduce infant HIV incidence. Methods: The study follows a cluster randomized controlled design enrolling two cohorts of HIV-positive pregnant women recruited from 12 randomly assigned Community Health Centers (CHC) (six experimental, six control). The two cohorts will consist of women attending without their male partners (n =720) and women attending with their male partners (n =720 couples), in order to determine whether the ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Quarraisha Abdool Karim wins TWAS-Lenovo Prize
(TWAS) South African scientist named winner of The World Academy of Sciences' most prestigious award for commitment to life-saving research that protects African women from HIV/AIDS (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Clerical Students with Respect to HIV/AIDS in Iran, 2011
In this study, knowledge and attitude of Iranian clerical students toward HIV and AIDS was assessed. Through a cross-sectional study, 367 clerical students were surveyed, in convenience sampling method, in the Qom seminary in 2011, utilizing a self-administered structured questionnaire. The questionnaire was piloted on 20 clerical student volunteers, internal consistency measured with Cronbach?s alpha was 0.89. Participants? scores of knowledge and attitude were calculated out of 100. The level of knowledge in 37.33 % of participants was good (scores &gt;80), whereas 46.05 and 16.62 % had moderate (40 &lt; scores ? 80) and poor (scores ?40) levels of knowledge, respectively. The mean score of knowledge and attitude was 58.29 (95 % CI 56.11?60) and 77.26 (95 % CI 75.92?7...
National HIV/AIDS mortality, prevalence, and incidence rates are associated with the Human Development Index
Conclusions Less-developed countries are likely to have more severe HIV/AIDS epidemic. There is a need to pay more attention to HIV/AIDS control in less-developed countries, where lower socioeconomic status might have accelerated the HIV/AIDS epidemic more rapidly. (Source: American Journal of Infection Control)
Imaging Neuroinflammation? A Perspective from MR Spectroscopy
Abstract Neuroinflammatory mechanisms contribute to the brain pathology resulting from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) has been touted as a suitable method for discriminating in vivo markers of neuroinflammation. The present MRS study was conducted in four groups: alcohol dependent (A, n?=?37), HIV?infected (H, n?=?33), alcohol dependent?+?HIV infected (HA, n?=?38) and healthy control (C, n?=?62) individuals to determine whether metabolites would change in a pattern reflecting neuroinflammation. Significant four?group comparisons were evident only for striatal choline?containing compounds (Cho) and myo?inositol (mI), which follow?up analysis demonstrated were due to higher levels in HA compared with C individ...
Effectiveness of extracorporeal shock wave therapy in bone marrow edema syndrome of the hip
Abstract There is no gold standard for treatment of bone marrow edema syndrome of the hip (BMESH). Usually, treatment is conservative, owing to the favorable and self-limiting prognosis. In musculoskeletal disorders, the effectiveness of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) has been widely recognized and recent research supports its use in the treatment of the first stages of avascular osteonecrosis of the proximal femur and in other conditions where bone marrow edema is present. On this basis, we performed a prospective study to evaluate the effectiveness of ESWT in normalizing the symptoms and imaging features of BMESH. Twenty consecutive symptomatic patients underwent two treatments of high-energy ESWT and were followed-up at 2, 3 and 6 months, with a final clinical follo...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Effect of AIDS on Women Who Have Sex-Determined Health Issues
Worldwide, women account for a growing percentage of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)?infected patients and more than half of all HIV infections. For many years, morphologic imaging methods were the main approaches employed to investigate HIV and its complications. However, during the past decade, advancements in PET and SPECT imaging technologies opened new possibilities for improved understanding of the pathophysiological processes in HIV. Diagnosis of early HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) is important, as many of its symptoms can be caused by other conditions common to people with HIV/AIDS. (Source: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine)
Bellevue Was Ready to Go on Ebola
A Bellevue isolation ward developed during the dawn of the AIDS crisis has been repurposed, in part, by health officials as the go-to treatment facility for New York-based Ebola patients. (Source: WSJ.com: Health)
New dent in HIV-1's armor: promising target for HIV/AIDS treatment
A promising target for HIV/AIDS treatment has been found by researchers who have have uncovered a new protein that participates in active HIV replication. The new protein, called Ssu72, is part of a switch used to awaken HIV-1 (the most common type of HIV) from its slumber. More than 35 million people worldwide are living with HIV and about a million people die a year due to the disease. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)
Daily glass of wine aids memory (if you're over 60)
Older people who consume between one and six alcoholic drinks a week have a 'significantly' better ability to recall memories (Source: The Telegraph : Health Advice)
Uganda: Activists Fear 'Nonsensical' HIV Law Increases Infection of Children
[Key Correspondents]Medical experts and HIV activists fear Uganda's HIV and AIDS Prevention and Control Act is having the opposite effect and causing people to shy away from seeking treatment. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Uganda: Activists Fear 'Nonsensical' HIV Law Increases Child Infections
[Key Correspondents]Medical experts and HIV activists fear Uganda's HIV and AIDS Prevention and Control Act is having the opposite effect and causing people to shy away from seeking treatment. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Safety of In Utero and Neonatal Antiretroviral Exposure: Cognitive and Academic Outcomes in HIV-exposed, Uninfected Children 5?13 Years of Age
Conclusions:Overall, the safety of prenatal and neonatal ARV use was supported. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Mucus Layers in Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Abstract:The intestinal epithelium is covered with mucus with the main structural building block being the densely O-glycosylated MUC2 mucin. The intestinal epithelium is exposed to ingested material, our digestive machinery, and large amounts of microorganisms. Mucus is the first line of defense and aids to limit exposure to all these threats to the epithelium. In the small intestine, mucus acts as a matrix, which contains antimicrobial products, such as defensins and immunoglobulin A that limit epithelial exposure to the luminal bacteria. In the colon, the stratified inner mucus layer acts as a physical barrier excluding bacteria from the epithelium. Bacterial penetration of this normally restricted zone is observed in many colitis models and also in patients with ulcerative colitis. Muc...
Nigeria: Politics and National Response to HIV/Aids Challenge
[Daily Independent]ADAMS ABONU , a media strategist writing from Abuja, believes there is need for the government to insulate the fight against HIV/AIDS from distractions of the politics of the day for greater success... (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
A new dent in HIV-1's armor
(Salk Institute) Salk scientists identify a promising target for HIV/AIDS treatment. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Bilinear Generalized Approximate Message Passing&#x2014;Part II: Applications
In this paper, we extend the generalized approximate message passing (G-AMP) approach, originally proposed for high-dimensional generalized-linear regression in the context of compressive sensing, to the generalized-bilinear case. In Part I of this two-part paper, we derived our Bilinear G-AMP (BiG-AMP) algorithm as an approximation of the sum-product belief propagation algorithm in the high-dimensional limit, and proposed an adaptive damping mechanism that aids convergence under finite problem sizes, an expectation-maximization (EM)-based method to automatically tune the parameters of the assumed priors, and two rank-selection strategies. Here, in Part II, we discuss the specializations of BiG-AMP to the problems of matrix completion, robust PCA, and dictionary learning, and present the r...
Bilinear Generalized Approximate Message Passing&#x2014;Part I: Derivation
In this paper, we extend the generalized approximate message passing (G-AMP) approach, originally proposed for high-dimensional generalized-linear regression in the context of compressive sensing, to the generalized-bilinear case, which enables its application to matrix completion, robust PCA, dictionary learning, and related matrix-factorization problems. Here, in Part I of a two-part paper, we derive our Bilinear G-AMP (BiG-AMP) algorithm as an approximation of the sum-product belief propagation algorithm in the high-dimensional limit, where central-limit theorem arguments and Taylor-series approximations apply, and under the assumption of statistically independent matrix entries with known priors. In addition, we propose an adaptive damping mechanism that aids convergence under finite p...
Hearing Function in Patients Living With HIV/AIDS
Conclusions:Despite reports of ?premature? or ?accelerated? aging in HIV-infected subjects, we found no evidence of hearing loss occurring at an earlier age in HIV-infected patients compared to HIV-uninfected controls. Similar to what is described in the general population, the probability of hearing loss increased with age in the HIV-infected subjects and was more common in patients over 60 years of age. Interestingly, HIV-infected subjects had worse hearing at lower frequencies and have significant differences in tympanometry compared to HIV-uninfected controls; these findings deserve further study. (Source: Ear and Hearing)
Parent Report of the Development of Auditory Skills in Infants and Toddlers Who Use Hearing Aids
Conclusions:The present study provides important information to assist clinicians and parents in setting realistic expectations regarding the auditory behavior of infants as a function of aided and unaided thresholds. It emphasizes the need for assessing functional hearing in young infants and not relying on hearing thresholds alone. Such data can also contribute to the decision-making process when selecting a sensory device (e.g., HA versus cochlear implant) for infants with hearing loss. (Source: Ear and Hearing)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Comprehensive Measures of Sound Exposures in Cinemas Using Smart Phones
Conclusions:Calibrated smart phones with an appropriate software application as used in this study can be utilized as a validated SPL meter. Because of the wide availability, smart phones in combination with the software application can provide high quantity recreational sound exposure measurements, which can facilitate the identification of potential noise hazards. Sound levels in movie theaters decrease with distance to the screen, but do not exceed safe occupational noise exposure limits. Additionally, there are significant differences in sound levels across movie theaters and movies, but not in presentation time. (Source: Ear and Hearing)
Evaluation of a Localization Training Program for Hearing Impaired Listeners
Conclusions:The current study demonstrated that hearing aid wearers can be trained on their front/back localization skills using either laboratory-based or home-based training program. The effectiveness of the training was generalized to other acoustic stimuli and the unaided conditions when the stimulus levels were fixed. (Source: Ear and Hearing)
The Effect of Hearing Aid Noise Reduction on Listening Effort in Hearing-Impaired Adults
Conclusions:The NR algorithm reduced the listening effort adults with hearing loss must expend to understand speech in noise. (Source: Ear and Hearing)
A `combined framework¿ approach to developing a patient decision aid: the PANDAs model
Conclusions: This study has demonstrated the feasibility of combining the IPDAS and the UKMRC frameworks for the development and evaluation of a PtDA. Future studies should test this model for developing PtDAs across different decisions and healthcare contexts. (Source: BMC Health Services Research)
A ?combined framework? approach to developing a patient decision aid: the PANDAs model
Conclusions: This study has demonstrated the feasibility of combining the IPDAS and the UKMRC frameworks for the development and evaluation of a PtDA. Future studies should test this model for developing PtDAs across different decisions and healthcare contexts. (Source: BioMed Central)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
The effect of hearing aids on postural stability
ConclusionThese results indicate that hearing aids are a novel treatment modality for imbalance in older adults with hearing loss and suggest that wearing hearing aids may offer a significant public?health benefit for avoiding falls in this population. Level of Evidence4. Laryngoscope, 2014 (Source: The Laryngoscope)
View AIDSinfo Patient Fact Sheets on Three Recently Approved HIV Medications
AIDSinfo invites you to view our patient fact sheets on three medications recently approved by the FDA. The three medications are all indicated for use in the treatment of HIV infection in adults. The patient fact sheets include information on dosage forms and strengths, possible side effects, and instructions on how to take and store the medications. Fact sheet on abacavir/dolutegravir/lamivudine (brand name: Triumeq) Triumeq is a combination medicine that can be used alone as a complete treatment regimen or with other HIV medicines. Fact sheet on cobicistat (brand name: Tybost) Cobicistat is a pharmacokinetic enhancer indicated for use with atazanavir (brand name: Reyataz) or darunavir (brand name: Prezista) to increase the amount of those medicines in the blood; it must...
Trends in licit and illicit drug-related deaths in Florida from 2001 to 2012
Drug misuse imposes significant burdens on societies worldwide, taking a considerable toll on the human lives from overdoses and diseases associated with drug use such as AIDS, hepatitis, and various hepatic, respiratory, and cardiovascular conditions [1]. High prevalence of suicides, accidents, and violent behaviors associated with drug use also contributes to the drug-related fatalities [1?3]. Globally, the drug-related mortality rate is estimated at 40 (range, 20.8-49.3) deaths per million among the population aged 15-64 years [4]. (Source: Forensic Science International)
A comparative study between currently used methods and Small Volume-Cone Beam Tomography for surgical placement of mini implants.
Conclusions: Preoperative evaluation of potential mini implant insertion sites using SV-CBCT aids in predictable placement and results in the least amount of root perforation. PMID: 25343688 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Angle Orthodontist)
Africa: Does the Carnage On S. Africa's Roads Claim More Lives Than Aids and TB?
[Africa Check]In South Africa at least 5,000 people are killed on the country's roads every year. Or is it closer to 14,000? Or more than those dying of HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis, as has been claimed? (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Ghana: 77 HIV/STIs Peer Educators Undergoes Training in Techiman
[Ghana Govt.]Seventy seven Peer Educators on the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) have undergone training to strengthen district capacity for community based interventions for Family planning in Techiman in the Brong Ahafo Region. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Reaching the Unreached: Treatment as Prevention as a Workable Strategy to Mitigate HIV and Its Consequences in High-Risk Groups
Abstract While there have been significant advances in curbing the HIV disease epidemic worldwide, there continues to be significant number of incident cases with 2.3 million new infections in the year 2012 alone. Treatment as prevention (TasP), which involves the use of antiretroviral drugs to decrease the likelihood of HIV illness, death and transmission from infected individuals to their noninfected sexual and /or drug paraphernalia-sharing injecting partners, must be incorporated into any HIV prevention strategy that is going to be successful on a large scale. Especially in resource-limited settings, the focus of the prevention approach should be on high-risk groups who contribute disproportionately to community HIV transmission, including people who inject drugs (PWID), men w...
Namibia: HIV, Business Workshop Benefits Community
[New Era]Windhoek -More than 90 community members in Henties Bay attended a one-day workshop on HIV awareness and entrepreneurship. The workshop, organised by an HIV/AIDS activist Immanuel Sheefeni, took place at a hotel in Henties Bay last Thursday evening. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: Elimination of Mother to Child HIV/Aids Transmission Project Launch Not Political Jamboree, Says Naca
[Guardian]THE National Agency for Control of AIDS (NACA) has refuted media reports, not in The Guardian, that the Federal Government (FG) plans to spend N1.58 billion Human Immuno-deficiency Virus (HIV)/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) funds on President Goodluck Jonathan's political campaign. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: UK Universities to Be Scrutinised On Global Health Research
[SciDev.Net]An attempt to galvanise UK universities to direct research at global health and neglected diseases while making their findings more available to people in developing countries is being launched next month. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
South Africa: Regional HIV Activists Laud the TAC
[Health-e]As the Treatment Action Campaign (TAC) continues an international fundraising campaign in response to a financial crisis, HIV activists have hailed the AIDS lobby group as an example of activism in southern and east Africa. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Uganda: Truckers Still Driving the HIV Pandemic
[Observer]While the nationwide battle to reduce HIV rates continues, it has been revealed that knowledge on HIV does not always translate into safer sexual behaviour for the most-at-risk populations (MARPs). (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: NACA- HIV/Aids Funds Not for Political Campaign
[This Day]Abuja -The National Agency for the Control of AIDS (NACA) has debunked words doing the rounds that funds earmarked for the prevention of Mother-to-Child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome(HIV/AIDS) is to be used for President Goodluck Jonathan's electioneering. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: Lagos Mobilises to Prevent Mother - to - Child Transmission of HIV
[Daily Independent]The atmosphere at the Tuesday Strategic Action forum was indeed awesome as most members of the audience were either pregnant women, nursing mothers or community and religious leaders from across the 20 Local Government and 37 Council Development Areas of the State. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Effect of mu-opioid agonist DAMGO on surface CXCR4 and HIV-1 replication in TF-1 human bone marrow progenitor cells
Conclusions: These experiments provide insight into the impact of mu-opioid exposure with respect to inhibition of viral replication in this human TF-1 bone marrow progenitor cell line model. (Source: BioMed Central)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Intervention Strategies Based on Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills Model for Health Behavior Change: A Systematic Review
Conclusion This review indicates the potential strength of the IMB model as a theoretical framework to develop behavioral interventions. The specific integration strategies delineated for each construct of the model can be utilized to design model-based interventions. (Source: Asian Nursing Research)
Experiences of Caregivers in Healthcare for and Social Support of HIV Positive Children Attending Schools in Bangkok
Conclusion Our findings can inform the design of systems for educational and social support alongside adequate healthcare for children living with HIV/AIDS attending school. The Thai government needs to establish collaboration between the educational and health sectors to reduce the stigma of HIV, promote acceptance and provide support. (Source: Asian Nursing Research)
Informed decision making among first-degree relatives of prostate cancer survivors: A pilot randomized trial
First degree relatives (FDRs) of men diagnosed with prostate cancer (PCa) are at increased risk for developing the disease, due in part to multiple concurrent risk factors. There is a lack of innovative targeted decision aids to help FDRs make an informed decision about whether or not to undergo PCa screening. (Source: Contemporary Clinical Trials)
Supervised injection services: what has been demonstrated? A systematic literature review
Injection drug use represents a source of numerous harmful effects on both the health conditions of people who inject drugs (PWID) and their social environment. Drug injection is one of the main factors in the dissemination of blood-transmissible viral infections such as human immunodeficiency virus or the hepatitis B and C viruses (EMCDDA, 2008; Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, 2002; WHO, 1997). In addition, numerous other physical problems can result from drug injection, including other viral and bacterial infections, cutaneous lesions, locomotive disorders, and hepato-gastroenterological pathologies (INSERM, 2010; Klee and Morris, 1995; Palepu et al., 2001). (Source: Drug and Alcohol Dependence)
EQT frontrunner for Siemens hearing-aids business: sources
Siemens is in advanced talks to sell its hearing-aids business to private equity shop EQT, unnamed sources tell Reuters. SiemensNews Well, Hearing, Mergers & Acquisitions, Wall Street Beatread more (Source: Mass Device)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Nigeria: Group Demands Passage of Anti-HIV Stigma Bill
[Leadership]Abuja -More than six months after the National Assembly passed the Anti-stigma and anti- discrimination Bill, the Association of Women Living With HIV/AIDS in Nigeria (ASWHAN), has called on President Goodluck Jonathan to assent to it. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: Lagos Promotes Testing, Treatment of HIV/Aids
[CAJ News]Abuja -THE Chief Executive Officer of the Lagos State AIDS Control Agency (LSACA), Dr Tokunbo Dabiri, has urged residents to access free government's HIV Counseling and Testing (HCT) to ascertain their HIV status. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Eritrea: Health Personnel in Keren Stress Need for Higher Youths Awareness in Combating Communicable Diseases and HIV/Aids
[Shabait]Keren -Health personnel in Keren city have stressed the need to raise youth awareness in combating the instances of communicable diseases in general and that of HIV/AIDS in particular. They also stated that endeavors exerted to combat HIV infection have borne satisfactory outcome. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Malawi: 20 Men in Mangochi on ARV's Develop Breasts
[Malawi24]Twenty men in the Eastern region district of Mangochi have developed breasts after they shifted from taking the second provided type of Antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) to the first ones, Malawi24 has learnt. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Zimbabwe: Victoria Falls Chef Fired for Being HIV Positive
[New Zimbabwe]A VICTORIA Falls man who was fired from his work for being HIV positive on Monday dragged his former wife to court seeking a variation on a maintenance order. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Nigeria: Why Nigeria Cannot Achieve Zero HIV/Aids
[Leadership]Nigeria's target of zero HIV/AIDS, Zero discrimination by 2015 is still way off the mark considering the hitches in its national response, which is mainly fund, writes WINIFRED OGBEBO (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Eosinophilic gastroenteritis with involvement of the urinary bladder
We describe the CT findings of eosinophilic gastroenteritis accompanied by bladder involvement in an 11-year-old boy. CT imaging showed diffuse wall thickening of the entire gastrointestinal tract from the esophagus to the colon and revealed a halo sign, irregular fold thickening and luminal narrowing without obstruction of the gastrointestinal wall. Another CT finding was the diffuse thickening of the bladder wall with moderate enhancement on postcontrast CT. The boy underwent endoscopic biopsy from various sites of the gut wall and histology revealed increased eosinophiliac infiltration in the mucosa. After corticosteroid therapy, the boy recovered gradually. The case emphasizes that not only the gastrointestinal tract but also the urinary bladder may be involved in children with eosinop...
Drug resistance characteristics of isolates to four first-line antituberculous drugs from tuberculosis patients with AIDS in Beijing, China
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a major global public health challenge, and tuberculosis (TB) is the most common opportunistic infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. HIV is the strongest risk factor for developing TB in those with latent or new Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection [1]. TB in people with AIDS places an immense burden on healthcare systems and poses particular diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Globally, of the 1.1 million TB patients in people with AIDS, there were 0.4 million TB-related deaths in 2011 according to the World Health Organization (WHO) [2]. (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)
Do Sex and BMI Predict or Does Stem Design Prevent Muscle Damage in Anterior Supine Minimally Invasive THA?
CONCLUSIONS: Visible muscle damage occurred in most hips during anterior supine intermuscular hip arthroplasty. The clinical importance of this muscle damage requires further study, because some evidence suggests earlier restoration of gait and cessation of walking aids with direct anterior THA despite this damage; however, this was not studied here. Surgeons performing this approach can expect more difficulty and as a result possibly more damage to the TFL in patients with male sex and increased BMI. The use of a short stem can be considered for patients with increased BMI to limit damage to the TFL. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, therapeutic study. PMID: 25337974 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research)
Lactoferrin levels in gingival crevicular fluid and saliva of HIV?infected patients with chronic periodontitis
ConclusionThe data indicate that LF levels in the GCF and saliva are not different between HIV?infected and noninfected patients with chronic periodontitis. (Source: Journal of Investigative and Clinical Dentistry)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
LabCorp launches test to help guide drug treatments for HIV patients
Burlington-based LabCorp is launching the first test of its kind to help doctors optimize the drug regimens they rely on for treating HIV patients. Called HIV GenoSure Archive, the new laboratory test was developed with Monogram Biosciences Inc., which is part of the LabCorp (NYSE: LH) Specialty Testing Group and will head patient testing and clinical trials. "This test helps ensure that HIV/AIDS remains a chronic, manageable disease rather than a terminal illness," said Christos Petropoulos, vice? (Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Hospitals headlines)
Ethiopia: Toil Here
[Addis Fortune]One of the major aspects of Addis Abeba subject to criticism is the lack of appropriate public toilets. This seems a good start, inside Megenagna Square, where many people take taxis and some trade. The service provider is a union of HIV positive and disabled people, totalling 16 individuals in all. They give services from seven in the morning to eight thirty in the evening, charging 50 cents. These people wear a badge stamped "sew ale" in Amharic, which literally means "there is someone" - a phrase used w (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Tanzania: Call for Cut of HIV/Aids Prevalence in Key Groups
[Daily News]ALTHOUGH the nation has recorded impressive success in fighting HIV and AIDS in the country, the disease's prevalence is still high in key population groups. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: Elimination of Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission Is Crucial to the MDGs - - Idoko
[Vanguard]The National Agency for the Control of AIDS, NACA, has described the upcoming launch of National Plan for the country's Elimination of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV, eMTCT, initiative as being in line with the Global Plan towards the elimination of new HIV infections among children by 2015 and keeping their mothers alive. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
[Newsdesk] Research brief
30 years after AIDS first emerged in the USA, the geographical source and early dissemination of HIV-1 in the human population remains controversial. A new evolutionary analysis of HIV-1 sequence data from central Africa suggests that the HIV-1 group M viruses originated in Kinshasa (Democratic Republic of the Congo) in the early 1920s and then, because the city was an important commercial transportation hub, spread across central Africa. An exponential increase in group M infections after 1960 suggests that post-independence changes in sexual behaviour in and around Kinshasa might have driven the epidemic growth of the HIV-1 group M pandemic. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Government prosecutes alleged scientific fraud on AIDS research
If government prosecutors are right, a former top researcher at Iowa State University is guilty of brazen scientific fraud-actions which a criminal complaint says have cost taxpayers nearly $15 million. (Source: CNN.com - Health)
A Strategic Approach to Public Health Workforce Development and Capacity Building
Publication date: November 2014 Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 47, Issue 5, Supplement 3 Author(s): Hazel D. Dean , Ranell L. Myles , Crystal Spears-Jones , Audriene Bishop-Cline , Kevin A. Fenton In February 2010, CDC?s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD), and Tuberculosis (TB) Prevention (NCHHSTP) formally institutionalized workforce development and capacity building (WDCB) as one of six overarching goals in its 2010?2015 Strategic Plan. Annually, workforce team members finalize an action plan that lays the foundation for programs to be implemented for NCHHSTP?s workforce that year. This paper describes selected WDCB programs implemented by NCHHSTP during the last 4 years in the three strategic goal areas: (1) ...
Meeting the Emerging Public Health Needs of Persons With Blood Disorders
Publication date: November 2014 Source:American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 47, Issue 5 Author(s): Christopher S. Parker , James Tsai , Azfar-e-Alam Siddiqi , Hani K. Atrash , Lisa C. Richardson In its decades-long history, the Division of Blood Disorders (DBD) at CDC has evolved from a patient-focused, services-supporting entity at inception, to one of the world leaders in the practice of public health to improve the lives of people at risk for or affected by nonmalignant blood disorders. The DBD?s earliest public health activities consisted of working with care providers in a network of hemophilia treatment centers to provide AIDS risk reduction services to people with hemophilia. Because this infectious disease threat has been reduced over time as a result of the developm...
Emergency Department Use among HIV-Infected Released Jail Detainees
Abstract Release from short-term jail detention is highly destabilizing, associated with relapse to substance use, recidivism, and disrupted health care continuity. Little is known about emergency department (ED) use, potentially a surrogate for medical, psychiatric, or social instability, by people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) leaving jails. All ED visits were reviewed from medical records for a cohort of 109 PLHWA in the year following release from county jail in Connecticut, between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2010. Primary outcomes were frequency and timing of ED visits, modeled using multivariate negative binomial regression and Cox proportional hazards regression, respectively. Demographic, substance use, and psychiatric disorder severity factors were evaluated as poten...
Case Report: Herpes Simplex Esophagitis in a Frail Elderly Patient
Frail older persons in nursing homes are at high risk for developing unusual infections.1?3 Herpes simplex esophagitis (HSE) is most commonly seen in immunocompromised individuals with conditions that debilitate the cellular immune system, such as malignancies, radiation, chemotherapy, transplantation, and AIDS.4 It is considered an AIDS-defining illness4 but is a rare clinical entity in the immunocompetent patient. Incidence by gender depends on age5,6; it has been predominantly described in young male patients (78% were 40 years or younger, and 76% were male). (Source: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Detection of cytomegalovirus (CMV) by real-time PCR in fecal samples for the non-invasive diagnosis of CMV intestinal disease
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) end-organ disease of the gastrointestinal tract is a significant cause of mortality and morbidity in immunocompromised individuals especially in recipients of stem cell or solid organ transplantation or patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) [1?3]. Patients with immunosuppression, e.g. for the treatment of rheumatic diseases, critically ill individuals or patients with severe or refractory inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may be also affected [4?8]. (Source: Journal of Clinical Virology)
Labelling and discrimination: Do homophobic epithets undermine fair distribution of resources?
This study shows that discriminatory group labels have tangible effects on people's monetary behaviours in intergroup contexts, increasing their tendency to favour the ingroup when distributing resources. PMID: 25330919 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Social Psychology)
A Systematic Review of the Psychometric Properties of the Sexual Relationship Power Scale in HIV/AIDS Research.
Authors: McMahon JM, Volpe EM, Klostermann K, Trabold N, Xue Y Abstract The Sexual Relationship Power Scale (SRPS) was developed over a decade ago to address the lack of reliable and valid measures of relationship power in social, behavioral and medical research. The SRPS and its two subscales (relationship control [RC], decision-making dominance [DMD]) have been used extensively in the field of HIV prevention and sexual risk behavior. We performed a systematic review of the psychometric properties of the SRPS and subscales as reported in the HIV/AIDS literature from 2000 to 2012. A total of 54 published articles were identified, which reported reliability or construct validity estimates of the scales. Description of the psychometric properties of the SRPS and subscales is reported...
Enhancing Acquisition of Health Care Management Skills in Youth Living With HIV Prior to Transition: A Pilot Study
Advances in medical science have led to higher-quality antiretroviral medications allowing individuals with HIV to live longer, healthier lives. The increase in longevity has highlighted the importance of preparing HIV-infected adolescents to transition from pediatric to adult services. Without proper education, navigating the health care system can be an arduous task that may cause adolescents to drop out of the health care system, leading to subsequent medication nonadherence and increased likelihood of medication resistance, disease transmission, and risk for opportunistic infections (Horstmann, Brown, Islam, Buck, & Agins, 2010; New York State Department of Health AIDS Institute, 2011). (Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)
Promoting Advance Directives and Ethical Wills With the HIV-Aging Cohort by First Assessing Clinician Knowledge and Comfort Level
The cohort of HIV-infected adults is aging at a rapid rate. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 31% of people living with HIV nationwide are over the age of 50 years, and data suggest that this rate will increase to 50% by 2015 (Department of Health & Human Services, Administration on Aging, n.d.). Thus, it is important for HIV care clinicians to question whether they are meeting the holistic needs of their clients. Who will serve as their clients' personal/professional caregivers and advocates? Will this be a population at risk for diminished social support secondary to stigma associated with HIV? Older HIV-infected adults, oftentimes socioeconomically marginalized, might have distinct perspectives on advanced care planning. (Source: Journal of the Association ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
A Novel Gas Chromatographic Method for Determination of Malondialdehyde from Oxidized DNA
Malondialdehyde (MA) is known to form from various lipids upon oxidation as one of secondary oxidation products. Determination of MA formed from lipid peroxidation has been used to examine occurrence of oxidative damages associated with many diseases, such as cancer, Alzheimer&rsquo;s, arthritis, inflammation, diabetes, atherosclerosis, and AIDS as well as aging. Analysis of MA is, however, extremely difficult because it is highly reactive and readily polymerized and forming adducts with biological substances such as proteins, phospholipids, and DNA (Shibamoto, J Pharm Biomed Anal 41:12&ndash;25, 2002). Gas chromatographic method using stable derivative, 1-methylpyrazole was advanced and has been successfully used to analyze MA in various lipids and lipid-rich foods. This method was also a...
Failure of combined antiretroviral therapy intensification with maraviroc and raltegravir in chronically HIV-1 infected patients to reduce the viral reservoir: the IntensHIV randomized trial.
CONCLUSION: We conclude that the intensification of a Protease Inhibitor regimen with Maraviroc and Raltegravir does not impact the blood proviral DNA reservoir of HIV but can decrease the cell-associated HIV RNA, the CD8 activation and has a possible impact on rectal proviral HIV DNA in some patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier number NCT00935480. PMID: 25320633 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Therapy)
Impact of second-line antiretroviral regimens on lipid profiles in an African setting: the DART trial sub-study.
CONCLUSION: Modest lipid elevations were observed in African patients on predominantly LPV/r?+?NNRTI-based second-line regimens. Routine lipid monitoring during second-line ART regimens may not be warranted in this setting but individual cardiovascular risk assessment should guide practice. PMID: 25320632 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Therapy)
Electronic Eye Cane Enhance Mobility for the Blind
User-friendly electronic 'EyeCane' enhances navigational abilities for the blind - Tactile or auditory cues can enhance the mobility of blind users, according to study published in Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience... (Source: Disabled World)
Electronic Eye Cane Enhances Mobility for the Blind
User-friendly electronic 'EyeCane' enhances navigational abilities for the blind - Tactile or auditory cues can enhance the mobility of blind users, according to study published in Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience... (Source: Disabled World)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Exploring the clinical approach to the bimodal fitting of hearing aids and cochlear implants: results of an international survey.
Conclusions: The results show that the fitting of a contralateral hearing aid (HA) in the non-implanted ear of cochlear implant (CI) recipients is now well established as standard clinical practice. However, there is a lack of experience in HA fitting within the CI centres and the use of published bimodal fitting procedures is poor. The HA is often not refitted after CI switch-on and this may contribute to rejection. Including a bimodal fitting prescription and process in the CI fitting software would make applying a balancing procedure easier and may increase its implementation in routine clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: This survey was designed to investigate and understand the current approach to bimodal fitting of HAs and CIs across different countries and the recommendations made to ...
User-friendly electronic 'Eyecane' enhances navigational abilities for blind
White Canes provide low-tech assistance to the visually impaired, but some blind people object to their use because they are cumbersome, fail to detect elevated obstacles, or require long training periods to master. Electronic travel aids (ETAs) have the potential to improve navigation for the blind, but early versions had disadvantages that limited widespread adoption. A new ETA, the "EyeCane," expands the world of its users, allowing them to better estimate distance, navigate their environment, and avoid obstacles, according to a new study (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)
Tanzania: Moshi Cares for People With HIV/Aids
[Daily News]Moshi -MEMBERS of the National Council for People Living with HIV/AIDS Tanzania (NACOPHA) in Moshi District have been offered 37m/- to set up businesses. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Cameroon: Circb Prioritises HIV Prevention/Management in 2015
[Cameroon Tribune]The third ordinary session of the Scientific Council ended on October 15, 2014 in Yaounde. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: How Best to Respond to the Clarion Call of the Vision Challenged
[Daily Independent]In 1991, at the peak of heavy sensitisation of the public on the dangers of contracting HIV/AIDS scourge, I, as the then State Director of MAMSER in the then old Anambra State, organised the first and ever known national workshop on HIV/AIDS. One of the highlights of the outcome of the workshop was the admission of Rosemary, who openly admitted on national television that she was a commercial sex worker. She said among other stunning things, "As a commercial sex worker, I am always ready with different typ (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health to Collaborate on New AIDS Research Project
The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health is one of six organizations that will collaborate on a five-year global initiative supported by an award from USAID that provides up to $70 million in funding. (Source: Public Health News Headlines from Johns Hopkins)
Progress in HIV Care: Men Who Have Sex With MenProgress in HIV Care: Men Who Have Sex With Men
Men who have sex with men are the most at risk group for HIV infection. Are we meeting targeted goals for providing them with care? Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
Rwanda: 'Wonder Drug' Reduces HIV By 90 Percent
[New Times]A daily tablet that offers up to a 90 per cent reduction in the risk of contracting HIV could soon be available on the English National Health Services, in what is being described as the most significant breakthrough in the battle against the virus in a generation. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Tanzania: Moshi Council Boost Nacopha in Business Activities
[Daily News]Moshi -MEMBERS of the National Council for People Living with HIV/AIDS Tanzania (NACOPHA) in Moshi District Council have been offered 37m/- to engage in entrepreneurial activities. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: New UNDP Report Highlights the Role That Cash Transfers Can Play in Preventing HIV
[UNDP]New York City -Today, on the International Day for the Eradication of Poverty, UNDP has released a new report on cash transfers and HIV prevention. Cash transfers are a major tool in the fight against poverty in its many forms. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Nigeria: We Are Neglected, Women Living With HIV Cry Out
[Vanguard]They wore long faces, their cries and lamentations loud and clear. With a common voice, they stated their case, telling stories of woe and anguish. As Persons Living With HIV/AIDS, PLWHA, they share a common destiny but with a common hope. They were united in their situation, bordering on what they termed negligence by the government, leading to inadequate welfare and poor outlook to life. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: Lagos Tackles Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission
[Vanguard]WORRIED by the high rate of Mother-to-child Transmission of HIV, MTCT, and overall high maternal death rate in the state, the Lagos state government has put together a renewed campaign to accelerate the Prevention of Mother-to-child Transmission of HIV, PMTCT, towards reducing maternal death in the state. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
User-friendly electronic 'EyeCane' enhances navigational abilities for the blind
(IOS Press) Electronic travel aids have the potential to improve navigation for the blind, but early versions had disadvantages that limited widespread adoption. A new ETA, the 'EyeCane,' developed by a team of researchers at The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, expands the world of its users, allowing them to better estimate distance, navigate their environment, and avoid obstacles, according to a new study published in Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
An Exploratory Study of the Effectiveness of Memory Aids for Older People Living in Supported Accommodation
There is increasing evidence that electronic and other aids can support older people&rsquo;s memory. In an effectiveness study, we explored whether assistive technologies could benefit 200 potential beneficiaries in a naturalistic setting. We first interviewed 50 participants to assess needs and preferences for memory aids, then researched, developed and trialled specific aids, and finally administered a follow-up questionnaire assessing future use of aids. Matching aids to needs was not easy. Relatively few people were interested in trailing aids. Simpler aids were most successful. Participants were curious about electronic aids, but found them too complicated and not adapted enough to their needs. Assistance from other people was necessary to prompt use of all types of aids. Future effec...
Self-esteem and quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS
This study evaluated the self-esteem and quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS in the Indian population using a correlational design. A significant positive correlation between self esteem and the different dimensions of quality of life was established. Interventions designed for people with HIV/AIDS could well include self esteem as a moderator of quality of life. (Source: Journal of Health Psychology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Ebola virus disease: where are we now and where do we go?
Despite its vivid place in the popular imagination, conjuring up images of germ warfare and Hollywood blockbusters, Ebola has previously affected a relatively small number of people. Prior to 2014, approximately 2400 people were infected, with just over 1500 deaths in the four decades since its 1976 discovery in Zaire and Sudan.1 Smaller outbreaks occurred in the late 1970s, with sporadic, larger ones each numbering under 500 cases seen in the Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaire) and Uganda in the 1990s, 2000s and early 2010s. Ebola virus disease (EVD) was therefore largely thought to be an exotic, tropical disease confined to self-limiting outbreaks in rural central Africa. It was considered a terrifying but unsuccessful virus, killing off its hosts too quickly to transmit it to many othe...
Standing at the crossroads in HIV management: implications for primary care practice from the AIDS 2014 conference.
Authors: Crooks L, Kidd MR, Lake R, Wright EJ, Reis E PMID: 25332021 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Med J Aust)
A Social Constructivist Perspective on the Potential Relevance of Selected DSM?5 Disorders for South African Children and Youth
In South Africa, careless implementation of child psychiatry's biomedical model of ?mental disorder? could stigmatise children and youth who have been made vulnerable by the lingering effects of apartheid ? poverty and malnutrition, violence and abuse, and the HIV/AIDS pandemic. A focus on DSM?5 category changes ? regarding post?traumatic stress disorder and ADHD ? demonstrates that these psychiatric labels are impracticable and irrelevant in a post?colonial developing country, where mental health care is delivered in the context of scarce services and unequal access. A social constructivist perspective enables us to broaden policy decisions and suggest directions for research. (Source: Children and Society)
Angola: 10th National Activity to Combat HIV/ Aids in Faa Opened
[ANGOP]Ambriz -The 10th National Activity to combat HIV/AIDS in the Angolan Armed Forces (FAA) was opened on Friday, in the municipality of Ambriz, northern Bengo province. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Contributions of ambient assisted living for health and quality of life in the elderly and care services - a qualitative analysis from the experts' perspective of care service professionals
Conclusions: Solutions for telemedicine and telecare which are connected to Ambient Assisted Living solutions will have the biggest positive impact on care giving services. Also simple technical aids can be beneficial for elderly to enhance QOL by enabling autonomy in their familiar surroundings. (Source: BMC Geriatrics)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Irreversible electroporation: Just another form of thermal therapy?
CONCLUSIONSThe demonstration that significant Joule heating surrounds current multiple?pulsed IRE practice may contribute to future in?depth discussions on this thermal issue. This is an important subject because it has long been under?exposed in literature. Its awareness pleads for preventing IRE from calling ?non?thermal? in future publications, in order to provide IRE?users with the most accurate information possible. The prospect of thermal treatment planning as outlined in this paper likely aids to the important further successful dissemination of IRE in interventional medicine. © 2014 The Authors. The Prostate published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Source: The Prostate)
Enhancing the Development of Infants and Toddlers with Dual Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder and Deafness.
This article provides some strategies for preparing children for a successful diagnostic evaluation. Children who are deaf or hard of hearing with a dual diagnosis of ASD may have difficulty learning to demonstrate detection or imitation of the Ling 6 sounds. The Ling 6 sounds are used to determine what a child with a dual diagnosis can hear and discriminate with amplification (hearing aids or cochlear implants). Because children with ASD may not look at the conversational partner and may have difficulty with imitation, adaptive strategies may be necessary to teach these children with dual diagnosis their first words. Strategies for teaching children with dual diagnosis through sign language will also be discussed. PMID: 25321856 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Seminars in...
HIV Pharmacists Eliminate Inpatient Medication ErrorsHIV Pharmacists Eliminate Inpatient Medication Errors
Electronic medical records catch some antiretroviral drug mistakes in the hospital, but HIV pharmacist intervention is needed to correct the rest, say researchers. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)
Uganda: Limited Support for Key Populations Undermines Ugandan HIV Control
[IRIN]Kampala -Uganda's HIV/AIDS control efforts have been undermined by a lack of consensus and clarity over which people constitute Key Populations (KPs) to be targeted in various prevention, care and treatment efforts, say experts. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: Man, 35, Infects 12-Yr-Old Groundnut Hawker With HIV
[Vanguard]BAUCHI--THE police in Bauchi State, Tuesday, arrested a man, 35, for infecting a 12-year-old girl with Human Immuno Virus, HIV. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Africa: Writing the Final Chapter On Aids
[IPS]Nairobi -Although AIDS has defied science by killing millions of people throughout Africa in the last three decades, HIV experts now believe that they have found the magic numbers to end AIDS as a public health threat in 15 years. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: Man Infects 12-Year-Old Girl With HIV
[Daily Trust]Bauchi -The Bauchi State Police Command has arrested a man for allegedly infecting a 12-year-old girl with Human Immuno Deficiency Virus (HIV) in Dass Local Government Area of the state. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Uganda: People, Treatment Will Deliver Aids-Free Generation
[Observer]According to the World Health Organisation, the HIV pandemic remains a major public health challenge, with at least 34 million people living with the disease worldwide. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Namibia: Renovated Aus Clinic Now Open
[New Era]The Minister of Health and Social Services Dr Richard Kamwi opened the newly renovated clinic at Aus, which now offers voluntary counselling and testing for HIV along with improved healthcare service. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: Police Arrest Man for Infecting 12-Year-Old Girl With HIV
[This Day]Bauchi -The police in Bauchi State have arrested a 35-year-old man for infecting a 12-year-old girl with HIV. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Writing the Final Chapter on AIDS
Testing, treating and suppressing viral load in massive numbers could curb the spread of AIDS by 2020. Credit: Mercedes Sayagues/IPSBy Miriam GathigahNAIROBI, Oct 17 2014 (IPS)Although AIDS has defied science by killing millions of people throughout Africa in the last three decades, HIV experts now believe that they have found the magic numbers to end AIDS as a public health threat in 15 years.The magic numbers are 90-90-90 and are informed by growing clinical evidence showing that HIV treatment equals prevention because putting people on antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces new infections.The new treatment targets seek that, by 2020:90 percent of people living with HIV get diagnosed90 percent of people diagnosed with HIV will be on ART90 percent of people on ART achieve durable viral sup...
For Ebola Health Workers, Risks and Duty Collide
As they did in the early days of the AIDS epidemic, health care workers treating Ebola are forced to learn a great deal in a short time. (Source: NYT)
Dedication
(Source: AIDS Care)
Corrigendum
(Source: AIDS Care)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Predictors of voluntary HIV counselling and testing services utilization among people with disabilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
(Source: AIDS Care)
Disability and HIV: a systematic review and a meta-analysis of the risk of HIV infection among adults with disabilities in Sub-Saharan Africa
(Source: AIDS Care)
Refining a personalized mHealth intervention to promote medication adherence among HIV+ methamphetamine users
(Source: AIDS Care)
Are social support and HIV coping strategies associated with lower depression in adults on antiretroviral treatment? Evidence from rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
(Source: AIDS Care)
Comparison of colorectal cancer screening and diagnoses in HIV-positive and HIV-negative veterans
(Source: AIDS Care)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Alcohol and drug use outcomes among vulnerable women living with HIV: results from the Western Cape Women's Health CoOp
(Source: AIDS Care)
Dropout from care among HIV-infected patients enrolled in care at a tertiary HIV care center in Chennai, India
(Source: AIDS Care)
HIV stigma and unprotected sex among PLWH in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: a longitudinal exploration of mediating mechanisms
(Source: AIDS Care)
What's pregnancy got to do with it? Late presentation to HIV/AIDS services in Northeastern Brazil
(Source: AIDS Care)
Trial participation disclosure and gel use behavior in the CAPRISA 004 tenofovir gel trial
(Source: AIDS Care)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
The role of social support on resilience, posttraumatic growth, hopelessness, and depression among children of HIV-infected parents in mainland China
(Source: AIDS Care)
From knowledge to action: participant stories of a population health intervention to reduce gender violence and HIV in three southern African countries
(Source: AIDS Care)
Nature, extent and implications of belief in Kikombe cha babu and other herbal HIV cures in Tanzania
(Source: AIDS Care)
Monitoring retention in care: using multiple laboratory tests as an indicator for HIV medical care
(Source: AIDS Care)
HIV testing during the Canadian immigration medical examination: a national survey of designated medical practitioners
(Source: AIDS Care)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Screening for neurocognitive impairment, depression, and anxiety in HIV-infected patients in Western Europe and Canada
(Source: AIDS Care)
Opportunities for technology-based HIV prevention programming among high school students in Cape Town, South Africa
(Source: AIDS Care)
The effects of HIV/AIDS on economic growths and human capitals: a panel study evidence from Asian countries
(Source: AIDS Care)
Male victims of sexual violence in rural Malawi: the overlooked association with HIV infection
(Source: AIDS Care)
Acculturation and perceived stress in HIV+ immigrants: depression symptomatology in Asian and Pacific Islanders
(Source: AIDS Care)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Underage youth trading sex in the Philippines: trafficking and HIV risk
(Source: AIDS Care)
Hispanics/Latinos and the HIV continuum of care in the Southern USA: a qualitative review of the literature, 2002&#8211;2013
(Source: AIDS Care)
HIV health-care providers' burnout: can organizational culture make a difference?
(Source: AIDS Care)
Commercial lubricant use among HIV-negative men who have sex with men in Los Angeles: implications for the development of rectal microbicides for HIV prevention
(Source: AIDS Care)
Levels of alcohol use and history of HIV testing among female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya
(Source: AIDS Care)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Use of Mobile Phone Text Message Reminders in Health Care Services: A Narrative Literature Review
Conclusions: We can conclude that although SMS reminders are used with different patient groups in health care, SMS is less systematically studied with randomized controlled trial study design. Although the amount of evidence for SMS application recommendations is still limited, having 77% (46/60) of the studies showing improved outcomes may indicate its use in health care settings. However, more well-conducted SMS studies are still needed. (Source: Journal of Medical Internet Research)
A Model to Support Shared Decision Making in Electronic Health Records Systems
This article discusses potential solutions, including the concept of a "personalize button" for EHRs. Leveraging a 4-phase clinical model for SDM, this article describes how computer decision support (CDS) technologies integrated into EHRs can help ensure that health care is delivered in a way that is respectful of those preferences. The architecture described herein, called CDS for SDM, is built on recognized standards that are currently integrated into certification requirements for EHRs as part of meaningful use regulations. While additional work is needed on modeling of preferences and on techniques for rapid communication models of preferences to clinicians, unless EHRs are redesigned to support SDM around and during clinical encounters, they are likely to continue to be an unintended...
Use of Mobile Phone Text Message Reminders in Health Care Services: A Narrative Literature Review
Conclusions: We can conclude that although SMS reminders are used with different patient groups in health care, SMS is less systematically studied with randomized controlled trial study design. Although the amount of evidence for SMS application recommendations is still limited, having 77% (46/60) of the studies showing improved outcomes may indicate its use in health care settings. However, more well-conducted SMS studies are still needed. (Source: Journal of Medical Internet Research)
HIV/AIDS-related Knowledge and Behaviors Among Rural Married Migrant Women in Shandong Province, China: A Comparison Study.
This study described HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and behaviors among married migrant women in Shandong province in comparison to non-migrant local women and identified factors associated with HIV testing history and extramarital sex among married migrant women. A probability-based sample of 1,076 migrant and 1,195 local women were included in the analyses. Compared to local women, married migrant women had lower levels of HIV/AIDS knowledge and were more likely to have had premarital sex, extramarital sex, history of sexually transmitted diseases, and drug use. Less than a quarter of migrant women used condoms consistently in extramarital sex. Only 31.0 % of married migrant women had ever tested for HIV, and the rate of premarital HIV testing was very low. Multivariable analysis showed tha...
Enhancing Linkage and Retention in HIV Care: a Review of Interventions for Highly Resourced and Resource-Poor Settings
Abstract Given the widespread availability of effective antiretroviral therapy, engagement of HIV-infected persons in care is a global priority. We reviewed 51 studies, published in the past decade, assessing strategies for improving linkage to and retention in HIV care. The review included studies from highly resourced settings (HRS) and resource-poor settings (RPS), specifically the USA and sub-Saharan Africa. In HRS, strength-based case management was best supported for improving linkage and retention in care; peer navigation and clinic-based health promotion were supported for improving retention. In RPS, point of care CD4 testing was best supported for improving linkage to care; decentralization, and task-shifting for improving retention. Novel interventions continue to emerg...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Clinical utility of the normalized apparent diffusion coefficient for preoperative evaluation of the aggressiveness of prostate cancer
Conclusions nADC is superior to ADC for estimating the aggressiveness of prostate cancer. It is a noninvasive technique that aids in the selection of appropriate treatments. (Source: Japanese Journal of Radiology)
South Sudan: Scovia's Story - HIV Stigma in Rural South Sudan
[Key Correspondents]Scovia, aged 22, who lives with her grandparents in the rural area of Kajokeji County in South Sudan, recently tested positive for HIV. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Treatment of severe or progressive Kaposi's sarcoma in HIV-infected adults.
Authors: Gbabe OF, Okwundu CI, Dedicoat M, Freeman EE Abstract Background Kaposi's sarcoma remains the most common cancer in Sub-Saharan Africa and the second most common cancer in HIV-infected patients worldwide. Since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), there has been a decline in its incidence.However, Kaposi's sarcoma continues to be diagnosed in HIV-infected patients.Objectives To assess the added advantage of chemotherapy plus HAART compared to HAART alone; and the advantages of different chemotherapy regimens in HAART and HAART naive HIV infected adults with severe or progressive Kaposi's sarcoma.Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE and , GATEWAY, the WHO Clinical Trials Registr...
Namibia: Namibia Awaits HIV Test Results
[New Era]Ondangwa -The Ministry of Health and Social Services is expected to announce the country's latest HIV/AIDS prevalence rate in December, with hopes that there will be a drop from the current 18.2 percent. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Guinea Bissau: OIG Audit in Guinea-Bissau Questions Whether PBF Is Possible Where Performance Data Are Not Reliable
[GFO]Investigations in Mali and Ghana uncover some misuse of grant funds (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Reasons for Choosing ATV/r vs. EFV-Based First-Line RegimensReasons for Choosing ATV/r vs. EFV-Based First-Line Regimens
This study compares the reasons for choosing one first-line ART regimen over another. HIV Medicine (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
Kenya: Prison to Feed HIV+ Inmate
[The Star]MALINDI Chief magistrate Charles Mbogo has ordered the officer in charge of the GK prison to ensure that a suspect with HIV-Aids is fed well. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: Patient Completes Treatment With Nigerian HIV Drug
[Daily Independent]One volunteer patient who is living with HIV has completed a three month treatment with an experimental medicine which its makers say possess the potential to offer cheaper and far reaching results in HIV/AIDS treatment. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Immunomodulatory activity of Dioscorea membranacea Pierre rhizomes and of its main active constituent Dioscorealide B
Conclusions: D. membranacea Pierre stimulated NK cells activity and lymphocyte proliferation, but Dioscorealide B either had no effect, and at higher concentrations decreased NK cell activity and lymphocyte proliferation. Our results suggest that both extracts of D. membranacea Pierre significantly increases immune function, but the underlining mechanism is not clearly understood. (Source: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine)
A decade of investments in monitoring the HIV epidemic: how far have we come? A descriptive analysis
Conclusions: The last decade has seen increased commitments and spending on HIV M&E, as well as improved M&E capacity and more available data on the HIV epidemic in both high-burden and other LMICs. However, challenges remain in the global M&E of the AIDS epidemic as we approach the 2015 Millennium Development Goal targets. (Source: Health Research Policy and Systems)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Editorial Board
(Source: AIDS Care)
Ongoing impact of HIV infection on mortality among people who inject drugs despite free antiretroviral therapy
ConclusionsHIV infection continues to have a persistent impact on mortality rates among people who inject drugs in settings with free HIV/AIDS care, although causes of death have shifted markedly from infectious and AIDS?related causes to non?AIDS?related etiologies. (Source: Addiction)
Unprotected Sexual Practices Among Men Who Have Sex with Women and Men Who Have Sex with Men Living with HIV/AIDS in Rio de Janeiro.
This study aims to describe sexual practices related to HIV/STD and to evaluate factors associated to unprotected sex among men who have sex with women (MSW) and men who have sex with men (MSM) under care at a reference center for HIV in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A cross-sectional study, nested in a Brazilian clinical cohort, evaluated the sexual practices of 404 sexually active HIV-positive MSW and men who have MSM. Approximately 30 % of them reported unprotected sexual practices during the 6 months prior to the interview. Most frequent risky practices reported were unprotected vaginal sex among MSW and unprotected receptive anal sex among MSM. Factors increasing the chance of unprotected sexual practices among MSW were the partner's desire of becoming pregnant (OR 2.81; CI 95 %: 1.36-5....
LabPush: A Pilot Study of Providing Remote Clinics with Laboratory Results via Short Message Service (SMS) in Swaziland, Africa - A Qualitative study
Developing countries are confronting a steady growth in the prevalence of the infectious diseases, along with a raising burden from chronic diseases like HIV/AIDS and Tuberculosis [1?3]. HIV cases have been reported in almost all parts of the world, a majority of the cases reported are in sub-Saharan Africa. Swaziland is one of the countries in this region and it has the highest prevalence of HIV at 26.3% [4]. There is considerable interest worldwide to explore the challenges and opportunities of digital health care solutions, often referred to as ehealth- the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) to enhance the quality and safety of health care. (Source: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine)
Investigation of verified technical failures in hearing aids for users of a public hearing health program
Conclusion the defects were due to handling problems among recent users, and burnout among older users. (Source: Revista CEFAC)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Endodontic management of mesiobuccal-2 canal in four-rooted and five-canalled mandibular third molar.
CONCLUSION: The use of DOM and SCT in this case greatly contributed toward making a confirmatory diagnosis and successful endodontic treatment of four-Rooted and five-canalled mandibular third molar. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Variation in Root canal anatomy is very common. Knowledge of these variations is very essential for successful Root canal outcome, inability to do so can lead to missed canals and failures. Hence, thorough knowledge of Root canal anatomy and advances in diagnostic aids are essential. KEYWORDS: Four-Rooted mandibular third molar, MB-2 canal, Radix entomolaris, Radix paramolaris, Spiral computed tomography scan. How to cite this article: Garg AK, Bhardwaj A, Mantri VR, Agrawal N. Endodontic Management of Mesiobuccal-2 Canal in Four-Rooted and Five-Canalled Mandibul...
Welltok gets $25 million in funding from venture-capital giant
Welltok Inc. announced a $25 million round of new funding Wednesday ? money that will accelerate the Denver health optimization company?s growth and allow it to venture into new market segments. Having previously raised $54.7 million since August 2010, including the first investment out of IBM?s newly created Watson Group earlier this year, Welltok has developed the CaféWell Health Optimization Platform, which organizes health-management programs and aids app and social-media users in creating? (Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Biotechnology headlines)
Cancer: Winning the War? [Video] - The 64th Annual Lindau Meeting
Where do we stand after four decades of cancer research? an someone be cured of the AIDS virus? Nature Video examined this question during this summer's Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting, which brought... -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com (Source: Scientific American - Official RSS Feed)
GreatCall phone to be sold in 4,000 Rite Aids, pharmacy app preloaded
San Diego, California-based GreatCall, the company that makes smartphones and flip phones for seniors, has partnered with Rite Aid to distribute Great Call products in more than 4,000 Rite Aid pharmacies. In addition, as an extra facet to the partnership, the Touch3, GreatCall&#8217;s current smartphone model, will now come with the Rite Aid pharmacy app pre-loaded. [&#8230;] (Source: mobihealthnews)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Kenya: NACC Raises Concerns Over HIV
[The Star]THE National Aids Control Council has raised concern over an increase on HIV-Aids prevalence among Injection Drug Users in Mombasa county. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Rwanda: Miss Rwanda Cautions Youth
[New Times]Miss Rwanda Colombe Akiwacu has cautioned the youth to guard against drug abuse and risky behavior that exposes them to HIV/Aids. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Uganda: Before You Mix Herbs and ARVS....
[Observer]According to South Africa's Mail and Guardian, one Canadian man's viral load increased when he started using ginkgo biloba, a herb also available in Uganda, and only got re-suppressed when the man stopped the herb. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Therapy Adherence and Retention in Pregnant Women With HIVTherapy Adherence and Retention in Pregnant Women With HIV
What steps can we take to increase acceptance or adherence to HIV care in pregnant women? Future Virology (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
$18 billion tobacco toll in California
(University of California - San Francisco) Smoking took an $18.1 billion toll in California -- $487 for each resident -- and was responsible for more than one in seven deaths in the state, more than from AIDS, influenza, diabetes or many other causes, according to the first comprehensive analysis in more than a decade on the financial and health impacts of tobacco. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Process Monitoring of an HIV Treatment as Prevention Program in British Columbia, Canada
Conclusions: We have developed a comprehensive TasP process monitoring strategy using evidence-based HIV indicators derived from linked population-level data. Standardized longitudinal monitoring of TasP program initiatives is essential to optimize individual and public health outcomes and to enhance program efficiencies. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Association of Markers of Hemostasis With Death in HIV-Infected Women
Abstract: In HIV negatives, markers of hemostasis, including D-dimer, factor VIII, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen (PAI-1), and total protein S are associated with all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality. In HIV positives, studies of D-dimer and factor VIII with death were limited to short follow-up; associations of PAI-1 and total protein S with death have not been examined. In 674 HIV-infected women from the Women's Interagency HIV Study, markers from the first visit after enrollment were exposures of interest in multivariate analyses of death (AIDS and non-AIDS) in separate models at 5 and 16 years. There were 87 AIDS and 44 non-AIDS deaths at 5 years, and 159 AIDS and 113 non-AIDS deaths at 16 years. An inverse association of total protein S quartiles with non-AIDS dea...
Raltegravir Pharmacokinetics in Neonates Following Maternal Dosing
Abstract: International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials P1097 was a multicenter trial to determine washout pharmacokinetics and safety of in utero/intrapartum exposure to raltegravir in infants born to HIV-infected pregnant women receiving raltegravir-based antiretroviral therapy. Twenty-two mother?infant pairs were enrolled; evaluable pharmacokinetic data were available from 19 mother?infant pairs. Raltegravir readily crossed the placenta, with a median cord blood/maternal delivery plasma raltegravir concentration ratio of 1.48 (range, 0.32?4.33). Raltegravir elimination was highly variable and extremely prolonged in some infants; [median t1/2 26.6 (range, 9.3?184) hours]. Prolonged raltegravir elimination likely reflects low neonatal UGT1A1 enzyme activity and ...
Differential Characteristics of Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Restricted by the Protective HLA Alleles B*27 and B*57 in HIV-1 Infection
Conclusions: Our data show that many of the mechanisms of CTL that are generally held responsible for slowing down HIV-1 disease progression hold for HLA-B*57 but do not hold for HLA-B*27. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Augmentative and alternative communication supports for adults with autism spectrum disorders
Many adults with autism spectrum disorders have complex communication needs and may benefit from the use of augmentative and alternative communication. However, there is a lack of research examining the specific communication needs of these adults, let alone the outcomes of interventions aimed at addressing them. The aim of this study was to explore the views and experiences of support workers and family members regarding the outcomes of providing low-technology communication aids to adults with autism spectrum disorders. The participants were six support workers and two family members of six men and women with autism spectrum disorders, who had received low-technology communication aids. Using semi-structured, in-depth interviews and following thematic analysis, the results revealed stron...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
News media representations of electronic cigarettes: an analysis of newspaper coverage in the UK and Scotland
Conclusions Drawing on the diffusion of innovations theory, we suggest that newspaper constructions of ENDS provide readers with important information about what ENDS are for, how they work, and their relative advantages. These themes, and dominance of more positive meanings, raise a number of issues for tobacco control, including concerns around celebrity use and promotion; the impact of increasing ENDS use on social norms around smoking; their potential to undermine smokefree legislation; and their promotion as effective cessation aids. (Source: Tobacco Control)
Which smoking cessation aids are proven effective according to smokers who want to quit smoking? A report from the Netherlands
This study sought to find an answer to this question. The data collected in September 2010 were part of a study administered by the research agency MarketResponse. Adult smokers... (Source: Tobacco Control)
Complex neuro-immunology challenges in resource limited health settings
Background: Diabetes is now declared to have attained a global epidemic proportion with the developing nations to shoulder as much as 75% of the global diabetes burden by 2035. Sub-Saharan region, the worst hit by HIV on the globe also records high prevalence and deaths from either diabetes, HIV/AIDS or both. The fact is that both diseases are chronic conditions that jeopardise neurological, immunological or both processes. HIV therapies are known to influence obesity and predispose clients to obesity and diabetes whereas HIV/AIDS itself damages the immuno-neurological processes over time, leading to AIDS associated dementia and others. (Source: Journal of Neuroimmunology)
National Latino AIDS Awareness Day
October 15 is National Latino AIDS Awareness Day. This year?s theme is &#8216;To End AIDS, Commit to Act&#8216; &#8211; &#8216;Para Acabar con el SIDA, Comprometete a Actuar.&#8216; Established in 2003, the National Latino AIDS Awareness Day campaign works annually at building capacity for non-profit organizations and health departments in order to reach Latino communities, promote HIV testing, and provide HIV prevention information and access to care. The Latino Commission on AIDS (LCOA), the Hispanic Federation and many other organizations organize this day. The National HIV/AIDS Strategy, which now guides all federal HIV/AIDS-related efforts and programs, recognizes the disproportionate impact of HIV on Hispanics/Latinos communities. Although Hispanics/Latinos represent about 16% of ...
5 Things You Can Do for National Latino AIDS Awareness Day
CDC's Act Against AIDS initiative suggests actions you can take to fight HIV/AIDS in the Hispanic/Latino community, for National Latino AIDS Awareness Day and the rest of the year. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
UCLA hosts 24-hour invention competition to meet health care needs
Just a stone?s throw from Silicon Beach ? the epicenter of technology in Los Angeles ? the Business of Science Center at UCLA, with support from the Center for Advanced Surgical and Interventional Technology and Center for Digital Behavior, is spurring innovation as the organizer of the second-annual Inventathon. This event is a unique 24-hour competition designed to develop solutions for pressing healthcare needs using the latest device technology and mobile applications. Watches that track more than time and augmented reality glasses worn like conventional glasses, but that also house a tiny computer, are just the latest examples of wearable devices. Inventathon is designed to help young inventors harness similar technologies for use in the healthcare field. Inventathon kicks off...
Zimbabwe: Future of Agric in HIV/Aids Era
[The Herald]The world is under siege from the HIV and Aids pandemic, with Africa being the most affected. Zimbabwe is one of the countries with the highest rates of infection at a ratio of 1 per 3 adults having HIV positive or full blown Aids. Almost every family, household has lost someone to HIV and Aids, which hit the country in the early 80s. However the scourge has had a devastating effect on farming communities for a number of reason. Having spent all my life on farms I have a clear and vivid account of the impa (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
South Africa: Two-Thirds of Grootvlei Inmates on Arv Treatment
[SAnews.gov.za]Justice and Correctional Services Deputy Minister Thabang Makwetla has commended the Department of Correctional Services' Grootvlei Management Area in Bloemfontein for ensuring that more than two-thirds of their inmates receive antiretroviral (ARV) treatment. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Varicella?zoster DNA in saliva of patients with meningoencephalitis: a preliminary study
ConclusionsWe have found VZV DNA in saliva of patients with PCR confirmed VZV ME at a higher proportion than in controls and patients with non?VZV viral ME. This finding might be of clinical importance, especially in immunocompetent individuals with suspected VZV ME where the results of genetic and immunological testing are not conclusive. (Source: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica)
Sonova struggles to convince investors with new hearing aids
ZURICH (Reuters) - Sonova, the world's biggest hearing aid maker, disappointed some analysts on Tuesday with a range of new products that can connect to mobile phones -- but not directly. (Source: Reuters: Health)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Capturing illicit drug use where and when it happens: an ecological momentary assessment of the social, physical and activity environment of using versus craving illicit drugs
ConclusionsThere are distinct drug using and craving environments among urban drug users, which may provide a framework for developing real?time context?sensitive interventions. (Source: Addiction)
Brown University to host national HIV scientific symposium Nov. 6
(Brown University) Speakers representing the nation's 19 Centers for AIDS Research will come to Brown University Nov. 6 to present their original research on the biology, medicine, and public health of the epidemic. The daylong National Science Symposium begins at 8 a.m. in Sayles Hall. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)
Remediation and Cognitive Enhancers in Schizotypal Personality Disorder
Opinion statement Individuals with schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) often present with cognitive impairment similar, but of a lesser magnitude to, what is seen in schizophrenia. Cognitive dysfunction combined with social and perceptual disturbances, which are the hallmarks of this disorder, are directly related to substantially lower functioning. There is no FDA-approved medication for cognitive deficits in SPD; however, potential agents, including ?2a and dopamine agonists, are under investigation. Cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) is a behavioral treatment that has been shown to improve cognitive and psychosocial functioning in individuals with schizophrenia. Application of CRT in this population is novel and more large-scale studies are needed, but this treatment holds...
Effectiveness of a prevention campaign on HIV/AIDS knowledge among adolescents in Eastern Slovakia
Conclusions This study suggests that, for the selected sample, the prevention campaign was an effective tool to increase young people?s knowledge of HIV/AIDS. The authors recommend dividing and tailoring interventions by gender to achieve even more efficient preventive future interventions. (Source: International Journal of Public Health)
Clinician perspectives on considering radiation exposure to patients when ordering imaging tests: a qualitative study
Conclusions Displaying clinically relevant radiation exposure information at order entry may improve clinician knowledge and inform patient&ndash;clinician discussions regarding risks and benefits of imaging. However, limited access to tests with lower radiation exposure in safety-net settings may trump efforts to minimise patient radiation exposure. (Source: Quality and Safety in Health Care)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Highlights from this issue
Sexually Transmitted Infections is a truly international journal as you can see from the global range of the authors and research teams who write for the journal, our editors and our editorial board. In the United Kingdom, where we are the journal of the British Association for Sexual Health and HIV, we have however been reflecting on what it means to be international. As we go to press, British readers have just heard that following the referendum on the independence of Scotland, we are to remain a single country&mdash;but there will be new devolution of powers. Further afield, political turbulence in the Middle East, and the spread of Ebola in Africa are sobering reminders of the role of migration and displacement in epidemiology. In the field of infectious diseases&mdash;and particularl...
Determinants of virological failure after 1 year's antiretroviral therapy in Vietnamese people with HIV: findings from a retrospective cohort of 13 outpatient clinics in six provinces
Conclusions Routine viral load tests should be conducted early to detect virological failure and prevent unnecessary changes to second-line treatments. To improve treatment outcomes, timely ART initiation and adherence to treatment among those with history of injecting drug use should be promoted. (Source: Sexually Transmitted Infections)
Association between Mycoplasma genitalium infection and HIV acquisition among female sex workers in Uganda: evidence from a nested case-control study
Conclusions Our study showed evidence of a temporal relationship between M genitalium infection and HIV acquisition that suggests that M genitalium infection may be a co-factor in the acquisition of HIV infection. (Source: Sexually Transmitted Infections)
Two cross-sectional studies in south India assessing the effect of an HIV prevention programme for female sex workers on reducing syphilis among their clients
Conclusions This study suggests that the Avahan intervention programme among FSWs reduced syphilis rates among their clients. (Source: Sexually Transmitted Infections)
Sex on demand: geosocial networking phone apps and risk of sexually transmitted infections among a cross-sectional sample of men who have sex with men in Los Angeles county
Conclusions The present study concludes that sexual health clinic MSM attendees who are meeting on GSN apps are at greater risk for gonorrhoea and chlamydia than MSM attendees who meet in-person or on the internet. Future interventions should explore the use of these novel technologies for testing promotion, prevention and education. (Source: Sexually Transmitted Infections)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
A Nanoparticle-Encapsulated non-Nucleoside Reverse-Transcriptase Inhibitor with Enhanced Anti-HIV-1 Activity and Prolonged Circulation Time in Plasma.
Authors: Li W, Wang Q, Li Y, Yu F, Liu Q, Qin B, Xie L, Lu L, Jiang S Abstract Non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), major components of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), are effective in suppressing viral replication and preventing the progress of HIV-1 infection to AIDS. However, rapid blood clearance in vivo could significantly impair the efficiency of the anti-HIV-1 activity and result in multiple daily doses which might lead to poor patient compliance. Here we attempted to employ biodegradable organic nanoparticles (NPs) to encapsulate DAAN15h, a derivative of 4-substituted 1,5-diarylaniline with potent anti-HIV activities. Nanoparticles encapsulating DAAN15h (NP-DAAN15h) displayed a spherical shape with a size of 97.01 ± 3.64 nm and zeta poten...
Jeremy Hunt: Ebola crisis 'could match Aids epidemic'
Ebola must be contained before it spreads out of control, health secretary claims as Heathrow prepares for screening of passengers (Source: Telegraph Health)
Ebola may change how aid is spent on healthcare in Africa
WASHINGTON (Reuters) - The Ebola outbreak in West Africa has exposed major gaps in development aid, prompting a rethink of the balance between building health systems and tackling specific diseases like AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis. (Source: Reuters: Health)
Gender-Specific Risk Factors for Virologic Failure in KwaZulu-Natal: Automobile Ownership and Financial Insecurity
Abstract We sought to examine which socioeconomic indicators are risk factors for virologic failure among HIV-1 infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. A case?control study of virologic failure was conducted among patients recruited from the outpatient clinic at McCord Hospital in Durban, South Africa between October 1, 2010 and June 30, 2012. Cases were those failing first-line ART, defined as viral load &gt;1,000 copies/mL. Univariate logistic regression was performed on sociodemographic data for the outcome of virologic failure. Variables found significant (p &lt; 0.05) were used in multivariate models and all models were stratified by gender. Of 158 cases and 300 controls, 35 % were male and median age was 40 years. Gende...
Population-Based Study of Food Insecurity and HIV Transmission Risk Behaviors and Symptoms of Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Linked Couples in Nepal
Abstract Food insecurity has recently emerged as an important risk factor for HIV acquisition among women worldwide. No previous studies have used linked data that would permit investigation of the extent to which food insecurity may have differential associations with HIV transmission risk behaviors or symptoms of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among men and women in the same households. We used nationally representative data on linked couples from the Nepal 2011 Demographic and Health Survey. The primary explanatory variable of interest was food insecurity, measured with a modified version of the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale. In multivariable logistic regression models, women in food insecure households were less likely to report recent condom use and more l...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
A Systematic Review of Psychological Functioning of Children Exposed to HIV: Using Evidence to Plan for Tomorrow?s HIV Needs
Abstract Prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV can virtually eliminate paediatric HIV infection. Studies are needed to understand child development outcomes for children exposed to HIV in utero but born HIV negative (HIV affected children). This systematic review examined cognitive, developmental and behavioural outcomes for HIV affected children compared to control unexposed and uninfected children. Key word searches of electronic databases generated 1,739 hits and 11 studies with adequate quality design and measures of standardised cognitive, behavioural and developmental indices. Cognitive performance, behaviour and developmental delay were measured with 15 different standardised scales from 650 HIV affected children, 736 control children and 205 HIV positive child...
Venues, Patrons, and Alcohol Use Dynamics: The Creation of a High Risk Sexual Environment
Abstract Venue-based HIV prevention interventions, especially in sex on premise venues, can disrupt high-risk sexual networks. However, prior to intervening, it is essential to understand the person-venue dynamics that contribute to HIV risk. As such, we conducted five ethnographic observations at each of six venues where alcohol is sold and sex occurs onsite (2 each porn theaters, sex clubs, and dance clubs) frequented by gay and other men who have sex with men (G&MSM) in the Buenos Aires metropolitan area. Alcohol use, sexual behavior, and person-venue dynamics differed markedly across venue types. In dance clubs, substantial alcohol consumption often preceded visits to the darkroom for sex which, at times, included unprotected anal and vaginal intercourse. Condoms, althoug...
Effect of a Family Intervention on Psychological Outcomes of Children Affected by Parental HIV
This study assesses intervention outcomes in children?s self-esteem, perceived parental care, and problem behavior and their potential connections to intervention outcomes in depressive symptoms and family functioning reported by parents living with HIV (PLH) and family members. A total of 79 families were recruited from Anhui province, China. The intervention was delivered at the individual, family and community levels. Face-to-face interviews were administered at baseline, 3 and 6 months. A mixed-effects regression model was used to assess the intervention effect on the improvement of children?s reported self-esteem, parental care, and problem behavior. To further investigate the association between the parental measures and their children?s outcomes, we added parental measure as ...
Optimism and Education Buffer the Effects of Syndemic Conditions on HIV Status Among African American Men Who Have Sex with Men
Abstract The present study sought to replicate effects of the number of syndemic psychosocial health conditions on sexual risk behavior and HIV infection among a sample of high-risk African American men who have sex with men (MSM) and to identify resilience factors that may buffer these effects. We used baseline data from an HIV risk-reduction trial to examine whether a higher number of syndemic conditions was associated with higher rates of self-reported sexual risk behavior and HIV infection. Using logistic regression models, we tested for interactions between number of syndemic conditions and several potential resilience factors to identify buffering effects. Replicating previous studies, we found significant associations between numbers of syndemic conditions and higher rates...
Beyond the Ball: Implications for HIV Risk and Prevention Among the Constructed Families of African American Men Who Have Sex with Men
Abstract African American men who have sex with men (AAMSM) are disproportionately burdened by new and existing HIV infections. In spite of this, few HIV prevention interventions have been developed that meet the specific needs of AAMSM and that are culturally appropriate and build on strengths and resources. In this paper, we examine constructed families, including those who belong to houses and those who do not, from a three city sample of 196 AAMSM. Results show that the majority of AAMSM who belong to constructed families do not participate in houses or balls. Both house and non-house affiliated constructed families are important sources of social support among AAMSM. Participants reported limited success in spreading HIV messages at ball events, but talk about HIV within the...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Association of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) with Health Related Quality of Life and Disease State of HIV Infected Patients
In this study, SNAP participation was not significantly associated with less disease progression, and only marginally associated with quality of life among this population of HIV infected individuals. (Source: AIDS and Behavior)
The impact of Community Mobilisation on HIV Prevention in Middle and Low Income Countries: A Systematic Review and Critique
Abstract While community mobilisation (CM) is increasingly advocated for HIV prevention, its impact on measurable outcomes has not been established. We performed a systematic review of the impact of CM within HIV prevention interventions (N = 20), on biomedical, behavioural and social outcomes. Among most at risk groups (particularly sex workers), the evidence is somewhat consistent, indicating a tendency for positive impact, with stronger results for behavioural and social outcomes than for biomedical ones. Among youth and general communities, the evidence remains inconclusive. Success appears to be enhanced by engaging groups with a strong collective identity and by simultaneously addressing the socio-political context. We suggest that the inconclusiveness of the findings...
Syringe Exchange in the United States: A National Level Economic Evaluation of Hypothetical Increases in Investment
Abstract To examine whether increasing investment in needle/syringe exchange programs (NSPs) in the US would be cost-effective for HIV prevention, we modeled HIV incidence in hypothetical cases with higher NSP syringe supply than current levels, and estimated number of infections averted, cost per infection averted, treatment costs saved, and financial return on investment. We modified Pinkerton?s model, which was an adaptation of Kaplan?s simplified needle circulation theory model, to compare different syringe supply levels, account for syringes from non-NSP sources, and reflect reduction in syringe sharing and contamination. With an annual $10 to $50 million funding increase, 194?816 HIV infections would be averted (cost per infection averted $51,601?$61,302). Contr...
Neighborhood Context and Black Heterosexual Men?s Sexual HIV Risk Behaviors
Abstract The effects of neighborhood context on sexual risk behavior are understudied, particularly for Black heterosexual men who do not inject drugs or report heavy drug use. Evidence of a generalized HIV epidemic (&gt;1 %) among Black heterosexuals in low-income urban U.S. communities underscores the importance of examining the effects of neighborhood context on Black heterosexual men?s sexual risk, however. We used structural equation modeling to test the pathways between neighborhood context (neighborhood disorder, personal violence, neighborhood threats), depression, substance use, and sexual risk behavior. Participants were 526 self-identified Black heterosexual men, ages 18?45, recruited via randomized venue-based probability sampling in Philadelphia, PA. Analyses of...
Alcohol Use, Sexual Relationship Power, and Unprotected Sex Among Patrons in Bars and Taverns in Rural Areas of North West Province, South Africa
We examined the relative importance of alcohol consumption and sexual relationship power (SRP) in predicting unprotected sex among 406 bar patrons in North West province, South Africa. We assessed participants? demographic characteristics, alcohol consumption, SRP, and number of unprotected sexual episodes in the past 6 months. In correlational analyses, alcohol consumption was significantly associated with frequency of unprotected sex for both males and females. SRP was significantly associated with frequency of unprotected sex for males and marginally associated for females. In multivariate regression analyses, alcohol consumption was significantly associated with frequency of unprotected sex for both males and females. SRP?s association was marginally significant for females and no...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Correlates of Unstructured Antiretroviral Treatment Interruption in a Cohort of HIV-Positive Individuals in British Columbia
Abstract Treatment interruptions (TIs) limit the therapeutic success of combination antiretroviral therapy and are associated with higher morbidity and mortality. HIV-positive individuals dealing with concurrent health issues, access challenges and competing life demands are hypothesized to be more likely to interrupt treatment. Individuals were included if they initiated cART ?1 year prior to interview date and had a CD4 cell count and initial regimen recorded at initiation. Using pharmacy recording, a TI was defined as a patient-initiated gap in treatment ?90 consecutive days during the 12 months preceding or following the study interview. 117 (15.2 %) of 768 participants included in this study had a TI during the study window. 76.0 % of participants were male, 27.5 %...
Patient Outcomes in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo After a Disruption in HIV Care Due to Decreased Global Fund Appropriations
This study examines care seeking behaviors, clinical outcomes, and satisfaction with care of HIV-positive adults in Lubumbashi, DRC, one year after a disruption in care due to decreased global fund appropriations. We describe outcomes before and after the disruption. We compared characteristics of those who completed the survey and those who did not using the Wald F test. Most patients sought care after the disruption and continued antiretroviral therapy (ART), though use of cotrimoxizole prophylaxis declined. Though there was little change in WHO clinical stage at the new site of care, the majority of participants lost weight, adherence decreased, support group participation dropped, and satisfaction with care worsened. Patients were more likely to participate in the study if they were t...
Syndemic Factors Associated with HIV Risk for Gay and Bisexual Men: Comparing Latent Class and Latent Factor Modeling
Abstract Syndemics theory has been proposed as a framework for understanding the role of multiple risk factors driving the HIV epidemic among gay and bisexual men. Previous studies have examined five syndemic indicators (polydrug use, depression, childhood sexual abuse, sexual compulsivity, and intimate partner violence). Many of these studies have utilized sum scores, the total number of syndemic factors endorsed, to quantify syndemic stress. This approach assumes a unidimensional latent factor and equivalence of factor loadings. It also overlooks the possibility that patterns, or classes, of syndemic factor endorsement may be present. The current study utilized survey data from 669 gay and bisexual men to test assumptions of unidimensionality and factor loading equivalence ...
Longitudinal Association Between BMI at Diagnosis and HIV Disease Progression
Abstract Increased body mass index (BMI) has been associated with adverse health outcomes but the effect of BMI on HIV immune markers over time post-HAART is not clearly established. Data were abstracted from 396 medical records at the Ryan White Clinic in South Carolina. All HIV-infected adults who were ?18 years of age, diagnosed between 1997 and 2010, had weight and height measured within 3 months of diagnosis and had at least one follow-up visit within 6 months of diagnosis, were eligible. The mean CD4 count was calculated for each BMI category and mixed regression analyses was used to determine the association between BMI and CD4 count over time. The overall mean BMI was 27.4 kg/m2. Longitudinally, the mean CD4 count was 611.2 cells/mm3 for obese individuals, 598.1 cel...
Psychosocial Health Conditions and HIV Prevalence and Incidence in a Cohort of Men Who have Sex with Men in Bangkok, Thailand: Evidence of a Syndemic Effect
The objective of this study is to examine whether psychosocial health conditions among MSM have a syndemic association with HIV prevalence and HIV incidence. To do this, we evaluated psychosocial health conditions and their associations with unprotected sex, HIV prevalence and HIV incidence in a cohort of Thai MSM (N = 1,292). There was a positive and significant association between the number of psychosocial health conditions and increased levels of unprotected sex and HIV prevalence at study baseline. The number of psychosocial health conditions at baseline was also associated with increased HIV incidence during follow-up (no conditions, HIV incidence = 15.3 %; one to three conditions, 23.7 %; four to five conditions, 33.2 %). The number of psychosocial health conditions was posit...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Drug Use and Sexual Risk Among Gay and Bisexual Men Who Frequent Party Venues
Abstract Research connecting club drug use to risky sex among gay/bisexual men (GBM) contains methodological issues that have limited knowledge about the relative risks of distinct drugs. This paper reports drug use and sexual behavior data from 197 GBM who frequented at least one party venue within 3 months of participating. Alarming rates of drug use and unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) with casual sex-partners were reported in connection with time spent at a bar, club or circuit party. Structural equation modeling revealed that use of methamphetamine, gammahydroxybutrate (GHB), and/or ketamine (K), but not use of ecstasy, at a party venue helped explain likelihood of UAI with a casual sex-partner while under the influence of a drug during/following time partying (? = 0.4...
Free Condom Distribution: What We Don?t Know May Hurt Us
(Source: AIDS and Behavior)
Men Who Have Sex with Mens? Exposure to, Use of, and Subjective Experiences with the ?NYC Condom?
Abstract In 2007, the New York City (NYC) Department of Health introduced the ?NYC Condom??a Lifestyles® condom with a ?NYC? logo. Few studies have evaluated attitudes toward or distribution of the ?NYC Condom? among men who have sex with men (MSM)?a population at increased risk for HIV/STIs. 148 MSM completed a survey about their exposure to, use of, and experiences using the ?NYC Condom.? The majority (93.2 %) had seen the ?NYC Condom;? 82.4 % of said men had used it. Among MSM who used it, 82.1 % rated it average or above. Exposure did not statistically differ by race/ethnicity, HIV status, gay or barebacker identification, or sex role. Use was neither significantly associated with demographic characteristics nor recruitment source, suggesting distr...
See How Ebola?s Spread Compares to Other Deadly Outbreaks
When the director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) compared Ebola to AIDS last week, he introduced a new note of urgency to the outbreak. As was the case in the early days of HIV, there are currently no approved drugs to treat Ebola, and the virus carries the potential to cause untold devastation&mdash;not to mention a lot of panic. But as an epidemic, Ebola has far more in common with other diseases. Here&#8217;s a comparison of Ebola&#8217;s impact over the past 19 weeks to other recent outbreaks that, like Ebola, have no known cure or vaccine. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) MERS is a viral respiratory illness first reported in Saudi Arabia in September 2012. The World Health Organization has since reported 853 MERS infections, of which at least 301 were f...
Togo: Dealing As a Church With HIV
[WCC]"HIV and AIDS is not just a public health issue. It is a multi-layered social issue - an issue churches in West Africa should not ignore," says Rev. Godson Lawson, a pastor in the Methodist Church in Togo, a country where 110,000 people are living with HIV and 6,600 lives have been lost to the pandemic, according to recent UNAIDS estimates. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Understanding healthy pregnancies: the perspective of Inuit midwives in northwestern Quebec.
CONCLUSION: Concern was expressed about a decline in traditional beliefs and about unhealthy behaviours. Participants advanced strategies to promote knowledge locally (e.g., visual aids, local radio) to attempt to reduce rates of nutritional deficiencies. PMID: 25291037 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Canadian Journal of Rural Medicine)
Zimbabwe: STI Increase - Cry My Beloved Zimbabwe
[The Herald]Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are on the increase in this country. This is a fact that can no longer be wished away. The National AIDS Council (NAC) last week released figures for cases recorded in Harare alone in the first six months of the year and they were not amusing. These high figures; coming soon after NAC also released similarly high and depressing numbers for STIs in other parts of the country, again in this very same year, shows that something is every wrong somewhere. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Pharmaceutical companies, WHO help India in HIV/AIDS drug crisis
NEW DELHI (Reuters) - Indian companies and global health groups are stepping up efforts to provide a critical medicine for the country's free HIV/AIDS drugs program after more than 150,000 patients risked going without their dosages this month. (Source: Reuters: Health)
Liberia: Japan Aids Liberia, Sierra Leone's Ebola Fight With Ambulances, Medical Equipment
[FrontPageAfrica]The Government of Japan has donated 11 ambulances and several medical equipment worth over eight hundred thousand United States dollars (US$800,000) to Liberia and Sierra Leone respectively to help the two West African nations fight the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD). (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Uganda: African First Ladies Tackle Maternal Deaths
[Observer]African first ladies, affiliated with the Organisation for African First Ladies Against HIV/Aids (OAFLA), have reaffirmed their commitment to advocating a sustainable response to curbing maternal mortality. (Source: AllAfrica News: Pregnancy and Childbirth)
Nigeria: Persons Living With HIV/Aids Want Release of N140 Billion Fund
[Guardian]Abuja -THE over 3.4 million Nigerians living with HIV/AIDS have called on President Jonathan to prevail on the Minister of Finance, Mrs. Ngozi Okonjo Iweala to, as a matter of urgency, release the N140bn budgeted for implementation of the President's Comprehensive Response Plan (PCRP) in 2014. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Namibia: Food Security Key to HIV Fight
[New Era]Walvis Bay -Food security or access to at least one balanced meal a day for HIV-positive Namibians is one of the critical aspects that need to be addressed by government and the private sector to ensure that antiretroviral drugs administered to such people serve their purpose. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: Lagos Steps Up Campaign to Eliminate Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV
[Premium Times]The Lagos State Government is set for another round of campaign to accelerate the elimination of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and to reduce maternal deaths in the state. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Eritrea: Call Made for to Maintain Achievement Registered Regarding Prevention of New HIV/Aids Infection
[Shabait]Asmara -A call has been made on communities to enhance active role towards maintaining the achievement registered as regards prevention of new HIV/AIDS infection. It made the call at a seminar conducted to members of the Police Force and citizens at rehabilitation center. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Nigeria: LASG Teams Up With UN to Control Mother-to-Child HIV
[Daily Independent]As the challenge to meet the Millennium Development Goals 4, 5 and 6 hots up, the Lagos State government is set to begin a new campaign to accelerate the elimination of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and maternal death reduction in the state. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Assistive Technology Provision Within the Navajo Nation: User and Provider Perceptions
In this study we explored the factors that affect assistive technology (AT) provision within the Navajo Nation using a qualitative approach to inquiry. Focus groups were held in which AT users discussed their awareness of AT and their need for, use of, and satisfaction with AT devices and services. Twenty-eight individuals who used wheelchairs, orthotics or prosthetics, hearing aids, communication aids, vision aids, and other AT participated in one of seven focus groups. Seven AT providers discussed the facilitators and barriers that affect AT provision. The findings revealed six themes common to both stakeholder groups and two additional themes for AT users. The central theme for AT users centered on (not) feeling understood; the central theme for AT providers revolved around the processe...
TNF-{alpha} levels in HIV-infected patients after long-term suppressive cART persist as high as in elderly, HIV-uninfected subjects
Conclusions Chronic inflammatory alterations associated with HIV infection are maintained at a different level from those of ageing. The persistent alteration of TNF-&alpha; levels in HIV-infected patients might cause tissue damage and have implications for developing non-AIDS-defining illnesses, even when HIV replication is long-term controlled by cART. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Fetal aortic valvuloplasty: investigating institutional bias in surgical decision?making
ConclusionsThe use of a blinded multidisciplinary team to simulate decision?making and presentation of data in funnel plots may assist in the interpretation of data submitted to multicenter studies and permit the identification of outliers for further investigation. In the case of aortic stenosis, a high level of agreement was observed between the multidisciplinary team and the surgical centers, but one outlying center was identified. Copyright © 2014 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd (Source: Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology)
What's hot that the other lot got
CPAP for the over 65s with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) use for middle-aged patients with symptomatic moderate-severe obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) has a clear evidence base showing patient benefit and cost effectiveness. Despite many clinicians using CPAP in older patients, specific evidence for this practice is limited. McMillan et al (Lancet Respir Med 2014. pii: S2213-2600(14)70172-9) have reported the results of the PREDICT trial (CPAP in older people with OSA syndrome). This UK trial involved 14 recruiting sites, where consecutive patients aged 65 years or above with an Oxygen Desaturation Index of &gt;7.5/h and an Epworth Sleepiness Scale &gt;8 were randomised to receive either CPAP therapy (autoset device) with best supportive care, ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
The impact of HIV-associated anaemia on the incidence of red blood cell transfusion: Implications for blood services in HIV-endemic countries
Cytopaenias, especially anaemia, are common in the HIV-infected population. The causes of HIV related cytopaenias are multi-factorial and often overlapping. In addition, many of the drugs used in the management of HIV-positive individuals are myelosuppresive and can both cause and exacerbate anaemia. Even though blood and blood products are still the cornerstone in the management of severe cytopaenias, how HIV may affect blood utilisation is not well understood. The impact of HIV/AIDS on blood collections has been well documented. (Source: Transfusion and Apheresis Science)
The continued ageing of people with AIDS in Italy: recent trend from the national AIDS Registry.
We described the impact of AIDS among persons aged 50 years or more in Italy and compared the characteristics of these cases with those of persons diagnosed with AIDS at an age younger than 50. Methods. The source of data was the Italian AIDS Registry, from 1982 to 2011. We defined "older" persons those aged 50 years or more, and younger individuals those aged less than 50 years. We built two multivariate logistic regression models: the first one to identify factors associated with being older, and the second one to identify AIDSdefining diseases correlated with being older. Variables with a P value of &lt; 0.05 were entered in the model. Results. Of the total AIDS cases, 10.5% were among persons older than 49 years. This proportion progressively increased from 0.0% in 1983 to 26.4% in 201...
Malawi: Authorities Urge People to Openly Discuss HIV/Aids
[Malawi News Agency]Blantyre -Authorities have called on people in the country to openly discuss HIV/AIDS related matters as one way of curbing the spread of the pandemic. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Shared decision making for hydroxyurea treatment initiation in children with sickle cell anemia
Clinical trials have demonstrated hydroxyurea's efficacy in improving health outcomes for children with sickle cell anemia (SCA) who have medical complications. New NHLBI clinical guidelines will recommend offering hydroxyurea to young patients regardless of clinical severity. Shared decision making may be an effective approach for implementing this practice change. Decision aids that help patients/parents feel empowered to make this decision and help providers feel comfortable in discussing hydroxyurea as a preventive treatment may facilitate shared discussions between families and providers. We recommend six strategies providers can use to facilitate these discussions while decision aids and tools are being developed. Pediatr Blood Cancer © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Source: Pediatri...
Severe manifestations of extrapulmonary tuberculosis in HIV-infected children initiating antiretroviral therapy before 2 years of age
Conclusions Severe TB manifestations were observed among young HIV-infected children on ART. (Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Successful outcome of renal transplantation in a child with HIV-associated nephropathy
We report the successful outcome of living related renal transplantation in a vertically transmitted HIV-infected 8-year-old girl with end-stage kidney disease on haemodialysis due to HIVAN. The pretransplant preparations and post-transplant care, with particular emphasis on immunosuppression and avoidance of opportunistic infections, are discussed. (Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood)
Question 1: Should newborns of mothers with isolated antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen be immunised?
Scenario The midwife calls you to assess a newborn in the delivery room. The pregnancy was uneventful, but the mother's serology results show the following: hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) negative, antibodies against hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) negative, but antibodies against hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) positive. You wonder if the baby is at risk for perinatal transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) requiring preventive measures at this time. Structured clinical question Does a newborn of a mother with isolated antibodies against hepatitis B core antigen need immunisation (intervention) to prevent perinatal infection with HBV (outcome)? If yes, what type and timing of immunisation? Search strategy and outcome We searched MEDLINE via PubMed (January 1950 to November...
Tears of the fascia cruris at the attachment to the achilles tendon
Conclusions This is the first description of the clinical details and sonographic findings of a tear to the fascia&nbsp;cruris at its attachment to the Achilles tendon and paratenon. It tends to occur at the confluence of the fascia cruris onto the paratenon and Achilles. This needs to be considered as a cause of Achillodynia in athletes and early diagnosis aids early return to activity. (Source: British Journal of Sports Medicine)
Spectrum of opportunistic and other parasites among HIV/AIDS patients attending a tertiary care hospital
Conclusions Increasing prevalence of parasitic infections in HIV/AIDS patients suggests that simple steps such as drinking safe water, maintaining high level of environmental and personal hygiene and avoiding contact with contaminated soil are necessary to prevent the occurrence of these diseases in AIDS patients (Source: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease)
Current prodrug strategies for improving oral absorption of nucleoside analogues
This article presents advances of prodrug approaches for enhancing oral absorption of nucleoside analogues. (Source: Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Sexual disorders in women with MS: Assessment and management
Conclusion Sexual dysfunctions in women with MS are amenable to treatments covering primary, secondary and tertiary consequences of the disease. (Source: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine)
C-C chemokine receptor type five (CCR5): An emerging target for the control of HIV infection
Publication date: 1 December 2013 Source:Applied &amp; Translational Genomics, Volume 2 Author(s): Fatima Barmania , Michael S. Pepper When HIV was initially discovered as the causative agent of AIDS, many expected to find a vaccine within a few years. This has however proven to be elusive; it has been approximately 30years since HIV was first discovered, and a suitable vaccine is still not in effect. In 2009, a paper published by Hutter et al. reported on a bone marrow transplant performed on an HIV positive individual using stem cells that were derived from a donor who was homozygous for a mutation in the CCR5 gene known as CCR5 delta-32 (?32) (Hütter et al., 2009). The HIV positive individual became HIV negative and remained free of viral detection after transplantation despite ...
Preventing HIV Transmission Among Partners of HIV-Positive Male Sex Workers in Mexico City: A Modeling Study
Abstract Mexico has a concentrated HIV epidemic, with male sex workers constituting a key affected population. We estimated annual HIV cumulative incidence among male sex workers? partners, and then compared incidence under three hypothetical intervention scenarios: improving condom use; and scaling up HIV treatment as prevention, considering current viral suppression rates (CVS, 60.7 %) or full viral suppression among those treated (FVS, 100 %). Clinical and behavioral data to inform model parameterization were derived from a sample (n = 79) of male sex workers recruited from street locations and Clínica Condesa, an HIV clinic in Mexico City. We estimated annual HIV incidence among male sex workers? partners to be 8.0 % (95 % CI: 7.3?8.7). Simulation models demonstra...
HIV's Mechanism Could Guide AIDS Vaccine, Study FindsHIV's Mechanism Could Guide AIDS Vaccine, Study Finds
New research on the mechanisms by which HIV infects cells provides insights that could potentially guide the development of a vaccine against the virus, according to U.S. government and other scientists. Reuters Health Information (Source: Medscape Hiv-Aids Headlines)
Targeting VEGF and interleukin-6 for controlling malignant effusion of primary effusion lymphoma
Conclusions IL-6-VEGF axis contributed to fluid retention, and bevacizumab and tocilizumab could be effective molecular targeting therapies for PEL. (Source: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Understanding Treatment Refusal Among Adults Presenting for HIV-Testing in Soweto, South Africa: A Qualitative Study
Abstract HIV treatment initiatives have focused on increasing access to antiretroviral therapy (ART). There is growing evidence, however, that treatment availability alone is insufficient to stop the epidemic. In South Africa, only one third of individuals living with HIV are actually on treatment. Treatment refusal has been identified as a phenomenon among people who are asymptomatic, however, factors driving refusal remain poorly understood. We interviewed 50 purposively sampled participants who presented for voluntary counseling and testing in Soweto to elicit a broad range of detailed perspectives on ART refusal. We then integrated our core findings into an explanatory framework. Participants described feeling ?too healthy? to start treatment, despite often having a diagno...
Contraceptive use and unmet need for family planning among HIV positive women on antiretroviral therapy in Kumasi, Ghana
Conclusion: Contraceptive Prevalence is high among HIV positive women in Kumasi compared with the general Ghanaian population. Despite this, there still is a high unmet need for family planning in this population. We recommend continuous education on contraceptives use to HIV patients accessing HAART services to further increase contraceptive uptake. (Source: BMC Women's Health)
African Kaposi?s Sarcoma in the Light of Global AIDS: Antiblackness and Viral Visibility
Abstract Drawing on the theoretical frameworks of antiblackness and intersectionality and the concept of viral visibility, this essay attends to the considerable archive of research about endemic Kaposi?s sarcoma (KS) in sub-Saharan Africa accrued during the mid-20th century. This body of data was inexplicably overlooked in Western research into KS during the first decade of the AIDS epidemic, during which period European and Mediterranean KS cases were most often cited as precedents despite the volume of African data available. This paper returns to the research on KS conducted in Africa during the colonial and postcolonial period to consider visibility, racial erasure, and discourses of global epidemiology, suggesting that the dynamics of medical research on HIV/AIDS have proc...
HIV: Non-Efavirenz Regimens Effective in Initial TreatmentHIV: Non-Efavirenz Regimens Effective in Initial Treatment
Phase 3 results from an AIDS Clinical Trials Group RCT suggest that regimens lacking efavirenz have similar efficacy in initial HIV treatment, and raltegravir has better tolerability. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)
CDC director: Ebola response like AIDS
The head of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention called for a stronger response to the spread of Ebola on Thursday, saying that "we have to work now so that this is not the world's next AIDS." "In the 30 years I've been working in public he... (Source: WDSU.com - Health)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Electronic Cigarettes for Smoking Cessation
Abstract Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are novel vaporising devices that, similar to nicotine replacement treatments, deliver nicotine but in lower amounts and less swiftly than tobacco smoking. However, they enjoy far greater popularity than these medications due in part to their behaviour replacement characteristics. Evidence for their efficacy as cessation aids, based on several randomised trials of now obsolete e-cigarettes, suggests a modest effect equivalent to nicotine patch. E-cigarettes are almost certainly far less harmful than tobacco smoking, but the health effects of long-term use are as yet unknown. Dual use is common and almost as harmful as usual smoking unless it leads to quitting. Population effects, such as re-normalising smoking behaviour, are a concern...
Optimizing ART Adherence: Update for HIV Treatment and Prevention
Abstract Optimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is central to achieving viral suppression and positive health outcomes in HIV-infected individuals. Virally suppressed individuals can also reduce the risk of HIV transmission to uninfected partners. Hence, adherence to ART has become both an HIV treatment and an HIV prevention strategy. However, achieving optimal ART adherence can be challenging, especially over the long term. It is increasingly important for clinicians and researchers to be abreast of the most recent developments in the field as new biomedical approaches to treatment emerge and as guidelines for the use of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) are disseminated to providers serving HIV affected populations. Several reviews have described numerous ART adherence ...
HIV Surveillance Special Report: Behavioral and Clinical Characteristics of Persons Receiving Medical Care for HIV Infection, Medical Monitoring Project, United States, 2010
This report summarizes findings from the Medical Monitoring Project (MMP) 2010 data collection cycle. MMP is a cross-sectional, nationally representative, complex sample survey that assesses the clinical and behavioral characteristics of HIV-infected adults who are receiving outpatient medical care in the United States and Puerto Rico. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
Uganda: Uganda's Flagging Male Circumcision Drive
[IRIN]Kampala -Limited funding and personnel, as well as misconceptions and cultural beliefs, are some of the challenges hindering Uganda's goal of circumcising at least 4.2 million men by 2015 in a bid to lower the country's HIV/AIDS incidence. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Uganda: Gains and Gaps in Ugandan HIV Treatment
[IRIN]Kampala -Over the past three years Uganda has succeeded in more than doubling the number of eligible children receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). Paediatric HIV infections, meanwhile, have plummeted. But almost six out of every 10 children who need ART are still not receiving the treatment. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Tanzania: MSD Imports Fake HIV Testing Kits
[Daily News]FOUR people, including the Medical Stores Department (MSD) acting Director General, ignored expert advice and imported faulty HIV testing kits, subjecting the government to suffer an over two million US dollars (over 3bn/-) loss, a Dar es Salaam court heard. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: HIV Persons Condemn Inability to Get Drugs in Taraba
[Guardian]Jalingo -THE Persons Living With HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) that are presently taking refuge in one of the Internally-Displaced Persons (IDPs) camps in Bali Local Council of Taraba State have complained that their inability to get retrovirus drugs has continued to force some of them with the sickness to their early graves. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: UNAIDS to Launch HIV Testing Campaign Across Africa in World Record Bid
[Sudan Tribune]Addis Ababa -The UN is planning to conduct a multi-country HIV testing campaign in Africa to mark this year's World AIDS Day in a bid to set a new world record for the most number of HIV tests conducted in one day. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Zimbabwe: Midlands Records Steep Rise in STIs
[New Zimbabwe]THE Midlands province has recorded a steep increase in the number of new sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the second quarter of this year as compared to the first quarter. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: HIV Researcher Bags National Award
[Daily Trust]One of more than 300 recipients of national honours this year is Dr Alash'le Abimiku who has worked in the field of HIV for more than 20 years. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Radio frequency technology being developed to localize breast tumors
Breast cancer may inspire more public discussion, advocacy and charitable giving than almost any other disease besides HIV and AIDS. But people rarely talk about the specific experiences to which cancer patients are subjected. Especially the localization wire. For a group of engineers and clinicians, that presented an opportunity to develop a solution that is technologically elegant, precise and patient-centric. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)
NIH-Supported Scientists Unveil Structure, Dynamics of Key HIV Molecules
&quot;New research has illuminated the movement and complete structure of the spikes on HIV that the virus uses to bind to the cells it infects. This research, led by scientists at the National Institutes of Health, Weill Cornell Medical College and Yale University School of Medicine, could help advance efforts to develop HIV vaccines and treatments.&quot; For more information, view the NIAID press release. (Source: AIDSinfo At-a-Glance: Offering Information on HIV/AIDS Treatment, Prevention, and Research, A Service of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS))
Newly Identified Marker Helps Predict Tuberculosis Complications in HIV Patients
&quot;An NIAID study suggests that the increased frequency of an immune cell called CD14++CD16- monocyte is a strong indicator that a patient with HIV and tuberculosis (TB) may develop complications from anti-HIV drugs. For unclear reasons, a subset of people with both HIV and TB experience worsening of their TB symptoms after starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) to treat HIV. The study, which appears in the October 2, 2014, issue of PLOS Pathogens, offers a better understanding of why this may occur.&quot; Visit the NIAID website to read the complete article. (Source: AIDSinfo At-a-Glance: Offering Information on HIV/AIDS Treatment, Prevention, and Research, A Service of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS))
October 15 is National Latino AIDS Awareness Day
National Latino AIDS Awareness Day is observed annually to highlight the disproportionate burden of HIV among Hispanics/Latinos. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Hispanics/Latinos&mdash;despite representing only 16% of the U.S. population&mdash;accounted for 21% of new HIV infections in 2010. Explore our National Latino AIDS Awareness Day webpage [en espa&ntilde;ol] to learn more about the annual observance and to find information about HIV in the Hispanic/Latino population. (Source: AIDSinfo At-a-Glance: Offering Information on HIV/AIDS Treatment, Prevention, and Research, A Service of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS))
Peers Best at Convincing High-Risk Individuals to Get HIV Test: Study
Study found people referred this way were 2.5 times more likely to be infected (Source: Fertility News - Doctors Lounge)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Hispanics or Latinos Living with Diagnosed HIV: Progress Along the Continuum of HIV Care - United States, 2010.
Authors: Gant Z, Bradley H, Hu X, Skarbinski J, Hall HI, Lansky A Abstract The goals of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy are to reduce new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, increase access to care and improve health outcomes for persons living with HIV, and reduce HIV-related health disparities. In July 2013, by presidential executive order, the HIV Care Continuum Initiative was established, focusing on accelerating federal efforts to increase HIV testing, care, and treatment. Hispanics or Latinos are disproportionately affected by HIV infection; the annual rate of HIV diagnosis among Hispanics or Latinos is approximately three times that of non-Hispanic whites. To achieve the goals of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy, and to be consistent with the HIV Care Continuum Initi...
Minority HIV-1 Drug-Resistant Mutations and Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission: Perspectives for Resource-Limited Countries.
Authors: Samuel R, Paredes R, Parboosing R, Moodley P, Gordon M Abstract The detection and clinical significance of HIV-1 minority drug-resistant variants is a major topic of current HIV research. Whereas much attention has been placed on the clinical impact of minority drug-resistant variants in patients initiating antiretroviral therapy, their possible influence on the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy following prevention of mother-to-child transmission strategies in resource-limited settings remains largely unexplored. This review outlines the clinical significance and detection of minority drug-resistant variants, focusing primarily on studies of minority variants in the context of prevention of mother-to-child transmission and their possible influence on current regimen...
Is There Enough Evidence to Use Bisphosphonates in HIV-Infected Patients? A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.
In conclusion, administration of oral and intravenous bisphosphonates was associated with increased bone mineral density at the lumbar spine and total hip over two years in HIV-positive patients. However, none of the included trials were long enough to detect the impact of bisphosphonates on a clinically important outcome such as fracture risk. Larger studies with extended follow-up are warranted. PMID: 25300622 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: AIDS Reviews)
Announcements: National Latino AIDS Awareness Day ? October 15, 2014
(Source: CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report)
Auditory neuroplasticity, hearing loss and cochlear implants
Abstract Data from our laboratory show that the auditory brain is highly malleable by experience. We establish a base of knowledge that describes the normal structure and workings at the initial stages of the central auditory system. This research is expanded to include the associated pathology in the auditory brain stem created by hearing loss. Utilizing the congenitally deaf white cat, we demonstrate the way that cells, synapses, and circuits are pathologically affected by sound deprivation. We further show that the restoration of auditory nerve activity via electrical stimulation through cochlear implants serves to correct key features of brain pathology caused by hearing loss. The data suggest that rigorous training with cochlear implants and/or hearing aids offers the promise...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Less Than Half of HIV-Positive U.S. Hispanics Are Getting Proper Care
CDC report also finds just 37 percent have the virus under controlSource: HealthDay Related MedlinePlus Pages: HIV/AIDS, Health Disparities, Hispanic American Health (Source: MedlinePlus Health News)
Watch: CDC Director Says Ebola Could Be the 'Next AIDS'
Dr. Tom Frieden raises alarm on response to the Ebola epidemic at World Bank. (Source: ABC News: Health)
Ebola Could Be 'World's Next AIDS,' CDC Director Warns
"In the 30 years I???ve been working public health, the only thing like this has been AIDS, and we have to work now so that this is not the world???s next AIDS," Tom Frieden, the director of the Centers for Disease Control, said Wednesday. (Source: ABC News: Health)
Aphrodisiac Aids Genetic Type 2 Diabetes
(MedPage Today) -- About 4% of diabetes patients may benefit from yohimbine. (Source: MedPage Today Cardiovascular)
Zambia: South Chiefdoms Intensify HIV/Aids Fight
[Times of Zambia]WITH the cure for HIV/AIDS still elusive, some chiefdoms in Southern Province have embarked on launching leadership declarations to commit to combating the pandemic in a comprehensive manner. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Congo-Kinshasa: Aids - Origin of Pandemic 'Was 1920s Kinshasa'
[Namibian]THE origin of the AIDS pandemic has been traced to the 1920s in the city of Kinshasa, in what is now the Democratic Republic of Congo, scientists say. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: Search for Aids Cure Suffers Major Setbacks
[Guardian]THE global search for a cure for the dreaded Human Immuno-deficiency Virus (HIV)/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has suffered major setbacks. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Zimbabwe: HIV Murder - Gutu Man Jailed for Life
[New Zimbabwe]A GUTU man who last year stoned his girlfriend to death for allegedly infecting him with HIV will spend the rest of his life in prison after High Court judge Justice Francis Bere found him guilty of the gruesome murder. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Single molecule microscopy shows infamous HIV spikes in action
Using powerful microscopes, scientists have observed the weaponry of HIV in action and gained key insights that may finally allow researchers to create a vaccine capable of fighting the virus that causes AIDS. (Source: Los Angeles Times - Science)
Contraceptive Methods and Risk of HIV Acquisition or Female-to-Male Transmission
Abstract Effective family planning with modern contraception is an important intervention to prevent unintended pregnancies which also provides personal, familial, and societal benefits. Contraception is also the most cost-effective strategy to reduce the burden of mother-to-child HIV transmission for women living with HIV who wish to prevent pregnancy. There are concerns, however, that certain contraceptive methods, in particular the injectable contraceptive depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), may increase a woman?s risk of acquiring HIV or transmitting it to uninfected males. These concerns, if confirmed, could potentially have large public health implications. This paper briefly reviews the literature on use of contraception among women living with HIV or at high risk o...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Isolated limb perfusion using tumour necrosis factor ? and melphalan in patients with advanced aggressive fibromatosis
ConclusionTNF???based ILP is effective in patients with aggressive fibromatosis. (Source: British Journal of Surgery)
Distal renal tubular acidosis in AIDS young woman with wasting syndrome
(Source: International Urology and Nephrology)
Control, struggle, and emergent masculinities: a qualitative study of men's care-seeking determinants for chronic cough and tuberculosis symptoms in Blantyre, Malawi
Conclusions: Facilitating men to seek care early is an urgent public health imperative, given the contexts of high HIV/AIDS prevalence but increasingly available treatment, and the role of care-seeking delay in TB transmission. Men's struggles trying to achieve ideal images seem to influence their engagement with their health. Ambiguous views regarding some key masculinity representations and the embrace of less harmful masculinities raise questions about some common assumptions that guide work with men. Apparent 'emergent masculinities' might be a useful platform from which to support the transformation of harmful masculinity. Finally, the complex manifestations of masculinity indicate the need for interventions targeting men in health and TB control to assume supportive, multidimensional...
Crystal Structure of HIV-1 Nef{middle dot}SH3-SH2 Complex [Microbiology]
HIV-1 Nef supports high titer viral replication in vivo and is essential for AIDS progression. Nef function depends on interactions with multiple host cell effectors, including Hck and other Src-family kinases. Here we describe the x-ray crystal structure of Nef in complex with the Hck SH3-SH2 regulatory region to a resolution of 1.86 Å. The complex crystallized as a dimer of complexes, with the conserved Nef PXXPXR motif engaging the Hck SH3 domain. A new intercomplex contact was found between SH3 Glu-93, and Nef Arg-105. Mutagenesis of Hck SH3 Glu-93 interfered with Nef·Hck complex formation and kinase activation in cells. The Hck SH2 domains impinge on the N-terminal region of Nef to stabilize a dimer conformation that exposes Asp-123, a residue critical for Nef function. Our results ...
Factors Affecting Susceptibility to Mycobacterium tuberculosis: a Close View of Immunological Defence Mechanism.
Authors: Kumari P, Meena LS Abstract Tuberculosis is the most deadly infectious disease. In particular, pulmonary tuberculosis, being the predominant one, is highly contagious. In past the 200 years, one billion tuberculosis (TB) deaths had occurred, and it is anticipated that in the next 25 years, more than 40 million people may be killed by TB unless control measures are implemented. There are various causes which increase the susceptibility to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection; these include weakened immune system which occurs through various diseases and medications like human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), type II diabetes, end-stage kidney disease, alcoholism and intravenous drug use, certain cancers, cancer treatment such as chem...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Cyclists' clothing and reduced risk of injury in crashes.
CONCLUSIONS: Clothing that fully covers a cyclist's body substantially reduced the risk of injuries in a crash. Coverage of skin was more important than fabric type. Further work is necessary to determine if targeted campaigns can improve cyclists' clothing choices and whether impact protection can further reduce injury risk. PMID: 25305805 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Accident; Analysis and Prevention.)
A pilot randomized trial of progressive resistance exercise augmented by neuromuscular electrical stimulation for people with Multiple Sclerosis who use walking aids
To investigate the feasibility and preliminary outcomes of a home progressive resistance training program augmented by neuromuscular electrical stimulation. (Source: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation)
HIV's infection tactics could guide AIDS vaccine, study finds
WASHINGTON (Reuters) - New research that sheds light on the methods and machinery used by HIV to infect cells provides insight into the tricky virus that potentially could guide the development of a vaccine against the virus that causes AIDS, according to U.S. government and other scientists. (Source: Reuters: Health)
West Africa: Ebola Outbreak Puts Access to HIV Treatment Under Threat
[Key Correspondents]"I am safe, don't worry." This is how my friend Wilhemina, from Sierra Leone, always ends our mails. Whenever she says so, I smile with relief. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Zimbabwe: Rising STI Cases Worry Govt
[The Herald]Government is concerned with the increase in sexually transmitted infections, especially among youths and students at universities and colleges. Health and Child Care Minister Dr David Parirenyatwa says his ministry will embark on a nationwide campaign aimed at raising awareness since a rise in STI infections means a rise in HIV transmission. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Zimbabwe: Man Wants Wife's HIV+ Sister Out
[The Herald]A man last week asked a Harare Civil Court magistrate to evict his wife's HIV-positive young sister from their matrimonial house saying she might deliberately infect him with the virus, but the magistrate refused the application and accused the man of making malicious claims. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Workplace Accommodation Among Persons with Disabilities: A Systematic Review of Its Effectiveness and Barriers or Facilitators
Conclusions More high-quality studies using validated measures of the work ability and functioning of disabled persons are needed. The identified barriers and facilitators found in the qualitative studies should be used to develop quantitative study designs. (Source: Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation)
Shaped by asymmetrical interdependence: a qualitative case study of the external influences on international non-governmental organizations¿ implementation of equity principles in HIV/AIDS work
Conclusions: The INGO aligned the implementation of equity principles in its HIV/AIDS initiatives by working within a system characterized by asymmetrical interdependence. Influences from the donors and Kenyan government contributed to an implementation gap between what the INGO intended to accomplish in implementing equity principles in HIV/AIDS work and actual practice. (Source: International Journal for Equity in Health)
Pranee Liamputtong (ed): Women, Motherhood, and Living with HIV/AIDS: A Cross-Cultural Perspective
(Source: Applied Research in Quality of Life)
Cohort Profile: French hospital database on HIV (FHDH-ANRS CO4)
The French Hospital Database on HIV (FHDH) is a hospital-based multicentre open cohort with inclusions ongoing since 1989. The research objectives focus mainly on mid- and long-term clinical outcomes and therapeutic strategies, as well as severe AIDS and non-AIDS morbidities, and public health issues relative to HIV infection. FHDH also serves to describe HIV-infected patients receiving hospital care in France. FHDH includes data on more than 120 000 HIV-infected patients from 70 French general or university hospitals distributed throughout France. Patients are eligible for inclusion if they are infected by HIV-1 or HIV-2 and give their written informed consent. Standardized variables are collected at each outpatient visit or hospital admission during which a new clinical manifestation is ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Newborn hearing screening: characterization of demand/territory and hearing tests
Conclusion study like this allows the active pursuit of newborn risk group for hearing impairment in their respective territories, with greater possibility of tracking and thus reach the primary goal of hearing screening is that the diagnosis of deafness until the third month life, in addition to designing a Neonatal hearing Screening Program effective in their steps: screening, diagnostic audiology, indication, selection and fitting of hearing aids and re (ha) bilitation hearing. (Source: Revista CEFAC)
Investigação das falhas técnicas verificadas em próteses auditivas de usuários de um programa público de saúde auditiva
Conclusion the defects were due to handling problems among recent users, and burnout among older users. (Source: Revista CEFAC)
Migrant Workers in Kazakhstan: Gender Differences in HIV Knowledge and Sexual Risk Behaviors
This study compares sexual risk behaviors among male and female migrant market vendors in Almaty, Kazakhstan. From the Barakholka Market, 209 male and 213 female market vendors were randomly recruited. Self-reported data were collected through standardized face-to-face interviews. Dry blood spot was used as specimen for syphilis testing. Propensity score stratification was used to estimate adjusted prevalence or rate ratios by gender. Compared to male migrant workers, females had lower HIV knowledge and were less likely to have multiple sexual partners. There was no evidence of a gender difference for prevalence of syphilis, condom use with unsteady partners, and safe sex communication between couples. Associations between mobility patterns and engagement in multiple sexual partnerships we...
CDC Responses to External Peer Reviewers? Comments on the Draft Recommendations for HIV Prevention with Adults and Adolescents with HIV in the United States
This notice summarizes comments from six expert peer reviewers who reviewed the draft report, Recommendations for HIV Prevention with Adults and Adolescents with HIV in the United States, and responses to these comments from the workgroup that authored the report. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
IDWeek 2014IDWeek 2014
Read clinically focused news coverage of key developments from IDWeek 2014. Medscape Infectious Diseases (Source: Medscape Hiv-Aids Headlines)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Computers turned into powerful allies in fight against AIDS
The battle against AIDS cannot be won in the laboratory alone. To fight the potentially deadly virus that 34 million people are suffering from we need help from computers. Now research turns computers into powerful allies in the battle. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)
Congo-Kinshasa: Aids Originated in DRC - Scientists Say
[Malawi24]The origin of the Aids pandemic has been traced to the 1920s in the city of Kinshasa, in what is now the Democratic Republic of Congo, scientists say. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Researchers turn computers into powerful allies in the fight against AIDS
(University of Southern Denmark) The battle against AIDS cannot be won in the laboratory alone. To fight the potentially deadly virus that 34 million people are suffering from we need help from computers. Now research from University of Southern Denmark turns computers into powerful allies in the battle. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Gay/Bisexual Men Uninformed About HIV Testing, TreatmentGay/Bisexual Men Uninformed About HIV Testing, Treatment
Fewer than half of gay and bisexual men know when people with HIV should begin treatment, according to a new survey. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)
Failure of combined antiretroviral therapy intensification with maraviroc and raltegravir in chronically HIV-1 infected patients to reduce the viral reservoir: the IntensHIV randomized trial
Conclusion: We conclude that the intensification of a Protease Inhibitor regimen with Maraviroc and Raltegravir does not impact the blood proviral DNA reservoir of HIV but can decrease the cell-associated HIV RNA, the CD8 activation and has a possible impact on rectal proviral HIV DNA in some patients.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier number NCT00935480 (Source: AIDS Research and Therapy)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Review of Recent Behavioral Interventions Targeting Older Adults Living with HIV/AIDS
Abstract Increasing attention has been paid to older adults living with HIV over the past few years given the increasing prevalence of HIV in this age group. Yet, despite numerous studies documenting psychosocial and behavioral differences between older and younger HIV-infected adults, few evidence-based behavioral interventions have been developed for this population. This review found only 12 manuscripts describing behavioral intervention studies in older HIV-positive adults published between 2011 and 2014, and they reported on a total of six interventions. Despite promising findings, there is a clear need for large-scale clinical trials to replicate these initial results and further develop additional interventions to address important clinical issues such as depression, sexual...
Effects of varenicline and cognitive bias modification on neural response to smoking-related cues: study protocol for a randomized controlled study
This study will add to the relatively small literature examining the effects of CBM in addictions. It will address novel questions regarding the neural effects of CBM. It will also investigate whether varenicline treatment alters neural response to smoking-related cues. These findings will inform future research that can develop behavioral treatments that target relapse prevention.Trial registration: Registered with Current Controlled Trials: ISRCTN65690030. Registered on 30 January 2014. (Source: BioMed Central)
The role of extended-release niacin on immune activation and neurocognition in HIV-infected patients treated with antiretroviral therapy: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial
This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov on 17 December 2013 (registration number: NCT02018965). (Source: Trials)
Fate of Free Fat Dermis Graft in TMJ Interpositional Gap Arthroplasty: A Long Term MRI Study
Conclusion When free fat dermis graft is placed as interpositional material the graft occupied the entire TM joint and prevented it from recurrent ankylosis. The graft placed aids in normal functioning of the temperomandibular joint without any complications. (Source: Journal of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery)
Malawi: FAM Contracted By UNAIDS to Roll-Out Protect the Goal Campaign
[Malawi News Agency]Lilongwe -Football Association of Malawi (FAM) has been contracted by UNAIDS to roll-out Protect the Goal campaign, implement localize activities through its football clubs with the aim of mobilizing youth to commit to HIV prevention. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Malawi: Malawi Govt Assures Stakeholders of Commitment in Fight Against HIV
[Malawi News Agency]Lilongwe -Government has assured stakeholders in the country on its commitment in the fight against HIV through achieving the three zeroes that include zero new HIV infections, zero discrimination and zero AIDS related deaths. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Congo-Kinshasa: Study Traces HIV to 1920s Kinshasa
[New Times]A new study published in the Journal of Science claims that HIV began in Kinshasa in 1920 although it first came to global attention in 1980. Using archives of the genetic code material for HIV, researchers say they found out that the virus is a mutation of simian immunodeficiency virus found in chimpanzees. The researchers think this probably entered the human species through infected blood from bush meat. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Monotherapy for HIV Patients on Virological SuppressionMonotherapy for HIV Patients on Virological Suppression
Are HIV patients able to maintain virological suppression when treated with ATV/r monotherapy rather than triple therapy? AIDS (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
Nigeria: NACA Advocates Abstinence, Love
[Leadership]The National Agency for the Control of AIDS (NACA), has urged faithful to reflect on the significance of the celebration and its lesson as it relates to HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
The brain and HAART: collaborative and combative connections
Purpose of review: To summarize contemporary observations regarding the effects of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on the brain. Recent findings: The effects of HAART on the structure and function of the brain during HIV/AIDS is currently a subject of intense interest because the brain is one of the most drug-impenetrable organs that is infected by HIV-1 and as such represents an important reservoir for replication-competent virus. The effects of HAART on neurocognitive impairment caused by HIV-1 infection remain uncertain with both beneficial and adverse outcomes reported with different HAART regimens. Similarly, the effects of individual HAART regimens on viral quantity in cerebrospinal fluid as a surrogate indicator of brain virus burden are variable. Indeed, the situation ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Adjunctive and long-acting nanoformulated antiretroviral therapies for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders
Purpose of review: We are pleased to review current and future strategies being developed to modulate neuroinflammation while reducing residual viral burden in the central nervous system. This has been realized by targeted long-acting antiretroviral nano and adjunctive therapies being developed for HIV-infected people. Our ultimate goal is to eliminate virus from its central nervous system reservoirs and, in so doing, reverse the cognitive and motor dysfunctions. Recent findings: Herein, we highlight our laboratories? development of adjunctive and nanomedicine therapies for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. An emphasis is placed on drug?drug interactions that target both the viral life cycle and secretory proinflammatory neurotoxic factors and signaling pathways. Summary: Antire...
New insights into immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome of the central nervous system
Purpose of review: To highlight the importance of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome affecting the brain in HIV-infected individuals in the absence of opportunistic infections. To describe the varied clinical manifestations, unifying pathophysiological features and discuss the principles of management of this syndrome. Recent findings: Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome within the brain is commonly seen in patients with HIV infection upon initiation of antiretroviral drugs. The fulminant forms occur in the face of opportunistic infections or uncontrolled viral replication within the brain. In this case, the enhanced immune response is targeted against the microbial agent, and the brain suffers bystander damage. Treatment requires the combination of the antimicrobial agent...
Neuropathogenesis of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders: roles for immune activation, HIV blipping and viral tropism
Purpose of review: The purpose of this study is to discuss why HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) persist despite apparently effective HIV suppression by highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART). Recent findings: As many as 50% of HIV-infected individuals suffer from HAND despite ART suppression of HIV replication to apparently undetectable levels in most treated individuals. Prior to ART, HIV-associated dementia (HAD), the severest form of HAND, affected nearly 20% of infected individuals; HAD now affects only nearly 2% of ART-treated persons, although less severe HAND forms persist. Recent studies link persistent immune activation, inflammation and viral escape/blipping in ART-treated individuals, as well as comorbid conditions, to HIV disease progression and increased HAND...
HIV life cycle, innate immunity and autophagy in the central nervous system
Purpose of review: In this era of modern combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) continue to affect a large portion of the infected population. In this review, we highlight recent discoveries that help to define the interplay between HIV life cycle, the innate immune system and cellular autophagy in the context of the central nervous system (CNS). Recent findings: Investigators have recently elucidated themes in HAND, which place it in a unique framework. Cells of macrophage lineage and probably astrocytes play a role in disseminating virus through the CNS. Each of these cell types responds to a diverse population of constantly evolving virus existing in an inflammatory environment. This occurs though the failure of both host antiviral mecha...
Is the central nervous system a reservoir of HIV-1?
Purpose of review: To summarize the evidence in the literature that supports the central nervous system (CNS) as a viral reservoir for HIV-1 and to prioritize future research efforts. Recent findings: HIV-1 DNA has been detected in brain tissue of patients with undetectable viral load or neurocognitive disorders, and is associated with long-lived cells such as astrocytes and microglia. In neurocognitively normal patients, HIV-1 can be found at high frequency in these cells (4% of astrocytes and 20% of macrophages). CNS cells have unique molecular mechanisms to suppress viral replication and induce latency, which include increased expression of dominant negative transcription factors and suppressive epigenetic factors. There is also evidence of continued inflammation in patients lacking a C...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Neuro OIs: developed and developing countries
Purpose of review: To review recent studies that address the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of HIV positive patients with cryptococcal and tuberculous meningitis and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in resource-different settings. Recent findings: Central nervous system opportunistic infections remain globally prevalent in HIV+ populations. Several recent papers have highlighted the urgent need for rapid point of care tests in low-income settings for cryptococcal and tuberculous meningitis, better access to antifungal therapy for cryptococcal meningitis and better treatment strategies for tuberculous meningitis. In one recent study of 299 HIV+ patients with cryptococcal meningitis, amphotericin plus flucytosine was associated with less mortality and disability compared to ...
Neuroimaging of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND)
Purpose of review: HIV enters the brain after initial infection, and with time can lead to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Although the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy has reduced the more severe forms of HAND, milder forms are still highly prevalent. The ?gold standard? for HAND diagnosis remains detailed neuropsychological performance testing but additional biomarkers (including neuroimaging) may assist in early detection of HAND. Recent findings: We review the application of recently developed noninvasive MRI and PET techniques in HIV+ individuals. In particular, magnetic resonance spectroscopy may be more sensitive than conventional MRI alone in detecting HIV associated changes. Diffusion tensor imaging has become increasingly popular for assessin...
Update on the key developments of the neurologic complications in children infected with HIV
Purpose of review: To discuss recent research findings of neurologic complications in HIV-infected children, specifically addressing neuroinfections, cerebrovascular disease, epilepsy and neurocognitive complications. The range of neurologic childhood onset complications is diverse and often overlaps diseases previously considered only to manifest in adults. In the pediatric population, these complications frequently have their own unique disease identity, which may be related to maturational patterns evident in the developing brain. Recent findings: Developments regarding the pathogenesis of neuroAIDS, treatment of tuberculous meningitis and prevention of bacterial meningitis are described. With the advent of neuroimaging, there is greater insight into silent cerebrovascular events and th...
HIV neuropathy
Purpose of review: To present an overview of HIV-associated distal symmetric polyneuropathy (HIV-DSP) and other HIV-related peripheral neuropathies in the post-highly active retroviral therapy era. Recent findings: HIV-DSP has become the most common neurologic complication of HIV largely due to the prolonged survival of HIV-positive patients with the advent of highly active retroviral therapy. HIV-DSP can be attributed to the disease itself or to secondary effects of certain HAART agents, and often the two disease entities cannot be distinguished. HIV-DSP can lead to significant morbidity and interfere with daily activities. Diagnosis can be obtained from a detailed history and neurologic exam revealing absent ankle jerks and abnormal, vibratory perception or decreased pinprick or temperat...
Interactions between ageing and NeuroAIDS
Purpose of review: The purpose of this study is to summarize recent advances in ageing and neuroAIDS by reviewing relevant articles from the preceding 18 months from PubMed and PsycINFO databases. Recent findings: The success of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has led to ageing of the HIV-infected population, which in turn contributes to the prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). Biomedical advances continue to clarify the pathophysiology of HAND despite effective cART, including chronic inflammatory and neurovascular causes. In recent months, associations between HAND and nonneurological medical diseases have been identified, as well as linkage to neuroimaging in those ageing with HIV. Developing effective screening tools to detect impairment remains an imp...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Editorial: HIV-1 infection and the nervous system: a shifting target
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS)
Evolving clinical phenotypes in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders
Purpose of review: To describe the changes in the presentation of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) comparing the current combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) treatment era to the pre-cART era. Recent findings: The frequency of the most severe stage of HAND, HIV-associated dementia (HAD), has decreased, but the frequencies of milder stages of HAND, asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI) and mild neurocognitive disorder, have increased. In the pre-cART era, HAD was a progressive disorder leading to death within months. With cART, HIV+ individuals with HAND frequently remain stable over many years, though they may still show signs of the ongoing central nervous system (CNS) injury. On neuropsychological testing, there may be a shift from the prominent slowed motor and...
Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS)
Zimbabwe: STIs Could Derail Fight Against HIV
[The Herald]IN our Saturday edition, we carried a disturbing story on the increasing incidence of Sexually Transmitted Infections in Harare at a time various stakeholders are putting shoulders to the wheel to fight the scourge of HIV and Aids. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
South Africa: New Data Shows Country May See Decline in New HIV Cases
[Health-e]Better care and treatment of HIV patients may be putting the country on the road to a decline in infections - and the secret lies in patients' blood, according to new data. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Nigeria: We're Dying Due to Lack of Funds - HIV Positive Persons
[Leadership]Abuja -The Network of Persons Living with HIV/AIDS in Nigeria (NEPWHAN), has called on the Minister of Finance and coordinating minister of the Economy, Dr Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala, to, as a matter of urgency, release funding for the implementation of the President's Comprehensive Response Plan (PCRP) to HIV activities in the country. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Do antibiotics cause obesity? - podcast
Professors Nick Finer and Tim Spector consider the possible role of gut microbes in human disease, including a study linking childhood obesity to antibiotic use Continue reading... (Source: Guardian Unlimited Science)
How do you circumcise a nation? The Rwandan case study
Voluntary medical male circumcision has been conclusively demonstrated to reduce the lifetime risk of male acquisition of HIV. The strategy has been adopted as a component of a comprehensive strategy towards achieving an AIDS-free generation. A number of countries in which prevalence of HIV is high and circumcision is low have been identified as a priority, where innovative approaches to scale-up are currently being explored. Rwanda, as one of the priority countries, has faced a number of challenges to successful scale-up. We discuss here how simplifications in the procedure, addressing a lack of healthcare infrastructure and mobilizing resources, and engaging communities of both men and women have permitted Rwanda to move forward with more optimism in its scale-up tactics. Examples from R...
What lies behind gender inequalities in HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan African countries: evidence from Kenya, Lesotho and Tanzania
Within sub-Saharan Africa, women are disproportionately at risk for acquiring and having human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). It is important to clarify whether gender inequalities in HIV prevalence in this region are explained by differences in the distributions of HIV risk factors, differences in the effects of these risk factors or some combination of both. We used an extension of the Blinder&ndash;Oaxaca decomposition approach to explain gender inequalities in HIV/AIDS in Kenya, Lesotho and Tanzania using data from the demographic and health and AIDS indicator surveys. After adjusting for covariates using Poisson regression models, female gender was associated with a higher prevalence of HIV/AIDS in Kenya [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.73, 95% confi...
High prevalence of HIV infection and unprotected anal intercourse among older men who have sex with men in China: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Conclusions: Older Chinese MSM have high prevalence of HIV and syphilis. Unprotected anal sex is common and further puts them at high risks of acquiring and transmitting HIV, which was one of reasons for the rapid increasing of national reported older male HIV/AIDS cases. Prevention intervention programs should be specially tailored for this high risk MSM subgroup. (Source: BMC Infectious Diseases)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Development of UK guidance on the management of erectile dysfunction resulting from radical radiotherapy and androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer.
CONCLUSION: Based on published research literature and survey analysis, recommendations are proposed for the standardisation of management strategies employed for ED after RT/ADT. In addition to implementing the algorithm, understanding the rationale for the type and timing of ED management strategies is crucial for clinicians, men and their partners. PMID: 25283500 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Clinical Prostate Cancer)
The importance of effectively combating HIV/AIDS through tackling the social aspects of the pandemic post-2015.
Authors: Kitt H PMID: 25296070 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Med J Aust)
Investigating the use of quick response codes in the gross anatomy laboratory
This study examined student perceptions on the usefulness of QR codes as learning aids in a medical gross anatomy course, statistically analyzed whether this learning aid impacted student performance, and evaluated whether performance could be explained by the frequency of QR code usage. Question prompts and QR codes tagged on cadaveric specimens and models were available for four weeks as learning aids to medical (n?=?155) and doctor of physical therapy (n?=?39) students. Each QR code provided answers to posed questions in the form of embedded text or hyperlinked web pages. Students' perceptions were gathered using a formative questionnaire and practical examination scores were used to assess potential gains in student achievement. Overall, students responded positively to the use...
Zimbabwe: 53 000 New STI Cases Hit Harare
[The Herald]Over 53 000 people were infected with sexually-transmitted diseases in Harare between January and June this year, the National Aids Council (NAC) has said. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Development of UK guidance on the management of erectile dysfunction resulting from radical radiotherapy and androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer
ConclusionBased on published research literature and survey analysis, recommendations are proposed for the standardisation of management strategies employed for ED after RT/ADT. In addition to implementing the algorithm, understanding the rationale for the type and timing of ED management strategies is crucial for clinicians, men and their partners. (Source: International Journal of Clinical Practice)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Effectiveness of Behavior Change Communications for Reducing Transmission Risks Among People Living with HIV in 6 Countries in Central America
Abstract This first region-wide study (N = 2,818) aims to estimate prevalence of HIV-related risks (sexual behavior, HIV disclosure, number of sex partners, violence) and factors associated with these risks as well as evaluate a behavior change communications program targeted to PLHIV in 6 countries in Central America. After 2 years, the program achieved moderate coverage, with 21 % of the sample reporting exposure to interpersonal communications (IPC) and 52 % to mass media program components. The odds of condom use, HIV disclosure, and participation in a self-help group increased by 1.4?1.8 times with exposure to mass media. Exposure to IPC increased odds of condom use by 2.7 and participation in self-help groups by 4.4 times. In addition, being in HIV care or taking ART...
Role of Oral Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) in Current and Future HIV Prevention Strategies
Abstract Treatment as prevention is expected to have a major role in reducing HIV incidence, but other prevention interventions will also be required to bring the epidemic under control, particularly among key populations. One or more forms of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) will likely play a critical role. Oral PrEP with emtricitabine-tenofovir (Truvada®) is currently available in the US and some other countries, but uptake has been slow. We review the concerns that have contributed to this slow uptake and discuss current and future research in this critical area of HIV prevention research. (Source: Current HIV/AIDS Reports)
Zambia: NAC Calls for Prudent Use of HIV/Aids Funds
[Times of Zambia]THE National Aids Council (NAC) has called for the prudent use of HIV/AIDS funding, in view of dwindling external financial resources. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Congo-Kinshasa: HIV/Aids Origins Traced to Kinshasa
[VOA]A new study finds that HIV/AIDS originated in the 1920s in the central African city of Kinshasa, in what is now the Democratic Republic of Congo. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Reduced expression of Blimp-1 in memory B cells in patients with HIV-1 infection suggests distinct roles of this molecule for B and T cell regulation
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Variable and suboptimal nevirapine levels in infants given single-dose nevirapine at birth without maternal prophylaxis
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Etravirine-based antiretroviral therapy in HIV/hepatitis C virus coinfected advanced fibrosis patients receiving triple therapy against hepatitis C virus with telaprevir
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Chronic binge alcohol increases susceptibility to rectal simian immunodeficiency virus infection in macaques
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Comparison of central and local HIV-1 RNA quantification from two international clinical trials
Local and centrally measured plasma HIV RNA (pVL) were assessed for agreement in two trials, ENCORE1 and SECOND-LINE. The proportion less than 200?copies/ml at week 48 was qualitatively similar [ENCORE1 2.5% (95% confidence interval, 95% CI ?1.6 to 6.6); 1.9% (95% CI ?1.9 to 2.1); SECOND-LINE 0.3% (95% CI ?6.4 to 10.0); 1.8% (95% CI ?4.7 to 8.3)]. The mean difference in log10 pVL copies/ml at weeks 0 and 48 was less than 0.2 log10?copies/ml in both trials. Our data indicate that central testing of pVL in HIV therapeutic trials is not warranted. (Source: AIDS)
Potential impact of statins on cancer incidence in HIV-infected patients
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Is it time to revise antiretrovirals dosing? A pharmacokinetic viewpoint
We document our experience with therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of antiretroviral agents (1807 determinations) carried out as day-by-day clinical practice for the optimization of drug dosing in HIV-infected patients. A significant proportion of patients had lopinavir, atazanavir and nevirapine trough concentrations exceeding the upper therapeutic threshold. Further studies are needed to identify good candidates/drugs for TDM, eventually allowing the selection of patients who may benefit from TDM-driven adjustments in antiretrovirals dosage. (Source: AIDS)
Opportunistic infections and AIDS malignancies early after initiating combination antiretroviral therapy in high-income countries
Conclusion:With the potential exception of mycobacterial infections, unmasking IRIS does not appear to be a common complication of cART initiation in high-income countries. (Source: AIDS)
Viral load versus CD4+ monitoring and 5-year outcomes of antiretroviral therapy in HIV-positive children in Southern Africa: a cohort-based modelling study
Conclusion:Viral load monitoring did not affect 5-year mortality, but reduced time on failing ART, improved immunological response and increased switching to second-line ART. (Source: AIDS)
Advanced disease at enrollment in HIV care in four sub-Saharan African countries: change from 2006 to 2011 and multilevel predictors in 2011
Objectives:To examine changes between 2006 and 2011 in the proportion of HIV-positive patients newly enrolled in HIV care with advanced disease and the median CD4+ cell count at enrollment; and identify patient, facility, and contextual-level factors associated with late enrollment in care in 2011. Design:Cross-sectional over time. Methods:For time-trends analyses, routinely collected patient-level data (307?110 adults newly enrolled in 138 HIV clinical care facilities) in Kenya, Mozambique, Rwanda and Tanzania; and for analyses of correlates, patient-level data (46?201 in 195 facilities), and facility and population-level survey data were used. Late enrollment was defined as CD4+ cell count 350?cells/?l or less and/or WHO clinical stage 3/4. Results:Late enrollment declined from 69...
Independent assessment of candidate HIV incidence assays on specimens in the CEPHIA repository
Conclusions:Results from this first independent evaluation provide valuable information about the current performance of assays, and suggest the need for further optimization. Variation of ?recent?/?nonrecent? thresholds and the use of multiple antibody-maturation assays, as well as other biomarkers, can now be explored, using the rich data generated by the Consortium for the Evaluation and Performance of HIV Incidence Assays. Consistently high FRRs amongst those virally suppressed suggest that viral load will be a particularly valuable supplementary marker. Video abstract:http://links.lww.com/QAD/A569 (Source: AIDS)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Microstructural alterations of trabecular and cortical bone in long-term HIV-infected elderly men on successful antiretroviral therapy
Conclusion:HIV-infected elderly men on successful ART have trabecular and cortical bone microstructure alterations associated with higher bone resorption, despite adequate vitamin D supplementation. (Source: AIDS)
Long-term virological outcome in children on antiretroviral therapy in the UK and Ireland

Use of statins and risk of AIDS-defining and non-AIDS-defining malignancies among HIV-1 infected patients on antiretroviral therapy
Conclusion:Among HIV-1 treated patients, statin use was associated with a lower risk of cancer; the benefit was mainly related to AIDS-defining malignancies. Confirmatory studies are needed to consider the residual confounding likely present in this study. (Source: AIDS)
Efficacy of prolonged tenofovir therapy on hepatitis delta in HIV-infected patients
Conclusion:Long-term exposure to tenofovir significantly reduced serum HDV-RNA apart from completely suppressing HBV-DNA in HIV-infected patients with hepatitis delta. This virological benefit is accompanied by significant improvements in liver fibrosis. (Source: AIDS)
Influence of hepatitis C virus coinfection on CD4+ T cells of HIV-infected patients receiving HAART
Conclusion:Whereas we could find no relationship between HCV infection and most indices of CD4+ T-cell homeostasis or activation, CD4+ RTEs are diminished in the circulation of HCV coinfected persons and appear to be related to indices of ongoing hepatic damage or inflammation. (Source: AIDS)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Transforming growth factor beta 1 up-regulates CD169 (sialoadhesin) expression on monocyte-derived dendritic cells: role in HIV sexual transmission
Conclusion:This study demonstrates that the most abundant cytokine present in semen (TGF-?1) is able to enhance specifically the expression of an important molecule (CD169) involved in the capture and transmission of HIV-1 particles from the mucosal lumen to the submucosal compartment. Our results suggest that this mechanism may play a relevant role in sexual HIV transmission. (Source: AIDS)
HIV-1 induces B-cell activation and class switch recombination via spleen tyrosine kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathways
Conclusion:Therefore, we showed that HIV-1 could directly induce primary B-cell deregulation via SYK/B-cell receptor (BCR) engagement, and that activation was followed by the JNK pathway activation. To our knowledge, these data provide the first evidence that SYK/BCR activation was the first step for B-cell activation and CSR mechanism after HIV-1 stimulation in a T-cell-free context. (Source: AIDS)
A CXCR1 haplotype hampers HIV-1 matrix protein p17 biological activity
Conclusions: Our results, showing the inability of p17 to activate CXCR1_300_142, a receptor found to be expressed on immune cells of patients with a low progression of HIV disease, point to a crucial role of p17 in AIDS pathogenesis. Our findings herein call for an exploration of the therapeutic potential of blocking the p17/CXCR1 axis in HIV infection. (Source: AIDS)
The vaginal microbiota and susceptibility to HIV
There is some evidence that the risk of HIV infection per heterosexual act is higher in low-income countries than in high-income countries. We hypothesize that variations in per sex-act transmission probability of HIV may in part be attributed to differences in the composition and function of the vaginal microbiota between different populations. This paper presents data that are in support of this hypothesis. Experimental and clinical studies have provided evidence that the normal vaginal microbiota plays a protective role against acquisition of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Epidemiological studies have convincingly shown that disturbances of the vaginal microbiome, namely intermediate flora and bacterial vaginosis, increase the risk of acquisition of HIV infection. A revi...
Renal epithelial cells produce and spread HIV-1 via T-cell contact
Conclusion:These results support the kidney as a potential reservoir where virus is exchanged between interstitial T cells and RTE cells. (Source: AIDS)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
The Validity of Self-Reported Medication Adherence as an Outcome in Clinical Trials of Adherence-Promotion Interventions: Findings from the MACH14 Study
Abstract In medication adherence-promotion trials, participants in the intervention arm are often cognizant of the researcher?s aim to improve adherence; this may lead to their inflating reports of their own adherence compared to control arm participants. Using data from 1,247 HIV-positive participants across eight U.S. Studies in the Multi-site Adherence Collaboration on HIV (MACH14) collaboration, we evaluated the validity of self-reported adherence by examining whether its association with two more objective outcomes [1], electronically monitored adherence and [2] viral load, varied by study arm. After adjusting for potential confounders, there was no evidence of greater overestimation of self-reported adherence among intervention arm participants, supporting its potential as...
High HIV Prevalence in a Respondent-Driven Sampling Survey of Injection Drug Users in Tehran, Iran
Abstract Iran is facing unprecedented dual drug use and HIV epidemics. We conducted a cross-sectional survey to obtain HIV prevalence and risk behavior data from injection drug users (IDU) in Tehran. We used respondent-driven sampling (RDS) to recruit IDU through successive waves starting with 24 ?seeds,? conducted anonymous face-to-face interviews and HIV testing and counseling, and used RDSAT to adjust data. During 44 weeks, 1,726 study referral coupons resulted in 645 (37 %) IDU referrals, of whom 548 (85 %) were enrolled. From those enrolled, 84 % were incarcerated, 47 % employed, 55 % single, 27 % under 30 years of age, and 26 % homeless. The adjusted HIV prevalence was 26.6 % (95 % confidence interval 21.3?32.1), and was higher among certain IDU subgroups (e...
Correlates of Use of Timed Unprotected Intercourse to Reduce Horizontal Transmission Among Ugandan HIV Clients with Fertility Intentions
We examined the correlates of use of safer conception methods (SCM) in a sample of 400 Ugandan HIV clients (75 % female; 61 % on antiretroviral therapy; 61 % with HIV-negative or unknown status partners) in heterosexual relationships with fertility intentions. SCM assessed included timed unprotected intercourse, manual self-insemination, sperm washing, and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). In the 6 months prior to baseline, 47 (12 %) reported using timed unprotected intercourse to reduce risk of HIV infection (or re-infection), none had used manual self-insemination or sperm washing, and two had used PrEP. In multiple regression analysis, correlates of use of timed unprotected intercourse included greater perceptions of partner?s willingness to use SCM and providers? stigma of chil...
Pharmacy refill adherence outperforms self-reported methods in predicting HIV therapy outcome in resource-limited settings
This study was a single-centre prospective cohort, enrolling 220 HIV-infected adult patients attending an HIV/AIDS Care and Treatment Centre in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, in 2010. Pharmacy refill, self-report (via visual analog scale [VAS] and the Swiss HIV Cohort study-adherence questionnaire), pill count, and appointment keeping adherence measurements were taken.Univariate logistic regression (LR) was done to explore a cut-off that gives a better trade-off between sensitivity and specificity, and a higher area under the curve (AUC) based on receiver operating characteristic curve in predicting virological failure. Additionally, the adherence models were evaluated by fitting multivariate LR with stepwise functions, decision trees, and random forests models, assessing 10-fold multiple cross ...
Patients With Greater Symptom Intensity and More Disability are More Likely to be Surprised by a Hand Surgeon's Advice.
CONCLUSIONS: Patients with greater symptom intensity and magnitude of disability, and perhaps also patients with nonspecific diagnoses, are more likely to be surprised by a hand surgeon's advice. Future research might address the ability of previsit preparation (using decision aids or other alternative means of education) to ameliorate the discordance between patient assumptions and hand surgeon advice. PMID: 25280552 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Assessing the impact of HAART on the incidence of defining and non-defining AIDS cancers among patients with HIV/AIDS: A systematic review
In this study, we determined the cancer risk ratio by comparing the pre- and post-HAART eras. (Source: Journal of Infection and Public Health)
Europe: Italy: Child Thought to Be Rid of H.I.V. Suffers a Relapse
The case resembles another in which aggressive treatment of a baby born with the virus that causes AIDS failed to prevent its resurgence. (Source: NYT Health)
Engaging, Recruiting, and Retaining Black Men Who Have Sex With Men in Research Studies: Don't Underestimate the Importance of Staffing?Lessons Learned From HPTN 061, the BROTHERS Study
Conclusions:This study underscores the importance of staffing in implementing research with black MSM. Investigators should consider how staffing and organizational structures affect implementation during study design and when preparing to initiate study activities. Ongoing monitoring of community engagement can inform and improve methods for engagement and ensure cultural relevance while removing barriers for participation. (Source: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice)
Evaluation of the National Human Immunodeficiency Virus Surveillance System for the 2011 Diagnosis Year
Conclusions:Findings support the need for continued improvement in HIV surveillance activities and monitoring of system outcomes. (Source: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice)
Cambodia: UN-backed event spotlights need to boost HIV-sensitive social programmes
With external funding in decline, Cambodia is turning to domestic resources to boost its national AIDS response and social protection services to people living with HIV, who often face disproportionate social and economic hardships and can easily fall below the poverty line. (Source: UN News Centre - Health, Poverty, Food Security)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
HIV Pandemic's Roots Traced Back to 1920s KinshasaHIV Pandemic's Roots Traced Back to 1920s Kinshasa
Bustling transport networks, migrant labor and changes to the sex trade in early 20th-century Congo created a 'perfect storm' that gave rise to an HIV pandemic that has now infected 75 million people worldwide. Reuters Health Information (Source: Medscape Hiv-Aids Headlines)
Mozambique: 'Mozambique-Malawi Railway Line Construction Abetting Spread of HIV'
[Malawi News Agency]Chikwawa -Construction of the Mozambique-Malawi railway line is said to abetting the spread of HIV at Changoima in Chikwawa district. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Swaziland: For a Stigma-Free Generation
[Gender Links]Mbabane -Thembi Manana of Mandlangempisi in the Hhohho region has been living with HIV for ten years. Every day she takes a positive step towards life, never defaulting on her antiretroviral treatment. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
HIV pandemic originated in Kinshasa in the 1920s, say scientists
Thriving city with multiple transport links and influx of male labourers made it perfect incubator for pandemic strain of HIV Continue reading... (Source: Guardian Unlimited Science)
2nd Baby 'Cured' of HIV Suffers Relapse
Doctors report levels of AIDS-causing virus rose just two weeks after drug treatment was stopped (Source: WebMD Health)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
2nd Baby ?Cured? of HIV Suffers Relapse
Doctors report levels of AIDS-causing virus rose just two weeks after drug treatment was stopped (Source: Fertility News - Doctors Lounge)
[In Depth] Early AIDS virus may have ridden Africa's rails
Genetic study reveals fresh details on HIV's emergence. Author: Jon Cohen (Source: Science: Current Issue)
Easy-to-Use Decision Aids for Improved Cancer Family History Collection and Use Among Oncology Practices [CORRESPONDENCE]
(Source: Journal of Clinical Oncology)
Neonatal intrahippocampal HIV-1 protein Tat1-86 injection: Neurobehavioral alterations in the absence of increased inflammatory cytokine activation.
Authors: Moran LM, Fitting S, Booze RM, Webb KM, Mactutus CF Abstract Pediatric AIDS caused by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) remains one of the leading worldwide causes of childhood morbidity and mortality. HIV-1 proteins, such as Tat and gp120, are believed to play a crucial role in the neurotoxicity of pediatric HIV-1 infection. Detrimental effects on development, behavior, and neuroanatomy follow neonatal exposure to the HIV-1 viral toxins Tat1-72 and gp120. The present study investigated the neurobehavioral effects induced by the HIV-1 neurotoxic protein Tat1-86, which encodes the first and second exons of the Tat protein. In addition, the potential effects of HIV-1 toxic proteins Tat1-86 and gp120 on inflammatory pathways were examined in neonatal brains. Vehicle...
Aids origin 'was 1920s Kinshasa'
The origin of the Aids pandemic has been traced back to 1920s Kinshasa, in what is now the Democratic Republic of Congo, scientists say. (Source: BBC News | Health | UK Edition)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
HIV bounces back in baby cleared of the virus by drug treatment
Doctors had hoped that swift and aggressive anti-retroviral treatment might eradicate HIV in babies born with the infection Continue reading... (Source: Guardian Unlimited Science)
2nd Baby 'Cured' of HIV Suffers Relapse
Doctors report levels of AIDS-causing virus rose just two weeks after drug treatment was stopped Source: HealthDay Related MedlinePlus Pages: HIV/AIDS, HIV/AIDS Medicines, HIV/AIDS and Pregnancy (Source: MedlinePlus Health News)
HIV May Have Emerged in Congo in 1920s: Study
Railways, prostitution could have helped spread the AIDS-causing virus decades ago, researchers say (Source: Fertility News - Doctors Lounge)
'Perfect storm' turned HIV from local to global killer
The rapid expansion of mining and railway links from Kinshasa, the epicentre of the pandemic, helped HIV spread, say a study tracing the virus's first steps (Source: New Scientist - HIV and AIDS)
HIV was created by 'perfect storm' of factors that led to pandemic, study reveals
A ?perfect storm? of factors that came together in colonial Africa early last century led to the spread of Aids in the human population and eventually a full-blown pandemic infecting more than 75 million people worldwide, a study has found. (Source: The Independent - Science)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
HIV May Have Emerged in Congo in 1920s
Railways, prostitution could have helped spread the AIDS-causing virus decades ago, researchers say Source: HealthDay Related MedlinePlus Page: HIV/AIDS (Source: MedlinePlus Health News)
HIV pandemic was created by 'perfect storm' of factors, study reveals
A ?perfect storm? of factors that came together in colonial Africa early last century led to the spread of Aids in the human population and eventually a full-blown pandemic infecting more than 75 million people worldwide, a study has found. (Source: The Independent - Science)
PANTHERx expands in Robinson, adds employees
The award of two big contracts has prompted Robinson-based PANTHERx Specialty Pharmacy to increase staff and move to bigger quarters. Last month, the company became a specialty pharmacy option for 13,200 University of Pittsburgh faculty and staff and in March the company was named the exclusive specialty pharmacy provider for 3,100 people in the South Carolina AIDS Drug Assistance Program. The South Carolina contract went into effect June 1. As a result of the contracts, PANTHERx moved from its? (Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Hospitals headlines)
East Africa: Alarm Over Rising Co-Infection of HIV and Parasitic Killer Kala-Azar
[Key Correspondents]Scientists are concerned over the rising number of cases of kala-azar, a parasitic disease spread by sandfly bites, among people living with HIV. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: HIV/Aids Call Centre - Healthcare Intervention Through Technology
[This Day]Since the unveiling of the National HIV/AIDS Call Centre and Other Related Diseases in Abuja, the centre has become a place of refuge, not only for the people living with HIV/AIDS, but for many Nigerians suffering from other diseases. Paul Obi writes on the impact of the centre (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Namibia: Khomas Tops HIV Mother Infection Rate
[New Era]Windhoek -The latest statistics released by the Ministry of Health and Social Services show that the Khomas Region recorded the highest number of mothers who tested HIV positive between 2010 and 2013. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Malawi: Condomize! Targets Cultural Practices in Malawi
[UNFPA]Malawi -UNFPA Malawi is incorporating the CONDOMIZE! campaign in deep-rooted and prominent cultural practices in the country in its quest to increase condom use among the youth and ultimately, reduce unplanned pregnancies and HIV infection. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Morocco: Morocco's Quiet Revolution Over AIDS and Human Rights
[GFO]In July 2014, in a meeting room in the Moroccan capital Rabat, a young Moroccan woman stood up and addressed an audience composed of senior representatives from international organizations and government -- including the Ministry for Islamic Affairs and the prison system. "I am Karima El Kaoudali," she said in Arabic, "and I represent the sex workers of Morocco." (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Tanzania: Village Banks Enhance Economic Status of People Living With HIV/Aids
[Daily News]MORE than 200 Village Community Banks (VICOBA) have been established to transform lives of people living with HIV/AIDS in Mara, Kagera and Manyara regions. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Malawi: Council Chair Speaks Against Discriminating Plhivs in Development
[Malawi News Agency]Salima -Chair Person of Salima District Council Peter Kadammanja has appealed to people in authority at all levels to stop discriminating and segregating people living with HIV (PLHIV) when giving out job opportunities or social support programs. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Nigeria: Ebola - HIV Drugs to the Rescue?
[Daily Independent]Lagos -In indication has emerged to the effect that drugs used for the treatment of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) can cure the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD). (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: NGO Warns Commercial Sex Workers Against HIV/Aids
[Daily Independent]Bauchi -A call has been made for commercial sex workers to take precautionary measures against spreadng HIV/AIDS in their communities. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Director's Comments: Emphasizing Ending HIV/AIDS Epidemics
Listen to the NLM Director's Comments on "Emphasizing Ending HIV/AIDS Epidemics". The transcript is also available. A perspective recently published in Science finds global public health awareness, prevention, and fund raising campaigns should emphasize ending HIV/AIDS epidemics instead of focusing on patient screening, or touting the possibility of a preventive vaccine... (Source: What's New on MedlinePlus)
Drug-food interactions in mountaineering
(University of the Basque Country ) UPV/EHU-University of the Basque Country researchers have studied the nutritional and health situations existing at high altitudes as well as the routinely used nutritional ergogenic and pharmacological aids. According to their study, the possible interactions between drugs and food and nutrients taken may endanger the mountaineer's health if all this is not conducted under strict control. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Zimbabwe: Zimbabwe Dials 90-90-90
[The Herald]Zimbabwe has had a fair share of the HIV/Aids challenge in the last 30 years but has notched key successes, among them reduction of infection rates and the roll-out of anti-retroviral medicines. This has been achieved through Government and its partners' efforts and conformity to world standards and trends. Now, Zimbabwe is going 90-90-90. The global 90-90-90 campaign was enunciated at the UNAIDS International Aids Conference in Melbourne, Australia, last August, referring to three key steps that are essen (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Evaluating the Effectiveness of an Illustrated Permission/Assent Form
This study was designed to explore whether illustrating the permission/assent (P/A) document offers an alternative strategy for communicating study related information to underserved populations. Participants were verbally introduced to a mock study and asked to review the corresponding P/A form with companion pictorials. Questionnaires were used to examine whether the form addressed essential elements of a P/A (as defined under the Code of Federal Regulations) and evaluate the effectiveness of the companion pictures. Over 93 % of participants agreed that the form addressed the required basic elements of a P/A. Pictures depicting study procedures were highly effective while images depicting nebulous concepts such as research and voluntariness were deemed less effective. The medical resear...
Developing a two?sided intervention to facilitate shared decision?making in haemophilia: decision boxes for clinicians and patient decision aids for patients
Conclusions. This study demonstrates the feasibility of developing decision tools for haemophilia treatment decisions. It also provides anecdotal evidence of positive perceptions of such tools. Future directions include assessment of the tools? practical value and impact on clinical practice. (Source: Haemophilia)
Impact of second-line antiretroviral regimens on lipid profiles in an African setting: the DART trial sub-study
Conclusion: Modest lipid elevations were observed in African patients on predominantly LPV/r + NNRTI-based second-line regimens. Routine lipid monitoring during second-line ART regimens may not be warranted in this setting but individual cardiovascular risk assessment should guide practice. (Source: AIDS Research and Therapy)
HIV-1 Nef Interacts with Alix to Down-regulate CD4 [Microbiology]
Nef is an accessory protein of human immunodeficiency viruses that promotes viral replication and progression to AIDS through interference with various host trafficking and signaling pathways. A key function of Nef is the down-regulation of the coreceptor CD4 from the surface of the host cells. Nef-induced CD4 down-regulation involves at least two independent steps as follows: acceleration of CD4 endocytosis by a clathrin/AP-2-dependent pathway and targeting of internalized CD4 to multivesicular bodies (MVBs) for eventual degradation in lysosomes. In a previous work, we found that CD4 targeting to the MVB pathway was independent of CD4 ubiquitination. Here, we report that this targeting depends on a direct interaction of Nef with Alix/AIP1, a protein associated with the endosomal sorting c...
South Africa: TAC Plans Fund Raising Drive As Crunch Time Looms
[GroundUp]Even though the Treatment Action Campaign (TAC) faces the possibility of closing down due to a lack of funding, it says there is no need to worry yet. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Everyday mobilisations among grandmothers in South Africa: survival, support and social change in the era of HIV/AIDS
Research Articles MAY CHAZAN, Ageing & Society, Volume 34 Issue 10, pp 1641-1665Abstract (Source: Ageing)
Nigeria: Rivers Spends N1 Billion On HIV/Aids
[Daily Trust]Port Harcourt -Rivers State Commissioner for Health, Dr Sampson Parker, said in Port Harcourt yesterday that the government has spent about N1bn on drugs for HIV/AIDS patients. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Uganda: Babies Get HIV Test Kits
[Observer]Delays associated with conventional early infant diagnosis may be no more with the introduction of a new point of care machine dubbed Samba II. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
India set to run out of critical free drug for HIV/AIDS programme
India could run out of a critical medicine in its free HIV/AIDS drugs programme in 3 weeks due to bureaucratic bungling, a govt official said. (Source: The Economic Times)
Exclusive: India set to run out of critical free drug for HIV/AIDS program
NEW DELHI (Reuters) - India could run out of a critical medicine in its free HIV/AIDS drugs program in three weeks due to bureaucratic bungling, a senior government official said, leaving more than 150,000 sufferers without life-saving drugs for about a month. (Source: Reuters: Health)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
South Africa: Six Ways to Fix South Africa's HIV Response
[Health-e]South African sex workers may have one of the world's highest HIV prevalence rates and addressing this is just one of six ways South African National AIDS Council (SANAC) CEO Dr Fareed Abdullah says the country can fix its HIV response. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Risk factors for urinary, fecal, or double incontinence in women
Purpose of reviewTo review recent, significant contributions to the medical literature regarding the identification of factors which are associated with urinary, fecal, and double incontinence in women. Recent findingsApproximately one out of five women suffers from moderate to severe urinary incontinence, one out of 10 has fecal incontinence, and 2.5% have double incontinence of urine and stool. Obesity is primarily associated with urinary incontinence, whereas diabetes mellitus is a stronger risk factor for fecal incontinence. Double incontinence is primarily associated with advanced age, depression, and decompensating medical conditions that denote frailty. SummaryKnowledge regarding which clinical conditions and patient characteristics are strongly associated with each type of incontin...
Neurotologic and Functional MRI Findings in a Patient With Bilateral Profound Deafness Having Brown?Vialetto?Van Leare Syndrome
ConclusionThese results suggest integrity of the central auditory pathways and represent a positive argument to propose a cochlear implantation with the aim to restore hearing. (Source: Otology and Neurotology)
Synchronous HIV/AIDS-related Epstein-Barr Virus-associated Smooth Muscle Tumors in a 20-year-old female
We present a case of simultaneous endobronchial and adrenal Epstein-Barr Virus-associated smooth muscle tumors in a 20-year-old female with AIDS. Blood Epstein-Barr Virus polymerase chain reaction was negative at the time of diagnosis. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Cumulative HIV Viremia and Non?AIDS-Defining Malignancies Among a Sample of HIV-Infected Male Veterans
Background: Research suggests that cumulative measurement of HIV exposure is associated with mortality, AIDS, and AIDS-defining malignancies. However, the relationship between cumulative HIV and non?AIDS-defining malignancies (NADMs) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different HIV measures on NADM hazard among HIV-infected male veterans. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study using Veterans Affairs HIV Clinical Case Registry data from 1985 to 2010. We analyzed the relationship between HIV exposure (recent HIV RNA, % undetectable HIV RNA, and HIV copy-years viremia) and NADM. To evaluate the effect of HIV, we calculated hazard ratios for 3 common virally associated NADM [ie, hepatocarcinoma (HCC), Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), and squamous cell carc...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Synthetic Drug Boom: Potential Threat to HIV/AIDS Transmission in China
No abstract available (Source: Sexually Transmitted Diseases)
Imaging of the Brain in Patients With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection
Abstract: Neurologic disease in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients is related either to opportunistic pathogens or to direct central nervous system (CNS) invasion by the human immunodeficiency virus. Despite the increasing availability of antiretroviral therapy, opportunistic infections continue to afflict patients in the developing world and in other populations with limited access to appropriate treatment. Classic CNS infections in the setting of AIDS include toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, and cytomegalovirus encephalitis. Additionally, AIDS patients are far more susceptible to acquiring CNS tuberculosis and neurosyphilis, both of which exhibit altered disease characteristics in the setting of immunosuppression. Neuroimaging is ...
Zimbabwe?s Family Planning Dilemma
There has been an increase in pregnancies among Zimbabwean adolescents aged 15-19 years, from 21 percent between 2005 and 2006 to 24 percent between 2010 and 2011. Credit: Credit: Jeffrey Moyo/IPSBy Ignatius BandaBULAWAYO, Zimbabwe, Oct 1 2014 (IPS)Pregnant at 15, Samantha Yakubu* is in a fix. The 16-year-old boy she claims was responsible for her pregnancy has refused to accept her version of events, insisting that he was ?not the only one who slept with her?.Now Yakubu has dropped out of school and, like many sexually active youth in Zimbabwe, faces an uncertain future.The issue of contraceptive use remains controversial and divisive in this country of 13.72 million people.Parents and educators are agreed on one thing: that levels of sexual activity among high-school students are on ...
What are we putting in our ears? A consumer product analysis of aural foreign bodies
ConclusionsAural foreign bodies considerably affect health care expenditures; over 250,000 ED visits over a 5?year span were noted. Age? and gender?specific patterns reported in this analysis can serve as a valuable adjunct for history taking and clinical examination. Jewelry products predominated among children, while cotton swab/first aid products, hearing aids, and other ear?specific accessories significantly affected adults. Although children were most commonly affected, these findings highlight the need for sustained education and prevention strategies among all age groups. Level of Evidence2b. Laryngoscope, 2014 (Source: The Laryngoscope)
HIV Stigma as a Barrier to Retention in HIV Care at a General Hospital in Lima, Peru: A Case?Control Study
Abstract HIV stigma as a barrier to retention in HIV care has not been well-studied outside the United States. We conducted a case?control study in Lima, Peru to examine this issue. Cases were out-of-care for ?12 months (n = 66) and controls were recruited from patients in active care presenting for a clinic visit (n = 110). A previously validated HIV stigma scale with four domains was used. Associations between being out-of-care and each stigma domain were assessed using multivariable logistic regression. Stigma scores were highest for disclosure concerns. Modest associations were found for greater disclosure concerns (OR 1.16; 95 % CI 0.99, 1.36) and concerns with public attitudes (OR 1.20; 95 % CI 1.03, 1.40). Enacted stigma and negative self-image showed non-linear ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase plays a critical role in hypoxia-induced CD133+ progenitor cells self-renewal and stimulates their accumulation in the lungs of pulmonary hypertensive rats
Although hypoxia is detrimental to most cell types, it aids survival of progenitor cells and is associated with diseases like cancer and pulmonary hypertension in humans. Therefore, understanding the underlying mechanisms that promote survival of progenitor cells in hypoxia and then developing novel therapies to stop their growth in hypoxia-associated human diseases is important. Here we demonstrate that the proliferation and growth of human CD133+ progenitor cells, which contribute to tumorigenesis and the development of pulmonary hypertension, are increased when cultured under hypoxic conditions. Furthermore, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity was increased threefold in hypoxic CD133+ cells. The increased G6PD activity was required for CD133+ cell proliferation, and their ...
Multiple Low-dose Challenges in a Rhesus Macaque AIDS Vaccine Trial Result in an Evolving Host Response that affects Protective Outcome.
Authors: Selinger C, Strbo N, Gonzalez L, Aicher L, Weiss JM, Law GL, Palermo RE, Vaccari M, Franchini G, Podack ER, Katze MG Abstract Using whole-blood transcriptional profiling, we investigated differences in the host response to vaccination and challenge in a rhesus macaque AIDS vaccine trial. Samples were collected from animals prior to and after vaccination with live irradiated vaccine cells secreting the modified endoplasmic reticulum chaperone gp96-Ig loaded with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) peptides, either alone or in combination with a SIV-gp120 protein boost. Additional samples were collected following multiple low-dose rectal challenge with SIVmac251. Animals in the boosted group had a 73% reduced risk of infection. Surprisingly, few changes in gene expression we...
Cognitive factors associated with the willingness for HIV testing among pregnant women in China.
CONCLUSION: To prevent HIV mother to children transmission, it is necessary to enhance knowledge for HIV, change cognitive factors and increase willingness for HIV testing among pregnant women. PMID: 25269906 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Chinese Medical Journal)
How to address smoking cessation in HIV patients
Tobacco consumption is the modifiable risk factor contributing most to the development of non?AIDS?defining events among persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Clinicians' awareness of this problem is critical and not yet adequate. Practical information issued by public health authorities or contained in experts' clinical guidelines regarding how to address smoking cessation in PLWHA is scarce. The aim of this review is to provide physicians with comprehensive and practical information regarding how to identify HIV?positive patients willing to stop smoking and those more likely to succeed, how to choose the most suitable strategy for an individual patient, and how to help the patient during the process. In the light of current evidence on the efficacy and benefits of stopping smoking ...
The meaning and perceived value of mind?body practices for people living with HIV/AIDS: A qualitative synthesis
Introduction: Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) has been posited as a component of person-centred care and lifetime CAM use in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) has been reported to range from 30% to 90%. Mind?body practices (MBPs) are a subset of CAM that represent a selection of self-care activities that may promote the health of this population. No synthesis of the qualitative research in this context has yet been undertaken, which may help to inform service provision and research priorities. (Source: European Journal of Integrative Medicine)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Neuro-ophthalmic presentations and treatment of Cryptococcal meningitis-related increased intracranial pressure.
CONCLUSIONS: Ophthalmologists should be aware that cryptococcosis can mimic more benign etiologies including IIH and neuroretinitis. Additionally, C. gattii, an emerging organism, can infect immunocompetent patients. In contrast to the typical treatment of increased ICP, serial lumbar punctures are recommended while acetazolamide and surgical CSF shunting may be harmful. PMID: 25284106 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology)
Genetic Variability of CYP2B6 Polymorphisms in Southeast Iranian Population: Implications for Malaria and HIV/AIDS Treatment.
CONCLUSION: Allele frequencies for CYP2B6 in the examined population were markedly different from those African, Caucasian, and Southeast Asian populations. CYP2B6*2, *4, *5, *6, and *7 were found in the Iranian Baluchi that may affect the response to artemisin and its derivatives. High frequency of G516T (35.7%) was detected among the examined subjects that might cause greater efavirenz plasma exposure and more central nervous system side effects. Therefore, characterization of pharmacologically relevant polymorphisms in CYP2B6 has a great potential to improve drug efficacy and reduce toxicity. PMID: 25305768 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Archives of Iranian Medicine)
A randomized trial comparing two intraosseous access devices in intrahospital healthcare providers with a focus on retention of knowledge, skill, and self-efficacy
Conclusion The use of device A is safer in handling in comparison to device B at 12 months follow-up. The hypothesis that doctors are more qualified in obtaining intraosseous access has been disproven, as anesthesiologists were as successful as RNAs. However, the low self-efficacy of RNAs in the use of intraosseous devices could diminish the chance of them actually using one. (Source: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery)
Examining the preparation and ongoing support of adults to take their medications as prescribed in kidney transplantation
ConclusionsRenal transplant co?ordinators and pharmacists recognized the importance of early patient education concerning immunosuppressant medication. However, each site had developed their own way of preparing a patient for kidney transplantation and follow?up in the acute hospital setting based on experience and practice. Other non?educational strategies involving behavioural and emotional aspects were less common. Differences in usual care reinforce the necessity for evidence?based health care for best patient outcomes. (Source: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice)
Comparison of two databases to detect potential drug?drug interactions between prescriptions of HIV/AIDS patients in critical care
ConclusionDDIs are common between the prescriptions of patients with HIV/AIDS admitted to the ICU. Although both databases were able to identify the clinically relevant DDIs, we observed a significant discrepancy in the classification of the severity of DDIs in the two bases. The free access database could serve as an alternative to the identification of DDIs in resource?limited settings; however, there is a need for better evidence?based assessments for your use on clinical management of more serious DDIs. DDIs are common between the prescriptions of patients with HIV/AIDS admitted to the ICU. (Source: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Understanding patients' and doctors' attitudes about shared decision making for advance care planning
ConclusionsDoctors should explore their patients' attitudes regarding end?of?life discussions and preferences for decision?making styles. There is a need for tools such as decision aids which can empower patients to participate in decision making and can support doctors with prognostic estimates pertinent to individual patients. (Source: Health Expectations)
Perceived stigma, medical social support and quality of life among people living with HIV/AIDS in Hunan, China
The present study aimed at examining the relationships among perceived stigma, social support, and quality of life (QOL) in people living with HIV (PLWH). (Source: Applied Nursing Research : ANR)
HIV/AIDS: dental assistants' self?reported knowledge and attitudes in Kuwait
Although several studies have been conducted to assess dentists' knowledge of and attitudes towards human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune?deficiency syndrome (AIDS), few have targeted dental assistants. The main aims of this study were to assess the knowledge of and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS among dental assistants in Kuwait and to compare the knowledge and attitudes of dental assistants at Kuwait University Dental Center (KUDC) with those of dental assistants in Ministry of Health (MoH) hospitals. The secondary objective was to determine if any intervention was needed to provide more information to dental assistants on HIV/AIDS. A cross?sectional study was conducted by distributing questionnaires. The study sample included 85 dental assistants from each of KUDC and the M...
Is an Appropriate Wheelchair Becoming Out of Reach? ? Part 2
In the PM&R ethical legal column, Is an appropriate wheelchair becoming out of reach? [1], we introduced the evolving difficulties of getting high-quality, liberating wheelchairs to patients. To recap the issue:?Never before has the world been more replete with technological aids for people with disabilities: high-performing prosthetics; accessible computer devices; environmental control units; wheelchairs that can recline, stand, and climb curbs; and laptop-sized ventilators to name just a few devices. (Source: PM and R)
The Ototronix MAXUM system: Indications, techniques, and outcomes
For many individuals with hearing impairment, the benefits of hearing aids may be reduced by acoustic feedback, occlusion effect, difficult fitting, and recurrent ear canal irritation. Additionally, many hearing aid candidates refuse use because of concerns over cosmetic appearance and the stigma associated with hearing aid use. Implantable hearing devices were developed to circumvent many of the limitations of conventional air conduction aids. The MAXUM system is a semi-implantable hearing device that amplifies sound via an implanted magnet attached to the ossicular chain, which is coupled to an electromagnetic driver located within the medial ear canal. (Source: Operative Techniques in Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Primary effusion lymphoma presenting as a cutaneous intravascular lymphoma
Abstract Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a rare and aggressive lymphoma that arises in the context of immunosuppression and is characterized by co?infection with Epstein?Barr virus (EBV) and Human Herpesvirus?8/Kaposi sarcoma?associated herpesvirus (HHV?8/KSHV). It was originally described as arising in body cavity effusions, but presentation as a mass lesion (extracavitary PEL) is now recognized. Here we describe a case of PEL with an initial presentation as an intravascular lymphoma with associated skin lesions. The patient was a 53 year?old man with HIV/AIDS who presented with fevers, weight loss, and skin lesions concerning for Kaposi sarcoma (KS). A skin biopsy revealed no evidence of KS; however, dermal vessels contained large atypical cells that expressed CD31 and pla...
Policies directed towards STD/AIDS and their political-care integration in the context of the SUS: a study of the city of Florianópolis, SC, Brazil
This qualitative study, with a socio-historical perspective, aimed to examine how the process of decentralization of STD/AIDS actions took place in Florianópolis, SC, Brazil, and its effects on the level of care and administration. The data collection was based on documentary and oral sources. A total of 11 health professionals were interviewed, who performed care and/or management activities linked to STD/AIDS, during the study period (2006-2010). The results were analyzed using content analysis, resulting in two categories: The administrative decentralization of the Municipal STD/AIDS Program; The decentralization of STD/AIDS care. The restructuring of the STD/AIDS Program was part of the reorganization process of the municipal health system and the progressive incorporation of the conc...
HIV/AIDS Access Intern
Reports to: HIV/AIDS Policy Advisor for Campaign for Access to Essential MedicinesType of position: Intern, paidDuration: 3 monthsLocation: New York City Objective: Provide administrative and research support to the HIV/AIDS Policy advisor of the Access Campaign while providing practical learning experience to an applicant interested in HIV/AIDS policy advocacy and international affairs. Language English (Source: MSF News)
CDC Launches Nation?s First PrEP Support Hotline for Clinicians
In collaboration with the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) and the University of California San Francisco (UCSF), CDC has launched the nation?s first PrEPline ? a dedicated national toll-free consultation service for clinicians considering prescribing pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for their patients. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
Lay Social Resources for Support of Adherence to Antiretroviral Prophylaxis for HIV Prevention Among Serodiscordant Couples in sub-Saharan Africa: A Qualitative Study
Abstract Effectiveness of antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention will require high adherence. Using qualitative data, this paper identifies potential lay social resources for support of PrEP adherence by HIV serodiscordant couples in Uganda, laying the groundwork for incorporation of these resources into adherence support initiatives as part of implementation. The qualitative analysis characterizes support for PrEP adherence provided by HIV-infected spouses, children, extended family members, and the larger community. Results suggest social resources for support of PrEP adherence in Africa are plentiful outside formal health care settings and health systems and that couples will readily use them. The same shortage of health professionals that impeded sca...
Africa: Landmark Diagnostic Access Program Will Save U.S.$150 Million and Help Achieve New Global Goals
[UNAIDS]New York -Roche today announced a major Global Access Program to sharply lower the price of HIV viral load tests in low- and middle-income countries. This new initiative creates a ceiling price of US$ 9.40 per test, and will reduce Roche's average price by more than 40% in low- and middle-income countries. When fully implemented, the Global Access Program is projected to save more than US$ 150 million in costs over the next five years. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: Countries Ready to 'Fast Track' Response to End the Aids Epidemic By 2030
[UNAIDS]Geneva/New York -High-level panel emphasizes fragile five-year window for rapid and massive acceleration of HIV treatment and prevention services. New agreement to reduce cost of viral load tests for HIV to below US$ 10 will improve the quality of life for millions of people on HIV treatment (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: UNAIDS Appoints Victoria Beckham As International Goodwill Ambassador
[UNAIDS]Geneva/New York -The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) has appointed leading fashion designer Victoria Beckham as UNAIDS International Goodwill Ambassador. The announcement was made at a special event held during the 69th United Nations General Assembly in New York. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Malawi: Civil Society in Malawi Elbows Its Way in to Find a Seat At the Table for HIV Policymaking
[GFO]Participating in country dialogue is a first step -- over many hurdles (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
South Africa: SA Team Develops HIV Monitoring Tool
[SA Info]A software application developed by the University of Cape Town to monitor patients on treatment for HIV and TB treatment is being implemented by countries such as Mozambique, Malawi, Vietnam and Pakistan. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Zimbabwe: Bulawayo Sees Surge in HIV Infections
[New Zimbabwe]BULAWAYO has recorded the highest HIV prevalence rate in Zimbabwe in a development that is worrying the government as it battles to halt the spread of the pandemic. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
South Africa: Treatment Action Campaign Faces Closure
[Health-e]After almost two decades spent fighting for HIV treatment and access to medicines, the Treatment Action Campaign (TAC) may close its doors due to a severe funding shortage. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Malawi: Everyone Should Take Role in the Fight Against Aids-Ku Dac
[Malawi News Agency]Kasungu -Kasungu District held its candlelight memorial over the weekend with the District Aids Coordinator (DAC) calling upon everyone to take a leading role in the fight against HIV and Aids. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Low manipulation prevalence following fast-track total knee arthroplasty.
Authors: Husted H, Jørgensen CC, Gromov K, Troelsen A, the Collaborative Group of the Lundbeck Foundation Center for Fast-Track Hip and Knee Replacement Abstract Background and purpose - Postoperative joint stiffness following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) may compromise the outcome and necessitate manipulation. Previous studies have not been in a fast-track setting with optimized pain treatment, early mobilization, and short length of stay (LOS), which may have influenced the prevalence of joint stiffness and subsequent manipulation. We investigated the prevalence of manipulation following fast-track TKA and identified patients at risk of needing manipulation. Patients and methods - 3,145 consecutive unselected elective primary unilateral TKA patients operated in 6 departments wi...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Psychological well-being of people living with HIV/AIDS under the new epidemic characteristics in China and the risk factors: a population-based study
The first cases of HIV in China were reported in 1985 and the documented number of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) reached 370393 by October 2010.1 At that time, the predominant transmission route had changed from former plasma donors to sexual contact. Previously, almost 100% of PLWHA in China had been infected by contaminated blood products and resided in and around Henan Province.2 However, by 2009, transmission through sexual contact had increased to 59%, while transmission by contaminated blood products was only 14%. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
An Exploration of Men?s Knowledge, Attitudes, and Perceptions of HIV, HIV Risk, and Willingness to Test for HIV in Yendi District, Northern Ghana
We explored men?s HIV knowledge, perceptions of HIV risk, and willingness to test for HIV In preparation for the initiation of formalized voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) services at Yendi Hospital in Yendi District, Ghana. A multi-method approach was used, including surveys of 129 male hospital patrons, 3 men-only focus group discussions (FGD), and 8 interviews with clinical staff at the hospital. History of condom use, perception of risk, paying for an HIV test, and age were all significantly associated (p < .05) with willingness to test. (Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)
Realizing the Potential of Treatment as Prevention: Global ART Policy and Treatment Coverage
This article reviews the antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation criteria from published national guidelines for 94 countries (representing 86 % of global HIV burden) and compares them with the 2013 World Health Organization (WHO) ART guidelines. As of 31st of July 2014, 19 countries have adopted the WHO-recommended CD4 eligibility criteria of ?500 cells/mm3, while seven have opted to treat irrespective of CD4 cell count (?test and treat?). Together, these 26 countries represent 27 % of 2013 global HIV burden. Additionally, test and treat is recommended for selected groups of HIV-positive individuals, namely, (a) people with tuberculosis in 58 countries, (b) pregnant women in 42 countries, (c) people with liver disease due to hepatitis B co-infection in 52 countries, (d) serodiscor...
EMA Panel Endorses Darunavir/Cobicistat Combo for HIVEMA Panel Endorses Darunavir/Cobicistat Combo for HIV
Rezolsta is intended for the treatment of antiretroviral therapy-naive and antiretroviral therapy-experienced adults with no darunavir-resistance-associated mutations. International Approvals (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)
Caffeine-infused weight loss underwear buzzless: FTC
WASHINGTON (Reuters) - Bras, girdles and leggings infused with caffeine and sold as weight loss aids were more decaf than espresso, and the companies that sold them have agreed to refund money to customers and pull their ads, U.S. regulators said on Monday. (Source: Reuters: Health)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Africa: Improved Data On Community Health Workers Critical to Achieving Global Health Goals
[PR Newswire]Cape Town, South Africa -Report by alliance of top US-based organizations urges nations to maximize impact of CHWs by defining core competencies (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
HIV Special Surveillance Report: HIV Risk, Prevention, and Testing Behaviors, National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System, Men Who Have Sex with Men, 20 U.S. Cities, 2011
This report summarizes results from cycle 3 of NHBS data collection conducted among MSM in 2011. In order to monitor risk behaviors and the use of prevention services?including HIV testing?among those considered at risk of acquiring HIV, this report focuses on sexually active participants who reported their HIV status as HIV-negative or unknown (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
HIV Surveillance Special Report: HIV Risk, Prevention, and Testing Behaviors, National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System, Men Who Have Sex with Men, 20 U.S. Cities, 2011
This report summarizes results from cycle 3 of NHBS data collection conducted among MSM in 2011. In order to monitor risk behaviors and the use of prevention services?including HIV testing?among those considered at risk of acquiring HIV, this report focuses on sexually active participants who reported their HIV status as HIV-negative or unknown (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
Liberia: Liberian Doctor Defends 3-5 Days Ebola Treatment With HIV Drug
[FrontPageAfrica]"When the patients come early, and they are put on this medication, they recover within three to five days. This medication is not specifically for HIV/AIDS, I want this to be clear; but the Anti Retrovirus agent that is used to treat other virus illnesses like hepatitis 'B'. But it is one of those medications that are combined with two or three other medications to treat HIV/AIDS, so it should not really be called an HIV/AIDS drugs." - Dr. G. Gorbee Logan, County Health Officer, Tubmanburg Hospital (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Increase in CD4 Count Among New Enrollees in HIV CareIncrease in CD4 Count Among New Enrollees in HIV Care
After the CDC revised HIV testing guidelines, are we noticing increased CD4 counts among newly diagnosed HIV patients? JAIDS: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
HIV-Infected Individuals at Risk for Atherosclerotic EventsHIV-Infected Individuals at Risk for Atherosclerotic Events
Identifying HIV-infected individuals at risk for CHD can be extremely challenging. AIDS (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
South Africa: SANDF Slammed for HIV Discrimination - Again
[Daily Maverick]Again, the courts have ruled against South African National Defence Force's (SANDF) treatment of members and recruits with HIV. In a ruling on Friday, the SANDF's actions were called an assault on the dignity of HIV-positive recruits that disregards a previous judgment and sets a bad example for the nation. Andisiwe Dwenga hopes she's the last person to suffer the unfair discrimination. By GREG NICOLSON. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: Landmark HIV Diagnostic Access Program Will Save $150m
[Global Fund]Roche has announced a major Global Access Program to sharply lower the price of HIV viral load tests in low- and middle-income countries. This new initiative creates a ceiling price of US$9.40 per test, and will reduce Roche's average price by more than 40% in low- and middle-income countries. When fully implemented, the Global Access Program is projected to save more than US$150 million in costs over the next five years. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: Young People - the Key to Ending Aids By 2030
[Key Correspondents]What do you a call a group of young people including lesbians, gays, bisexuals, transgenders, sex workers and drug users? No, this isn't a joke - it couldn't be further from a joke. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: 'Ebola Should Not Distract Countries From HIV Fight'
[Guardian]THE current battle to contain the Ebola Virus Disease in some West African countries should not distract health professionals and governments of the African region from the huge threats still faced from the HIV/AIDS pandemic, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/ AIDS (UNAIDS) has said. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Malawi: Candle Light in Nsanje Over HIV/Aids Victims
[Malawi News Agency]Nsanje -Residents in Nsanje on Wednesday observed a moment of silence paying respect to people who lost in the fight against HIV and AIDS. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Malawi: Zomba Chief to Fine Men K10, 000 for Flirting With Girls Less Than 18 Years Old
[Malawi News Agency]Zomba -In a bid to fight HIV and Aids, Traditional Authority Mbiza has endorsed a list of bye laws to govern his subjects in which one of them, irresponsible men will have to cough out K10, 000 as fine for coaxing into sex girls under the age of 18 years. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Rwanda: Kurema, Kureba, Kwiga Competition Ends On a High
[New Times]LIVING responsibly and having a positive attitude towards people living with HIV/Aids is the most effective way of fighting the spread of the disease and stigma among the youth. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Journey Describing the Discoveries of Anti-HIV Triterpene Acid Families Targeting HIV-Entry/Fusion, Protease Functioning and Maturation Stages.
Authors: Patel RV, Park SW Abstract HIV infection/AIDS, is a fatal disease multiplying rapidly in virtually every country. Extensive creations are in progress to arrest the replication of the HIV, following the destruction of either particular step involved in the progression of HIV infection. In such endeavors, mechanistically more diverse antiviral therapies were showcased using naturally occurring triterpene acid and their derivatives acting at various stages of HIV life cycle like entry or fusion, function of HIV protease enzyme and finally at maturation. The present article holds an extensive step-by-step summary of anti-HIV breakthroughs of triterpene acid analogues and their derivatives with synthetic and activity aspects, featuring fertile clues for novel anti-HIV drug desi...
Hybrid poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles: design and delivery prospectives.
Authors: Pandita D, Kumar S, Lather V Abstract Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), a US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved copolymer, has been exploited widely in the design of nanoparticles because it is biodegradable, biocompatible, protects the drug molecules from degradation, and aids in producing sustained and targeted delivery. However, certain constraints associated with PLGA nanoparticles, such as poor drug encapsulation, polymer degradation, and scale-up issues, have led to the development of emerging hybrid PLGA delivery systems. These hybrid nanoparticles are core-shell nanostructures comprising either a PLGA core or a PLGA shell combining multiple functionalities within one system and, thus, exhibiting the complementary characteristics of two different platfo...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
A mechanistic theory to explain the efficacy of antiretroviral therapy
Nature Reviews Microbiology 12, 772 (2014). doi:10.1038/nrmicro3351 Authors: Sarah B. Laskey & Robert F. Siliciano In the early years of the AIDS epidemic, a diagnosis of HIV-1 infection was equivalent to a death sentence. The development of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in the 1990s to combat HIV-1 infection was one of the most impressive achievements of medical science. Today, patients (Source: Nature Reviews Microbiology)
Scale-up of networked HIV treatment in Nigeria: Creation of an integrated electronic medical records system
This report describes the development of an electronic medical records system (EMRS) for an HIV/AIDS care and treatment programs in Nigeria. The rapid scale-up of HIV treatment with antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) brought with it many challenges, including the need for EMRS in settings with no prior experience. In response to this need, there have been a diverse set of approaches to EMRS implementation in SSA. Each program's unique experiences and approaches provide valuable learning opportunities, and sharing these solutions, along with their challenges, can benefit other programs with similar needs, preventing the cycle of ?reinventing the wheel?. (Source: International Journal of Medical Informatics)
South Africa: Mpumalanga Makes Progress in Fight Against HIV, Aids
[SAnews.gov.za]The Mpumalanga Provincial Aids Council has expressed satisfaction at the progress being made by the province in fighting HIV and AIDS. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Zimbabwe: Daring Sex Workers Introduce 'Ebola Risk Allowance'
[New Zimbabwe]COMMERCIAL sex workers at Nyamapanda Border Post have started charging "Ebola risk insurance" in a bid to use the deadly outbreak to shake down truck drivers from outside Zimbabwe for extra cash. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
High Incidence of Zidovudine Induced Anaemia in HIV Infected Patients in Southern Odisha
This study was conducted with an aim to determine prevalence of AZT induced anaemia in HIV infected patients initiated on AZT containing anti retroviral therapy(ART) regimen and also to find out any risk factor for causing AZT induced anaemia. Study was carried out in ART centre, M.K.C.G, MCH, Berhampur between Jan 2009 and Dec 2011. HIV infected patients registered at ART centre were treated according to National AIDS Control Organisation (NACO) guidelines. Patients (n = 1221) with Hb &gt;8 gm/dl were prescribed AZT based ART regimen. Patients having anaemia (&lt;8 gm/dl) were excluded from the study. Correlation of baseline characteristics (age, sex, weight, Hb level, CD4 count, World Health Organization (WHO) clinical stage) with risk of developing anaemia was also calculated. 178 (...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Role of Nrf2 in chronic liver disease.
Authors: Tang W, Jiang YF, Ponnusamy M, Diallo M Abstract Nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a central regulator of antioxidative response elements-mediated gene expression. It has a significant role in adaptive responses to oxidative stress by interacting with the antioxidant response element, which induces the expression of a variety of downstream targets aimed at cytoprotection. Previous studies suggested oxidative stress and associated damage could represent a common link between different forms of diseases. Oxidative stress has been implicated in various liver diseases, including viral hepatitis, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease/steatohepatitis, alcoholic liver disease and drug-induced liver injury. Nrf2 activation is initiated by oxidative or electrophilic stress,...
Streptococcus pneumoniae Genome Database (SPGDB): A database for strain specific comparative analysis of Streptococcus pneumoniae genes and proteins.
Authors: Swetha R, Sekar DK, Devi ED, Ahmed ZZ, Ramaiah S, Anbarasu A, Sekar K Abstract Streptococcus pneumoniae causes pneumonia, septicemia and meningitis. S. pneumoniae is responsible for significant mortality both in children and in the elderly. In recent years, the whole genome sequencing of various S. pneumoniae strains have increased manifold and there is an urgent need to provide organism specific annotations to the scientific community. This prompted us to develop the Streptococcus pneumoniae Genome Database (SPGDB) to integrate and analyze the completely sequenced and available S. pneumoniae genome sequences. Further, links to several tools are provided to compare the pool of gene and protein sequences, and proteins structure across different strains of S. pneumoniae. SPG...
Zimbabwe: Only 38pc HIV+ Kids On Treatment
[The Herald]Paidamoyo Chipunza recently in Kadoma Government will soon embark on a campaign to encourage parents on HIV treatment to have their children tested as well. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Colitis cystica profunda indefinite for dysplasia in Crohn disease: A potential diagnostic pitfall.
We present a challenging case of CCP in the setting of Crohn disease (CD) containing foci of atypical epithelium. A right hemicolectomy from a 46-year-old woman contained a stricture associated with a proximal multilocular cystic lesion containing mucin-filled glands dissecting through the colonic wall. These glands had lobulated architecture with smooth contours surrounded by lamina propria and lacking desmoplastic stroma. The epithelium had focal nuclear crowding, enlargement, and hyperchromasia, with increased nucleus to cytoplasm ratio, but overall preserved polarity. Atypical cells were focally positive for CK7 and p53, with increased MIB-1 staining. These findings were interpreted as indefinite for dysplasia. Chronic transmural inflammation and mucosal regeneration probably facilitat...
For Chris O'Donnell of 'NCIS: Los Angeles,' yoga aids a battered back
It's not easy being Batman's sidekick: It can cause a lumbar disk blowout, like the movie franchise did for Chris O'Donnell. Nevertheless, some yoga thrown into the fitness mix keeps him mobile and relatively pain free. (Source: L.A. Times - Health)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Complete genomic sequence of a new Human polyomavirus 9 strain with an altered noncoding control region
Abstract A complete Human polyomavirus 9 (HPyV9) genome, designated HPyV9 UF-1, was amplified by rolling circle DNA amplification from DNA extracted from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of an AIDS patient. The noncoding control (enhancer/promoter) region (NCCR) of HPyV9 UF-1 has one less AML-1a binding site and three more potential Sp1/GC box binding sites than the NCCRs of two previously described HPyV9 genomes. Nucleotide polymorphisms within the coding regions result in two amino acid differences in the deduced VP2 and VP3 proteins of HPyV9 UF-1 relative to those of the two previously described HPyV9 genomes. Exhaustive attempts to detect HPyV9 in DNA samples extracted from the PBMC of 40 healthy humans and 9 other AIDS patients were unsuccessful, highlighting th...
Dear Colleague: National Gay Men's HIV/AIDS Awareness Day (NGMHAAD)
Dear Colleague letter on National Gay Men's HIV/AIDS Awareness Day 2014 (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
Strategies for Promoting HIV Testing UptakeStrategies for Promoting HIV Testing Uptake
What strategies could be implemented to increase HIV testing among men who have sex with men? Sexually Transmitted Infections (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
HIV/AIDS Update - Approval of Tybost (cobicistat) 150 mg tablets
Source: Food and Drug Administration Related MedlinePlus Pages: HIV/AIDS, HIV/AIDS Medicines (Source: MedlinePlus Health News)
HIV/AIDS Update - Approval of Vitekta
Source: Food and Drug Administration Related MedlinePlus Pages: HIV/AIDS, HIV/AIDS Medicines (Source: MedlinePlus Health News)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Effects of Noise Reduction on AM Perception for Hearing-Impaired Listeners
ABSTRACT Noise reduction (NR) systems are commonplace in modern digital hearing aids. Though not improving speech intelligibility, NR helps the hearing-aid user in terms of lowering noise annoyance, reducing cognitive load and improving ease of listening. Previous psychophysical work has shown that NR does in fact improve the ability of normal-hearing (NH) listeners to discriminate the slow amplitude-modulation (AM) cues representative of those found in speech. The goal of this study was to assess whether this improvement of AM discrimination with NR can also be observed for hearing-impaired (HI) listeners. AM discrimination was measured at two audio frequencies of 500 Hz and 2 kHz in a background noise with a signal-to-noise ratio of 12 dB. Discrimination was measured for ten...
Detection of Modulated Tones in Modulated Noise by Non-human Primates
Abstract In natural environments, many sounds are amplitude-modulated. Amplitude modulation is thought to be a signal that aids auditory object formation. A previous study of the detection of signals in noise found that when tones or noise were amplitude-modulated, the noise was a less effective masker, and detection thresholds for tones in noise were lowered. These results suggest that the detection of modulated signals in modulated noise would be enhanced. This paper describes the results of experiments investigating how detection is modified when both signal and noise were amplitude-modulated. Two monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were trained to detect amplitude-modulated tones in continuous, amplitude-modulated broadband noise. When the phase difference of otherwise similarly amplitu...
Africa: Fashion Designer Victoria Beckham Joins UN Effort to Achieve World Free of HIV
[UN News]The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) today appointed British fashion designer Victoria Beckham as its International Goodwill Ambassador, with a focus on women and children affected by the virus. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
National Gay Men's HIV/AIDS Awareness Day ? September 27, 2014
(Source: CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report)
Tanzania: HIV/Aids Infection Rate Increases in Kagera
[Daily News]Bukoba -AUTHORITIES in Kagera Region are alarmed following reports that the rate of HIV/AIDS infections increased from 3.4 per cent recorded during 2008 to 4.8 per cent, this year. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Roche launches Global Access Program for HIV viral load testing
Roche announced today the launch of a new Global Access Program for HIV viral load testing, created in partnership with UNAIDS, the joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS, the Clinton Health Access Initiative (CHAI), the President&#8217;s Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) and the Global Fund to fight AIDS, TB &#038; Malaria, at a high-level side event held during the 69th session of the United Nations General Assembly in New York, USA. (Source: Roche Media News)
Molecular typing of clinical Cryptococcus neoformans isolates collected in Germany from 2004 to 2010
Abstract Cryptococcosis is a fungal infection mostly caused by Cryptococcus neoformans. We identified agents of cryptococcosis diagnosed in Germany from 2004 to 2010. We used multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) to understand the molecular epidemiology of cryptococcosis. Sero- and mating types of individual patient isolates were determined by PCR. MLST was performed using the seven-locus scheme. Allele and nucleotide diversity was calculated for each locus of C. neoformans var. grubii and C. neoformans var. neoformans. Phylogenetic relations were assessed by dendrograms. Clinical data were compared between infections caused by the two variants. We studied 101 isolates. Eight were identified as hybrids (8 %). All non-hybrids were of the ? mating type. Among 78 C. neoformans var. g...
Health-related quality of life following radical prostatectomy: long-term outcomes
Conclusion Overall HRQoL, sexual drive, sexual function, energy and bladder control do not return to preoperative levels within 30 months post-RP. Black patients experience the greatest reductions in HRQoL. HRQoL losses may be ameliorated by use of pro-erectile aids. These findings help to identify at-risk patient populations and inform survivorship programs. (Source: Quality of Life Research)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
HIV preventive behavior and associated factors among mining workers in Sali traditional gold mining site bench maji zone, Southwest Ethiopia: a cross sectional study
Conclusions: The HIV preventive behavior of the mining worker was low. Being engaged in sexual intercourse with one sexual partner is very low, Consistent condom use among these mining workers was low. Income, educational status and self efficacy have significant effect on the HIV preventive behavior of mining workers. Thus this population group should be understood as at risk population at national level. (Source: Epidemiologic Perspectives and Innovations)
Scrambling for Africa: AIDS, Expertise, and the Rise of American Global Health Science. Edited by Johanna Tayloe Crane. 224 pp. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. 2013. $89.95 (cloth), $27.95 (paper).
(Source: American Journal of Human Biology)
FDA Approves Two Medications to Treat HIV Infection: Cobicistat (Brand Name: Tybost) and Elvitegravir (Brand Name: Vitekta)
&quot;On September 24, 2014, FDA approved Tybost (cobicistat) 150 mg tablets. Tybost is a CYP3A inhibitor indicated to increase systemic exposure of atazanavir or darunavir (once daily dosing regimen) in combination with other antiretroviral agents in the treatment of HIV-1 infection.&quot; For more information on cobicistat, view the FDA press release. &quot;On September 24, 2014, FDA approved Vitekta (elvitegravir) 85 mg and 150 mg tablets. Vitekta is a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) integrase strand transfer inhibitor indicated in combination with an HIV protease inhibitor coadministered with ritonavir and with other antiretroviral drug(s) for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in antiretroviral treatment-experienced adults.&quot; For more information on elvitegravir, view...
CDC Seeks Public Comments on Newly Developed Draft Clinical Quality Measure for HIV Screening
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)&nbsp;is seeking public comments on a newly developed draft clinical quality measure for HIV infection screening. The measure aligns with the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendations that all individuals between the ages of 15 and 65 be screened for HIV. The measure was developed in collaboration with clinicians and quality experts. The goal is to develop a measure that will be nationally endorsed through the National Quality Forum (NQF) and included in the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) programs. Public comments will be accepted through October 20, 2014. For information on how to submit comments, please view the&nbsp;public notice on the CMS website. (Source: AIDSinfo At-a-Glance: Offering Informati...
CDC Launches HIV Treatment Works Campaign
CDC recently launched&nbsp;HIV Treatment Works, a new national campaign focused on encouraging people infected with HIV to get into care and adhere to treatment. The website includes information and resources for people living with HIV, including information on treatment adherence and tips for healthy living. Visit the&nbsp;HIV Treatment Works&nbsp;website to find an HIV care provider, an HIV support group, or mental health provider. For more information, view the&nbsp;CDC press release.&nbsp; (Source: AIDSinfo At-a-Glance: Offering Information on HIV/AIDS Treatment, Prevention, and Research, A Service of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS))<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
September 27 is National Gay Men?s HIV/AIDS Awareness Day
September 27 is the annual observance of National Gay Men&rsquo;s HIV/AIDS Awareness Day, which serves to highlight the continuing impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic among gay men. Gay and bisexual men are more severely affected by HIV than any other group in the United States. According to&nbsp;CDC, gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) represent approximately 2% of the U.S. population but accounted for 63% of estimated new HIV infections in 2010. Explore our&nbsp;National Gay Men&rsquo;s HIV/AIDS Awareness Day webpage&nbsp;[en espa&ntilde;ol] to learn more about this observance and to find information on HIV/AIDS and gay men. (Source: AIDSinfo At-a-Glance: Offering Information on HIV/AIDS Treatment, Prevention, and Research, A Service of the U.S. Department of Health and...
Men Living with Diagnosed HIV Who Have Sex with Men: Progress Along the Continuum of HIV Care - United States, 2010.
Authors: Singh S, Bradley H, Hu X, Skarbinski J, Hall HI, Lansky A Abstract Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) represent approximately 2% of the United States population, yet are the risk group most affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In 2010, among persons newly infected with HIV, 63% were MSM; among persons living with HIV, 52% were MSM. The three goals of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy are to reduce new HIV infections, to increase access to care and improve health outcomes for persons living with HIV, and to reduce HIV-related health disparities. In July 2013, the HIV Care Continuum Initiative was established by executive order to mobilize and accelerate federal efforts to increase HIV testing, services, and treatment along the continuum. To mee...
Selected Micronutrient Levels and Response to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) Among HIV/AIDS Patients Attending a Teaching Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
The objective of the study was to determine the association of micronutrient levels and response to HAART (CD4(+) T cell count) among adult HIV/AIDS patients attending a teaching Hospital in Addis Ababa. CD4(+) T cell counts and micronutrient (retinol, zinc, and iron) levels for 171 subjects were determined using standard procedures. Some proportions of the study participants were found deficient for retinol (14.03 %), zinc (47.3 %), and iron (2.8 %). Patients who were deficient in retinol had a significantly lower median CD4(+) T cell counts (P?=?0.002) compared to non-deficient subjects. Association of micronutrient quartiles with CD4+ T cell count was assessed using adjusted multivariate regression by taking quartile 4 as a reference category. Accordingly, patients who had retino...
FDA Approves 2 HIV-1 Cocktail DrugsFDA Approves 2 HIV-1 Cocktail Drugs
Elvitegravir (Vitekta) is an integrase inhibitor; cobicistat (Tybost) boosts blood levels of 2 protease inhibitors. FDA Approvals (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)
Half of HIV-Positive Gay Men in U.S. Aren?t Getting Proper Treatment
CDC report recommends greater effort to boost HIV testing and retain patients in care (Source: Fertility News - Doctors Lounge)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Retention in Care and Adherence to ART are Critical Elements of HIV Care Interventions
Abstract Retention in care and adherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART) are critical elements of HIV care interventions and are closely associated with optimal individual and public health outcomes and cost effectiveness. This literature review was conducted to analyse how the roles of clients in HIV care and treatment are discussed, from terminology used to measurement methods to consequences of a wide range of patient-related factors impacting client adherence to ART and retention in care. Unfortunately, data suggests that clients find it hard to follow recommended behaviour. For HIV, the greatest loss to follow-up occurs before starting treatment, though each step of the continuum of care is affected. Measurement approaches can be divided into ?direct? and ?indire...
Effectiveness of HIV Prevention for Women: What Is Working?
This study provides new evidence related to HIV prevention. Particularly, the higher efficacy of motivational components for these young Spanish women is revealed. (Source: AIDS and Behavior)
Socialization Patterns and Their Associations with Unprotected Anal Intercourse, HIV, and Syphilis Among High-Risk Men Who Have Sex with Men and Transgender Women in Peru
Abstract The association of socialization patterns with unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) and HIV/STI prevalence remains underexplored in men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW) in developing country settings. We evaluated the correlation of UAI, HIV, and syphilis with MSM/TW venue attendance and social network size among high-risk MSM and TW in Peru according to self-reported sexual identity. Frequency of venue attendance and MSM/TW social network size were lowest among heterosexual MSM and highest among TW respondents. Attendance (frequent or occasional) at MSM/TW venues was associated with increased odds of insertive UAI among heterosexual participants. Frequent venue attendance was associated with increased odds of receptive UAI among gay/homosexual, bisex...
HIV Prevalence and Risk Behaviours Among Foreign Migrant Women Residing in Cape Town, South Africa
Abstract HIV prevalence and risk behaviour among foreign migrants in South Africa has not been explored. This paper describes the effectiveness of respondent-driven sampling (RDS) to recruit foreign migrant women residing in Cape Town, reports HIV prevalence, and describes key characteristics among them. We conducted a biological and behavioural surveillance survey using RDS. After written informed consent, participants completed an audio computer assisted self-interview and provided a dried blood sample for HIV analysis. HIV prevalence was estimated to be 7 % (CI 4.9?9.5) among 935 women. HIV sero-positivity was associated with older age (p = 0.001), country of origin (p &lt; 0.000), being unmarried (p &lt; 0.000), having lived in South Africa for 3?5 years (p = 0.0...
Condoms Used But Sex Not Well Protected
Abstract Condom use is often equated to safer sex. The prevalence of condom use during sex work among female sex workers (FSW) in China is high. Condom use, however, co-exists with condom failure and improper use and hence risk of HIV transmission. In a cross-sectional study, we interviewed 195 FSW in Shenzhen, China. The prevalence of condom use in the last episode of sex work was 97.4 %, However, respectively 53.8 and 86.2 % had experienced at least one condition of condom failure that may lead to genital contact (wearing condoms after penetration, condom breakage/slippage, condoms removed by clients) and at least one condition of improper condom use (not removing air from the tip of the condom, not pulling it down to the root of penis and not choosing good quality condoms). ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Chlamydia Prevalence and Associated Behaviours Among Female Sex Workers in Vanuatu: Results from an Integrated Bio-behavioural Survey, 2011
Abstract There is insufficient data on sexually transmitted infections (STI) and related behaviours among key populations, including female sex workers (FSW), in the Pacific region. Using respondent driven sampling, we conducted an integrated bio-behavioural survey with FSW in Vanuatu (aged ?18 years) to investigate risk behaviours associations with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT). Weighted population estimates and correlates of CT infection were calculated. Among 149 FSW, prevalence of CT was 36 % (95 % CI 26?48 %). Few FSW reported consistent condom use with recent transactional sex partners (TSP) (8 %; 95 % CI 2?13 %). CT infection was positively associated with increasing number of TSP (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.1; 95 % CI 1.0?1.2) and group sex (AOR 2.9; 95 % C...
A Review of the Role of Food Insecurity in Adherence to Care and Treatment Among Adult and Pediatric Populations Living with HIV and AIDS
Abstract Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is critical for reducing HIV/AIDS morbidity and mortality. Food insecurity (FI) is emerging as an important barrier to adherence to care and treatment recommendations for people living with HIV (PLHIV), but this relationship has not been comprehensively examined. Therefore, we reviewed the literature to explore how FI may impact ART adherence, retention in medical care, and adherence to health care recommendations among PLHIV. We found data to support FI as a critical barrier to adherence to ART and to other health care recommendations among HIV-infected adults, HIV-infected pregnant women and their HIV-exposed infants, and child and adolescent populations of PLHIV. Associations between FI and ART non-adherence were seen in quali...
Alcohol and Sexual Risk Reduction Interventions Among People Living in Russia: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Abstract Russia has one of the highest rates of alcohol consumption and is experiencing one of the fastest-growing HIV epidemics in the world. Given these co-occurring health problems, we systematically reviewed combined alcohol and sexual risk interventions to reduce HIV among Russians. We completed comprehensive electronic searches to locate studies that (a) sampled people living in Russia, (b) used a behavioral intervention, and (c) assessed both alcohol and sexual risk behavior. These searches yielded 584 studies, of these, two were included. Compared with controls, intervention participants reported increasing their condom use (ds ranged from 0.12 to 0.85). Within-group improvements in sexual behaviors were found for both groups (ds ranged from 0.19 to 1.94); participants re...
Economic and Social Factors are Some of the Most Common Barriers Preventing Women from Accessing Maternal and Newborn Child Health (MNCH) and Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission (PMTCT) Services: A Literature Review
Abstract Support to health programming has increasingly placed an emphasis on health systems strengthening. Integration of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) and maternal and newborn child health (MNCH) services has been one of the areas where there has been a shift from a siloed to a more integrated approach. The scale-up of anti-retroviral therapy has made services increasingly available while also bringing them closer to those in need. However, addressing supply side issues around the availability and quality of care at the health centre level alone cannot guarantee better results without a more explicit focus on access issues. Access to PMTCT care and treatment services is affected by a number of barriers which influence decisions of women to seek care. Th...
The Enabling Effect of Food Assistance in Improving Adherence and/or Treatment Completion for Antiretroviral Therapy and Tuberculosis Treatment: A Literature Review
Abstract Socioeconomic costs of HIV and TB and the difficulty of maintaining optimal treatment are well documented. Social protection measures such as food assistance may be required to offset some of the treatment related costs as well as to ensure food security and maintain good health of the affected individual and household. Programmes have started placing greater emphasis on treatment adherence and are looking for proven interventions that can optimize it. This paper looks at the effect of food assistance for enabling treatment adherence and reviews studies that used food assistance to promote adherence. Eight of ten studies found that provision of food can improve adherence and/or treatment completion for HIV care and treatment, ART and TB-DOTS. This indicates that food pro...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Food Security and Nutrition Interventions in Response to the Aids Epidemic: Assessing Global Action and Evidence
Abstract The number of people receiving antiretroviral therapy in developing countries has increased dramatically. The last decade has brought an increased understanding of the interconnectedness between HIV/AIDS, food insecurity, and undernutrition and a surge of evidence on how to address the food security and nutrition dimensions of the epidemic. We review this evidence as well as the corresponding evolution of policy support for incorporating food security and nutrition concerns into HIV programming. The available evidence, although varied in scope and methodologies, shows that nutrition supplementation and safety nets in the form of food assistance and livelihood interventions have potential in certain contexts to improve food security and nutrition outcomes in an HIV/AI...
Tailored Nutrition Education and Food Assistance Improve Adherence to HIV Antiretroviral Therapy: Evidence from Honduras
We examined the effect of providing household food assistance and nutrition education on ART adherence. A 12-month prospective clinical trial compared the effect of a monthly household food basket (FB) plus nutrition education (NE) versus NE alone on ART adherence on 400 HIV patients at four clinics in Honduras. Participants had been receiving ART for an average of 3.7 years and were selected because they had suboptimal adherence. Primary outcome measures were missed clinic appointments, delayed prescription refills, and self-reported missed doses of ART. These three adherence measures improved for both groups over 12 months (p &lt; 0.01), mostly within 6 months. On-time prescription refills improved for the FB plus NE group by 19.6 % more than the group receiving NE alone after 6 m...
Socially-Integrated Transdisciplinary HIV Prevention
This article presents a framework for socially-integrated transdisciplinary HIV prevention that may improve current prevention efforts. It first describes one socially-integrated transdisciplinary intervention project, the Transmission Reduction Intervention Project. We focus on how social aspects of the intervention integrate its component parts across disciplines and processes at different levels of analysis. We then present socially-integrated perspectives about how to improve combination antiretroviral treatment (cART) processes at the population level in order to solve the problems of the treatment cascade and make ?treatment as prevention? more effective. Finally, we discuss some remaining problems and issues in such a social transdisciplinary intervention in the hope that other ...
Cost-Effectiveness of Interventions to Prevent HIV and STDs Among Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial
This study assesses cost-effectiveness of behavioral interventions for reducing HIV and STDs infections among injection drug-using women. Cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted from societal and provider perspectives for randomized trial data and Bernoullian model estimates of infections averted for three increasingly intensive interventions: (1) NIDA?s standard intervention (SI); (2) SI plus a well woman exam (WWE); and (3) SI, WWE, plus four educational sessions (4ES). Trial results indicate that 4ES was cost-effective relative to WWE, which was dominated by SI, for most diseases. Model estimates, however, suggest that WWE was cost-effective relative to SI and dominated 4ES for all diseases. Trial and model results agree that WWE is cost-effective relative to SI per hepatitis C infe...
Food Security in the Context of HIV: Towards Harmonized Definitions and Indicators
Abstract Integration of HIV and food security services is imperative to improving the health and well-being of people living with HIV. However, consensus does not exist on definitions and measures of food security to guide service delivery and evaluation in the context of HIV. This paper reviews definitions and indicators of food security used by key agencies; outlines their relevance in the context of HIV; highlights opportunities for harmonized monitoring and evaluation indicators; and discusses promising developments in data collection and management. In addition to the commonly used dimensions of food availability, access, utilization and stability, we identify three components of food security?food sufficiency, dietary quality, and food safety?that are useful for underst...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
A Mixed-Methods Study of Condom Use and Decision Making Among Adolescent Gay and Bisexual Males
Abstract Young men who have sex with men have the highest rates of new HIV infections in the U.S., but they have been understudied relative to other populations. As a formative step for the development of a text messaging HIV prevention intervention, this mixed methods study aimed to understand how adolescent gay and bisexual males (AGBM) make decisions about condom use and factors that may differ based on age, sexual experience, and rural versus urban residency. Four online, asynchronous focus groups were conducted with 75 14?18 year old AGBM across the U.S. Qualitative analyses uncovered themes related to relationship influences on condom use (e.g. marriage, trust), access issues, and attitudes and experiences that both encouraged as well as discouraged condom use. Mixed met...
Where Does Treatment Optimism Fit in? Examining Factors Associated with Consistent Condom Use Among People Receiving Antiretroviral Treatment in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Abstract In the era of highly active antiretrovirals, people living with HIV (PLWH) have resumed sexual activity in the context of longer and healthier lives, and thus the chances of transmitting the HIV virus, as well as the potential to be re-infected also increase. HIV treatment optimism has been found to be associated with sexual risk behaviors among PLWH in different settings. A cross sectional survey was conducted to examine the relationship between treatment optimism, safer sex burnout and consistent condom use as well as variables associated with treatment optimism in a sample of PLWH on antiretrovirals (ARVs) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (n = 604). Seventy-two percent of participants always used a condom in the last 6 months. Homosexual, bisexual, transexual persons were...
Sexual Partner Notification of HIV Infection Among a National United States-Based Sample of HIV-Infected Men
We examined factors associated with complete (all partners) versus incomplete partner notification in 760 HIV-infected individuals across the United States, 49 % of whom were MSM. Thirty-four percent reported incomplete partner notification. Incomplete partner notification was more likely among black men, MSM, and those reporting casual partners and non-condom use. Partner notification practices did not vary by HIV viral load except among those with casual partners in whom a detectable viral load was associated with incomplete partner notification. Increased sexual partner notification among HIV-infected men, especially MSM, is needed. (Source: AIDS and Behavior)
Adherence to HIV and TB Care and Treatment, the Role of Food Security and Nutrition
Abstract Food security and nutrition play an important role in HIV and TB care and treatment, including for improving treatment outcomes, adherence and uptake of HIV and TB care. This AIDS and behaviour supplement on ?Adherence to HIV and TB care and treatment, the role of food security and nutrition? provides an overview of the current evidence and knowledge about the barriers to uptake and retention in HIV and TB treatment and care and on whether and how food and nutrition assistance can help overcome these barriers. It contains nine papers on three topic areas discussing: (a) adherence and food and nutrition security in context of HIV and TB, their definitions, measurement tools and the current situation; (b) food and nutrition insecurity as barriers to uptake and retentio...
Protective Factors and HIV Risk Behavior Among South African Men
Abstract The primary mode of HIV transmission in South Africa is heterosexual sexual behavior. HIV prevention research specifically focusing on men in South Africa is limited. We assessed self-reported HIV risk behaviors in 1,181 men ages 18 to 45 years in randomly selected neighborhoods in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Older men were less likely to report having multiple partners. Religiosity was a protective factor for condom use and unprotected sex with steady partners. Discussing using condoms was a protective factor for condom use and unprotected sex with both steady and casual partners. Having a child was associated with decreased condom use with steady partners and employment was associated with decreased condom use with casual partners. The findings suggest the ne...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Anxiety Disorders in Older Adults
Abstract Late life anxiety disorders are the most prevalent psychiatric conditions among older adults and they often present at a sub-threshold level. Specific phobias (SP) are particularly frequent and fear of falling is increasingly being recognized as a class of phobias typically seen in older adults. Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), although recognized as a chronic disorder with early onset, has been found to have an onset late in life as well. Social phobia (SoP) has been found to not necessarily have a chronic course in this population. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) manifests in older adults often as an exacerbation of symptoms from a trauma earlier in life. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) augmented with learning and memory aids, and a combination of CBT and medi...
Digital Tools Unveiled to Improve Doctor-Patient InteractionDigital Tools Unveiled to Improve Doctor-Patient Interaction
Technology companies are promoting a panoply of new software programs to help patients and physicians communicate. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Hiv-Aids Headlines)
Stem cell transplant does not cure SHIV/AIDS after irradiation of infected rhesus macaques
A new primate model has been developed to test treatments that might cure HIV/AIDS and suggests answers to questions raised by the 'Berlin patient,' the only human thought to have been cured so far. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)
The Effect of the Different Treatment Protocols on Virological and Immunological Responses in Patients with HIV/AIDS.
This study analyzed the differences between the virological and immunological responses in patients with HIV/AIDS subjected to different treatment protocols. The cases treated with HAART were divided into groups on the basis of treatment protocols. The groups were evaluated with respect to the differences by comparing the virological and immunological responses prior to treatment and at 12 and 24 weeks of therapy. Six different treatment protocols were applied in the treated patients. As the largest clusters, the lopinavir/ritonavir-based patient group (Group 1, n = 29) and efavirenz-based patient group (Group 2, n = 18) were compared. The mean CD4 and HIV-RNA values of Groups 1 and 2 were 184 and 243 h/?l and 422,266 and 317,684 copies/ml, respectively. At 24 weeks of treatment, the HIV-...
Nasally located ectopic ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma (EAPA) causing Nelson?s syndrome: diagnostic challenges
Conclusion Ectopic ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas can occur not only along the developmental route of Rathke?s pouch, but other aberrant locations giving a clinical and biochemical picture identical to Cushing?s disease or Nelson?s syndrome. Clinicians should suspect an EAPA, when a central ACTH source seems to be apparent with no obvious pituitary adenoma. A detailed MRI involving possible EAPA sites aids in locating these unusual lesions. (Source: Pituitary)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
HIV and Gay and Bisexual Men Infographic
This infographic provides data on HIV infection and medical care for gay and bisexual men, and includes HIV prevention information. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
Half of HIV-Positive Gay Men in U.S. Aren't Getting Proper Treatment
CDC report recommends greater effort to boost HIV testing and retain patients in care Source: HealthDay Related MedlinePlus Pages: Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender Health, HIV/AIDS, HIV/AIDS Medicines (Source: MedlinePlus Health News)
Fashion designer Victoria Beckham joins UN effort to achieve world free of HIV
The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) today appointed British fashion designer Victoria Beckham as its International Goodwill Ambassador, with a focus on women and children affected by the virus. (Source: UN News Centre - Health, Poverty, Food Security)
UNAIDS appoints Victoria Beckham goodwill ambassador
UNITED NATIONS (Reuters) - The United Nations program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) on Thursday named fashion designer and former Spice Girl Victoria Beckham a goodwill ambassador. (Source: Reuters: Health)
Unmet Needs in Autoimmunity and Potential New Tools
Abstract The term ?autoimmunity? refers to a pathological condition in which the immunological tolerance of self-antigens is broken through, cross-reactive T cells are activated, and autoantibodies are produced by B cells. The intricate interplay among those aberrantly activated immune cells as well as inflammatory cytokines secreted by them contributes to the development of proinflammatory cascade which eventually leads to the occurrence of autoimmune diseases (AIDs) and organ damage. Autoimmune diseases occupy a broad spectrum of human diseases with more than 70 different disorders and afflict approximately 5?8 % of the world?s population. AIDs can be categorized into organ-specific and systemic. Although the exact mechanism of AIDs remains elusive, it is generally bel...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Food insecurity and antiretroviral adherence among HIV positive adults who drink alcohol
Abstract Food insecurity is associated with HIV treatment non-adherence and poor health outcomes for people living with HIV/AIDS. Given the poor nutritional status common to people who drink alcohol, food insecurity may be particularly problematic for HIV positive individuals who drink alcohol. To examine food insecurity among HIV positive men and women who drink alcohol and its association with antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, health outcomes and health service utilization. Adults living with HIV (N = 183) in Atlanta, Georgia who reported alcohol use in the previous week and were receiving ART participated in a 12-month cohort. Participants were recruited from infectious disease clinics and social services to complete computerized interviews, monthly-unannounced pill co...
Positive and negative religious coping, depressive symptoms, and quality of life in people with HIV
Abstract The present study examined the relationships of positive and negative types of religious coping with depression and quality of life, and the mediating role of benefit finding in the link between religious coping and psychological outcomes among 198 individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The results of multiple hierarchical analyses revealed that negative religious coping was significantly associated with a high level of depressive symptoms and a low level of quality of life, controlling for demographic and clinical variables. On the other hand, positive religious coping was significantly associated with positive domains of outcome measures such as positive affect and life satisfaction, but not with overall depressiv...
High prevalence and incidence of sexually transmitted infections among women living in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa.
CONCLUSIONS: These results confirm the extremely high prevalence and incidence of STIs among women living in rural and urban communities of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, where the HIV epidemic is also particularly severe. These findings strongly suggest an urgent need to allocate resources for STI and HIV prevention that mainly target younger women. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trials.gov, NCT00121459. PMID: 25243015 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Therapy)
Greater frequency of CD5-negative CD8(+) T cells against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 than other viruses is consistent with adaptation to antigenic variation.
CONCLUSIONS: This deficit in CD5 expression selective for HIV-specific CD8(+) T cells is consistent with in vivo adaptation to low avidity HIV peptide variants and has potential consequences for CD8(+) T cell expansion, cross-reactivity and autoreactivity. PMID: 25237383 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Therapy)
Nigeria: Nigerians Urged to Embrace HIV/Aids Victims
[Daily Independent]Senior faith leaders on HIV/AIDS drawn from some local government areas in Lagos state have emphasized the need to exhibit love and eschew bitterness when relating with the victims. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Our T-cells have been hiding something: Another way to kill bacteria
We report and comment on medical innovations and advances ? from bench to bedside ? touching on scientific, business and policy issues. Our ranks include science writers, physicians, lab researchers, market analysts and others inside and outside the hospital. Listeria bacteria on a plate. The biology of HIV/AIDS suggests T-cells have a hitherto unrecognized way of killing pathogens like these. By Tom Ulrich The immune system, despite its immense complexity, really has only a few ways to kill bacteria: Boston Children&#039;s HospitalNews Well, Vector Blog, Big Data, Blogread more (Source: Mass Device)
Nigeria: Donor Aid for HIV Drying Up, Nigeria Must Step Up Local Funding, Says Agency
[Guardian]Dr. Bilali Camara is the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/ AIDS (UNAIDS) is the Country Director in Nigeria. He is also the UNAIDS Focal Point for the Economic Community of West Africa (ECOWAS). Camara said although the Ebola Virus Diseases has in recent times received great media and public attention, Human Immuno-deficiency Virus (HIV)/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) remains a major heath challenges in Nigeria. Camara spoke to EMEKA ANUFORO about the (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Comprehensive identification of MHC class II alleles in a cohort of Chinese rhesus macaques
Abstract Rhesus macaque is a very important animal model for various human diseases, especially for AIDS and vaccine research. The susceptibility and/or resistance to some of these diseases are related to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). To gain insight into the MHC background and to facilitate the experimental use of Chinese rhesus macaques, Mamu-DPB1, Mamu-DQB1, and Mamu-DRB alleles were investigated in 30 Chinese rhesus macaques through gene cloning and sequencing. A total of 66 alleles were identified in this study, including 14 Mamu-DPB1, 20 Mamu-DQB1, and 30 Mamu-DRB alleles as well as 2 high-frequency Mamu-DPB1 alleles. Interestingly, one of the high-frequency Mamu-DPB1 alleles had been undocumented in earlier studies. Eleven of the other alleles, including four...
Liberia: Aids, TB Patients Not Forgotten During Liberia's Ebola Crisis
[VOA]Dakar -With health clinics closed and people afraid to come in for treatment, Liberia's national AIDS commission says they are now going door-to-door to get people to come take their antiretroviral medications. All eyes are on Ebola, but experts say there are other deadly diseases being overlooked in the crisis. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Piceatannol aids weight management, helps prevent obesity, found in red grapes and wine
(NaturalNews) Obesity is threatening the health and lives of nearly 70 percent of the U.S. population, and indicators of this epidemic are continuing to affect even more men, women and children and place a significant burden on an already failing health care system. Most health-minded... (Source: NaturalNews.com)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Stem cell transplant does not cure SHIV/AIDS after irradiation of infected rhesus macaques
(PLOS) A study published on Sept. 25 in PLOS Pathogens reports a new primate model to test treatments that might cure HIV/AIDS and suggests answers to questions raised by the 'Berlin patient,' the only human thought to have been cured so far. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)
On the margins of aid orthodoxy: the Brazil-Mozambique collaboration to produce essential medicines in Africa
DiscussionWe show that the project process has been very long and complex, has involved multiple public and private partners, and cost in excess of USD34 million. There have also been setbacks in the process, and although production has already started, it is unclear whether all the project?s original objectives will be met.SummaryThe Brazil-Mozambique?s pharmaceutical factory experience illustrates positives as well as limitations of Brazil?s unorthodox approach to health development cooperation, highlighting its contribution to pushing the boundaries of the debate on local production of pharmaceuticals in resource-poor settings. (Source: Globalization and Health)
Structural alterations of brain grey and white matter in early deaf adults.
Authors: Hribar M, Suput D, Carvalho AA, Battelino S, Vovk A Abstract Functional and structural brain alterations in the absence of the auditory input have been described, but the observed structural brain changes in the deaf are not uniform. Some of the previous researchers focused only on the auditory areas, while others investigated the whole brain or other selected regions of interest. Majority of studies revealed decreased white matter (WM) volume or altered WM microstructure and preserved grey matter (GM) structure of the auditory areas in the deaf. However, preserved WM and increased or decreased GM volume of the auditory areas in the deaf have also been reported. Several structural alterations in the deaf were found also outside the auditory areas, but these regions differ ...
HIV in Hiding [Video] - The 64th Annual Lindau Meeting
Can someone be cured of the AIDS virus? Nature Video examined this question during this summer's Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting, which brought early-career biologists together with Nobel... -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com (Source: Scientific American - Official RSS Feed)
The importance of monocytes and macrophages in HIV pathogenesis, treatment, and cure
This article examines the importance of monocyte subsets and tissue macrophages in HIV pathogenesis. Additionally, we will review the role of monocytes and macrophages in the development of serious non-AIDS events including cardiovascular disease and neurocognitive impairment, their significance in viral persistence, and how these cells represent an important obstacle to achieving HIV eradication. (Source: AIDS)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Surface-bound Tat inhibits antigen-specific CD8+ T-cell activation in an integrin-dependent manner
Conclusion:Our results support the idea that CD8+ T-cell apoptosis induced by surface-bound extracellular Tat can contribute to the dysregulation of the CD8+ T-cell adaptive response against HIV as well as other pathogens present in AIDS patients. (Source: AIDS)
Deficient synthesis of class-switched, HIV-neutralizing antibodies to the CD4 binding site and correction by electrophilic gp120 immunogen
Conclusion:A CLIN-selective physiological defect of IgM?IgG class-switch recombination (CSR) or restricted post-CSR B-cell development limits the functional utility of the humoral immune response to gp120. The E-gp120 immunogen is useful to bypass the restriction and induce broadly neutralizing CLIN-directed IgGs (see Supplemental Video Abstract, http://links.lww.com/QAD/A551). (Source: AIDS)
Palbociclib, a selective inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase4/6, blocks HIV-1 reverse transcription through the control of sterile ? motif and HD domain-containing protein-1 (SAMHD1) activity
Conclusions:Our results indicate that SAMHD1-mediated HIV-1 restriction is controlled by CDK as previously suggested but point to a preferential role for CDK2 and CDK6 as mediators of SAMHD1 activation. Our study provides a new signaling pathway susceptible for the development of new therapeutic approaches against HIV-1 infection. (Source: AIDS)
Comparison of auditory brainstem response in HIV-1 exposed and unexposed newborns and correlation with the maternal viral load and CD4+ cell counts
Conclusion:There was a trend towards more hearing loss in HIV-exposed newborns. However, hearing thresholds increase with increasing mothers? viral load. The background information supports the need for further studies on the role of in-utero exposure to HIV and HAART in newborn hearing loss. (Source: AIDS)
Limited clinical benefit of minority K103N and Y181C-variant detection in addition to routine genotypic resistance testing in antiretroviral therapy-naive patients
Conclusion:As revealed in settings of case?control studies, minority NNRTI-resistant HIV-1 variants can have an impact on ART. However, the implementation of minority NNRTI-resistant HIV-1 variant analysis in addition to genotypic resistance testing (GRT) cannot be recommended in routine clinical settings. Additional associated risk factors need to be discovered. (Source: AIDS)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Successful antiretroviral therapy delivery and retention in care among asymptomatic individuals with high CD4+ T-cell counts above 350 cells/?l in rural Uganda
Conclusions:We demonstrate high virologic suppression, retention, and safety among asymptomatic individuals with CD4+ above 350 cells/?l in a prototypic Ugandan clinic. Our results challenge current concerns that individuals with high CD4+ cell count lack motivation for ART, and may not achieve sustained virologic suppression. (Source: AIDS)
Low levels of HIV-1 RNA detected in the cerebrospinal fluid after up to 10 years of suppressive therapy are associated with local immune activation
We examined the frequency and magnitude of persistent low-level HIV-1 RNA in CSF and its relation to the central nervous system (CNS) immune activation. Methods:CSF and plasma HIV-1 RNA were measured using the single-copy assay with a detection limit of 0.3 copies/ml in 70 CSF and 68 plasma samples from 45 treated HIV-1-infected patients with less than 40 copies/ml of HIV-1 RNA in both fluids by standard clinical assays. We also measured CSF neopterin to assess intrathecal immune activation. Theoretical drug exposure was estimated using the CNS penetration-efficacy score of treatment regimens. Results:CSF HIV-1 RNA was detected in 12 of the 70 CSF samples (17%) taken after up to 10 years of suppressive therapy, compared to 39 of the 68 plasma samples (57%) with a median concentration of le...
Pregnancy outcomes and birth defects from an antiretroviral drug safety study of women in South Africa and Zambia
Objective:To evaluate the safety of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) in conception and pregnancy in different health systems. Design:A pilot ART registry to measure the prevalence of birth defects and adverse pregnancy outcomes in South Africa and Zambia. Methods:HIV-infected pregnant women on ART prior to conception were enrolled until delivery, and their infants were followed until 1 year old. Results:Between October 2010 and April 2011, 600 women were enrolled. The median CD4+ cell count at study enrollment was lower in South Africa than Zambia (320 vs. 430?cells/?l; P? (Source: AIDS)
Simplification to atazanavir/ritonavir monotherapy for HIV-1 treated individuals on virological suppression: 48-week efficacy and safety results
Conclusion:ATV/r monotherapy treatment simplification showed lower virological efficacy in comparison with maintaining triple therapy; NRTIs reintroduction was effective in all the individuals. (Source: AIDS)
HIV-1 superinfection is associated with an accelerated viral load increase but has a limited impact on disease progression
Objective:HIV-1 superinfection occurs frequently in high-risk populations, but its clinical consequences remain poorly characterized. We undertook this study to determine the impact of HIV-1 superinfection on disease progression. Design/methods:In the largest prospective cohort study of superinfection to date, we compared measures of HIV-1 progression in women who acquired superinfection with those who did not. Clinical and laboratory data were collected at quarterly intervals. Linear mixed effects models were used to compare postacute viral load and CD4+ T-cell counts over time in singly infected and superinfected women. Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to determine the effect of superinfection on time to clinical progression [CD4+ cell count (Source: AIDS)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
High-risk enteric pathogens associated with HIV infection and HIV exposure in Kenyan children with acute diarrhoea
Conclusion:EPEC and Cryptosporidium infections were more common in HIV-infected and HIV-exposed children, respectively. This could explain the increased mortality attributed to these pathogens in other studies. Interventions targeting EPEC and Cryptosporidium may reduce morbidity and mortality in high HIV-prevalence settings. (Source: AIDS)
Delayed HIV diagnosis and initiation of antiretroviral therapy: inequalities by educational level, COHERE in EuroCoord
We examined trends by education level in presentation with advanced HIV disease (AHD) (CD4+ (Source: AIDS)
Texting improves testing: a randomized trial of two-way SMS to increase postpartum prevention of mother-to-child transmission retention and infant HIV testing
Conclusions:Text messaging significantly improved maternal postpartum visit attendance, but overall return rates for these visits remained low. In contrast, high rates of early infant HIV testing were achieved in both arms, with significantly higher testing rates in the SMS compared to the control infants. (Source: AIDS)
Risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes in HIV-infected people during the HAART era: a population-based study
Conclusion:HIV-infected people in the HAART era continue to have elevated risk of AIDS-defining NHL subtypes, highlighting the contribution of moderate and severe immunosuppression to their cause. Whereas non-AIDS-defining subtypes are much less common, immunosuppression or other dysregulated immune states likely play a role in the cause of some T-cell lymphomas, marginal zone lymphoma, lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma/Waldenström macroglobulinemia, and acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma. (Source: AIDS)
Novel tetra-peptide insertion in Gag-p6 ALIX-binding motif in HIV-1 subtype C associated with protease inhibitor failure in Indian patients
A novel tetra-peptide insertion was identified in Gag-p6 ALIX-binding region, which appeared in protease inhibitor failure Indian HIV-1C sequences (odds ratio=17.1, P? (Source: AIDS)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
HLA-B?35-PX and HLA-B?35-PY subtype differentiation does not predict observed differences in level of HIV control in a Peruvian MSM cohort
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Ending the invisibility of sex workers in the US HIV/AIDS surveillance and prevention strategy
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Triple secondary neoplasms: penis, lip and oral cavity in an AIDS patient treated with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin for cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Virological and immunological outcomes of elvitegravir-based regimen in a treatment-naïve HIV-2-infected patient
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Etravirine and rilpivirine-specific mutations selected by efavirenz and nevirapine exposure in patients infected with HIV-1 non-B subtypes
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Malawi: UN - First Lady Calls for Inclusion of Youths in Matters Affecting Their Lives
[Malawi News Agency]New York -: Malawi's First Lady, Madam Getrude Mutharika has called on member states of the Eastern and Southern Africa (ESA Initiative) to fully involve the youth in matters that affect their lives and promote peer education among them to avoid early pregnancies, marriages and HIV infections. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Chronic Binge Alcohol Consumption Does Not Diminish Effectiveness of Continuous Antiretroviral Suppression of Viral Load in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus?Infected Macaques
ConclusionsThese findings indicate that CBA does not attenuate effectiveness of NRTI suppression of viral load, nor does it appear to interact with NRTI to produce toxicity during the initial 2 months of treatment. We conclude that while efforts to reduce AUD in PLWHA should be a priority, counseling on the importance of adherence to ART even on drinking days should also be promoted. (Source: Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research)
Modeling the Implementation of Universal Coverage for HIV Treatment as Prevention and its Impact on the HIV Epidemic
Abstract The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) recently updated its global targets for antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage for HIV-positive persons under which 90 % of HIV-positive people are tested, 90 % of those are on ART, and 90 % of those achieve viral suppression. Treatment policy is moving toward treating all HIV-infected persons regardless of CD4 cell count?otherwise known as treatment as prevention?in order to realize the full therapeutic and preventive benefits of ART. Mathematical models have played an important role in guiding the development of these policies by projecting long-term health impacts and cost-effectiveness. To guide future policy, new mathematical models must consider the barriers patients face in receiving and taking ART. Here...
Communication intervention in Rett syndrome: a survey of speech language pathologists in Swedish health services.
Conclusions: Communication aids were reported to have a positive influence on communicative functions. Swedish SLP services followed best practice in several aspects, but there are areas with potential for development. Tools and best practice guidelines are needed to support SLPs in the AAC process for clients with Rett syndrome. [Box: see text]. PMID: 25250808 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Disability and Rehabilitation)
3in * a lifetime in paradise
Although the global burden of cancer is not known with precision, it is certain that it has doubled over the last 25 years and is set to double again before 2030. This period has also witnessed unprecedented advances in knowledge of Oncology from understanding causes, both lifestyle and biological, to the enormous progress in developing effective treatments for many forms of cancer.However, the contrast in diagnosis, treatment and outcomes between the high-resource and low-resource countries is dramatic. This is a particularly important issue since the pattern of cancer globally in the foreseeable future will be heavily dependent on what happens in China, India and Africa, where half of the world's population currently live. Africa presents the biggest challenge with population growth and ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
549p * impact of tumour ras/braf status on efficacy of first-line panitumumab + folfiri in patients (pts) with metastatic colorectal cancer (mcrc)
Conclusions: In line with recent studies, consistently favourable efficacy was observed in pts with RAS/BRAF WT vs MT mCRC tumours receiving first-line panitumumab + FOLFIRI treatment. KRAS mutation status appears insufficient for selecting pts for first-line panitumumab + FOLFIRI treatment; tumour RAS analysis aids optimum pt selection.Disclosure: M. Karthaus: Prof Karthaus has participated in Advisory boards (compensated) for Amgen; L. Mineur: has received research support from Amgen (but not in the context of this abstract), honoraria from Amgen for participation in advisory boards (but not for this study); R. Greil: has received honoraria from Amgen for participation in advisory boards and research support from Amgen (but not in the context of this abstract); J. Thaler: has received ho...
1403p * hepatitis b and c and human immunodeficiency virus infection in a cohort of patients with cervical cancer from the brazilian national cancer institute
Conclusions: Although the low prevalence of HIV infection, and hepatitis B and C in the cohort analyzed, the possibility of such co-infections should always be evaluated, since those diseases share routes of transmisson and prognosis could be influenced.Disclosure: All authors have declared no conflicts of interest. (Source: Annals of Oncology)
1567p * a multi-institutional surveillance of clinicopathological features and molecular epidemiology of egfr mutations in lung cancer patients living with human immunodeficiency virus infection in japan
Conclusions: There appear to be ethnic differences in the prevalence of EGFR mutations even in the population living with HIV and the clinical characteristics or outcome may be provided in the regional differences.Disclosure: All authors have declared no conflicts of interest. (Source: Annals of Oncology)
Multi-ingredient, Caffeine-Containing Dietary Supplements: History, Safety, and Efficacy.
Authors: Gurley BJ, Steelman SC, Thomas SL Abstract PURPOSE: Our objective was to review the history, safety, and efficacy of caffeine-containing dietary supplements in the United States and Canada. METHODS: PubMed and Web of Science databases (1980-2014) were searched for articles related to the pharmacology, toxicology, and efficacy of caffeine-containing dietary supplements with an emphasis on Ephedra-containing supplements, Ephedra-free supplements, and energy drinks or shots. FINDINGS: Among the first and most successful dietary supplements to be marketed in the United States were those containing Ephedra-combinations of ephedrine alkaloids, caffeine, and other phytochemicals. A decade after their inception, serious tolerability concerns prompted removal of Ephedra sup...
Male partner risk behaviors are associated with reactive rapid HIV antibody tests among pregnant Mexican women: Implications for prevention of vertical and sexual HIV transmission in concentrated HIV epidemics
Mexico?s policies on antenatal HIV testing are contradictory, and little is known about social and behavioral characteristics that increase pregnant Mexican women?s risks of acquiring HIV. We analyzed the association between risk behaviors reported by pregnant women for themselves and their male partners and women?s rapid HIV antibody test results from a large national sample. Three quarters of pregnant women with a reactive test did not report risk behaviors for themselves and one third did not report risk behaviors for themselves or their male partners. (Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
HIV as Chronic Illness: Caregiving and Social Networks in a Vulnerable Population
We sought to understand the support networks of people living with HIV (PLWH) in the Canadian cities of Winnipeg and Regina, particularly of their network of caregivers and with a focus on people from disadvantaged and/or stigmatized communities. Using a variation of the Photovoice method, 31 study participants took photographs of their everyday realities and were then interviewed. Among the findings was the heavy reliance on institutional caregivers and on nonhuman sources of support. There was evidence of peer-to-peer networks of care, but the strongest connections were with their formal caregivers. (Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)
Kenya: HIV-Aids, Nile Perch and Water Hyacinth
[The Star]In the 5th century BC, Greek historian Herodotus declared Egypt the gift of the Nile. For nearly 2,000 years the source of the Nile remained a mystery. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
South Africa: Has President Zuma Hurt Aids Fight More Than Thabo Mbeki?
[Africa Check]Has South African president Jacob Zuma set back the the fight against HIV/AIDS more than his predecessor? Opposition leader Helen Zille believes so but the evidence shows otherwise. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Hearing aid charging opposed in feedback exercise
FINANCE: North Staffordshire Clinical Commissioning Group has revealed overwhelming public opposition to its proposals to restrict funding for hearing aids. However, the CCG claimed that much of the evidence cited by a national charity opposing the plans ?lacked relevance?. (Source: HSJ)
Nigeria: HIV/Aids - Rivers Identifies Orphans, Vulnerable Children for Assistance
[Guardian]THE Rivers State government on Monday said it was conducting an "organised survey" to identify orphans and vulnerable children in the state to enable it provide them with necessary assistance. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Nigeria: Falling HIV Funds Leaves 1.2 Million Vulnerable
[Daily Trust]Continued shortfall in donor funding for HIV/AIDS programme could leave as many as 1.2 million people affected by HIV/AIDS vulnerable as domestic funding from the Nigerian government continues to dwindle. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Table of Contents
Abstract Analysis: Rise in youth suicide attempts followed FDA's antidepressant warnings Study: No major risk of cardiac defects from antidepressant use in pregnancy Clozapine?induced pulmonary embolism and aspiration pneumonia Mood stabilizer mitigates risk of manic switch in bipolar disorder Varenicline with bupropion helps smoking abstinence in NRT nonresponders Stimulants for ADHD could have protective effect on suicide Antipsychotics cause particular concern in study of adverse event visits Brain malformation more common among SSRI?exposed children Varenicline effectiveness improved in combination with NRT Neurosteroid aids depressive symptoms in patients with bipolar disorder Oxytocin nasal spray ineffective in study examining early psychosis New Drug Applications (Source: The Br...
Compound from hops aids cognitive function in young animals
Xanthohumol, a type of flavonoid found in hops and beer, has been shown in a new study to improve cognitive function in young mice, but not in older animals. The findings are another step toward understanding, and ultimately reducing the degradation of memory that happens with age in many mammalian species, including humans. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)
Pulmonary Disease Under-recognized in HIVPulmonary Disease Under-recognized in HIV
Screening for COPD, which is linked to a decreased CD4 count, needs to be improved in the HIV-positive population, researchers report. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)
Africa: Beating the virus. Stories about HIV in Zimbabwe
[MSF]Lindani, ZA -Six neighbours from the same village, all of them HIV-positive and stable patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) - the treatment that manages to keep the virus in check - take turns to go and pick up their medicines: every month, one of them goes to the hospital in everyone's name. This is the essence of the so-called Community ART Groups (CAG), a simple, inexpensive initiative benefiting both members of the group and health facilities, started by Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) in 2013 in T (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Namibia: A Passionate Volunteer for HIV/Aids Education
[New Era]Windhoek -Twenty-eight-year-old Maria Makuni Mandondo who lives and works in Musese, a village about 85 kilometres west of Rundu, is making an impact in the lives of communities in the area. She works as a field officer for the Development Aid from People to People (DAPP) and Total Control of the Epidemic (TCE). (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Tanzania: Tanzania Regions Asked Not to Let Up on Aids
[EA Business]Njombe, Tanzania -Tanzania's regional authorities have been asked to set aside money in their annual strategic plans to curb the spread of the HIV/Aids. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Cholesterol Guidelines Applied to HIV-infected PatientsCholesterol Guidelines Applied to HIV-infected Patients
This article compares recommendations for statins among this high-risk population. AIDS (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
Zimbabwe: Govt to Scale Up Anti-Retroviral Therapy Services
[Key Correspondents]Zimbabwe's Ministry of Health and Child Care has announced plans to scale up anti-retroviral therapy services by the end of 2014, amid concerns over the current huge deficit. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Compound from hops aids cognitive function in young animals
(Oregon State University) Xanthohumol, a type of flavonoid found in hops and beer, has been shown in a new study to improve cognitive function in young mice, but not in older animals. The findings are another step toward understanding, and ultimately reducing the degradation of memory that happens with age in many mammalian species, including humans. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Malawi: Dowa Ready for HTC Week
[Malawi News Agency]Dowa -Dowa district is ready for HIV Testing and Counseling week (HTC)schedule for 22nd to 26th September 2014. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Oral-resident natural Th17 cells and {gamma}{delta} T cells control opportunistic Candida albicans infections
Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) is an opportunistic fungal infection caused by Candida albicans. OPC is frequent in HIV/AIDS, implicating adaptive immunity. Mice are naive to Candida, yet IL-17 is induced within 24 h of infection, and susceptibility is strongly dependent on IL-17R signaling. We sought to identify the source of IL-17 during the early innate response to candidiasis. We show that innate responses to Candida require an intact TCR, as SCID, IL-7R&alpha;&ndash;/&ndash;, and Rag1&ndash;/&ndash; mice were susceptible to OPC, and blockade of TCR signaling by cyclosporine induced susceptibility. Using fate-tracking IL-17 reporter mice, we found that IL-17 is produced within 1&ndash;2 d by tongue-resident populations of T cells and CD3+CD4+CD44hiTCR&beta;+CCR6+ natural Th17 (nTh17) c...
Behavioral Counseling Urged for Teens, Young Adults at Risk for STDs
'Intensive' instruction most effective for curbing dangerous practices, U.S. health experts say (Source: Fertility News - Doctors Lounge)
The Examination of Emotion Dysregulation as a Moderator of Depression and HIV-Relevant Outcome Relations Among an HIV+Sample.
Authors: Brandt CP, Bakhshaie J, Zvolensky MJ, Grover KW, Gonzalez A Abstract The present study examined whether emotion dysregulation moderated the relations between depressive symptoms and HIV symptoms, HIV medication adherence due to medication side effects, avoidant coping, and distress tolerance among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA). Participants included 115 PLHA (16.8% female; Mage = 49.70, SD = 8.57). Results indicated that there was a significant interaction between depressive symptoms and emotion dysregulation in relation to HIV symptoms, HIV medication adherence due to medication side effects, avoidant coping, and distress tolerance. The form of the interaction indicated that PLHA experiencing higher depressive symptoms and higher levels of emotion dysregulation r...
Typologies of positive psychotic symptoms in methamphetamine dependence.
CONCLUSION: MAP is a heterogeneous syndrome with positive symptom typologies. SCIENTIFIC SIGNIFICANCE: This study represents the first attempt at identifying typologies of MAP and highlights the potential utility of LCA in future large-scale studies. (Am J Addict 2014;XX:XX-XX). PMID: 25251691 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal on Addictions)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Dental Microscopy Aids Granger Dentist in Restorations
(Source: Medical News (via PRIMEZONE))
Malawi: Nankhumwa Urges People to Go for HIV Test, Condemns Mchenga Wa Satana
[Malawi News Agency]Mchinji -Minister of Information, Tourism and Culture Kondwani Nankhumwa Saturday challenged people in the country to go for HIV test to successfully fight the HIV and AIDS pandemic. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Georgia?s Female Drug Addicts Face Double Struggle
By Pavol StracanskyTBILISI, Sep 21 2014 (IPS)Irina was 21 when she first started using drugs. More than 30 years later, having lost her husband, her home and her business to drugs, she is still battling her addiction.But, like almost all female drug addicts in this former Soviet state, she has faced a desperate struggle not only with her drug problem, but with accessing help in the face of institutionalised and systematic discrimination because of her gender.?Georgia?s society is very male-dominated,? she told IPS. ?And this is reflected in the attitudes to drugs. It?s as if it?s OK for men to use drugs but not women. For women, the stigma of drug use is massive. There are many women who do not join programmes helping them as they would rather not be seen there.?Women make up...
WHO calls for stronger focus on adolescent health. Road traffic injuries, HIV/AIDS, suicide are top causes of death; depression is number 1 cause of illness and disability -
[Abstract unavailable] Language: en... (Source: SafetyLit: All (Unduplicated))
Host Defense Against Cryptococcal Disease: Is There a Role for B Cells and Antibody-Mediated Immunity?
We describe what is currently known. (Source: Current Fungal Infection Reports)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Treatment of severe or progressive Kaposi's sarcoma in HIV-infected adults.
CONCLUSIONS: The findings from this review suggest that HAART plus chemotherapy may be beneficial in reducing disease progression compared to HAART alone in patients with severe or progressive Kaposi's sarcoma. For patients on HAART, when choosing from different chemotherapy regimens, there was no observed difference between liposomal doxorubicin, liposomal daunorubicin and paclitaxel. PMID: 25221796 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews)
Depression and social support among women living with the substance abuse, violence, and hiv/aids syndemic: a qualitative exploration - Illangasekare SL, Burke JG, Chander G, Gielen AC.
BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV), HIV/AIDS, and substance use are described as the SAVA "syndemic" among low-income urban women because of their intersecting and synergistic presence in these women's lives. Depressive symptoms are significantly ... (Source: SafetyLit: All (Unduplicated))
Trends in hospital admissions at a Department for Infectious Diseases in Italy from 1995 to 2011 and implications for health policies
Conclusions: Older age, a higher number of comorbidities, a longer hospital LOS for certain conditions, and a higher rate of HSOT characterize the patients admitted to this ID department in recent years. Despite progress in treatment and management, infectious diseases continue to be a major threat to human health. The current challenge for ID departments is the treatment of complex cases, often associated with chronic diseases in elderly patients. Continuous monitoring at a local and national level will allow early identification of changes in the epidemiological patterns of IDs and provide information for healthcare system planning. (Source: BioMed Central)
Targeting the C-type Lectins-Mediated Host-Pathogen Interactions with Dextran.
This article is open to POST-PUBLICATION REVIEW. Registered readers (see "For Readers") may comment by clicking on ABSTRACT on the issue's contents page. PMID: 25224349 [PubMed - in process] (Source: J Pharm Pharm Sci)
U.N. Urged to Reaffirm Reproductive Rights in Post-2015 Agenda
Millions of women in Pakistan do not have access to family planning services. Credit: Zofeen Ebrahim/IPSBy Thalif DeenUNITED NATIONS, Sep 19 2014 (IPS)The U.N.&#8217;s post-2015 development agenda has been described as the most far-reaching and comprehensive development-related endeavour ever undertaken by the world body.But where does population, family planning and sexual and reproductive health rights (SRHR) fit into the proposed 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which are an integral part of that development agenda?"We must continue to fight until every individual, everywhere on this planet, is given the opportunity to live a healthy and sexual reproductive life." -- Purnima Mane, head of Pathfinder InternationalOf the 17, Goal 3 is aimed at &#8220;ensuring healthy lives and pro...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Namibia: Rising HIV Infections Threat to Coastal Economy
[Namibian]AT least 1 282 Namibians tested HIV-positive last year in the Erongo region alone, a figure which the Namibia Network of AIDS Service Organisations (Nanaso) says may hurt economic activities in the region. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Liberia: 'Let Us Not Forget the Silent Killer'
[NEWS]A former Managing Editor of The News Newspaper Joseph G. Bartuah has reminded Liberians and other folks on social media not to forget about the original silent killer, HIV/AIDS. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Uganda: Demand for ARVs Still Outpaces Supply
[Observer]Despite a remarkable increase in access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) between 2003 and 2009, the number of people in need of the drugs continues to outpace the response. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
HIV Provider-Patient Communication Regarding CVD RiskHIV Provider-Patient Communication Regarding CVD Risk
Are HIV clinicians sufficiently addressing CVD risk factors with their patients? Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
Uganda: Let's Fight Stigma Against Youths With HIV
[Observer]Uganda is acclaimed as a champion against HIV/Aids for decades, having made tremendous strides in containing the pandemic and reversing its spread. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Nigeria: NGO Empowers 22 HIV Positive Persons in Jigawa
[Leadership]A Jigawa-based NGO, Society for Community Awareness and Mobilisation (SOCHAM), on Thursday distributed working equipment to 22 persons living with HIV and AIDS in Hadejia town. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: U.S. Fund Ends for 13,000 Orphans
[Daily Trust]A five-year project funded by the US government has closed after enrolling some 13,000 children orphaned and left vulnerable on account of HIV/AIDS in Bauchi, Kaduna and Katsina. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Hearing aids: How to choose the right one
(Source: MayoClinic.com Full Feed)
The influence of depressive symptoms and substance use on adherence to antiretroviral therapy. A cross-sectional prevalence study.
CONCLUSION: ART interruption may reflect recall errors and changes to the Brazilian demographic characteristics of HIV infection. The missed doses may reflect lifestyle characteristics of younger individuals. Attendance for HIV-positive individuals, particularly younger patients, should involve interventions and counseling in relation to the presence of depressive symptoms. PMID: 25250800 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Sao Paulo Medical Journal)
Temporal trends in critical events complicating HIV infection: 1999?2010 multicentre cohort study in France
Conclusions Progressive ageing, increasing prevalence of comorbidities (mainly malignancies), a steady decline in AIDS-related illnesses and improved benefits from life-sustaining therapies were the main temporal trends in HIV-infected patients requiring ICU admission. (Source: Intensive Care Medicine)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Granulomatous Amoebic Encephalitis: Ghost Response of an Immunocompromised Host?
Authors: Baig AM Abstract Naegleria fowleri, Acanthamoeba and Balamuthia mandrillaris spp. are known to cause fatal amebic encephalitis. Here we attempt to draw the attention of these cases being reported as "Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis" (GAE), and of its occurrences in immunocompromised individuals and patients with AIDS. GAE, like any other granulomatous inflammations can occur only in the presence of ample numbers of CD4+ve T-lymphocytes. We therefore recommend the use of this terminology with obligation and only when the diagnostic criteria's have been met. Through extensive reviews of manuscripts published over a period of 5 decades on the relevant topic and cytokine studies and/or morphological evidences provided in published manuscripts were analyzed in detail by indep...
Multimodality vaccination against clade C SHIV: Partial protection against mucosal challenges with a heterologous tier 2 virus.
Authors: Lakhashe SK, Byrareddy SN, Zhou M, Bachler BC, Hu SL, Villinger F, Stock S, Vargas-Inchaustegui DA, Robert-Guroff M, Johnson WE, Polonis VR, Forthal DN, Loret EP, Rasmussen RA, Ruprecht RM, Clade C Program Project Group, Clade C Program Project Group Abstract We sought to test whether vaccine-induced immune responses could protect rhesus macaques (RMs) against upfront heterologous challenges with an R5 simian-human immunodeficiency virus, SHIV-2873Nip. This SHIV strain exhibits many properties of transmitted HIV-1, such as tier 2 phenotype (relatively difficult to neutralize), exclusive CCR5 tropism, and gradual disease progression in infected RMs. Since no human AIDS vaccine recipient is likely to encounter an HIV-1 strain that exactly matches the immunogens, we immunized...
Qualitative Evaluation of the Relevance and Acceptability of a Web-Based HIV Prevention Game for Rural Adolescents
African Americans in the rural Southern United States continue to experience disproportionate increases in new HIV/AIDS infections. Electronic gaming interventions hold promise but the use of HIV prevention games is limited. The purpose of this study was to assess the acceptability and relevance of a web-based HIV prevention game for African American rural adolescents. Findings from focus groups conducted with 42 participants suggested that the game was educational and somewhat entertaining but lacking in real-life scenarios and player-control. (Source: Journal of Pediatric Nursing)
San Francisco Politician: 'I Take a Pill Called Truvada'San Francisco Politician: 'I Take a Pill Called Truvada'
Truvada is a FDA-approved drug that dramatically reduces the risk of HIV infection. Kaiser Health News (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)
Kenya: Aidspan Conducts Survey of East African Sub - and Sub-Sub Recipients of Global Fund Grants
[GFO]Aidspan has released a brief analysis of a survey conducted of sub- and sub-sub recipients of Global Fund grants in four East Africa countries: Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. All four countries are classified by the Grants Management unit as High Impact Africa 1 countries. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Liberia: On the Border Between Côte d'Ivoire and Liberia, a Challenge in Supporting HIV-Positive Women
[GFO]Ten years of armed conflict and perpetual insecurity have driven HIV prevalence in Côte d'Ivoire to heretofore unseen levels -- especially among women in the western zone on the Liberian border. Many of these women were infected as a result of sexual violence perpetuated by one or another of the marauding armed groups that terrorized the region for over a decade; others were infected after turning to prostitution to escape extreme poverty. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Cameroon: CIRCB, African Synergy - Italian Ambassador Pays Courtesy Visit
[Cameroon Tribune]Mrs Samuela Isopa on September 17, 2014 expressed satisfaction with the fruitful cooperation between her country and Cameroon. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Zambia: Curb High Teen Pregnancies
[Times of Zambia]Statistics for 2013 showing that 12,500 pregnancies were recorded at primary school level while another 2,428 in secondary schools, as announced by the Ministry of Education, are not only shocking but a choking problem on efforts to educate the girl-child. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Liberia: 'Ebola Is Not the Only Deadly Virus' - HIV Carriers
[Analyst]People infected with the deadly HIV, the virus that causes the AIDS disease in Liberia have complained that they are being ignored at the advent of the out outbreak of the Ebola virus in the country. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: 'Youth Reproductive, Sexual Health Education Key to Development'
[Guardian]NEARLY one third of Nigeria'stotal population of 160 million is between the ages of 10 and 24. Nigerian adolescents' sizeable share of the population makes them integral to the country's social, political and economic development. Nigeria's development is compromised by the sexual and reproductive health issues afflicting its youth. Lack of sexual health information and services make young people vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unintended pregnancy. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Improving Health Infrastructure Across Nations Key to Maintaining Successful Programs
Without attention to the management, financing, and infrastructure that support health services in low- and middle-income countries, it will not be possible to maintain the progress of global health programs, such as the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) and response efforts to widespread pandemics, says a new report from the Institute of Medicine. For example, malaria eradication efforts may have failed because case surveillance was not integrated into primary care. The report says an aid strategy that emphasizes research and training, global public goods, efficient management, and rigorous program evaluation would go far to improving the health infrastructure in these countries and to making good use of the proportionately decreasing prominence of U.S. assistance i...
South Africa: HIV, Aids Communications Strategy for Youth On the Cards
[SAnews.gov.za]Deputy President Cyril Ramaphosa says there is a plan to develop a comprehensive communications strategy to address the prevalence HIV and Aids among young men and women. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: Reproductive Health Tops Hurdles to Youth Development in Nigeria
[Daily Independent]Poor access to Reproductive Health has emerged as a major reason youths in Nigeria are unable to develop intellectually. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Implementing strategies in consumer and community engagement in health care: results of a large-scale, scoping meta-review
Conclusions: The diversity of the field indicates the need to measure each component of CCE. This meta-review provides the basis for development of a new eight stage model of consumer and community engagement. This model emphasises the importance of clarity and focus, as well as an extensive evaluation of contextual factors within specific settings, before the implementation of CCE strategies, enabling those involved in CCE to determine potential facilitators and barriers to the process. (Source: BMC Health Services Research)
Interventions to enhance informed choices among invitees of screening programmes--a systematic review
Conclusion: The empirical evidence regarding interventions to improve informed decision making in screening is limited. It is unknown which strategies to enhance informed decision making are most effective, although DAs are promising. Systematic development of interventions to enhance informed choices in screening deserves priority, especially in disadvantaged groups. (Source: The European Journal of Public Health)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Electronic nicotine delivery systems for smoking cessation: where are we?
Abstract Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have surged in popularity since their introduction in 2007. Sales of e-cigarettes and related products in the US were expected to exceed $1B in 2013. With the popularity of the electronic cigarette on the rise, physicians are sure to get questions from patients about the safety of e-cigarettes and their effectiveness as tools for smoking cessation or reduction. Most users of the electronic cigarette are so-called dual users?current cigarette smokers who also use e-cigarettes. The appeal of these devices is largely based on a perception that they are not as harmful as traditional cigarettes. Other factors that contribute to the popularity of e-cigarettes are that they have the look and feel of a traditional cigarette, that they can be...
Type 1 Diabetes Education Aids Transition to Adult CareType 1 Diabetes Education Aids Transition to Adult Care
Providing structured education to young adults with type 1 diabetes soon after their transition from pediatric to adult care shows benefits in terms of glycemic control. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Diabetes Headlines)
Certain gut bacteria may induce metabolic changes following exposure to artificial sweeteners
Artificial sweeteners have long been promoted as diet and health aids. But breaking research shows that these products may be leading to the very diseases they were said to help prevent: scientists have discovered that, after exposure to artificial sweeteners, our gut bacteria may be triggering harmful metabolic changes. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)
Malawi: Cultural and Religious Perception Dwindling Female Condom Uptake
[Malawi News Agency]Blantyre -Malawi is said to be one of the countries with low female condom consumption due to cultural and religious believes which perceive condom use as sinful, dirty and immoral. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
'Smart material' chin strap harvests energy from chewing
A chin strap that can harvest energy from jaw movements has been created by a group of researchers in Canada. It is hoped that the device can generate electricity from eating, chewing and talking, and power a number of small-scale implantable or wearable electronic devices, such as hearing aids, cochlear implants, electronic hearing protectors and communication devices. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Nigeria: Katsina HIV/Aids Prevalence Rate Drops
[Daily Trust]Katsina -The Executive Director, Katsina State Agency for the Control of HIV/AIDS, Dr Muntari Hassan, said prevalence rate of the disease in the state has dropped. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Zimbabwe: Govt Fills MSF Funding Vacuum
[The Herald]Government has taken over the funding of HIV and Aids programmes in Beitbridge District after Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF), a local non-governmental organisation, was chased away for allegedly meddling in local politics. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Zimbabwe: HIV+ Woman Jailed 20 Years for Rape
[The Herald]A 38-year-old HIV-positive Harare woman, who sexually abused two teenage boys aged 14 and 15, will spend the next 20 years in jail. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Class II Special Controls Guideline: Tryptase Test System as an Aid in the Diagnosis of Systemic Mastocytosis - Guideline for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff (PDF - 142KB)
A tryptase test system is a device that aids in the diagnosis of systemic mastocytosis. It is intended for in vitro diagnostic use as an aid in the clinical diagnosis of patients with a suspicion of systemic mastocytosis in conjunction with other... (Source: Food and Drug Adminstration (FDA): CDRHNew)
A qualitative insight of HIV/AIDS patients' perspective on disease and disclosure
ConclusionsThe outcomes provided basic information about patients' perceptions towards disease and status disclosure among HIV/AIDS patients which can help in the designing and improvising existing strategies to enhance disease awareness and acceptance and will also serve as baseline data for future research further focusing on this subject. (Source: Health Expectations)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
JIAPAC Mourns the Loss of Joep M. A. Lange, MD, PHD
(Source: Journal of the International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care (JIAPAC))
Welfare Homes for Patients Living with HIV/AIDS in Andalusia
Conclusion: The AWHs perform an important role in the care of certain types of patients with HIV infection. They require human and material resources to be able to tackle the immense difficulties associated with this group of patients. (Source: Journal of the International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care (JIAPAC))
Global Policy Review of Recommendations on Cotrimoxazole Prophylaxis among People Living with HIV
The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) Treatment 2015 calls for expanded access to HIV care and treatment, including cotrimoxazole preventive therapy (CPT), for prevention of HIV-related morbidity and mortality. We review 115 national guidelines from 92 countries for recommendations on CPT for adults and adolescents and determine the level of consistency with the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. Of the 66 countries with recommendations, 5 (8%) countries recommend lifelong CPT for people living with HIV; 19 (29%) countries recommend a CD4 count threshold of &le;350 cells/mm3 or WHO clinical stages III and IV or II, III, and IV; and 19 (29%) countries recommend a CD4 count threshold of &le;200 cells/mm3. Of the 48 countries with recommendations on discontinuing CP...
Role of Education in HIV Clinical Outcomes in a Tuberculosis Endemic Setting
This study evaluated how educational attainment impacts clinical outcomes of HIV-positive patients in Durban, South Africa. The authors conducted a prospective study of 466 adult HIV-positive patients initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) at an urban TB-HIV clinic from October 2004 to June 2007. The level of educational attainment (highest grade completed) was assessed at ART initiation. The authors measured tuberculosis treatment outcomes as well as death, lost to follow-up, viral suppression (HIV RNA &lt;400 copies/mL), and immunologic response (CD4 &ge;200 cells/mm3) at 6, 12, and 24 months after ART initiation. After 24 months of ART initiation, there were 43 deaths; viral suppression and immunologic response were observed in 88% and 83% of the remaining patients, respectively. The a...
A Case of Cerebellar Ataxia Associated with HIV Infection
Cerebellar complications of HIV infection primarily manifested in ataxia, usually arise as the result of cerebellar lesions due to opportunistic infections, vasculitis or neoplastic processes. A 28 year old female known to have HIV infection for last four years, presented to our hospital with progressive unsteadiness in walking, slurring of speech and intention tremors for the last two months. There was no family history of similar complaints, and she was on Anti retroviral treatment for last one and a half years. The results of examination were notable for severe dysarthria, slow saccades, a conspicuous dysmetria and dysdiadokokinesia. She had no cognitive, sensory or motor deficits. MRI revealed diffuse cerebellar atrophy. Extensive laboratory work up failed to disclose a cause for subac...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Glioblastoma Multiforme in an HIV-Infected Patient: An Unexpected Diagnosis
We reported a case of glioblastoma multiforme in a 42-year-old female patient with HIV infection, who had a rapid progression to AIDS. She was diagnosed with an intracerebral mass and treated as neurotoxoplasmosis with improvement in the first week of therapy. On the fourth week she had a clinical worsening evolving to death, receiving the diagnosis at necropsy. (Source: Journal of the International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care (JIAPAC))
Elements of Condom-Use Decision Making among South African Men Who Have Sex with Men
South African men who have sex with men (MSM) are at increased risk for HIV infection, and male condoms are fundamental to HIV prevention programs. We explored condom use experiences through in-depth interviews with 34 South African MSM from Cape Town and Port Elizabeth. For data analysis, we generated a codebook and used the constant comparison method. Condom use reinforcing elements included use of alternative sexual strategies, having a high level of self-worth that was linked to protective behaviors, and use of ready-made condom negotiation scripts. Elements inhibiting condom use included perceiving substantial declines in sexual pleasure/performance, experiences of condom failure (possibly related to petroleum-based lubricant), and being in trusted relationships. Our findings suggest ...
Self-Reported Preconception Care of HIV-Positive Women of Reproductive Potential: A Retrospective Study
Conclusions: Preconception care in our cohort was suboptimal. We recommend that counseling on healthy preconception should be part of routine HIV care. (Source: Journal of the International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care (JIAPAC))
Utility of Cryptococcal Antigen Screening and Evolution of Asymptomatic Cryptococcal Antigenemia among HIV-Infected Women Starting Antiretroviral Therapy in Thailand
Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) remains a significant HIV-associated opportunistic infection in Southeast Asia and Africa, with a high burden of disease and a high mortality rate despite the availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART). We retrospectively examined the utility of cryptococcal antigen screening to identify risk for CM among 211 Thai women initiating ART. Antigenemia prevalence was 11% (n = 9) among 84 women with a CD4 count &lt;100 cells/mm3. Screening identified all women who later developed CM. Cryptococcal antigen titers decreased over time with ART. Our study confirmed findings from previous studies in Thailand and South Africa and provided novel observational data regarding the course of cryptococcal antigenemia in patients initiating ART and the poor efficacy of low-dose ...
Vitamin D Insufficiency/Deficiency in HIV-Infected Inner City Youth
Conclusions: A higher prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency was found in our study compared to the previous large cohorts. However, patients who were prescribed TDF/EFV did not have lower vitamin D levels. Inadequate sunlight exposure in temperate latitudes and the cloud effect of the Great Lakes as well as large number of African American participants who live in the inner city area with poverty and poor diet may combine to explain these results. The effect of ARV medications on vitamin D may be washed out by the numerous other factors affecting vitamin D in our patients. Severe vitamin D deficiency seemed to be related to lower CD4 counts and CD4% but not related to HIV plasma RNA. Vitamin D supplementation did not increase CD4 counts/CD4% in our study. (Source: Journal of the...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Perceptions of Male Circumcision among Married Couples in Rural Malawi
Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) is being suggested as an essential HIV prevention strategy in high-prevalence areas. These analyses reflect data collected from 360 married couples, 50% of which included a circumcised husband and the other 50% uncircumcised, in rural Malawi. Regardless of their circumcision status, men were more likely to perceive that being circumcised was less painful than having a tooth pulled, giving birth, and having malaria. Men reported having the same sexual pleasure regardless of the circumcision status, while women were 2.0 times more likely to report greater sexual pleasure with a circumcised partner. Participants identified the medical benefits of VMMC and highlighted the potential personal benefits of VMMC. As VMMC has become a promising method of HI...
Effects of Lifetime History of Use of Problematic Alcohol on HIV Medication Adherence
Conclusion: Results suggest that a history of problematic alcohol use may not impact ART adherence. (Source: Journal of the International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care (JIAPAC))
Beyond the Brain: The Role of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in Viroimmune Responses to Antiretroviral Therapy among People Living with HIV with and without Alcohol Use
Conclusion: Hazardous alcohol use was associated with BDNF alterations, which in turn were linked to a limited response to ART in terms of viral suppression and CD4 count improvements. (Source: Journal of the International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care (JIAPAC))
Treatment Response in Association with Adherence Patterns to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in Pediatric Patients with Perinatally Acquired HIV Infection
Conclusion: Alteration of adherence to HAART is a significant predictor of persistent virologic failure and high viremia in perinatally infected HIV patients. Implementation of longitudinal adherence assessments may target patients with nonsustained adherence patterns and help decrease the risk for virologic failure and disease progression. (Source: Journal of the International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care (JIAPAC))
Adverse Drug Reactions to Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV-Infected Patients at the Largest Public Hospital in Nicaragua
Conclusion: Adverse drug reactions most frequently affected the central nervous system. No ADR was life threatening. The frequency of ADRs in this Nicaraguan patient population was less than that reported from other studies in resource-limited settings. (Source: Journal of the International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care (JIAPAC))<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Effect of Lipodystrophy on the Quality of Life among People Living with HIV (PLHIV) on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy
Conclusions: Lipodystrophy adversely affects QoL among PLHIV. There is a need for studies analyzing factors that can potentially improve the QoL in such individuals. (Source: Journal of the International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care (JIAPAC))
Baseline Renal Function among Antiretroviral Therapy-Naive, HIV-Infected Patients in Southeast Nigeria
Conclusion: The authors observed a high prevalence of significant renal impairment among HIV-infected patients at the time of ART initiation. (Source: Journal of the International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care (JIAPAC))
Body mass index and the risk of incident noncommunicable diseases after starting antiretroviral therapy
ConclusionsOverweight individuals starting ART have a lower risk of developing NCDs compared with normal BMI individuals, which may reflect a biological effect of adipose tissue or differences in patient or provider behaviours. (Source: HIV Medicine)
Sex-specific disease outcomes of HIV-positive and HIV-negative drug users admitted to an opioid substitution therapy program in Spain: a cohort study
Conclusions: Significant reductions in mortality of patients in MTP are observed after nineteen years of observation. However, HIV infection shows a great impact on survival, particularly among HIV-infected women. (Source: BMC Infectious Diseases)
Development of a technical assistance framework for building organizational capacity of health programs in resource-limited settings
Conclusions: A systematic adaptation process has produced a qualitative framework that can inform implementation strategies in support of country led HIV care and treatment programs. The framework, as a well-received iterative process focused on technical assistance, may have broader utility in other global programs. (Source: BMC Health Services Research)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
A Metasynthesis of Patient-Provider Communication in Hospital for Patients with Severe Communication Disabilities: Informing New Translational Research.
Authors: Hemsley B, Balandin S Abstract Poor patient-provider communication in hospital continues to be cited as a possible causal factor in preventable adverse events for patients with severe communication disabilities. Yet to date there are no reports of empirical interventions that investigate or demonstrate an improvement in communication in hospital for these patients. The aim of this review was to synthesize the findings of research into communication in hospital for people with severe communication disabilities arising from lifelong and acquired stable conditions including cerebral palsy, autism, intellectual disability, aphasia following stroke, but excluding progressive conditions and those solely related to sensory impairments of hearing or vision. Results revealed six co...
Characterization of T-cell responses to conserved regions of the HIV-1 proteome in the BALB/c mice.
Authors: Ondondo B, Abdul-Jawad S, Bridgeman A, Hanke T Abstract A likely requirement for a protective vaccine against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)/AIDS is, in addition to eliciting antibody responses, induction of effective T cells. To tackle HIV-1 diversity by T-cell vaccines, we designed an immunogen HIVconsv derived from the most functionally conserved regions of the HIV-1 proteome and demonstrated its high immunogenicity in humans and rhesus macaques when delivered by regimens combining plasmid DNA, non-replicating simian (chimpanzee) adenovirus ChAdV-63 and non-replicating modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) as vectors. Here, we aimed to increase the decision power for iterative improvements of this vaccine strategy in the BALB/c mouse model. First, we found t...
Ulnar fractures with bisphosphonate therapy: a systematic review of published case reports
Conclusion Ulnar fractures in patients with bisphosphonate therapy demonstrate features similar to those described for atypical femoral fractures, suggesting that these fractures could also possibly be due to bisphosphonate use. However, the ulna appears to be able to tolerate longer periods of alendronate use prior to fracture development. The mechanism and characteristics of these fractures additionally suggest the presence of repetitive stress that accumulates over time due to suppressed bone remodelling in patients on bisphosphonates, eventually resulting in these fractures. (Source: Osteoporosis International)
South Africa: People With HIV Should Be Able to Fight for Their Country
[GroundUp]There is no reason people with HIV shouldn't be soldiers, says Tim Flack, who served in the navy and is the Western Cape representative for the South African National Defence Force Union. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Female Sex Workers and Their Gatekeepers in China: Implications for HIV/STI Prevention
Female sex workers (FSWs) play a key role in HIV/AIDS transmission and their gatekeepers play a crucial role in shaping their behaviors. Limited studies are available on the relationship between FSWs and gatekeepers. In the current study we used an ethnographic approach to examine the dynamic and multidimensional relationship of FSWs and their gatekeepers from the perspectives of both parties. We recruited 38 FSWs and 16 gatekeepers from different types of commercial sex venues in Guangxi, China, and conducted in-depth individual interviews. Our data suggest that FSWs and gatekeepers maintain an interdependent and reciprocal relationship during their business practice, but gatekeepers exert significant influence and control over FSWs. Designing culturally appropriate HIV/STI-prevention pro...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
A Culture of Future Planning: Perceptions of Sexual Risk Among Educated Young Adults
In this study we examined how social processes, specifically the acquisition of postsecondary education and capital, shaped perceptions of sexual risk and impacted sexual practices and sexual health among young adults. Using qualitative research methods we collected and analyzed data among students attending a 4-year university in the northeastern region of the United States over a 1-year period. By analyzing participants&rsquo; narratives, we found that the reproduction of shared norms and values encouraged educated young adults to focus on educational and professional success, pressing many of them to be concerned about preventing pregnancy rather than preventing disease transmission, and increasing their risk for sexually transmitted infections, including HIV/AIDS. Sexual-health educato...
An exploration of decision aid effectiveness: the impact of promoting affective vs. deliberative processing on a health?related decision
ConclusionsThis investigation of the effect of affective and deliberative processes in DA?supported decision making has implications for the design and use of DAs. DA effectiveness may be enhanced by incorporating a simple instruction to focus on the details of the information. (Source: Health Expectations)
Economic impact of HIV/AIDS: a systematic review in five European countries
This study also shows that there are relatively few studies of HIV costs in European countries compared to other diseases. Finally, we conclude that the methodology used in many of the studies carried out leaves ample room for improvement and that there is a need for these studies to reflect the economic impact of HIV/AIDS beyond health care including other components of social burden. (Source: Health Economics Review)
Study Dampens HOPE of HIV Organ DonationsStudy Dampens HOPE of HIV Organ Donations
The HIV Organ Policy Equity (HOPE) Act, which legalizes research into transplants from HIV-positive donors to HIV-positive recipients, is less than a year old, but already new data question its usefulness. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Nigeria: 'New HIV Cases Discovered in Married Couples'
[Daily Trust]Kaduna -New cases of Human Immuno-deficiency Virus (HIV) in Kaduna State are mostly discovered among married people than singles, Assistant coordinator and representative of the Kaduna State Health Control Agency, Mrs. Catherin A. Yakubu, has said. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Liberia: Ebola Stalls HIV Drugs Importation - LIPNEP Alarms
[New Dawn]The Liberia Network of People Living with HIV or LIBNEP+, representing People living with HIV peer support groups and associations across Liberia, says it is deeply troubled by the current outbreak of the Ebola disease in the County. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
HIV Infection and Incidence of Ischemic StrokeHIV Infection and Incidence of Ischemic Stroke
Do HIV-infected individuals have a higher risk of ischemic stroke? AIDS (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
Effectiveness of Once-Daily ART vs a Triple-Tablet RegimenEffectiveness of Once-Daily ART vs a Triple-Tablet Regimen
Switching from a once-daily, single tablet ART regimen to a triple-tablet regimen may result in drug cost savings, but are there other risks involved? JAIDS: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
Nigeria: 'HIV/Aids On the Decline in Zamfara'
[Leadership]HIV/AIDS is "now fast on the decline in Zamfara state", the Commissioner of Information, Alhaji Ibrahim Birnin-Magaji has disclosed. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Tanzania: Knowledge Crucial in Preventing Mother-to-Child HIV/Aids Transmission
[Daily News]LACK of access to knowledge among mothers in the country is one among the main setbacks in preventing motherto- child transmission of HIV/ AIDS, the Country Director of Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation (EGPAF) Dr Joroen Bosch says. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Zimbabwe: Male Circumcision Up in Midlands
[New Zimbabwe]THE National Aids Council (NAC) has said more men are undergoing voluntary male circumcision in the Midlands province as the group steps up its fight against HIV and Aids. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Zimbabwe: Live-in Girlfriend Conceals HIV Status
[The Herald]A Chitungwiza woman allegedly lived with her boyfriend for 13 years without revealing to him that she was on anti-retroviral therapy as she is HIV positive.This emerged at the Chitungwiza Magistrates' Court on Thursday when the 46-year-old man appeared before Mr Musaiona Shortgame charged with threats to murder and malicious damage to property. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: Celebrating the Triumph of Intellectual Prowess Over Vision Challenge
[Daily Independent]It is certainly sure that most of those who have been reading my column for many years now don't have the slightest idea that this columnist is one without any vision. That is to say, he is vision challenged. To many, it will be an astonishing thing to hear because letting the cat of the cage throw open several questions. How does he write: how does he read to write: and of course so many questions and why the story now? (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Impact of Clinical and Therapeutic Factors on Incident Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Events in a Population?Based Cohort of HIV?Infected and Non?HIV?Infected Adults
ConclusionsAfter adjusting for traditional risk factors and sociodemographic differences, there is higher risk of incident cardiovascular events among HIV?infected individuals exposed to combined antiretroviral medications compared to the general population. (Source: Clinical Cardiology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
High prevalence and incidence of sexually transmitted infections among women living in Kwazulu- Natal, South Africa
Background and objectives: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) contribute largely to the burden of health in South Africa and are recognized as major contributors to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic. Young women are particularly vulnerable to STIs. The purpose of this secondary analysis was to examine the risk factors associated with prevalent and incident STIs among women who had participated in three clinical trials. Methods: A total of 5,748 women were screened and 2293 sexually active, HIV negative, non-pregnant women were enrolled in three clinical trials in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa. The prevalence of individual STIs Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhea (NG), syphilis, and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) was assessed at screening; and incident infections wer...
Greater frequency of CD5-negative CD8+ T cells against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 than other viruses is consistent with adaptation to antigenic variation
Conclusions: This deficit in CD5 expression selective for HIV-specific CD8+ T cells is consistent with in vivo adaptation to low avidity HIV peptide variants and has potential consequences for CD8+ T cell expansion, cross-reactivity and autoreactivity. (Source: AIDS Research and Therapy)
Facial analysis technology aids diagnoses of genetic disorders
(Source: American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A)
Abasic phosphorothioate oligomers inhibit HIV-1 reverse transcription and block virus transmission across polarized ectocervical organ cultures.
Authors: Fraietta JA, Mueller YM, Lozenski KL, Ratner D, Boesteanu AC, Hancock AS, Lackman-Smith C, Zentner IJ, Chaiken IM, Chung S, LeGrice SF, Snyder BA, Mankowski MK, Jones NM, Hope JL, Gupta P, Anderson SH, Wigdahl B, Katsikis PD Abstract In the absence of universally available anti-retroviral (ARV) drugs or a vaccine against HIV-1, microbicides may offer the most immediate hope for controlling the AIDS pandemic. The most advanced and clinically effective microbicides are based on ARV agents that interfere with the earliest stages of HIV-1 replication. Our objective was to identify and characterize novel ARV-like inhibitors, as well as demonstrate their efficacy at blocking HIV-1 transmission. Abasic phosphorothioate 2' deoxyribose backbone (PDB) oligomers were evaluated in a v...
High prevalence and incidence of sexually transmitted infections among women living in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa
Background and objectives: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) contribute largely to the burden of health in South Africa and are recognized as major contributors to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic. Young women are particularly vulnerable to STIs. The purpose of this secondary analysis was to examine the risk factors associated with prevalent and incident STIs among women who had participated in three clinical trials. Methods: A total of 5,748 women were screened and 2293 sexually active, HIV negative, non-pregnant women were enrolled in three clinical trials in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa. The prevalence of individual STIs Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhea (NG), syphilis, and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) was assessed at screening; and incident infections wer...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Cholesterol addition aids the cryopreservation of dromedary camel () spermatozoa
The cryopreservation of dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) sperm has proved challenging with little success reported. The routine application of artificial insemination with frozen semen would assist the flow of valuable genetic material nationally and internationally. The current study sought to examine the effects of cholesterol (cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrin [CLC]) preloading on camel sperm cryosurvival. Ejaculates (n = 3 males; 3 ejaculates per male) were collected using an artificial vagina during the breeding season and extended in HEPES-buffered Tyrode's albumin lactate pyruvate (TALP) and allowed to liquefy in the presence of papain (0.1 mg/mL) before removal of the seminal plasma by centrifugation. (Source: Theriogenology)
Osseointergration and its role in management of hearing loss
Osseointegration is a biological process by which a structural connection is created between living bone and the surface of a load-carrying implant. This phenomenon has been utilized in a range of medical interventions. In 1977 Tjellstrom reported on osseointegrated bone-anchored hearing device as an alternative to conventional bone conducting hearing aids which were required to be worn on a headbands or a pair of glasses. Since that time there has been significant development in surgical technique and device technology for bone-anchored hearing devices. (Source: Operative Techniques in Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery)
Introduction
Hearing loss is one of the most common disabilities affecting the world?s population today. The patient population affected by hearing loss is not restricted to the elderly but includes people of all age groups, even the newborns. Although hearing aid is a useful and effective therapeutic option for many patients with hearing loss, when the hearing loss is severe, hearing aids often fail to improve the patient?s ability to understand the incoming auditory information. This is because the loss of auditory hair cells and spiral ganglions renders the inner ear incapable of processing the incoming auditory signals, despite being amplified by hearing aids. (Source: Operative Techniques in Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery)
Effectiveness of first-line antiretroviral therapy in the IPEC cohort, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that in Brazil, a middle-income country with free access to treatment, over three-quarters of patients receiving routine care reached virologic suppression on first-line ART by the end of the first year. Higher education, more recent ART initiation and clinical trial participation were associated with improved outcomes both for the 12-month and the 24-month endpoints, suggesting that further studies are needed to understand what aspects relating to these factors lead to higher virologic suppression. PMID: 25206924 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Therapy)
Risk of cervical cancer in women with autoimmune diseases, in relation with their use of immunosuppressants and screening: Population?based cohort study
Abstract Severely immunosuppressed individuals have a strongly increased risk of cervical cancer. In patients with autoimmune diseases (AID), who have defects in their immune system and receive immunosuppressants, the risk of cervical cancer is less clear. We conducted a cohort study, using Danish nationwide population?based registers including information on AID diagnoses, immunosuppressant intake, cervical screening participation, and cervical cancer incidence. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) were computed to compare the risk of cervical cancer in AID patients to that of the general population. Hazard ratios (HR) from time?dependent Cox models stratified by AID were used to explore the effect of the most frequently used immunosuppressants, taking into account potential dose?res...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Sodium nitroprusside, a nitric oxide donor for novel treatment of schizophrenia, may also modulate dopaminergic systems
?Schizophrenia is arguably the worst disease affecting mankind, even AIDS not excepted?. Since this statement in 1988 (Editors, 1988), schizophrenia still remains a major challenge to medicine, with up to 60% of patients not responding adequately to treatment despite the relatively large arsenal of antipsychotics currently available. By modulating the nitric oxide (NO) pathway, a new paradigm for schizophrenia treatment apparently involving modulation of nitric oxide (NO) has been proposed (Oliveira et al., 2011). (Source: Schizophrenia Research)
A Comparison of Network-Based Strategies for Screening At-Risk Hispanic/Latino Adolescents and Young Adults for Undiagnosed Asymptomatic HIV Infection
Hispanic/Latino adolescents and young adults are disproportionately impacted by the HIV/AIDS epidemic; yet little is known about the best strategies to increase HIV testing in this group. Network-based approaches are feasible and acceptable means for screening at-risk adults for HIV infection, but it is unknown whether these approaches are appropriate for at-risk young Hispanics/Latinos. Thus, we compared an alternative venue-based testing (AVT) strategy with a social and sexual network-based interviewing and HIV testing (SSNIT) strategy. (Source: Journal of Adolescent Health)
Maternal mortality at muhimbili national hospital in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania in the year 2011
Conclusion: There is a high maternal mortality ratio at MNH. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, post partum haemorrhage and anaemia are the leading causes of maternal deaths in this institution. Multiple substandard care factors identified both at individual and health care service levels that contributed to maternal deaths. There is a need for increasing efforts in the fight to reduce maternal deaths at the institution. A more pro-active role from the referring facilities in the region is needed. (Source: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth - Latest articles)
Combination HIV Prevention Interventions: The Potential of Integrated Behavioral and Biomedical Approaches
Abstract Combination HIV prevention interventions that integrate efficacious behavioral and biomedical strategies offer the potential to reduce new HIV infections. We overview the efficacy data for three biomedical HIV prevention approaches, namely microbicides, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), and HIV vaccination; review factors associated with differential acceptability and uptake of these methods; and suggest strategies to optimize the effectiveness and dissemination of combination HIV prevention approaches. A narrative review was conducted highlighting key efficacy data for microbicides, PrEP, and an HIV vaccination and summarizing acceptability data for each of the three biomedical HIV prevention approaches. Recommendations for the integration and dissemination of combined be...
In memoriam: Dr. John Fahey, pioneer in immunology and HIV research
Dr. John L. Fahey, an emeritus professor in the departments of microbiology, immunology, and molecular genetics and of medicine, and a key member of the UCLA AIDS Institute, passed away unexpectedly on August 19 while working on various projects in Boulder, Colorado. He was 89. Fahey completed his undergraduate work at Ohio State University in 1944, received his M.D. from Harvard Medical School in 1951 and was trained in internal medicine at Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center in New York. While working at the National Institutes of Health in the late 1950s and 1960s, Fahey discovered the human antibody Immunoglobulin D (IgD) and delineated and characterized the important classes and subclasses of human and murine immunoglobulins. He joined the faculty of the UCLA School of Medicine (now ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality Among Us Youth: Socioeconomic and Rural-Urban Disparities and International Patterns
Analyzed the socioeconomic and ruralurban disparities in all-cause mortality and mortality from leading causes of death, including homicide, suicide, unintentional injuries, and HIV/AIDS, among U.S. youth aged 1524. -- (Source: Rural publications via the Rural Assistance Center)
Cameroon: Aids-Free Holidays - Peer Educators Hailed for Successful Campaign
[Cameroon Tribune]The commitment of the First Lady, Founding President of African Synergy Against AIDS and Suffering, Madam Chantal Biya in raising collective awareness with regard to the socio-economic consequences of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, again took centre stage in Buea yesterday, 10th September 2014. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
[Comment] MDG 6 and beyond: from halting and reversing AIDS to ending the epidemic
The global community strongly agrees on the need for coordinated action in the response to AIDS and on the opportunity to increase results by focusing on populations at increased risk of HIV. When the UN member states adopted the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in 2000, they identified in MDG 6 one of the goals to be a reversal in the spread of HIV: ?Combat HIV, tuberculosis and malaria?. Partners in global health have worked hard to make that goal a reality and have achieved tremendous progress. (Source: LANCET)
[Comment] Time for a revolution in reporting of global health data
The United Nations Millennium Declaration in 2000, when the world agreed to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), set in motion undoubtedly the most concerted effort for poverty alleviation and improvement in global health. The declaration prompted substantial increases in financing for global health, both from traditional donors and innovative financing sources, scaling up preventive and life-saving interventions. For the health MDGs (MDG 4, to reduce child mortality; MDG 5, to improve maternal health; and MDG 6, to combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases), the reported figures show impressive achievements overall?yet these achievements remain elusive for the poorest and most needy countries. (Source: LANCET)
Zambia: Chikanta Chiefdom Fights HIV/Aids
[Times of Zambia]WITH the cure for HIV/AIDS still elusive, it is clear that the fight against the pandemic cannot be restricted to one group but all people have a role to play in stopping it. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Uganda: Health Workers Held Over Fake HIV Results
[Observer]Police in Luweero recently arrested two laboratory attendants on suspicion of issuing fake 'HIV-negative' test results to a client. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Zimbabwe: Woman Acquitted of Wilfully Transmitting HIV
[The Herald]A Chitungwiza woman who was arraigned before the courts by her ex-husband over allegations that she deliberately infected him with HIV was on Monday acquitted of the charges. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Knowledge of HIV/AIDS and predictors of uptake of HIV counseling and testing among undergraduate students of a privately owned university in Nigeria
Conclusion: The participants' knowledge about HIV /AIDS was quite good, the willingness to have HIV test done was high and the knowledge of a place where test can be done was nearly universal yet HIV testing was low. Innovative school based programs should be put in place to leverage on the willingness to test and translate it to periodic HIV testing. (Source: BMC Research Notes)
The leak and endobronchial peek
A 42-year-old man from Afghanistan was referred to hospital as a case of non-resolving pneumonia. He had fever and productive cough of thick white sputum for 4&nbsp;months without response to antibiotics. There was no history of haemoptysis, sick contacts, recent travel, weight loss, substance abuse or HIV risk factors. He was a non-smoker with unremarkable family and environmental history. On examination, he was febrile (temp=39.1&deg;C) with stable haemodynamics. Oxygen saturation was 96% while breathing room air at rest and finger nail clubbing was absent. Chest auscultation revealed bronchial breathing on the left upper lung zone. The rest of his examination was unremarkable. Except for mild neutrophilic leukocytosis, complete blood count (CBC) was unremarkable. Moderate elevation of e...
FDA Updates Stribild Labeling
On August 28, 2014, FDA approved updates to the label for Stribild (elvitegravir 150 mg/cobicistat 150 mg/emtricitabine 200 mg/tenofovir 300 mg) fixed-dose combination tablets. The label was updated with efficacy, resistance, and safety data from two clinical trials; renal information; and drug interaction information. The updated labeling for Stribild is available at the&nbsp;FDA website.&nbsp; More information is available:&nbsp; FDA:&nbsp;Press release AIDSinfo:&nbsp;Patient fact sheet on Stribild (Source: AIDSinfo At-a-Glance: Offering Information on HIV/AIDS Treatment, Prevention, and Research, A Service of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS))<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
September 18 is National HIV/AIDS and Aging Awareness Day
National HIV/AIDS and Aging Awareness Day is a day set aside each year to recognize the impact of HIV/AIDS among older adults. According to the&nbsp;Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), adults aged 55 and older accounted for 19% of the estimated 1.1 million people living with HIV infection in the United States in 2010. Older Americans are more likely than younger Americans to be diagnosed with HIV infection late in the course of their disease, which may mean a later start to treatment, possibly causing more damage to their immune system. This can lead to poorer prognoses and shorter HIV-to-AIDS intervals. Visit our&nbsp;National HIV/AIDS and Aging Awareness Day webpage&nbsp;[en espa&ntilde;ol] to learn more about this observance and to find information on HIV/AIDS and aging. ...
NIH-Led Scientists Discover HIV Antibody that Binds to Novel Target on Virus
&quot;An NIH-led team of scientists has discovered a new vulnerability in the armor of HIV that a vaccine, other preventive regimen or treatment could exploit. The site straddles two proteins, gp41 and gp120, that jut out of the virus and augments other known places where broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) bind to HIV. This newly identified site on the viral spike is where a new antibody found by the scientists in an HIV-infected person binds to the virus. Called 35O22, the antibody prevents 62 percent of known HIV strains from infecting cells in the laboratory and is extremely potent, meaning even a relatively small amount of it can neutralize the virus.&quot; More information is available: NIAID: Press release (Source: AIDSinfo At-a-Glance: Offering Information on HIV/AIDS Treat...
The importance of the abdominal X-radiograph is acute ulcerative colitis
Answers From questions on page 188 Figure&nbsp;1 shows large bowel dilatation. Figure&nbsp;2 demonstrates worsening colonic dilatation, despite aggressive medical management, consistent with toxic megacolon extending proximally to the caecum. In keeping with an acute flare of inflammatory bowel disease mucosal thickening and loss of haustral folds is also present. Toxic megacolon is a catastrophic complication of ulcerative colitis requiring surgical intervention. This patient subsequently underwent a subtotal colectomy with formation of an ileostomy. Inflammatory bowel disease has a more severe phenotype in children.1 Persistent colonic dilatation (&ge;56&nbsp;mm) strongly predicts future toxic megacolon and is associated with a higher rate of corticosteroid failure.2 3 The absence of gas...
Conference Ethics in the Age of AIDS
(Source: Bioethics)
Random survival forests for competing risks
We introduce a new approach to competing risks using random forests. Our method is fully non-parametric and can be used for selecting event-specific variables and for estimating the cumulative incidence function. We show that the method is highly effective for both prediction and variable selection in high-dimensional problems and in settings such as HIV/AIDS that involve many competing risks. (Source: Biostatistics)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Multidetector CT in Renal Tuberculosis
This article gives review of pathophysiology and computed tomography features of Renal TB. (Source: Current Radiology Reports)
Kenya: HIV Patients to Be Recorded Biometrically
[The Star]THE government will from January next year begin the biometric registration of people living with HIV-Aids in Homa Bay and Mombasa counties. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Kenya: Irresponsible HIV Reporting in Kenya
[RNW Africa]Newspaper coverage of the latest Kenyan HIV statistics has tended to sketch a doomsday scenario - for which there is no evidence. Is this misrepresentation of the facts based on sensationalism or ignorance, wonders a sexual health expert. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: Search for New Inspector General Begins
[GFO]The Global Fund board on 9 September gave formal approval for a search to find a successor to Martin O'Malley, who announced in August that he would resign his position as Inspector General. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Kenya: Kenya drafts Civil Society Charter to Encourage Better Participation in Concept Note Development
[GFO]In drafting a 16-point charter, Kenyan civil society signals its intention to play a larger role in the allocation of Global Fund resources to the fight against the three diseases (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Africa: TRP Flags Shortcomings as Concept Notes Keep Rolling in
[GFO]By mid-September, 66 concept notes worth over $6 billion will have begun the screening process (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: Govts Urged to Prioritise Youth to End Aids By 2030
[Key Correspondents]The goal to end AIDS by 2030 may go unaccomplished unless young people are prioritised in sexual and reproductive health policy and programmes. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
The Importance of Retention in HIV CareThe Importance of Retention in HIV Care
Dr. Benjamin Young reviews 2 recently published articles that highlight the challenges and rewards of successful patient retention in HIV medical care. Medscape HIV/AIDS (Source: Medscape Pulmonary Medicine Headlines)
[Special Issue News] After the windfall
Investments in global health began growing in the 1990s then exploded after the turn of the century. Rich countries stepped up their donations, with much of the funding channeled through new public-private partnerships like the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. But since 2008, those countries have tightened their belts; developing countries?some of which enjoy robust economic growth?are expected to shoulder more of the cost. And, increasingly, people are asking for hard data about the return on investment. In this special news section, Science tracks the impact of the explosion in funding for global health?and what happens now that it's over. Author: Martin Enserink (Source: Science: This Week)
PTEN Hopping on the Cell Membrane Is Regulated via a Positively-Charged C2 Domain
by Masato Yasui, Satomi Matsuoka, Masahiro Ueda PTEN, a tumor suppressor that is frequently mutated in a wide spectrum of cancers, exerts PI(3,4,5)P3 phosphatase activities that are regulated by its dynamic shuttling between the membrane and cytoplasm. Direct observation of PTEN in the interfacial environment can offer quantitative information about the shuttling dynamics, but remains elusive. Here we show that positively charged residues located in the c?2 helix of the C2 domain are necessary for the membrane localization of PTEN via stable electrostatic interactions in Dictyostelium discoideum. Single-molecule imaging analyses revealed that PTEN molecules moved distances much larger than expected had they been caused by lateral diffusion, a phenomenon we call ?hopping.? Our novel s...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Optimal treatment adherence counseling outcomes for people, living with HIV and limited health literacy.
Authors: Pellowski JA, Kalichman SC, Grebler T Abstract ABSTRACT Limited health literacy has been shown to contribute to poor health, including poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in people living with HIV/AIDS, over and above other indicators of social disadvantage and poverty. Given the mixed results of previous interventions for people with HIV and low health literacy, investigating possible targets for improved adherence is warranted. The present study aims to identify the correlates of optimal and suboptimal outcomes among participants of a recent skills-based medication adherence intervention (Kalichman et al., 2013). Participants included in this secondary analysis were 188 men and women living with HIV who had low health literacy as determined by scoring ?90% ...
Multiple loss-of-function 5-O-glucosyltransferase alleles revealed in Vitis vinifera, but not in other Vitis species.
In this study, we surveyed allelic variation of the 5-O-glucosyltransferase gene (5GT) in 70 V. vinifera ssp. vinifera cultivars, 52 V. vinifera ssp. sylvestris accessions, 23 Vitis hybrid grapes, and 22 accessions of seven other Vitis species. Eighteen 5GT alleles with apparent loss-of-function mutations, including seven premature stop codon mutations and six frameshift indel mutations, were discovered in V. vinifera, but not in the other Vitis species. A total of 36 5GT alleles without apparent loss-of-function mutations (W-type) were identified. These W-type alleles were predominantly present in wild Vitis species, although a few of them were also found in some V. vinifera accessions. We further evaluated some of these 5GT alleles in producing diglucoside anthocyanins by analyzing the...
Cocaine Potentiates Cathepsin B Secretion and Neuronal Apoptosis from HIV-Infected Macrophages
Abstract Substance abuse is a risk factor for HIV infection and progression to AIDS. Recent evidence establishes that cocaine use promotes brain perivascular macrophage infiltration and microglia activation. The lysosomal protease cathepsin B is increased in monocytes from patients with HIV dementia and its secretion induces 10?15 % of neurotoxicity. Here we asked if cocaine potentiates cathepsin B secretion from HIV-infected monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) and its effect in neuronal apoptosis. Samples of plasma, CSF, and post-mortem brain tissue from HIV positive patients that used cocaine were tested for cathepsin B and its inhibitors to determine the in vivo relevance of these findings. MDM were inoculated with HIV-1ADA, exposed to cocaine, and the levels of secreted and ...
Importance of Exercise Capacity in Predicting Outcomes and Determining Optimal Timing of Surgery in Significant Primary Mitral Regurgitation [Valvular Heart Disease]
Conclusion In patients with primary MR that underwent exercise echocardiography followed by MV surgery, lower achieved metabolic equivalents were associated with worse long-term outcomes. In those with preserved exercise capacity, delaying MV surgery by &ge;1 year did not adversely affect outcomes. (Source: JAHA:Journal of the American Heart Association)
Phill Wilson: What are you excited about in the fight against HIV/AIDS?
Where There?s A Will We are at a deciding moment in the trajectory of the AIDS epidemic in the United States.  As a result of recent scientific advances, we have something that just a few years ago, we couldn?t even imagine?the promise of an AIDS free generation.  We actually have the tools to end the AIDS epidemic, at least in the U.S.  We have better diagnostic tools, better surveillance tools, better treatment tools, and better prevention tools. But we have to be careful.  Sometimes we confuse being able to do something with actually doing it.  The question is less can we end the AIDS epidemic and more do we have the will to do it.  For example, getting an HIV test has never been easier or more important. Today, HIV tests are often free, painless and confidential?even anon...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Travis Sherer: What are you excited about in the fight against HIV/AIDS?
Founded in 1982 in direct response to the AIDS epidemic, GLMA has long been involved in issues related to HIV and AIDS.  Although progress has been challenging at times, there is a lot right now to be hopeful about. Significant advances in the treatment and prevention of HIV have led us to an exciting place where we are able to discuss the potential for an end to the epidemic. Condom use, antiretroviral therapies, microbicides, PreP (pre-exposure prophylaxis) and PEP (post-exposure prophylaxis) provide a wide range of tools available help prevent the transmission of HIV. Treatment as prevention is real and within our grasp. These advances are making a difference in the lives of the people living with and at risk of HIV I treat and care for every day. I have an increasing number of serodi...
Phill Wilson
President and CEOPrior to founding the Institute, Wilson served as the AIDS Coordinator for the City of Los Angeles from 1990 to 1993, the Director of Policy and Planning at AIDS Project Los Angeles from 1993 to 1996. He was co-chair of the Los Angeles County HIV Health Commission from 1990 to 1995, and was an appointee to the HRSA AIDS Advisory Committee from 1995 to 1998. Wilson was the coordinator of the International Community Treatment and Science Workshop at the 12th, 13th, 14th, 15th, and 16th International AIDS Conferences in Geneva, Switzerland; Durban, South Africa; Barcelona, Spain; Bangkok, Thailand; and Toronto, Canada. Wilson was the co-founder of the National Black Lesbian and Gay Leadership Forum and the National Task Force on AIDS Prevention. He has been involved...
Uganda: Another Step Back for Uganda's HIV Fight
[HRW]Back in the 1990s, Uganda was seen as a success story in the fight against the AIDS epidemic. HIV infection rates were falling. The country had developed strong, community based programs that provided support to those who became ill. They fought stigma and emphasized pragmatic - not ideological - approaches to preventing HIV infection. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Kenya: Homa Bay Appoints Ex-NACC Boss to Fight Aids
[The Star]HOMA Bay Governor Cyprian Awiti has appointed former National Aids Control Council director Alloys Orago as his strategic adviser on HIV. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
South Africa: Study Hails Aids Treatment Success Rates
[VOA]Johannesburg -A new medical study out of South Africa has found heartening news in the nation with the world's highest burden of HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. Their findings reveal that South Africans with HIV can live as long as HIV patients in the United States - provided they begin anti-retroviral therapy early enough. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Kenya: Group Works to Stem Child Prostitution in Nairobi Slums
[VOA]In the Nairobi slum of Korogocho, underage girls as young as 15 are turning to prostitution to eke out a living. But an organization that rescues child prostitutes says it is achieving positive results. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Uganda: Aids Patients Reject Bitter ARVs
[Observer]The Uganda Coalition for Access to Essential Medicine (UCAEM) has asked government to withdraw and cease use of non-film coated tenofovir and lamivudine, dubbing the drug combination as notoriously bitter. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Uganda: TASO Loses Donor Funding
[Observer]The Aids Support Organization (Taso) has begun a campaign to internally solicit funds for its activities, after a Usaid project closed in June. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Consumer Information on: Pleximmune - H130004
Pleximmune is a laboratory blood test that aids in the prediction of the risk of a transplant rejection, known as Acute Cellular Rejection (ACR) in patients under 21 years who have undergone liver or small bowel transplants. (Source: Food and Drug Adminstration (FDA): CDRHNew)
Neuroscience: Music training aids speech processing
Nature 513, 7517 (2014). doi:10.1038/513147c The more music training children receive, the better their brains become at distinguishing between similar speech sounds.Nina Kraus at Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois, and her colleagues studied children aged six to nine years from low-income neighbourhoods in Los Angeles, California, who took part (Source: Nature)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Causes of death among females-investigating beyond maternal causes: a community-based longitudinal study
Conclusions: Communicable diseases are continued to be the leading causes of death among all age females. HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis were the major causes of death among women of reproductive age. Together with existing efforts to prevent pregnancy and childbirth related deaths, public health and curative interventions on other causes, particularly on HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis, should be strengthened. (Source: BMC Research Notes)
Cryptococcus inositol utilization modulates the host protective immune response during brain infection
Conclusions: Since capsule has been shown to impact the host response during Cryptococcus-host interactions, our results suggest that the reduced GXM production may contribute to the increased immune activation in the mutant-infected animals. (Source: Cell Communication and Signaling)
Prevalence and correlates of cytopenias in HIV-infected adults initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy in Uganda
Background: Cytopenias are the most common HIV-associated hematological abnormality. Cytopenias have been associated with several factors including sex, race/ethnicity, geographical location and comorbidities such as tuberculosis, hepatitis B infection, fever and oral candidiasis. Cytopenias become more prevalent as HIV progresses and are often fatal. Data from resource-limited settings about the prevalence and correlates of cytopenia are limited. Therefore we conducted this cross-sectional study to assess the prevalence and correlates of cytopenia among adult AIDS patients at initiation of HAART in Uganda. Methods: 400 HIV-infected subjects who were HAART-naive or on HAART for (Source: BMC Infectious Diseases)
The pathogenesis of human cytomegalovirus
Abstract Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a recognised cause of disease in the fetus, the allograft recipient and AIDS patients. More recently, it has been recognised as a pathogen for those admitted to intensive care units, for the elderly and for the general population. The epidemiology and molecular and cellular pathology of this virus are summarised to provide an overarching model of pathogenesis able to account for these varying clinical presentations. In brief, HCMV has the potential to spread in the bloodstream to all organs, but only produces overt disease if the viral load increases to high levels. This is normally prevented by a robust immune response, so that the infected individual usually remains asymptomatic. However, this benefit comes at the cost of committing more and more ...
Steroidogenesis in MA-10 Mouse Leydig Cells Is Altered via Fatty Acid Import into the Mitochondria.
Authors: Rone MB, Midzak AS, Martinez-Arguelles DB, Fan J, Ye X, Blonder J, Papadopoulos V Abstract Mitochondria are home to many cellular processes, including oxidative phosphorylation and fatty acid metabolism, and in steroid synthesizing cells, they are involved in cholesterol import and metabolism, which is the initiating step in steroidogenesis. The formation of macromolecular protein complexes aids in the regulation and efficiency of these mitochondrial functions, though due to their dynamic nature, they are hard to identify. To overcome this problem, we used Blue-Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE) with whole-gel mass spectrometry on isolated mitochondria from control and hormone-treated MA-10 mouse tumor Leydig cells. The presence of multiple mitochondrial p...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Selection of Unadapted, Pathogenic SHIVs Encoding Newly Transmitted HIV-1 Envelope Proteins.
Authors: Del Prete GQ, Ailers B, Moldt B, Keele BF, Estes JD, Rodriguez A, Sampias M, Oswald K, Fast R, Trubey CM, Chertova E, Smedley J, LaBranche CC, Montefiori DC, Burton DR, Shaw GM, Markowitz M, Piatak M, KewalRamani VN, Bieniasz PD, Lifson JD, Hatziioannou T Abstract Infection of macaques with chimeric viruses based on SIVMAC but expressing the HIV-1 envelope (Env) glycoproteins (SHIVs) remains the most powerful model for evaluating prevention and therapeutic strategies against AIDS. Unfortunately, only a few SHIVs are currently available. Furthermore, their generation has required extensive adaptation of the HIV-1 Env sequences in macaques so they may not accurately represent HIV-1 Env proteins circulating in humans, potentially limiting their translational utility. We devel...
Cutaneous complications in osseointegrated implants: comparison between classic and tissue preservation techniques.
CONCLUSION: In our experience the tissue preservation technique, without soft tissue reduction, is the procedure of choice for bone anchored implant surgery. The preservation technique is easier, faster and possible with local anaesthesia and has similar postoperative outcomes. PMID: 25218328 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Acta Otorrinolaringologica Espanola)
Cryptococcus inositol utilization modulates the host protective immune response during brain infection
Conclusions: Since capsule has been shown to impact the host response during Cryptococcus-host interactions, our results suggest that the reduced GXM production may contribute to the increased immune activation in the mutant-infected animals. (Source: Cell Communication and Signaling)
Prevalence, drug-induced hepatotoxicity, and mortality among patients multi-infected with HIV, tuberculosis, and hepatitis virus
AIDS, tuberculosis (TB), and chronic viral hepatitis (hepatitis B and C) are among the most prevalent infectious diseases in the world, especially in developing countries. One-third of the world population is infected with latent TB and approximately 5?10% will develop active TB during their lifetime. However, the risk of developing active TB in HIV-positive patients increases to 5?10% annually.1 From 1995 to 2012, the positivity rate of HIV in TB patients increased from 4.2% to 13%.2 AIDS and viral hepatitis (hepatitis B and C) share risk factors and modes of transmission. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Year-End Potpourri
Sometimes things fall apart so better things can fall together.Marilyn Monroe (1926?1962) (Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
2014 State HIV Prevention Progress Report
This is the first annual report highlighting state-level baseline information on six HIV prevention and care indicators, the national estimates, and the 2015 national goals. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
Engaging Patients in Healthcare Aids Outcomes, Cuts Costs
WASHINGTON (MedPage Today) -- Getting patients more actively involved in their healthcare not only improves their health but is also cost-effective, researchers said. (Source: MedPage Today Public Health)
What are you excited about in the fight against HIV/AIDS?
Lawrence Stallworth: What are you excited about in the fight against HIV/AIDS? Submitted by Emily on Tue, 09/09/2014 - 12:16 When I was 17 years old, I found out I was HIV-positive. As a young, Black gay man, I remember the fear of rejection, and the incredible love and support I found among my family and friends. Since the day I first learned my HIV status, I have made it my personal responsibility to fight this disease until we achieve an AIDS-free generation. I know many young people out there feel the same because our risk of infection is high and access to treatment and care can be tenuous. Share Email Print var switchTo5x = false;var __st_loadLate = true;stLight.options({"publisher":"dr-e0d16a36-b72f-d979...
Kathie Hiers: What are you excited about in the fight against HIV/AIDS?
We have made amazing advances in the field of HIV in the last 33 years.  Everyone knows how much better the medications are.  Antiretroviral therapy (ART) today has fewer side effects, reduced pill burdens, and better efficacy.  And then our world was turned upside down by the incredible discovery of HIV Prevention Trials Network 052!  We now know that persons living with HIV who are successful on and adherent to ART and who reach an undetectable viral load essentially cannot transmit the disease to others.  As a result, providers are scrambling to make sure that folks know their status, that all positive persons have access to medications, and that we help people to succeed in medical care. This last and critical step, helping patients to succeed on their medications, requires a lot ...
Kathie Hiers
CEOKathie Hiers has been active in the fight against HIV/AIDS since the epidemic first hit the South in the mid-1980?s. Kathie has served as the CEO of AIDS Alabama since January 2002.  Prior to that, she was the Executive Director of Mobile AIDS Support Services and a founder of the Lee Simmons Fund for People Living with AIDS in Mobile, Alabama. Kathie is one of 25 people appointed to the Presidential Advisory Council on HIV/AIDS, providing advice and expertise to the President and the Secretary of Health and Human Services. She is also a member of the Planning Committee for the White House Summit on HIV and the South to be held in the spring of 2014. Kathie is President of the National AIDS Housing Coalition, and Co-Chair of the Federal AIDS Policy Partnership. She also serves on t...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Bill Arnold: What are you excited about in the fight against HIV/AIDS?
In this week?s Conversations Blog, I?m outlining some of the points that I find most salient in our continuing fight against HIV/AIDS in the United States. First and foremost, it is imperative that we continue to strive for an effective ?cure? (Sustained Virologic Response ? SVR ? in this case to Antiretroviral Therapies) beyond that which we currently consider to be the standard (?Undetectable? Viral Load). While suppressing the Viral Load in HIV patients is essential to ensuring that they maintain good health, it is also a vital tool in helping to prevent the spread of HIV between serodiscordant sexual partners. While there have been several reports, in recent years, of patients in various nations and circumstances being ?effectively cured,? all of these ?cures? r...
Bill Arnold
Founding DirectorWilliam ''Bill'' Arnold is a longtime HIV/AIDS activist and consumer organizer and has been active in developing HIV/AIDS organizations and HIV/AIDS policy at the local, state and national level since the mid 1980?s. Arnold is a founding director (1996) of the Community Access National Network (CANN), formerly the Ryan White CARE Act Title II Community AIDS National Network (TIICANN); he is currently its CEO. He is also a founder (1995) of The National ADAP Working Group, a Washington, DC based advocacy coalition of HIV/AIDS organizations. His involvement with grassroots HIV/AIDS work has included roles from Board Chair and Board Member, to ?Buddy? to AIDS Educator, Community Outreach Director, & pre & post test HIV Counselor. Arnold has testified on HIV/AID...
Lawrence Stallworth: What are you excited about in the fight against HIV/AIDS?
When I was 17 years old, I found out I was HIV-positive. As a young, Black gay man, I remember the fear of rejection, and the incredible love and support I found among my family and friends. Since the day I first learned my HIV status, I have made it my personal responsibility to fight this disease until we achieve an AIDS-free generation. I know many young people out there feel the same because our risk of infection is high and access to treatment and care can be tenuous. In the United States, 39 percent of all new HIV cases are among young people ages 13-29, and from 2007-2010, ages 15-19 and 20-24 were the only age groups to experience an increase in the rate of diagnoses of HIV infection. Furthermore, a young black gay man has nearly a one in four chance of becoming infected by age 25...
Lawrence Stallworth
Mobile Health Services SpecialistLawrence Stallworth is currently the Mobile Health Services Specialist at the AIDS Taskforce of Greater Cleveland.  He is an alum of Advocates for Youth?s Ohio Youth Council and was recently appointed to join the President?s Advisory Council on HIV/AIDS (PACHA) because of his exemplary local and national advocacy work on behalf of young people.  AIDSTaskforceGCAIDSTaskforceGCConversations ContributorsCompany:&nbsp;AIDS Taskforce: Greater Cleveland (Source: PHRMA)
Funding Announcement
FOA PS15-1502 Comprehensive High-Impact HIV Prevention Projects for Community-Based Organizations. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Lens Blog: A Witness to AIDS in South Africa
Joao Silva has watched South Africa?s response to the H.I.V./AIDS pandemic go from denial to ensuring those afflicted by the virus get the treatment and medications they need. (Source: NYT Health)
Nigeria: Edo Sets Up Management Team On HIV/Aids
[Daily Independent]Edo State Government has inaugurated the state Management Team (SMT) on HIV/AIDS with a charge to reduce HIV/AIDS prevalence. Secretary to the State Government, Prof. Julius Ihonvbere, who performed the inauguration, tasked the members to provide annual report on HIV activities in the state. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: Bauchi Records Decline in HIV/Aids Cases
[Daily Independent]Bauchi -Bauchi State Governor, Isa Yuguda, has declared that HIV/AIDS scourge has reduced to 0.6 per cent from the worrying 6.8 per cent that it was 13 years ago in the state. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Ongoing Impact of HIV Infection on Mortality among Persons who Inject Drugs Despite Free Antiretroviral Therapy
ConclusionsHIV infection continues to have a persistent impact on mortality rates among persons who inject drugs in settings with free HIV/AIDS care, though causes of death have shifted markedly from infectious and AIDS?related causes to non?AIDS?related etiologies. (Source: Addiction)
Isolation and characterization of non tuberculous mycobacteria from humans and animals in Namwala District of Zambia
Conclusion: The isolation of NTM from humans and animals at the interface in Namwala district has highlighted the clinical significance and diagnostic challenge. The epidemiological investigation of NTM in the study area is therefore recommended. This should include sampling from environmental sources such as water and soil. (Source: BMC Research Notes)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Measuring social support in patients with advanced medical illnesses: An analysis of the Duke-UNC Functional Social Support Questionnaire.
Authors: Saracino R, Kolva E, Rosenfeld B, Breitbart W Abstract Objective: To date, no measure of social support has been developed specifically for either palliative care or oncology settings. The present study examined the psychometric properties of the Duke-University of North Carolina Functional Social Support Questionnaire (DUFSS) in order to (1) assess the adequacy of the scale in the context of severe medical illness and (2) evaluate whether a brief subset of items might generate roughly comparable utility. Method: The 14-item DUFSS was administered to 1,362 individuals with advanced cancer or AIDS. Classical test theory (CTT) and item response theory (IRT) analyses were utilized to develop an abbreviated version of the DUFSS that maintained adequate reliability and validity...
Nocturnal snoring sound analysis in the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea in the Chinese Han population.
CONCLUSIONS: This new method for identifying OSA by analyzing snoring is feasible and reliable in the Han population. The snoring sound-based technique appears to be a promising tool for OSA screening and diagnosis. PMID: 25201558 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Sleep and Breathing)
Nocturnal snoring sound analysis in the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea in the Chinese Han population
Conclusions This new method for identifying OSA by analyzing snoring is feasible and reliable in the Han population. The snoring sound-based technique appears to be a promising tool for OSA screening and diagnosis. (Source: Sleep and Breathing)
Long-term Exposure to Tenofovir and Renal Function in HIVLong-term Exposure to Tenofovir and Renal Function in HIV
Does long-term use of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) in HIV treatment affect renal function? AIDS (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
Control of Dyslipidemia and Hypertension in HIV OutpatientsControl of Dyslipidemia and Hypertension in HIV Outpatients
Patients with HIV may have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. What are the best ways to control CVD risk factors in HIV patients? JAIDS: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Africa: First Hurdle for Regional Proposal Passed By EECA Union of People Living With HIV
[GFO]Proposal would earmark $7 million for regional effort to promote more domestic financing for HIV treatment (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: Global Fund Promotes New Approach to Sustainability With EECA Investment Guidance
[GFO]Guidance seeks to encourage domestic financing to ensure programs continue beyond the life of Global Fund grants (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: Confusion Over Terminology May Hamper Domestic Resource Mobilization
[GFO]"Over-allocated" and "significantly over-allocated" not well understood (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
South Africa: TAC Members Form Home-Based Care Organisation
[Health-e]Member of the AIDS lobby organisation the Treatment Action Campaign (TAC) have formed a home-based care organisation to help increase communities' knowledge about HIV treatment east of Johannesburg. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Zambia: Kapiri in 'Bumper' Condom Supply
[Times of Zambia]The District AIDS Task Force (DATF) in Kapiri Mposhi has received 684,000 pieces of male condoms for mass distribution to the community in the area. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Tanzania: Policies Needed for Youth Living With HIV/Aids - Activists
[Daily News]PEOPLE living with HIV/AIDS are appealing to government to formulate clear policies to raise awareness on their rights. The Secretary of the Council for People Living with HIV/AIDS (KONGA) in Ilala Municipality, Ms Mariam Magafu made the plea in Dar es Salaam on Friday, while closing a three-day training on reproductive health for the youth living with HIV/AIDS, aged between 14 and 35 years. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Improving Access To Malaria Medicine Through Private-Sector Subsidies In Seven African Countries [Access To Drugs]
Improving access to quality-assured artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) is an important component of malaria control in low- and middle-income countries. In 2010 the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria launched the Affordable Medicines Facility&mdash;malaria (AMFm) program in seven African countries. The goal of the program was to decrease malaria morbidity and delay drug resistance by increasing the use of ACTs, primarily through subsidies intended to reduce costs. We collected data on price and retail markups on antimalarial medicines from 19,625 private for-profit retail outlets before and 6&ndash;15 months after the program&rsquo;s implementation. We found that in six of the AMFm pilot programs, prices for quality-assured ACTs decreased by US$1.28&ndash;$4.34, and...
Tuberculosis Drugs Better Absorbed on an Empty StomachTuberculosis Drugs Better Absorbed on an Empty Stomach
A new technique that measures blood concentrations of drugs from dried test strips shows tuberculosis treatments have better pharmacokinetic properties when taken while fasting. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Hiv-Aids Headlines)
Satisfaction of HIV patients with pharmaceutical services in South Eastern Nigerian hospitals
Conclusion HIV patients were highly satisfied with services rendered by the pharmacists in South-Eastern HIV clinics in Nigeria and PSPS proved to be a reliable and valid instrument for measuring satisfaction of HIV patients with pharmaceutical services. (Source: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy)
The effects of a web-based decision aid on the intention to diagnostic self-testing for cholesterol and diabetes: a randomized controlled trial
Conclusions: We found limited effects of the DAs on intention and its determinants. Although the time spent on the DAs was limited, we might assume that our DAs contain neutral information on self-testing for cholesterol and diabetes.By implementing our DAs in real life among people who probably or definitely intend to use a self-test and by assessing weblog files, we might be able to determine the effectiveness of our DAs on self-test behaviour.Dutch trial register: NTR3149. (Source: BMC Public Health - Latest articles)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Perceived discrimination and injecting risk among people who inject drugs attending Needle and Syringe Programmes in Sydney, Australia
Injecting drug use is a behaviour that attracts strong moral and social condemnation. People who inject drugs (PWID) are often the subject of stereotypical media portrayals where they are depicted as living ?chaotic? and ?risky? lifestyles (Ahern et al., 2007; Room, 2005). Additionally, PWID are often blamed for their drug use and for any associated illnesses, such as hepatitis C or HIV/AIDS (Crocker et al., 1998; Weiner et al., 1988). Stigmatising attitudes towards PWID may translate into discrimination, which is the differential treatment of individuals based on their association with a stigmatised group (Giddens et al., 2009). (Source: Drug and Alcohol Dependence)
[World Report] India's AIDS department merger angers activists
Activists are concerned about the Indian Government's decision to merge its AIDS control and health and welfare departments. Dinsa Sachan reports from New Delhi. (Source: LANCET)
[Comment] Offline: the Kim Doctrine
Jim Kim is one of us. A medical doctor, he has worked in global health most of his professional life. He was co-founder, in 1987, of the innovative Partners in Health initiative. He revitalised WHO's AIDS response from 2004?06. He successfully fused the fields of global health and human rights during a long attachment?1993?2009?at Harvard. And, after a controversial period as President of Dartmouth College, he became President of the World Bank on July 1, 2012. Most of those who work in global health were stunned (and delighted) by his appointment. (Source: LANCET)
In MODERN Trial, Maraviroc Inferior to Tenofovir/FTCIn MODERN Trial, Maraviroc Inferior to Tenofovir/FTC
Dr. Paul Sax reviews results of the MODERN trial presented at AIDS 2014, which compared maraviroc with tenofovir/FTC in treatment-naive patients. Medscape HIV/AIDS (Source: Medscape Hiv-Aids Headlines)
Physical Therapy as an Adjunct Treatment for People Living with HIV/AIDS: A Provider Needs Assessment&#8211;Phase II
This article is currently available as a free download on ingentaconnect (Source: Journal of Allied Health)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
South Africa: Premier Zille - Wrong - Again
[GroundUp]DA leader and Western Cape premier Helen Zille has again entered the HIV prevention arena, telling us we are failing to deal with HIV because we don't have the right approach to taking personal responsibility for sexual behaviours. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Swaziland: Bangladesh Without Borders - Reducing the Burden of HIV and Tuberculosis in Swaziland
[MSF]Arif Uddin Kazi was born near the Sundarbans, a mangrove forest almost the size of the small African country where he currently works. In Swaziland, every year this medical doctor treats hundreds of HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis patients in a clinic run by the medical humanitarian organization Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF). (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Gates Foundation Awards USD 25 Million to HIV Vaccine ResearchGates Foundation Awards USD 25 Million to HIV Vaccine Research
Oregon researchers developing a vaccine that has shown promise in preventing HIV infection in primates said they have been awarded a $25 million grant from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Reuters Health Information (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)
Promoting effective child development practices in the first year of life: does timing make a difference?
Conclusions: Audiovisual materials can be an effective complementary tool in programs aimed at supporting parents, particularly those dealing with their first baby. The results provide some useful insights into the differential benefits of using audiovisual aids at different times during the first year of life of the baby.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02120430 (Source: BMC Pediatrics - Latest articles)
Introduction: Illicit drugs in Central Asia
Recently described as a ?hotspot? of the worldwide HIV epidemic (Thorne, Ferencic, Malyuta, Mimica, & Niemiec, 2010), Central Asia is currently facing ?the perfect storm? of the intertwined epidemics of drug use, HIV, HCV and TB (El-Bassel, Strathdee, & El Sadr, 2013). In contrast to the global decreases in HIV transmission, the HIV epidemic in Eastern Europe and Central Asia continues to grow at a pace faster than anywhere else (UNAIDS, 2014; The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, 2014). (Source: International Journal of Drug Policy)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
G.P.304: Living conditions and quality of life in adults with Duchenne muscular dystrophy ? A Danish survey
This study presents the results of a questionnaire survey in the growing Danish adult DMD population concerning daily life, social relations and perspectives on qualities of life (QOL). All Danish persons ?8years (n=80) with a confirmed clinical diagnosis of DMD according to the diagnostic criteria (ENMC 1997) were invited to participate in the study. Each individual was interviewed in his home by two professionals from the National Danish Rehabilitation Centre for neuromuscular Diseases (RCfM) about his physical ability, health, social relations and daily life using a comprehensive questionnaire.79 people accepted the invitation. Two had been treated with steroids and were excluded from the data analysis. Median age of 77 participants was 27years (18?46); 38 persons were >27years old....
G.O.14: The burden of Duchenne muscular dystrophy: An international, cross-sectional study
Following the substantial unmet medical need, there has been great interest in recent years to develop novel therapies for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). As the process for reimbursement of therapies requires evidence of the economic context of the disease, we performed a study to estimate the economic burden of DMD. Patients from Germany, Italy, UK, and US were identified through TREAT-NMD registries and invited to complete a questionnaire online together with a caregiver. Healthcare use, quality of life, work status, informal care, and household expenses data were collected to estimate costs of DMD from the perspective of society and caregiver households. A total of 770 patients (173 German, 122 Italian, 191 UK, and 284 US) completed the questionnaire. DMD care was associated with in...
Triple-Combination HIV Pill Triumeq Approved in EuropeTriple-Combination HIV Pill Triumeq Approved in Europe
Triumeq combines an integrase strand transfer inhibitor (dolutegravir, 50 mg) with 2 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (abacavir, 600 mg, and lamivudine, 300 mg). International Approvals (Source: Medscape Hiv-Aids Headlines)
An evaluation of the survival rates of extra-oral implants used to retain over 200 facial prostheses over a 10 year period
This study uses data from the largest series in Europe to evaluate how significant anatomical sites and adjunctive treatments affect the overall survival. (Source: The British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery)
Poor patients in India facing HIV/AIDS drug shortages
MUMBAI/NEW DELHI (Reuters) - Indian HIV patient Rekha has missed her daily dose of medicine several times over the last few months because the government distribution center at New Delhi's Lok Nayak Hospital ran out of drugs. (Source: Reuters: Health)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Malawi: 'Hiv & Aids Bill Not Ready for Presentation to Parliament'
[Malawi News Agency]Lilongwe -In a bid to address some contentious issues in the draft HIV and AIDS Prevention and Management Bill, Capital Hill has said it will not submit the bill to Parliament during the September meeting as was expected. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Levels of circulating myeloid subpopulations and of heme oxygenase-1 do not predict CD4(+) T cell recovery after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy for HIV disease.
Authors: Seu L, Ortiz GM, Burt TD, Deeks SG, Martin JN, McCune JM Abstract The level (or frequency) of circulating monocyte subpopulations such as classical (CD14(hi)CD16(-)) and non-classical (CD14(dim)CD16(+)) monocytes varies during the course of HIV disease progression and antiretroviral therapy (ART). We hypothesized that such variation and/or differences in the degree to which these cells expressed the immunoregulatory enzyme, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), would be associated with CD4(+) T cell recovery after the initiation of ART. This hypothesis was tested in a cross-sectional study of four groups of HIV-infected subjects, including those who were seronegative, untreated virologic controllers [detectable viral load (VL) of &lt;1000 copies/mL], untreated virologic non-controllers...
India battles HIV/AIDS drug shortage as some firms halt supply
India had the third-largest number of people living with HIV in the world at the end of 2013 and accounts for about four out of 10 people living with HIV in the Asia. (Source: The Economic Times)
Southern Africa: Southern Africa's Migration Burden
[The Herald]Labour migration, a historical phenomenon across the Southern African region, has always come with unique dynamics, challenges and opportunities across social, economic and political spectrums.The emergence of HIV has presented a new and potent challenge as migrant workers have fuelled the spread of the virus, which causes AIDS. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Workplace well?being: Healing wounds or applying Band?Aids?
(Source: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Baseline CD4+ T Cell Counts Correlates with HIV-1 Synonymous Rate in HLA-B*5701 Subjects with Different Risk of Disease Progression
by Melissa M. Norström, Nazle M. Veras, Wei Huang, Mattia C. F. Proper, Jennifer Cook, Wendy Hartogensis, Frederick M. Hecht, Annika C. Karlsoon, Marco Salemi HLA-B*5701 is the host factor most strongly associated with slow HIV-1 disease progression, although risk of progression may vary among patients carrying this allele. The interplay between HIV-1 evolutionary rate variation and risk of progression to AIDS in HLA-B*5701 subjects was studied using longitudinal viral sequences from high-risk progressors (HRPs) and low-risk progressors (LRPs). Posterior distributions of HIV-1 genealogies assuming a Bayesian relaxed molecular clock were used to estimate the absolute rates of nonsynonymous and synonymous substitutions for different set of branches. Rates of viral evolution, as well as in ...
In?utero infection with HIV?1 associated with suppressed lymphoproliferative responses at birth
Summary In?utero exposure to HIV?1 may affect the immune system of the developing child and may induce HIV?1?specific immune responses, even in the absence of HIV?1 infection. We evaluated lymphoproliferative capacity at birth among 40 HIV?1?uninfected infants born to HIV?1?infected mothers and 10 infants who had acquired HIV?1 in utero. Cord blood mononuclear cells were assayed using [3H]?thymidine incorporation for proliferation in response to HIV?1 p55?gag and the control stimuli phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), Staphylococcus enterotoxin B (SEB) and allogeneic cells. In response to HIV?1 p55?gag, eight (20%) HIV?1?exposed, uninfected (EU) infants had a stimulation index (SI) ??2 and three (30%) in?utero?HIV?1 infected infants had SI ?2. The frequ...
The RAB5?GEF Function of RIN1 Regulates Multiple Steps During Listeria monocytogenes Infection
Listeria monocytogenes is a food?borne pathogenic bacterium that invades intestinal epithelial cells through a phagocytic pathway that relies on the activation of host cell RAB5 GTPases. Listeria monocytogenes must subsequently inhibit RAB5, however, in order to escape lysosome?mediated destruction. Relatively little is known about upstream RAB5 regulators during L. monocytogenes entry and phagosome escape processes in epithelial cells. Here we identify RIN1, a RAS effector and RAB5?directed guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF), as a host cell factor in L. monocytogenes infection. RIN1 is rapidly engaged following L. monocytogenes infection and is required for efficient invasion of intestinal epithelial cells. RIN1?mediated RAB5 activation later facilitates the fusion of phagos...
Who Leaves the Hospital Against Medical Advice in the Orthopaedic Setting?
CONCLUSIONS: Our data can be used to promptly identify orthopaedic inpatients at higher risk of self-discharge on admission and target interventions to optimize treatment adherence. Strategies to enhance physician communication skills among patients with low health literacy, improve cultural sensitivity, and proactively address substance abuse issues early during hospital admission may aid in preventing discharge dilemmas and merit additional study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, prognostic study. See the Instructions for Authors for complete description of levels of evidence. PMID: 25187333 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research)
Central African Republic: HIV/Aids - Conflict in Central African Republic Disrupts Treatment
[UNHCR]Bangui, Central African Republic -Conflict forced Nayo to flee her native South Sudan and seek shelter in neighbouring Central African Republic, but it has not prevented the 58-year-old refugee from receiving the medical treatment that keeps her alive. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Uganda: Ugandan Teenagers Born With HIV
[RNW Africa]For many sexually active young people, HIV/AIDS is a threat, an infectious, potentially lethal disease they should protect themselves against. But what if you were born with HIV? (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
South Africa: Soweto Clinic Hit By Nationwide HIV Medication Stock Out
[Health-e]Soweto's Mofolo Clinic has been hit by a nationwide stock out of a drug needed to prevent HIV infection in babies. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
South Sudan: Overcrowding at Juba Camps for Displaced Sparks Fears of HIV Outbreak
[Sudan Tribune]Juba -Overcrowding in camps for internally displaced people (IDPs) in South Sudan's capital, Juba, is exposing young people sheltering at the sites to the risk of HIV/AIDs. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Malawi: Manad Train HTC Counselors in Sign Language
[Malawi News Agency]Nsanje -Malawi National Association of the Deaf (MANAD) has embarked on an initiative aimed at imparting knowledge and skills to HIV/Aids Testing and Counseling (HTC) councilors on sign language in an attempt to improve accessibility to HIV testing and counseling services by people with hearing impairment. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Zambia: FQM Wins U.S Peace Corps Kudos
[Times of Zambia]THE United States Peace Corps has praised First Quantum Minerals (FQM) for the support rendered to the 2014 Camp ELITE a programme designed for young boys in North-Western Province, to be enlightened on issues of HIV/AIDS, gender equality, leadership and goal-setting. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Uganda: Circumcision Promoting Risky Behaviour - Report
[Observer]A new study of 314 female sex workers (FSWs) in Makindye division found that more than half of respondents falsely believe that once a man is circumcised, protection is not necessary during sex. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Uganda: Comedians in Drive Against Aids
[Observer]Barbara Kemigisa, who contracted HIV at a young age, isn't shy talking about her tragic life. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Osteoporosis and fractures in HIV/hepatitis C virus coinfection: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Conclusion:HIV/HCV coinfection is associated with a greater risk of osteoporosis and fracture than HIV monoinfection; fracture risk is even greater than uninfected controls. These data suggest that HIV/HCV-coinfected individuals should be targeted for fracture prevention through risk factor modification at all ages and DXA screening at age 50. (Source: AIDS)
Leaky gut -- A source of non-AIDS complications in HIV-positive patients
(Case Western Reserve University) Human immunodeficiency virus infection is no longer a fatal condition, thanks to newer medications inhibiting the retrovirus, but a phenomenon has surfaced among these patients -- non-AIDS complications. Scientists at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine have resolved the mystery with their discovery of the leaky gut as the offender. Bacterial products seep out of the colon, trigger inflammation and set off the processes of cardiovascular, neurodegenerative, chronic kidney and metabolic diseases, and cancer. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Update on the key developments of the neurologic complications in children infected with HIV.
Authors: Wilmshurst JM, Donald KA, Eley B Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss recent research findings of neurologic complications in HIV-infected children, specifically addressing neuroinfections, cerebrovascular disease, epilepsy and neurocognitive complications. The range of neurologic childhood onset complications is diverse and often overlaps diseases previously considered only to manifest in adults. In the pediatric population, these complications frequently have their own unique disease identity, which may be related to maturational patterns evident in the developing brain. RECENT FINDINGS: Developments regarding the pathogenesis of neuroAIDS, treatment of tuberculous meningitis and prevention of bacterial meningitis are described. With the advent of neuroimaging, the...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Cement arthroplasty for ankle joint destruction.
CONCLUSIONS: Primary cement arthroplasty might be a treatment option for advanced ankle destruction in elderly and less active patients. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID: 25187586 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American volume)
The link between CD8+ T-cell antigen-sensitivity and HIV-suppressive capacity depends on HLA restriction, target epitope and viral isolate: Erratum
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
South Africa: Shortage of Drug That Prevents Babies From Getting HIV
[GroundUp]The National Department of Health (NDoH) has sent out a circular nationally to all doctors, nurses and pharmacists informing them of a shortage of a paediatric anti-AIDS drug called nevirapine, used to prevent HIV infection in the newborn children of mothers with HIV. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
South Sudan: One Child's Story of Living With HIV in a South Sudan Camp
[Key Correspondents]Puack, aged 4, is living with HIV and has been under the care of his stepmother Martha since his mother died of AIDS in 2012. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Single pill 'aids heart patients'
Heart attack survivors given multiple pills instead of one are less likely to follow treatment regimes - putting themselves at risk of a repeat attack, a new study suggests. (Source: Nursing Times Breaking News)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Nigeria: Agency Intensifies HIV/Aids Awareness Campaign in Nasarawa
[Daily Independent]Lafia -Nasarawa State AIDS Control Agency (NASACA) has commenced what it described as a "10-day intensive house -to- house campaign" on HIV/AIDS in the state that is targeting about half a million sexually active persons. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Genders of patients and clinicians and their effect on shared decision making: a participant-level meta-analysis
Conclusions: In this participant-level meta-analysis of 7 randomized trials, decision aids used at the point of care demonstrated comparable efficacy across gender dyads. Purported barriers to shared decision making based on gender were not detected when tested for a minimum detected difference.Trial registrations: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00888537, NCT01077037, NCT01029288, NCT00388050, NCT00578981, NCT00949611, NCT00217061. (Source: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making - Latest articles)
Label-free probe of TAT peptide binding to vesicles [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
The transacting activator of transduction (TAT) protein plays a key role in the progression of AIDS. Studies have shown that a +8 charged sequence of amino acids in the protein, called the TAT peptide, enables the TAT protein to penetrate cell membranes. To probe mechanisms of binding and translocation of... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
HIV-2 and HTLV-1 Infections in Spain, a Non-Endemic Region.
Authors: de Mendoza C, Caballero E, Aguilera A, Pirón M, Ortiz de Lejarazu R, Rodríguez C, Cabezas T, González R, Treviño A, Soriano V Abstract The annual workshop of the Spanish HIV?2/HTLV Study Group was held at the Instituto de Salud Carlos III in Madrid on December 11, 2013. Nearly 100 experts and researchers in retroviruses other than HIV?1, the classical AIDS agent, convened for a one?day meeting devoted to updating knowledge on the epidemiology of HIV?2 and HTLV-1 infections and discussing new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies, with special attention to non?endemic regions such as Spain. The Group was funded 25 years ago and since then has been responsible for the national registry of cases, recording all relevant information for each subject and inviting t...
Effect of SAHA administration on the residual virus pool in a model of combination antiretroviral therapy-mediated suppression in SIVmac239-infected Indian rhesus macaques.
Authors: Del Prete GQ, Shoemaker R, Oswald K, Lara A, Trubey CM, Fast R, Schneider DK, Kiser R, Coalter V, Wiles A, Wiles R, Freemire B, Keele BF, Estes JD, Quiñones OA, Smedley J, Macallister R, Sanchez RI, Wai JS, Tan CM, Alvord WG, Hazuda DJ, Piatak M, Lifson JD Abstract Non-human primate models are needed for evaluations of proposed strategies targeting residual virus that persists in HIV-1 infected individuals receiving suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). However, relevant NHP models of cART-mediated suppression have proven challenging to develop. We used a novel three class, six drug combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) regimen to achieve durable 4.0-5.5 log reductions in plasma viremia and declines in cell associated viral RNA and DNA in blood and ti...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
The invertebrate midintestinal gland (?hepatopancreas?) is an evolutionary forerunner in the integration of immunity and metabolism
Abstract The immune system has an impact on the metabolic performance in vertebrates, thus the metabolic effects of immune cells are receiving intense attention today in the biomedical field. However, the evolutionary origin of the immunity?metabolism interaction is still uncertain. In this review, I show that mollusks and crustaceans integrate immune functions to a metabolic organ, the midintestinal gland (?hepatopancreas?). In these animals, the epithelial cells of the midintestinal gland are major sources of immune molecules, such as lectins, hemocyanin, ferritin, antibacterial and antiviral proteins, proteolytic enzymes and nitric oxide. There is crosstalk between midintestinal gland cells and phagocytes, which aids the initiation of the immune response and the clearance...
Africa: Global Fund News Flash - Issue 48
[Global Fund]Better Concept Notes, More Effective Funding (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Kenya: First Lady Urges Homa Bay to Fight HIV-Aids
[The Star]FIRST lady Margaret Kenyatta has urged fishermen and fishmongers to change their lifestyles in order to stop the spread of HIV-Aids. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Uganda: Universal Net Campaign Completed in Uganda, With US, UK and Global Fund Support
[Global Fund]Kampala -The U.S. Government, the United Kingdom (U.K.) Government and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria sealed their commitment to the fight against malaria in Uganda today by finalizing their contribution to the Government of Uganda's Universal Coverage Campaign. Over 22 million long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) for malaria prevention were distributed under the campaign, the largest universal coverage campaign worldwide, which began in the eastern part of the country and extended (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: Global Fund News Flash - Issue 47
[Global Fund]Zambia: Power of Partnerships (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Nigeria: Medical Researcher Decries Low Patronage of HIV Prevention Services
[Leadership]A medical researcher, Prof. Oni Idigbe, on Friday expressed concern over the public's low patronage of Prevention of Mother-to-Children Transmission of HIV (PMTCT) services in Nigeria. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Arab Region Has World?s Fastest Growing HIV Epidemic
By Mona AlamiBEIRUT, Sep 1 2014 (IPS)At a time when HIV rates have stabilised or declined elsewhere, the epidemic is still advancing in the Arab world, exacerbated by factors such as political unrest, conflict, poverty and lack of awareness due to social taboos.According to UNAIDS (the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS), an estimated 270,000 people were living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region in 2012.?It is true that the Arab region has a low prevalence of infection, however it has the fastest growing epidemic in the world,? warns Dr Khadija Moalla, an independent consultant on human rights/gender/civil society/HIV-AIDS.With the exception of Somalia and Djibouti, the [HIV] epidemic is generally concentr...
Kenya: HIV-Aids Myths Busted
[The Star]HIV-AIDS Myths busted Many people are afraid of HIV and for good reason. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
The Use of ECMO in HIV/AIDS with Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia: A Case Report and Review of the Literature
We present a patient with newly diagnosed AIDS and PJP pneumonia that progressed to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) secondary to probable IRIS for which veno-venous ECMO was initiated. He transitioned to conventional ventilator after 57 days of ECMO therapy. However, he did not survive to hospital discharge. Combined with four previously reported cases of ARDS in human immunodeficiency virus patients secondary to PJP treated with ECMO, three of the five patients survived to ECMO decannulation. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is considered an accepted modality for adult patients with respiratory and/or cardiac failure refractory to maximal medical therapy. As ECMO becomes increasingly utilized in clinical practice, there is ongoing controversy regarding the appropriate select...
Humeral Stress Edema: An Injury in Overhead Athletes Quarterback With Humeral ?Shin? Splints?A Case Report
Abstract: Stress injury to the distal humerus has been reported as a cause of chronic arm pain among competitive tennis players. As the serve is technically similar to an overhead throwing motion, it is conceivable that this injury could occur in other overhead athletes. Overuse injuries, including rotator cuff tears, ulnar collateral ligament injuries, and joint sprains have routinely been reported in quarterbacks, but there are few reported cases of upper extremity bony stress injuries in these athletes. Magnetic resonance imaging aids in the diagnostic evaluation of an upper extremity injury as it can identify numerous structural injuries and early stress changes within bone. Accurately diagnosing stress reactions helps prevent progression toward stress fracture, which is possible if co...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Noninvasive ventilation as a palliative measure
Purpose of reviewDyspnea is a distressing consequence of many unremitting diseases. This review discusses the therapeutic use of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) in advanced illness. Recent findingsNIV continues to be investigated most rigorously in patients with progressive neuromuscular weakness and the combination of emphysema and lung cancer. Data are quite limited on the palliative role of NIV in bronchiectasis and interstitial lung diseases. It remains difficult to identify the subsets of patients with acute-on-chronic respiratory failure who are most likely to benefit from ICU admission, but NIV may particularly help those with hypercapnia. The question of whether general or disease-specific instruments should be used to evaluate the effects of NIV on quality of life is unanswered. Com...
Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS)
Editorial overview: cell dysfunction and exhaustion in HIV infection
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS)
Coinhibitory receptors and CD8 T cell exhaustion in chronic infections
Purpose of review: To describe the recent data on the role of coinhibitory receptors, such as PD-1, Tim-3, CD160, as mediators of the ?exhaustion? of virus-specific CD8 T cells in chronic infections and particularly in HIV. Recent findings: Exhaustion of chronic virus-specific CD8 T cells is a dynamic process characterized by altered differentiation, impaired function, and compromised proliferation/survival profile of these cells. This process is mediated by coinhibitory receptors expressed on the surface of virus-specific CD8 T cells and an orchestrated function of centrally connected pathways. Coexpression of several coinhibitory receptors characterizes severely exhausted virus-specific CD8 T cells. Several studies suggest a synergistic action, instead of a redundant role, of the dif...
Distinctive features of CD4+ T cell dysfunction in chronic viral infections
Purpose of review: To describe recent advances in the understanding of virus-specific CD4+ T cell dysfunction in chronic viral infections, with an emphasis on HIV disease. We highlight features that are distinctive for CD4+ T cells, as opposed to their CD8+ T cell counterparts. Recent findings: CD4+ T cell activation and differentiation are tightly controlled. Regulation of these processes depends on the context of initial encounter of the naïve CD4+ T cell with the cognate antigen and on ongoing external cues to the antigen-experienced CD4+ T cell, in particular the inflammatory environment, which is prominent in HIV infection. Virus-specific CD4+ T cell dysfunction results from a combination of an exhaustion program and skewing in T helper lineage differentiation which impact function. ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Cell exhaustion in HIV-1 infection: role of suppressor cells
Purpose of review: Suppressor cells regulate immune responses during chronic viral infection by limiting immunopathology associated with inflammation and immune activation. This dampening of adaptive immune responses can be harmful in HIV-1 infection as it also prevents the immune system from clearing the virus, leading to viral persistence and prolonged antigen expression that often leads to immune exhaustion. A current priority is to find the best strategy to target and manipulate key molecules such as CD39 that suppress anti-HIV-1 immune responses. Recent findings: New suppressor cell subsets and cellular markers have been identified and characterized in the past years. We are able to identify and measure regulatory T cells, regulatory B cells and myeloid-derived suppressor cells in HIV...
Transcriptional regulation and T cell exhaustion
Purpose of review: This review highlights the control of transcriptional networks, including induction of inhibitory receptors, by T cell-specific transcription factors in exhausted T cells that accumulate in chronic viral infections including HIV. Recent findings: Transcriptional profiling has established distinct molecular phenotypes for exhausted CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in chronic viral infection models. There exists a subset of transcription factors associated with exhaustion, notably Blimp-1, basic leucine zipper transcription factor, ATF-like and Helios. Epigenetic phenomena are likely important in regulating gene expression networks during exhaustion as illustrated by programmed death 1 promoter methylation patterns. Summary: Following chronic viral infections, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells d...
MicroRNA modulation of key targets associated with T cell exhaustion in HIV-1 infection
Purpose of review: The emergence of studies linking microRNAs (miRNAs), a species of small RNA molecules important in gene regulation, with HIV-1 infection has led to a better understanding of the complex molecular changes that occur following infection. We aim to discuss these changes and show how miRNAs may be involved with regulating key immunomodulatory molecules linked to T cell exhaustion at the post-transcriptional level. Recent findings: Blimp-1 is a recently described T cell exhaustion marker. Reduced levels of miR-9 have been shown to have a functional role in the higher levels of Blimp-1 in CD4+ T cells from patients with HIV-1 infection. Reduced levels of let-7 miRNAs have been linked to higher levels of IL-10, again with potential pathophysiological significance in HIV-1 infec...
B-cell exhaustion in HIV infection: the role of immune activation
Purpose of review: To discuss a component of the pathogenic mechanisms of HIV infection in the context of phenotypic and functional alterations in B cells that are due to persistent viral replication leading to aberrant immune activation and cellular exhaustion. We explore how B-cell exhaustion arises during persistent viremia and how it compares with T-cell exhaustion and similar B-cell alterations in other diseases. Recent findings: HIV-associated B-cell exhaustion was first described in 2008, soon after the demonstration of persistent virus-induced T-cell exhaustion, as well as the identification of a subset B cells in tonsil tissues with immunoregulatory features similar to those observed in T-cell exhaustion. Our understanding of B-cell exhaustion has since expanded in two important a...
Altered antigen-presenting cells during HIV-1 infection
Purpose of review: The purpose of this study is to describe the alterations that HIV-1 induces in antigen-presenting cells (APCs), in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo. Recent findings: HIV-1 disarms several arms of the immune system including APCs. We summarize here recent findings on the impact of the virus on APC. Summary: HIV-1 can invade APC and overall reduce their capacity to present antigens effectively, mostly by reducing their numbers and inducing permanent hyperactivation. This occurs via a combination of alterations; however, the host can counteract, at least in part, some of these defects via restriction factors, autophagy, the production of type I interferon, antiviral cytokines, among others. However, these specific mechanisms of viral evasion from APCs? control lead to a chronic...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
The dysfunction of T follicular helper cells
Purpose of review: T follicular helper (Tfh) cells play a critical role as providers of B-cell help and dysfunction in Tfh/B-cell interactions can lead to autoimmunity or immunodeficiency. These observations have generated a great deal of interest in understanding how these cells are affected during HIV infection and how their functional changes might affect antibody responses. Recent findings: Recent studies have shown that HIV/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection affects both Tfh-cell frequency and function and suggest that Tfh-cell perturbations might contribute to the relative inefficiency of HIV-infected individuals to generate broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs). Summary: The present review will highlight these recent findings addressing the role of Tfh cells in HIV infe...
Animal models for viral infection and cell exhaustion
Purpose of review: Despite eliciting an early antiviral T cell response, HIV-specific T cells are unable to prevent disease progression, partly because of their loss of effector functions, known as T cell exhaustion. Restoring this T cell functionality represents a critical step for regaining immunological control of HIV-1 replication, and may be fundamental for the development of a functional cure for HIV. In this context, the use of animal models is invaluable for evaluating the efficacy and mechanisms of novel therapeutics aimed at reinvigorating T cell functions. Recent findings: Although nonhuman primates continue to be a mainstay for studying HIV pathogenesis and therapies, recent advances in humanized mouse models have improved their ability to recapitulate the features of cell exha...
CD8 T cell persistence in treated HIV infection
Purpose of review: Many treated HIV-infected persons maintain persistently high circulating CD8 T cell numbers, even after many years of therapy. Recent reports have suggested that persistent CD8 T cell expansion is associated with higher risk of morbid non-AIDS events. Thus, assessing the mechanisms of CD8 T cell expansion and persistence may give insights into a feature of HIV disease that is clinically important. Recent findings: Acute HIV infection is associated with activation and expansion of the CD8 T cell compartment. Expanded CD8 T cells persist throughout the disease course, and in contrast to the plasticity that typically characterizes immune responses to most other pathogens, circulating CD8 T cell numbers do not normalize in many patients despite pharmacologic suppression of H...
HIV epidemic among key populations in west Africa
Purpose of review: Globally, HIV infection remains a significant issue for key populations such as men who have sex with men (MSM) and female sex workers. A review of recent articles was conducted for west African countries to assess the burden of disease among female sex workers and MSM, access to services and identify barriers to implementation of services for key populations. Recent findings: In west Africa, key populations engage in high-risk practices for the acquisition of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Available HIV prevalence data fluctuate across and within countries for both MSM and female sex workers and may be five to ten times as high as that of the general population. HIV prevalence varied from 15.9% in The Gambia to 68% in Benin among female sex workers, wher...
Obstetric Triage: A Systematic Review of the Past Fifteen Years: 1998-2013
Conclusion:Seven key triage categories from the literature were identified and best practices were developed for obstetric triage units from this systematic review. Both can be used to guide future practice and research within obstetric triage. (Source: MCN: The American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Music Preferences With Hearing Aids: Effects of Signal Properties, Compression Settings, and Listener Characteristics
Conclusions:Fast, multichannel WDRC often leads to poor music quality, whereas linear processing or slow WDRC are generally preferred. Furthermore, the effect of WDRC is more important for music preferences than music-industry CL applied to signals before the hearing-aid input stage. Variability in hearing-aid users? perceptions of music quality may be partially explained by frequency resolution abilities. (Source: Ear and Hearing)
The Effect of Hearing Aid Microphone Mode on Performance in an Auditory Orienting Task
Conclusions:The authors argue that an increase in movement complexity indicates a switch from a simple orienting movement to a search behavior. For the most off-axis target angles, listeners using directional microphones appear to not know which direction to turn, so they pick a direction at random and simply rotate their heads until the signal becomes more audible. The changes in fixation latency and head orientation trajectories suggest that the decrease in off-axis audibility is a primary concern in the use of directional microphones, and listeners could experience a loss of initial target speech while turning toward a new signal of interest. If hearing-aid users are to receive maximum directional benefit in noisy environments, both adaptive directionality in hearing aids and clinical a...
Consult decision aid to translate systematic review evidence to facilitate shared decision making.
Conclusion: Interventions and tools are required to stimulate shared decision making. The consult decision aid can be populated with evidence from systematic reviews and be used within clinical consultations to discuss evidence on options and patients preferences. International Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare (C) 2014 The Joanna Briggs Institute (Source: International Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare)
A Randomized Trial of a Prenatal Genetic Testing Interactive Computerized Information Aid
ABSTRACT: Although prenatal screening and diagnosis can provide pregnant women with vital information, decision making requires a significant degree of patient education. Counseling from a provider may not be enough for patients to fully comprehend complex information. Although decision aids are helpful, few such aids have been developed and evaluated in the United States. This randomized, controlled study was performed to develop and test an information aid that used interactive computer technology to provide an immersive educational experience about prenatal genetic testing options. The Interactive Informed Consent and Education Program for Pregnant Women was developed by ArchieMD and incorporates 3-dimensional medical models and visualizations to convey complex information about medical...
Four weeks of functional electrical stimulated cycling after spinal cord injury: a clinical cohort study
The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy and the effects of functional electrical stimulated cycling (FES cycling) in patients with spinal cord injury during their rehabilitation in a special acute care unit. Thirty patients [10 with American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS) grade A, three with AIS grade B, 15 with AIS grade C, two with AIS grade D] aged 44±15.5 years and 2 (median) (interquartile range, 1.0?4.25) months after spinal cord injury were included in the study. The patients participated in a 20-min FES-cycling program 2 days per week for 4 weeks during their acute inpatient rehabilitation. The influence on muscle cross-section, muscle and leg circumference, spasticity, and the walking ability parameter (distance, time, aids) was measured. Muscle st...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Medical Marijuana: More Questions than Answers
With 23 states and the District of Columbia having enacted medical marijuana laws as of August 2014, it is important that psychiatrists be able to address questions about medical marijuana from patients, families, and other health care professionals. The author discusses the medical literature on synthetic cannabinoids and medical marijuana. The synthetic cannabinoids dronabinol and nabilone are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy and appetite stimulation in patients with wasting diseases such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Results of clinical trials of these agents for other conditions have varied widely thus far. In addition, few data are available on the use of the marijuana plant as a medi...
Effect of HIV Infection on Pregnancy-related Mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa: Secondary Analyses of Pooled Community-based Data from the Network for Analyzing Longitudinal Population-based HIV/AIDS Data on Africa (ALPHA)
(Lancet. 2013;381(9879):1763?1771) (Source: Obstetric Anesthesia Digest)
FACSCount CD4 and Pima CD4 T-Cell Count SystemsFACSCount CD4 and Pima CD4 T-Cell Count Systems
Which CD4 counting instrument is most reliable? JAIDS: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
The Significance of Low-level Viraemia in Diverse SettingsThe Significance of Low-level Viraemia in Diverse Settings
This study reports on the association of low-level viraemia with viral failure in different economic settings. HIV Medicine (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
Is Bone Loss Linked to Chronic Inflammation in HIV?Is Bone Loss Linked to Chronic Inflammation in HIV?
What role do inflammation and vitamin D play in HIV bone loss? AIDS (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Effectiveness of first-line antiretroviral therapy in the IPEC cohort, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Background: While Brazil has had a long-standing policy of free access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all in need, the epidemiological impact of ART on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA suppression in this middle-income country has not been well evaluated. We estimate first-line ART effectiveness in a large Brazilian cohort and examine the socio-demographic, behavioral, clinical and structural factors associated with virologic suppression. Methods: Virologic suppression on first-line ART at 6, 12, and 24 months from start of ART was defined as having a viral load measurement 8 years of formal education (compared to (Source: AIDS Research and Therapy)
Alcohol and cognitive impairment [Articles]
We present what is known about cognitive impairment associated with alcohol use/misuse, covering the spectrum from mild and subtle cognitive change through to severe alcohol-related brain damage, including Wernicke&ndash;Korsakoff syndrome. We highlight aids to the diagnosis and management of these conditions, and emphasise the benefits of prompt treatment on outcome. We also review progress in understanding their neurobiology. Suggestions for possible service configuration based on both our clinical practice and national guidelines are given. (Source: Advances in Psychiatric Treatment)
HIV-1 Nef and KSHV oncogene K1 synergistically promote angiogenesis by inducing cellular miR-718 to regulate the PTEN/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway
Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is an AIDS-defining cancer with aberrant neovascularization caused by KS-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). Although the interaction between HIV-1 and KSHV plays a pivotal role in promoting the aggressive manifestations of KS, the pathogenesis underlying AIDS-KS remains largely unknown. Here we examined HIV-1 Nef protein promotion of KSHV oncoprotein K1-induced angiogenesis. We showed that both internalized and ectopic expression of Nef in endothelial cells synergized with K1 to facilitate vascular tube formation and cell proliferation, and enhance angiogenesis in a chicken CAM model. In vivo experiments further indicated that Nef accelerated K1-induced angiogenesis and tumorigenesis in athymic nu/nu mice. Mechanistic studies revealed that Nef and K1 synergistically activ...
The use of light?based (optical) detection systems as adjuncts in the detection of oral cancer and oral potentially malignant disorders: a systematic review
ConclusionThere is limited evidence for their use in primary care, and these tools are better suited to specialist clinics in which there is a higher prevalence of disease and where experienced clinicians may better discriminate between benign and malignant lesions. (Source: Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine)
Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis in HIV Infection and Disease.
Authors: Chrousos GP, Zapanti ED Abstract HIV infection induces hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis derangements. Partial glucocorticoid resistance has been observed in a subset of AIDS patients, possibly owing to HIV-induced altered cytokine secretion and action. Because glucocorticoids have immunomodulatory effects, the severity of the HPA axis disorder could play a central role in disease progression. The characteristic phenotype of AIDS patients (visceral obesity, lipodystrophy) may be owing to effects of HIV proteins on the HPA axis, including changes in glucocorticoid and insulin sensitivity of target tissues, as well as altered cytokine production and interaction with the HPA axis, genetic causes, comorbidities, and, possibly, use of antiretroviral agents. PMID: 25...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
HIV?associated salivary gland disease ? clinical or imaging diagnosis?
ConclusionUS examination proved to be essential for the correct diagnosis and monitoring of the progression of HIV/SGD. (Source: International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry)
Quality of reporting of dental survival analyses
Summary To explore the quality of reporting (writing and graphics) of articles that used time?to?event analyses to report dental treatment outcomes. A systematic search of the top 50 dental journals in 2008 produced the sample of articles for this analysis. Articles reporting treatment outcomes with (n = 95) and without (n = 91) time?to?event statistics were reviewed. Survival descriptive words used in the two groups were analysed (Pearson's chi?square). The quality of life tables, survival curves and time?to?event statistics were assessed (Kappa analysed agreement) and explored. Words describing dental outcomes ?over time? were more common in time?to?event compared with control articles (77%, 3%, P &lt; 0·001). Non?specific use of ?rate? was common acros...
Inflectional morphology in German hearing-impaired children.
Authors: Penke M, Wimmer E, Hennies J, Hess M, Rothweiler M Abstract Despite modern hearing aids, children with hearing impairment often have only restricted access to spoken language input during the 'critical' years for language acquisition. Specifically, a sensorineural hearing impairment affects the perception of voiceless coronal consonants which realize verbal affixes in German. The aim of this study is to explore if German hearing-impaired children have problems in producing and/or acquiring inflectional suffixes expressed by such phonemes. The findings of two experiments (an elicitation task and a picture-naming task) conducted with a group of hearing-impaired monolingual German children (age 3-4 years) demonstrate that difficulties in perceiving specific phonemes relate to...
Residual Metal Impurity Aids Facile In Situ Electrochemical Surface Derivatization of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes.
Authors: Boopathi S, Sudha R, Senthil Kumar S, Lakshminarasimha Phani K Abstract Residual metal impurities were exploited as reactants in the functionalization of the surface of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) with nickel hexacyanoferrate (NiHCF) by simple electrochemical cycling in ferricyanide solutions. This facile in situ electrochemical modification process provides intimate contact between NiHCF and SWCNTs that improves the stability of the redox property and reactivity of NiHCF. The characteristic redox behavior of NiHCF on SWCNT surfaces can be used as an electrochemical probe to access qualitative and quantitative information on unknown electroactive metal impurities in SWCNTs. Significantly, the NiHCF-modified SWCNTs exhibit pseudocapacitive behavior, and the calcu...
Hearing outcomes following primary malleostapedial rotation ossiculoplasty in patients undergoing modified radical mastoidectomy.
CONCLUSIONS: The improvement in hearing thresholds demonstrated in this cohort of patients supports the use of this form of ossiculoplasty in those undergoing open cavity procedures. This would also suggest that the subsequent use of hearing aids in these patients would require less amplification and therefore provide superior hearing outcomes. As hearing loss remains a significant concern following modified radical mastoidectomy, we suggest an open cavity with primary malleostapedial rotation ossiculoplasty as a viable alternative to modified radical mastoidectomy alone, in selected cases. PMID: 25198979 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
[EUS-FNA: How to Improve Biopsy Results? An Evidence Based Review].
In this report we briefly review the actual literature and summarize the available evidence on some controversely discussed issues. The results support the view that use of a stylet rarely aids to increase the amount of tissue obtained during EUS-FNA, whereas use of suction can be helpful in certain situations. Novel cutting needles may potentially improve number and size of core biopsies that can be rendered for special histologic tissue processing techniques. An in-room-cytopathologist not necessarily improves outcome of EUS-FNA results but may have a role during build-up of EUS units to become more successful. EUS-FNA education requires skilled endoscopists on both sides and can presumably be improved by objective testing of practical expertise by peer review and introducing objective s...
[New possibility for measuring the cortical auditory evoked potentials: the HEARLab.]
Conclusions: The HEARLAb can be a great help when performance of the conventional audiological examinations is complicated. The examination can be performed in uncooperative subjects even in the presence of hearing aids. The test is frequency specific and does not require anesthesia. Orv. Hetil., 2014, 155(38), 1524-1529. PMID: 25217769 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Orvosi Hetilap)
A new paradigm for sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening in the hampton roads community of Southeastern Virginia
Southeastern Virginia has the highest rates of STIs in the State. With funding from the Elton John AIDS Foundation (EJAF), PPSEV screened 966 individuals in Hampton Roads. Objectives were to examine costs of the program compared to scheduling visits with providers; and compare time to notification of abnormal results. (Source: Fertility and Sterility)
Factors that influence intent to adopt a hearing aid among older people in Italy
Abstract Hearing loss is one of the most prevalent health impairments associated with ageing in developed countries, and it can result in social, emotional and communication dysfunction. Hearing loss in Italy is increasing, yet, despite the availability of free hearing aids and access to qualified community?based health professionals specialising in audiology services, their uptake remains low (about 15%?20%). This paper presents an investigation of the possible reasons why older people in Italy resist adopting a hearing aid. We used the literature to identify factors influencing people with hearing loss's decision?making, and drew on the theory of reasoned action to create an explanatory model. To test our hypotheses, we applied a cross?sectional design. We developed a questionnai...
?Volunteers Are Not Paid Because They Are Priceless?: Community Health Worker Capacities and Values in an AIDS Treatment Intervention in Urban Ethiopia
This article analyzes community health workers? (CHW) capacities for empathic service within an AIDS treatment program in Addis Ababa. I show how CHWs? capacities to build relationships with stigmatized people, reconcile family disputes, and confront death draw on a constellation of values, desires, and emotions encouraged by CHWs? families and religious teachings. I then examine the ways in which the capacities of CHWs were valued by the institutions that deployed them. NGO and government officials recognized that empathic care was crucial to both saving and improving the quality of people's lives. These institutional actors also defended a policy of not financially remunerating CHWs, partly by constructing their capacities as so valuable that they become ?priceless? and therefo...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Incidental Cystic Lesions in the Pancreas: Resect? EUS? Follow?
Opinion Statement Pancreatic cysts challenge clinicians due to their increased incidental identification on radiology imaging, the limitations of currently available diagnostic tools, and potential for malignancy. Following initial identification of an incidental pancreatic cyst, a dedicated pancreatic protocol abdominal CT scan or MRI pancreas with MRCP should be performed. Surgical resection is recommended for all surgical candidates with MD-IPMN, mixed or combined type IPMN, mucinous cystic neoplasm, and solid pseudopapillary neoplasm. Serous cystadenoma may be followed with serial imaging unless the patient develops symptoms, the cyst is larger than 4 cm or rapidly growing, or diagnostic uncertainty remains despite thorough evaluation. Surveillance is also recommended for BD...
Metabolic Syndrome, Diabetes, and Cardiovascular Risk in HIV
Abstract HIV infection and its treatment have been associated with adipose tissue changes and disorders of glucose and lipid metabolism. The proportion of HIV-infected adults over the age of 50 is also growing placing HIV-infected adults at particular risk for metabolic perturbations and cardiovascular disease. The metabolic syndrome in HIV-infected adults has been increasingly studied but whether HIV is associated with greater risk remains unclear, likely because of the interplay of host, viral and antiretroviral factors that are associated with the components of the metabolic syndrome. The relationship between HIV and diabetes mellitus (DM) risk has also been debated. While the Framingham Risk Score is a well-accepted measure of 10-year cardiovascular risk in the general popula...
Understanding the Etiology and Management of HIV-Associated Peripheral Neuropathy
Abstract HIV may cause several forms of peripheral neuropathy, the most common of which is distal symmetric polyneuropathy (DSP) characterized by pain and sensory deficits in a stocking-glove distribution. The pathophysiology of DSP remains largely unknown but is thought to be related both to the neurotoxicity of HIV?through indirect immunomodulatory mechanisms?and to the neurotoxic effects of anti-retroviral therapies, most notably the dideoxynucleoside reverse transcription inhibitors or so-called d-drugs. Determining whether symptoms arise from the virus or the treatment poses a challenge to the clinician who must decide if a patient?s HAART regimen should be altered. Treatment of symptoms related to HIV-DSP is a difficult task and there is no evidence that the tradition...
Bone Alterations Associated with HIV
Abstract HIV infection and initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) have been consistently associated with decreased bone mineral density (BMD), with growing evidence linking HIV to an increased risk of fracture. This is especially concerning with the expanding number of older persons living with HIV. Interestingly, recent data suggest that HIV-infected children and youth fail to achieve peak BMD, possibly increasing their lifetime risk of fracture. Elucidating the causes of the bone changes in HIV-positive persons is challenging because of the multifactorial nature of bone disease in HIV, including contribution of the virus, immunosuppression, ART toxicity, and traditional osteoporosis risk factors, such as age, lower weight, tobacco, and alcohol use. Thus, practitioners must ...
HIV Associated Neurocognitive Disorders in the Modern Antiviral Treatment Era: Prevalence, Characteristics, Biomarkers, and Effects of Treatment
Abstract The introduction of combination antiretroviral treatment (cART) has significantly reduced the mortality secondary to opportunistic infections in HIV patients by restoring the immune system. In the central nervous system (CNS), there has also been benefit with a marked reduction of HIV associated dementia. However, the milder forms of HIV associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND), namely asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment and mild neurocognitive disorder, remain prevalent in the cART era. In this article, we will discuss how cART interacts with HAND in terms of clinical characteristics and biomarkers. We will then review the outcomes of recent clinical studies focused on the CNS penetrating antiretroviral regimens and some novel therapeutic approaches. (Source: Curren...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Differentiating HIV-associated Nephropathy from Antiretroviral Drug-Induced Nephropathy: A Clinical Challenge
Abstract With the introduction of potent combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) into clinical practice, HIV-infected patients have garnered much benefit. However, kidney disease continues to be a potential complication in this group. Whereas HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) was the major renal complication prior to cART, co-morbid diseases and adverse renal effects of various drugs, in particular cART, now complicate the landscape. Clinicians now must differentiate HIVAN from cART nephrotoxicity. While sometimes this is easy and relatively straightforward, often the clinician faces a difficult challenge distinguishing these two etiologies of kidney disease. This review will discuss HIVAN and cART-related kidney disease and review the clinical and laboratory data that may be ...
Chronic Inflammation and the Role for Cofactors (Hepatitis C, Drug Abuse, Antiretroviral Drug Toxicity, Aging) in HAND Persistence
Abstract HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) is a group of syndromes of varying degrees of cognitive impairment affecting up to 50 % of HIV-infected individuals. The neuropathogenesis of HAND is thought to be driven by HIV invasion and productive replication within brain perivascular macrophages and endogenous microglia, and to some degree by restricted infection of astrocytes. The persistence of HAND in individuals experiencing suppression of systemic HIV viral load with antiretroviral therapy (ART) is incompletely explained, and suggested factors include chronic inflammation, persistent HIV replication in brain macrophages, effects of aging on brain vulnerability, and co-morbid conditions including hepatitis C (HCV) co-infection, substance abuse, and CNS toxicity of...
Functional Impairment, Disability, and Frailty in Adults Aging with HIV-Infection
Abstract The integration of antiretroviral therapy (i.e., ART) into HIV care has dramatically extended the life expectancy of those living with HIV. However, in comparison to similar HIV-uninfected populations, HIV-infected persons experience an excess of morbidity and mortality with an early onset of aging complications including neurocognitive decline, osteoporosis, impaired physical function, frailty, and falls. Recent consensus guidelines encourage clinicians and researchers to consider functional impairment of HIV-infected adults as a measure to understand the impact of aging across a range of abilities. Despite the importance of assessing function in persons aging with HIV infection, a lack of consistent terminology and standardization of assessment tools has limited the ap...
Host Genetic Factors Predisposing to HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder
Abstract The success of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in transforming the lives of HIV-infected individuals with access to these drugs is tempered by the increasing threat of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) to their overall health and quality of life. Intensive investigations over the past two decades have underscored the role of host immune responses, inflammation, and monocyte-derived macrophages in HAND, but the precise pathogenic mechanisms underlying HAND remain only partially delineated. Complicating research efforts and therapeutic drug development are the sheer complexity of HAND phenotypes, diagnostic imprecision, and the growing intersection of chronic immune activation with aging-related comorbidities. Yet, genetic studies still offer a power...
Immune Reconstitution Disorders in Patients With HIV Infection: From Pathogenesis to Prevention and Treatment
Abstract An immune reconstitution disorder occurs in up to 40 % of severely immunodeficient HIV patients who commence antiretroviral therapy (ART), with an immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) being encountered most commonly. Differences in the immunopathogenesis of an IRIS associated with different types of pathogen have become apparent but common features have also been defined. These include severe immunodeficiency prior to commencing ART associated with a high pathogen load and ?compensatory? immune responses, particularly innate immune responses, which inadequately control the pathogen and increase the risk of immunopathology as the immune system recovers on ART. Prevention of an IRIS may be achieved by optimising therapy for opportunistic infections befor...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Depression and Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy in Low-, Middle- and High-Income Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
In conclusion, the likelihood of achieving good adherence was lower among those with depressive symptoms compared to those without. (Source: Current HIV/AIDS Reports)
HIV-Hepatitis C Virus Co-infection in the era of Direct-Acting Antivirals
Abstract Approximately one-third of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are concomitantly infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). As a result, liver disease remains a major source of morbidity and mortality in HIV patients. Prior to 2011, treatments of HCV lacked efficacy in clinical trials in HIV/HCV co-infected patients. Fortunately, several direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have now entered clinical practice and others have reached advanced stages of clinical development. These therapies offer significant benefits such as improved rates of sustained virologic response (SVR), shortened durations of treatment, and compatibility with HIV antiretroviral therapies. Treatments such as sofosbuvir (SOF) have received approval for HIV/HCV co-infected patients. Moreov...
Treatment of HIV in the CNS: Effects of Antiretroviral Therapy and the Promise of Non-Antiretroviral Therapeutics
Abstract The growing recognition of the burden of neurologic disease associated with HIV infection in the last decade has led to renewed efforts to characterize the pathophysiology of the virus within the central nervous system (CNS). The concept of the AIDS-dementia complex is now better understood as a spectrum of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), which range from asymptomatic disease to severe impairment. Recent work has shown that even optimally treated patients can experience not only persistent HAND, but also the development of new neurologic abnormalities despite viral suppression. This has thrown into question what the impact of antiretroviral therapy has been on the incidence and prevalence of neurocognitive dysfunction. In this context, the last few years ...
Incarceration of People Living with HIV/AIDS: Implications for Treatment-as-Prevention
Abstract Contact with the criminal justice system, including incarceration, is a common experience for many people living with HIV/AIDS. Optimism has recently been expressed that correctional facilities could be important locations for treatment-as-prevention (TasP)-based initiatives. We review recent findings regarding the effect of incarceration on patterns of HIV transmission, testing, treatment initiation and retention. We found that the prevalence of HIV infection among incarcerated individuals remains higher than analogous non-incarcerated populations. Recent studies have shown that voluntary HIV/AIDS testing is feasible in many correctional facilities, although the number of previously undiagnosed individuals identified has been modest. Studies have implied enhanced linkag...
Drug Interactions and Antiretroviral Drug Monitoring
This article reviews some of the most relevant and emerging potential interactions between antiretroviral medications and other agents. The most common DDIs are those involving protease inhibitors or non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, which alter the cytochrome P450 enzyme system and/or drug transporters such as p-glycoprotein. Of note are the new agents for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection. These new classes of drugs and others drugs that are increasingly used in this patient population represent a significant challenge with regard to achieving the goals of effective HIV suppression and minimization of drug-related toxicities. Awareness of DDIs and a multidisciplinary approach are imperative in reaching these goals. (Source: Current HIV/AIDS Reports)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Vitamin D Deficiency and Altered Bone Mineral Metabolism in HIV-infected Individuals
Abstract Although patients with HIV infection are living decades longer than before with the advent of combination antiretroviral therapy, they have an increased rate of co-morbidities associated with chronic HIV, such as osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, and immune dysfunction. Many of these complications are known to be affected by vitamin D status in the general population. Thus, the high rate of vitamin D deficiency among HIV-infected patients is alarming. Many observational and cohort studies have demonstrated that vitamin D deficiency is associated with these HIV-related complications, but randomized, placebo-controlled trials are limited. This paper reviews recent data on vitamin D deficiency in HIV infection. (Source: Current HIV/AIDS Reports)
HPV and Anal Cancer in HIV-Infected Individuals: A Review
Abstract HIV infection is one of the strongest risk factors for anal squamous cell cancer (ASCC). Most ASCC are caused by HPV, and most HPV-associated ASCC are caused by HPV-16. Anal HPV infections are very common in men who have sex with men (MSM), and nearly universal among HIV-infected MSM. High-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (HGAIN), the precursor for ASCC, is present in about 30 % of HIV+ MSM, but neither the progression rate to ASCC nor the regression rate are known. The incidence rate of ASCC among HIV-infected people has risen in the first decade after cART became available, but appears to be plateauing recently. Anal cytology has poor sensitivity and specificity. High resolution anoscopy (HRA) is advocated by some as a screening tool in high-risk groups, but is cu...
Update on Diagnosis of Pneumocystis Pulmonary Infections
Abstract Pneumocystis jirovecii is a widespread fungal colonizer of the human lung. Proliferation of the pathogen in the alveoli is controlled by the immune system in healthy individuals. When the immune system is impaired, pneumocystosis can emerge, resulting in a pulmonary infection. Formerly, the disease occurred mainly in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients, accompanied by a high mortality. Now it is increasingly seen in patients with immunosuppressive treatment. Traditionally, laboratory diagnosis is based on the microscopic detection of cysts and trophic forms of P. jirovecii in respiratory samples. Quantitative PCR-based methods will revolutionize laboratory diagnosis. However, cutoffs have to be established to discriminate between colonization ...
An 84-month observational study of the changes in CD4 T-lymphocyte cell count of 110 HIV/AIDS patients treated with traditional Chinese medicine
This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effect of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) by observing the changes in CD4 T-lymphocyte cell count of 110 cases with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) treated continuously with TCM for 84 months. Information of 110 HIV/AIDS patients from 19 provinces and cities treated with TCM from 2004 to 2013 was collected. Changes in the indexes of CD4 counts ( ? 200, 201?350, 351?500 and &gt; 500 cells/mm3) at five time points (0, 12, 36, 60 and 84 months) and different treatments [TCM and TCM plus antiretroviral therapy (ART)] were compared. Repeated measures test indicated no interaction between group and time (P &gt; 0.05). Degrees of increasing and decreasing CD4 count of the two groups at four differen...
Massive expansile ossifying fibroma of the mandible with osteomyelitis
Abstract An ossifying fibroma is a benign odontogenic tumor of mesenchymal origin that belongs to the spectrum of fibro-osseous lesions afflicting the craniofacial complex. Although benign, it can be potentially aggressive, reaching very large sizes. The authors report a rare case of an aggressive ossifying fibroma in the mandible of a 30-year-old male patient that reached gigantic proportions with superimposed osteomyelitis, mimicking a malignancy. Differentiation of ossifying fibroma from other fibro-osseous lesions and benign and malignant neoplasms is important for the correct management of this lesion. Proper radiological evaluation and interpretation aids for arriving at a definitive diagnosis are required. The paper also highlights the radiological features of this entity....<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Chronic binge alcohol consumption does not diminish effectiveness of continuous antiretroviral suppression of viral load in simian immunodeficiency virus-infected macaques.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that CBA does not attenuate effectiveness of NRTI suppression of viral load, nor does it appear to interact with NRTI to produce toxicity during the initial 2 months of treatment. We conclude that while efforts to reduce AUD in PLWHA should be a priority, counseling on the importance of adherence to ART even on drinking days should also be promoted. PMID: 25257285 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research)
Cytomegalovirus Treatment
Opinion statement In treating cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, it is crucial to decide whether one is treating pre-emptively or if one is treating established disease. Disease may be further divided into viral syndrome and tissue-invasive disease. Generally, mild disease in immunosuppressed patients may be treated with oral valganciclovir. Treatment may also be started with valganciclovir for CMV retinitis in AIDS patients. In other tissue-invasive syndromes, starting with intravenous ganciclovir or foscarnet at full doses (adjusted for renal function) is preferred. Treatment at full doses should be continued until symptom resolution and until blood antigenemia (or DNAemia) is cleared. Patients receiving treatment must be closely monitored for side effects to the drugs, as well a...
Therapy of AIDS-Related Cryptococcal Meningitis
Opinion statement Cryptococcal meningitis is a common and severe opportunistic infection in advanced HIV, with the highest burden of disease in resource-poor settings in sub-Saharan Africa. It is invariably fatal if left untreated, and carries a high mortality even with treatment. High fungal burden, raised intracranial pressure, and reduced level of consciousness at presentation are associated with poorer outcomes. The recommended treatment strategy consists of a two-week induction phase, then eight weeks of consolidation therapy, followed by long-term maintenance therapy until restoration of immune function by antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV. Induction treatment should consist of a rapidly fungicidal drug. Amphotericin B has demonstrated superiority to fluconazole both in ...
Nicotine?induced locomotor sensitization: pharmacological analyses with candidate smoking cessation aids
Abstract There are a number of approved therapeutics for the management of alcohol dependence, which might also convey the potential as smoking cessation aids. The present study investigated the effect of a few of these therapeutics and potential candidates (non?peptide vasopressin V1b antagonists) on the expression of nicotine?induced behavioral sensitization in Wistar rats. The following compounds were included in this evaluation: rimonabant, bupropion, topiramate, acamprosate, naltrexone, mecamylamine, nelivaptan (SSR?149415, V1b antagonist) and two novel V1b antagonists. Following the development of nicotine?induced locomotor sensitization and a withdrawal period, the expression of sensitization was assessed in the presence of one of the examined agents given 30 minutes prior t...
Self-reported Health and Personal Social Networks of Older People Living with HIV/AIDS in Lomé, Togo
We examined the composition and size of the networks of OPLWHA. Also, the correlation between networks and self-reported health was examined. Findings show that the OPLWHA had personal social networks that included three types of people: immediate kin, extended kin, and non-kin. Additionally, these networks varied by size. While the mean number of people in the smaller network (people from whom the OPLWHA can borrow an important sum of money) was less than one person (0.55), the mean number of people in the larger network was three (people with whom the OPLWHA enjoy socializing). Furthermore, only the network of people with whom OPLWHA enjoy socializing had a significant positive correlation on the self-rated health of OPLWHA. Consistent with prior research, we found that the mere existenc...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
?At school I got myself a certificate?: HIV/AIDS Orphanhood and Secondary Education: a Qualitative Study of Risk and Protective Factors
Abstract Secondary school is a period during which risk of school dropout is highest. To date, little research has examined reasons for school dropout amongst HIV/AIDS-orphaned children, who are affected economically, psychosocially and educationally. HIV/AIDS orphanhood can perpetuate poverty and increase school dropout in a range of ways, including inability to pay school fees, family disruption and stigma. Related research mostly focuses on school performance and completion and, more recently, on context-specific approaches to measure educational outcomes. The primary aim of this qualitative study was to examine how HIV/AIDS orphanhood influences participation in secondary education in South Africa and to investigate why some HIV/AIDS-orphaned adolescents find it easier to sta...
Mandarin lexical tones identification among children with cochlear implants or hearing aids
Mandarin Chinese is a lexical tone language that has four tones, with a change in tone denoting a change in lexical meaning. There are few studies regarding lexical tone identification abilities in deafened children using either cochlear implants (CIs) or hearing aids (HAs). Furthermore, no study has compared the lexical tone identification abilities of deafened children with their hearing devices turned on and off. The present study aimed to investigate the lexical tone identification abilities of deafened children with CIs or HAs. (Source: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology)
Evaluating a Quality Improvement Intervention Targeted at the Medicine Supply Service from Australian Pharmacies to Residential Aged Care Facilities
This study evaluated the impact of an intervention, comprising education and a toolkit for 45 RACFs and affiliated pharmacies, on the frequency and severity of these incidents. (Source: Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy)
Practical Application of the New Classification Scheme for Congenital Melanocytic Nevi
The objective of the current study was to test the applicability of the new categorization scheme and to correlate classification outcome with the patient's history of melanoma and neurocutaneous melanocytosis (NCM). Children and adults with CMN attending a patient conference in Dallas, Texas, in 2012 were invited to participate in the study. Anamnestical data were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Two dermatologists performed clinical examinations. Of 45 patients enrolled, 33 had a giant CMN (G1 [&gt;40 cm PAS], n = 13; G2 [&gt;60 cm PAS], n = 20), 12 had an NCM (5 symptomatic, 7 asymptomatic), and 1 had a history of melanoma. CMN size was positively correlated with NCM (p &lt; 0.05). The classification system allowed an easy and detailed phenotypic characterization of...
Depression and Social Support Among Women Living with the Substance Abuse, Violence, and HIV/AIDS Syndemic: A Qualitative Exploration
Intimate partner violence (IPV), HIV/AIDS, and substance use are described as the SAVA ?syndemic? among low-income urban women because of their intersecting and synergistic presence in these women's lives. Depressive symptoms are significantly associated with these SAVA factors and although social support is potentially protective for depression, little is understood about its impact on depression associated with the SAVA syndemic. (Source: Womens Health Issues)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Antiretroviral treatment outcomes among foreign-born and Aboriginal peoples living with HIV/AIDS in northern Alberta.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicated that ART outcomes among Alberta-based foreign-born patients are similar to those among Canadian-born non-Aboriginal patients. Our results, however, suggested that Canadian-born Aboriginal patients had poorer treatment outcomes compared to Canadian-born non-Aboriginal patients. It is imperative, therefore, that clinicians, researchers and community members better understand reasons for poor ART outcomes among Canadian-born Aboriginal patients in northern Alberta. PMID: 25166126 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Canadian Journal of Public Health)
Patient, surgeon, and healthcare purchaser views on the use of decision and communication aids in orthopaedic surgery: a mixed methods study
Conclusions: Decision and communication aids can be effective tools for incorporating patients preferences and values into preference-sensitive decisions in orthopaedics. Future efforts should be aimed at assessing strategies for efficient implementation of these tools into widespread orthopaedic practice. (Source: BMC Health Services Research)
Cost-effectiveness Analysis Along the Continuum of HIV Care: How Can We Optimize the Effect of HIV Treatment as Prevention Programs?
Abstract The cascade of HIV care has been proposed as a useful tool to monitor health system performance across the key stages of HIV care delivery to reduce morbidity, mortality, and HIV transmission, the focal points of HIV Treatment as Prevention campaigns. Interventions to improve the cascade at its various stages may vary substantially in their ability to deliver health value per amount expended. In order to meet global antiretroviral treatment access targets, there is an urgent need to maximize the value of health spending by prioritizing cost-effective interventions. We executed a literature review on economic evaluations of interventions to improve specific stages of the cascade of HIV care. In total, 33 articles met the criteria for inclusion in the review, 22 (67 %) of ...
Australia's Seventh National HIV Strategy and the AIDS 2014 Legacy Statement.
Authors: Crooks L, Kidd MR PMID: 25163362 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Med J Aust)
The clinical effectiveness of pegylated interferon and ribavirin for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C in HIV-infected patients in Brazil: a multicentric study.
CONCLUSIONS: in our Brazilian case series, the SVR rate under current clinical practice conditions was similar to that reported in other studies. There was a correlation between an SVR and being infected by genotypes 2 and 3, low viral load, high ALT levels at the onset of treatment, and absence of an AIDS-defining illness. Cytopenia and psychiatric disorders were the major causes of treatment interruption. Efforts should be focused on optimizing management of side effects and counseling to improve adherence and to keep patients on treatment. PMID: 25181403 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Braz J Infect Dis)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Medical Services and Associated Costs Vary Widely Among Surgeons Treating Patients With Hand Osteoarthritis.
CONCLUSIONS: Patients who saw additional providers and who were of younger age incurred higher costs and a greater likelihood of undergoing surgery; the latter was also greater in male patients. Use of medical services and associated costs vary widely among providers treating patients with hand OA. Initiatives addressing practice variation-increased use of decision aids, for example-merit additional study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, prognostic study. See the Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID: 25171936 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research)
Highlights from the 2014 International Symposium on HIV & Emerging Infectious Diseases (ISHEID): from cART management to the end of the HIV pandemic.
In this report we not only give details on this main topic but also summarize what has been discussed in the areas of HCV coinfection and present a short summary on currently emerging viral diseases. PMID: 25165483 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Therapy)
Porn productions suspended after performer tests positive for HIV
LOS ANGELES (Reuters) - A porn industry trade group has placed a moratorium on U.S. productions of adult sex films after one performer received a preliminary positive test for infection by the virus that causes AIDS. (Source: Reuters: Health)
Hiv/aids
The last issue of the Infectious Disease Clinics of North America devoted specifically to HIV/AIDS was published in 1988. Edited by Merle Sande and Paul Volberding, that landmark issue provided a state-of the-art snapshot of the newly defined epidemic, its epidemiology, and the basic principles of treatment and care. Much has happened since then. In 2012, the number of persons living with HIV infection worldwide reached an all-time high of 35.3 million. The medical, social, and economic consequences of this global disaster have reached all continents, presenting society with a health-related challenge unlike any other. (Source: Infectious Diseases Clinics of North America)
Global Epidemiology of HIV
The number of persons living with HIV worldwide reached approximately 35.3 million in 2012. Meanwhile, AIDS-related deaths and new HIV infections have declined. Much of the increase in HIV prevalence is from rapidly increasing numbers of people on antiretroviral treatment who are now living longer. There is regional variation in epidemiologic patterns, major modes of HIV transmission, and HIV program response. It is important to focus on HIV incidence, rather than prevalence, to provide information about HIV transmission patterns and populations at risk. Expanding HIV treatment will function as a preventive measure through decreasing horizontal and vertical transmission of HIV. (Source: Infectious Diseases Clinics of North America)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Forthcoming Issues
Updates in HIV and AIDS: Part II Michael S. Saag and Henry Masur, Editors (Source: Infectious Diseases Clinics of North America)
Porn star tests positive for HIV
An adult film performer tested positive for the AIDS virus, raising concern about adherence to safer sex policies on set (Source: Health News: CBSNews.com)
Malawi: APM Joins African Leaders to Show Commitment to the Fight Against HIV and Aids
[Malawi News Agency]Blantyre -President Professor Arthur Peter Mutharika on Thursday joined other 15 African Heads of State who have signed the 'Protect the Goal Campaign' as a sign of commitment to the fight against HIV and AIDS. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Sudan: Sudan Says Suspected Ebola Patient Died of Aids
[Sudan Tribune]Khartoum -The Darfur Regional Authority (DRA) announced that a "weakly suspected" Ebola virus case was infected with HIV. The patient whose identity was not disclosed came from the Chadian town of Abeche and suffered from viral hemorrhagic fever. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Liberia: NOCAL Supports 'Feed the Future'
[New Dawn]The National Oil Company of Liberia or NOCAL has provided several items to a local organization, 'Feed the Future,' as part of the ongoing Ebola fight. Items donated on Wednesday, 28 August include a consignment of Clorox, heavy duty rubber gloves and detergent soap. NOCAL also provided mattresses, buckets, clothing, assorted food items as well as other basic commodities. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Zimbabwe: Prophets Risk Arrest Over HIV Cure Claims
[New Zimbabwe]PROPHETS who claim to be able cure HIV/AIDS and other diseases such as cancer risk arrest for urging sufferers to stop taking their medications, a government minister said Thursday. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Zimbabwe: Wife Starves HIV+ Hubby
[The Herald]An HIV-positive man yesterday told the Harare Civil Court that his abusive wife forced him to sleep naked every night during the just-ended winter season despite telling her that he was feeling cold. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Serological response to 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children and adolescents with perinatally acquired HIV infection
Conclusion:Children with paHIV mount a robust serological response to PCV13 for most but not all vaccine serotypes. Viral load suppression with HAART and higher baseline IgG concentration are associated with higher postvaccination antibody levels. This has implications for HAART treatment and vaccination practices. (Source: AIDS)
Mobile app on emergency cardiac care aids best decisions in seconds
(European Society of Cardiology) The ACCA Clinical Decision-Making Toolkit mobile app is now available on the App Store and Google Play. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Zambia: Zambia Earns Kudos On PMTCT Gains
[Times of Zambia]ZAMBIA has been cited by the United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) as one of the top seven best performing countries in the world in Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission (PMTCT). (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Electrical stimulation 'aids memory'
Electromagnetic stimulation of a specific part of the brain may improve the ability to remember certain facts, researchers say. (Source: BBC News | Health | UK Edition)
FDA Approves New Fixed-Dose Combination Drug, Triumeq (Abacavir Sulfate/Dolutegravir/Lamivudine), to Treat HIV Infection
&quot;On August 22, 2014, FDA approved a new fixed-dose combination product: TRIUMEQ, a combination of dolutegravir (integrase strand transfer inhibitor), abacavir sulfate and lamivudine (both nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors) for the treatment of HIV-1 infection.&nbsp; &quot;TRIUMEQ alone is not recommended for use in patients with current or past history of resistance to any components of TRIUMEQ. &quot;TRIUMEQ alone is not recommended in patients with resistance-associated integrase substitutions or clinically suspected integrase strand transfer inhibitor resistance because the dose of dolutegravir in TRIUMEQ is insufficient in these subpopulations. See full prescribing information for dolutegravir.&nbsp; &quot;The recommended dosage regimen of TRIUMEQ in adult...
FDA Updates Etravirine Labeling
&quot;On August 20, 2014, the Intelence (etravirine) label was updated to include information regarding coadministration of etravirine with the following drugs: &quot;dolutegravir, dolutegravir/darunavir/ritonavir, dolutegravir/lopinavir/ritonavir &quot;atazanavir/ritonavir &quot;boceprevir&quot; The updated labeling for etravirine is available at the FDA website. More information is available: FDA: Press release AIDSinfo: Patient fact sheet on etravirine (Source: AIDSinfo At-a-Glance: Offering Information on HIV/AIDS Treatment, Prevention, and Research, A Service of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS))
News from CDC and NIAID
From CDC: August 27, 2014: New CDC Campaign Urges Latinos to Speak Up About HIV From NIAID: August 26, 2014: HIV Antibodies Block Infection by Reservoir-Derived Virus in Laboratory Study (Source: AIDSinfo At-a-Glance: Offering Information on HIV/AIDS Treatment, Prevention, and Research, A Service of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS))
Human Papillomavirus Vaccination.
This report summarizes the epidemiology of human papillomavirus (HPV) and associated diseases, describes the licensed HPV vaccines, provides updated data from clinical trials and postlicensure safety studies, and compiles recommendations from CDC's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) for use of HPV vaccines. Persistent infection with oncogenic HPV types can cause cervical cancer in women as well as other anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers in women and men. HPV also causes genital warts. Two HPV vaccines are licensed in the United States. Both are composed of type-specific HPV L1 protein, the major capsid protein of HPV. Expression of the L1 protein using recombinant DNA technology produces noninfectious virus-like particles (VLPs). Quadrivalent HPV vaccine (HPV4) contains...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="http://www.MedWorm.com/" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
The Brazilian version of STarT Back Screening Tool - translation, cross-cultural adaptation and reliability.
Conclusion: The translated and cross-culturally adapted SBST-Brazil proved to be reliable for screening patients according to their risk of poor prognosis and the presence of psychosocial factors. PMID: 25185032 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Physical Therapy)
[Perspective] Rekindled HIV infection
What does the ?Mississippi baby? tell us about curing HIV-1 infection? Authors: Janet D. Siliciano, Robert F. Siliciano (Source: Science: Current Issue)
All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality Among U.S. Youth: Socioeconomic and Rural-Urban Disparities and International Patterns
An analysis of the socioeconomic and rural-urban disparities in all-cause mortality and mortality from homicide, suicide, unintentional injuries and HIV/AIDS among American youth. -- (Source: Rural publications via the Rural Assistance Center)
Programmed death-1 expression on HIV-1-specific CD8+ T cells is shaped by epitope specificity, T-cell receptor clonotype usage and antigen load
Conclusion:Collectively, these data suggest that PD-1 expression on HIV-1-specific CD8+ T cells tracks antigen load at the level of epitope specificity and TCR clonotype usage. These findings are important because they provide evidence that PD-1 expression levels are influenced by peptide/HLA class I antigen exposure. (Source: AIDS)

 

 


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