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CD4 Cells
By Afsath Jameela

CD4 Cells
Treatment centers need consulting rooms, offices, waiting rooms and secure storage for valuable drugs. They also require basic facilities to test for anemia, pregnancy, renal function, white blood cell counts and other factors that may affect treatment.
In developed countries, decisions about when to start treatment are based on the results of clinical tests called the CD4 test and the viral load test. Ideally these tests should be used everywhere, but in many parts of the world they are currently unavailable, as they require expensive equipment, electricity and trained technicians. In theory, decisions about when to start treatment may be based on symptoms alone. However in practice some treatment programmers provide medication only to people who have had a CD4 count.
There are two primary types of T-cells.
1. CD4 Cells-These cells have molecules called CD4 on its surface. These "helper" cells initiate the body's response to invading micro-organisms such as viruses.
2.CD8 Cells-These types of T-cells have a molecule called CD8 on their surface. CD8 cells destroy cells that have been infected with foreign invading micro-organisms. CD8 cells also produce antiviral substances (antibodies) that help fight off the foreign invader.
3.Normal values-In a healthy adult, a normal CD4 count can vary a great deal but is typically 600 to 1200 cells per cubic millimeter of blood
Between 600 and 350- In an HIV+ person, this range is considered "very good".
HIV medications are typically not be indicated.
Between 350 and 200-The immune system is weakened and therefore the HIV+ person may be at increased risk for infection and illness.
Function of T helper cells: Antigen presenting cells present antigen on their Class II MHC molecules. Helper T cells recognize these, with the help of their expression of CD4 co-receptor. The activation of a resting helper T cell causes it to release cytokines and other stimulatory signals. The importance of CD4 T cells is demonstrated with infection.
It has been proposed that during the non-symptomatic phase of infection, the virus has a relatively low affinity towards T cells (and has a higher affinity for macrophages), resulting in a slow kill rate of CD4+ T cells by the immune system. This is initially compensated for via the production of new helper T cells from thymus. Once the virus becomes T-tropic, it begins to infect CD4+ T cells far more efficiently, and

Psychometric tests likely to be made mandatory for pilots - India News, Latest News in India, Live News India, India Breaking News - Times of India
Government is likely to make psychometric test mandatory for assessing the mental health of pilots of domestic carriers, a move which comes against the backdrop of a Germanwings co-pilot deliberately crashing a plane in the Alps in ...
Psychometric tests likely to be made mandatory for pilots - ET: Transportation
<a href="http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/industry/transportation/airlines-/-aviation/psychometric-tests-likely-to-be-made-mandatory-for-pilots/articleshow/47403980.cms"><img border="0" hspace="10" align="left" style="margin-top:3px;margin-right:5px;" src="http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/photo/47403980.cms" /></a>Air India had for the first time availed the services of a psychologist from IAF for conducting psychological tests during a recent recruitment drive of trainee pilots.
Psychometric Tests For Trainees Likely to be Mandatory, Pilots Cry Foul - newindianexpress.com
Government is likely to make psychometric test mandatory for assessing the mental health of pilots of domestic carriers, a move which comes against the backdrop of a Germanwings co-pilot deliberately crashing a plane in the Alps in March.
Much promise, but… - The Hindu: Today's Paper
Much promise, but…
TSR pitches for AIIMS in city - The Hindu: Today's Paper
TSR pitches for AIIMS in city
Psychometric tests likely to be made mandatory for pilots - Hindu: News
Government is likely to make psychometric test mandatory for assessing the mental health of pilots of domestic carriers, a move which comes against the backdrop of a Germanwings co-pilot deliberat...
Schizophrenia is a disease like any other - Hindu: News
Little awareness has deterred the affected and their kin from understanding the disease and seeking medical treatmentfor it
Man Held on Rape Charges - The New Indian Express - Odisha - http://newindianexpress.com/states/odisha/
Little awareness has deterred the affected and their kin from understanding the disease and seeking medical treatmentfor it
TSR pitches for AIIMS in city - Hindu: Visakhapatnam
The 400-bed Viskaha Institute of Medical Sciences, that is awaiting inauguration, is eminently suited to be made into an All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Rajya Sabha member T. Subbarami Red...
Indias turn to say yes Lessons from Irish vote on samesex marriage - Hindustan Times: Top Stories
Though India is one of the few countries that legally recognises the third gender and gayrights activists are getting increasing popular support India ranked 81 among 127 countries ranked in the Gay Happiness Index compiled by Planet Romeo a popular dating app that surveyed 7100 people in ...
?I can never let KB down? - Hindu: Home
When Aarohanam released to critical acclaim, everyone wondered why the lead actor?s face was so familiar. Then, the penny dropped. She was Viji Chandrasekhar, powerhouse performer Saritha?s...
NEURO-DEGENERATIVE DRUG - The Hindu: Today's Paper
NEURO-DEGENERATIVE DRUG
Demonte Colony: Much promise, but? - Hindu: Home
It was always going to happen. With all the horror films being made recently in Tamil cinema ? and so many of them doing well ? De Monte Colony in Alwarpet, thanks to its creepy history, was always...
Better facilities for elders - deccanherald.com
There is relief for some inmates at the Delhi government-run old age home in Bindapur. With the temperatures soaring, the female dormitory at the home will soon be air-conditioned. The old age home has received the air-conditioners as donation from a private company. The administration decided to give preference to the dormitory as most of the occupants there suffer from amnesia or other mental illnesses. Around 30 per cent of the 60 inmates here suffer from mental illnesses. These inmates have little recollection of how they ended up here. &quot;Two air conditioners will be installed in the female dormitory on the third floor. We decided to give them the preference as most of these members suffer from amnesia or other age-related mental ailments. The stay will be a better experience for them if we improve the living conditions,&quot; said a senior official at the home. There are 47 female inmates. Of these, over 20 are accommodated in the dormitory. &quot;It is a hassle for these inmates to maintain the air coolers. ...
Bangladesh National Party politico?s India flight still a riddle - TOI: India
Ahmed, joint general secretary of the Khaleda Zia-led Bangladesh National Party (BNP), was arrested after police found him loitering in the upscale Golf Links area of Shillong on May ...
UN condemns Canada’s deportation of Jamaican man with mental disability - Sify News
After examining the case, a United Nations Committee has found that Canada’s deportation of a Jamaican man with a mental disability who had spent much of his life in Canada amounted to cruel and inhuman treatment, effectively leaving him without medical and family support.
Lufthansa considers spot medical checks of pilots - New Kerala: Health News
Read Full story of ' Lufthansa considers spot medical checks of pilots ' at newkerala.com.
Mentally ill woman kills her two kids, then self - Rajkot - City - The Times of India
A woman killed her two children and then went on to commit suicide in Warli village some 35km from Bhuj in Kutch district on Thursday.
15-yr-old mentally challenged inmate raped by staff in Govt hostel - Nagpur News, Nagpur City News | Cities News - Times of India
A scandal has tumbled out of the closet of the state government?s residential-cum-academic institute for the special children at Rana Pratap Nagar chowk when gang-rape of a 15-year-old inmate by two employees came to ...
Bomb threat for Jayalalithaa's swearing-in - Hindu: Tamil Nadu
An anonymous telephone call stating 'a bomb will explode at Jayalalithaa's swearing-in ceremony' received at Chennai Central created a flutter. Police sources said the call was received at the rai...
Suven Life Sciences gets patents for neurodegenerative drug - DNA: Recent Columns
Biopharmaceutical firm Suven Life Sciences today said it has been granted one patent each by Mexico and Singapore for a drug used in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Neurodegenerative diseases include Alzheimer?s, Schizophrenia and Parkinson&apos;s. In a BSE filing, the company said it has been granted &quot;one product patent from Mexico and one product patent from Singapore corresponding to the new chemical entities for the treatment of disorders associated with neurodegenerative diseases&quot;. These patents are valid through 2029, the company added. Suven Life Sciences CEO Venkat Jasti said: &quot;We are very pleased by the grant of these patents to Suven for our pipeline of molecules in the CNS (central nervous system) arena that are being developed for major depressive disorders (MDD) with high unmet medical need with huge market potential globally.&quot; With these new patents, Suven has a total of 18 granted patents from Mexico and 20 from Singapore. &quot;These patents are the exclusive intellectual property of ...
Suven Life Sciences gets patents for neurodegenerative drug - TOI: India Business
Biopharmaceutical firm Suven Life Sciences on Friday said it has been granted one patent each by Mexico and Singapore for a drug used in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.
Suven gets 2 product patents for neurodegenerative drug - HBL: Home
Biopharmaceutical firm Suven Life Sciences today said it has been granted one patent each by Mexico and Singapore for a drug used in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.Neurodegener...
Biopharmaceutical Suven Life Sciences gets patents for neurodegenerative drug - ET: Pharma
<a href="http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/industry/healthcare/biotech/pharmaceuticals/biopharmaceutical-suven-life-sciences-gets-patents-for-neurodegenerative-drug/articleshow/47381579.cms"><img border="0" hspace="10" align="left" style="margin-top:3px;margin-right:5px;" src="http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/photo/47381579.cms" /></a>With these new patents for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, Suven has a total of 18 granted patents from Mexico and 20 from Singapore.
Suven Life Sciences gets patents for neurodegenerative drug - News
Biopharmaceutical firm Suven Life Sciences today said it has been granted one patent each by Mexico and Singapore for a drug used in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

the immune system is overwhelmed.
At this point, functional CD4+ T cell levels begin to decrease, eventually to a point where the CD4+ T cell population is too small to recognize the full range antigens that could potentially be detected. The lack of full antigen cover results in the core symptoms of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).CD4 T cell depletion during AIDS allows various pathogens to escape T cell recognition, thus allowing opportunistic infections that would normally elicit a helper T cell response to bypass the immune system. While these complete bypass situations only occur when the helper T cell response is absolutely necessary for infection clearance, most infections increase in severity and/or duration because the immune system's helper T cells provide a weaker contribution to a less efficient immune response.
Two components of the immune system are particularly affected in AIDS, due to its CD4+ T cell dependency:
CD8+ T cells are not stimulated as effectively during the AIDS period of infection, making AIDS patients very susceptible to most viruses, including itself. This decline in killing of CD4+ T cells results in the virus being produced for a longer period (the infected CD4+ T cells are not killed as quickly), increasing the proliferation of the virus, and accelerating the development of the disease.
Antibody class switching declines significantly once helper T cell function fails. The immune system loses its ability to improve the affinity of their antibodies, and are unable to generate B cells that can produce antibody groups such as IgG and IgA. These effects are primarily due to the loss of any helper T cell that can interact with the B lymphocyte correctly. Another symptom of AIDS is the reduction in antibody levels due to a decrease in Th2 cytokines (and less interactions by helper T cells). All of these complications result in an increased susceptibility to aggressive bacterial infections, especially in areas of the body not accessible by IgM antibodies.
If the patient does not respond to Treatment they will succumb usually to either cancers or infections; the immune system finally reaches a point where it is no longer coordinated or stimulated enough to deal with the disease.

 Keywords:  HIV,AIDS,HIV Cure,HIV Treatment,HIV Infection,HIV Dating,HIV Positive,HIV Symptoms.


Afsath Jameela is a successful lady writer from Kairo. She right now living in UK.

HIV Susceptibility Among Migrant Miners in Chokwe: A Case Study.
This article examines the association between risky sexual behavior and HIV risk perception among miners. A cross-sectional survey (n?=?293) was conducted with miners who worked in South African mines and lived in the Chokwe district of Gaza Province in southern Mozambique. The study used ordinary logistic and cumulative logistic models to understand what drives miners to HIV susceptibility. The study revealed that most miners were at risk of HIV infection as a result of risky sexual behavior. However, there was a strong negative association between risky sexual behavior and HIV risk perception. Seventy percent of the miners practicing risky sexual behavior reported low HIV risk perception. This demonstrates that miners tend to underestimate their HIV risk, which makes them more suscep...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Workplace-based assessment: a review of user perceptions and strategies to address the identified shortcomings
Abstract Workplace based assessments (WBAs) are now commonplace in postgraduate medical training. User acceptability and engagement is essential to the success of any medical education innovation. To this end, possessing an insight into trainee and trainer perceptions towards WBAs will help identify the major problems, permitting strategies to be introduced to improve WBA implementation. A review of literature was performed to identify studies examining trainee and trainer perceptions towards WBAs. Studies were excluded if non-English or sampling a non-medical/dental population. The identified literature was synthesised for the purpose of this critical narrative review. It is clear that there is widespread negativity towards WBAs in the workplace. This has negatively impacted on t...
Predictors of HIV/AIDS Related Ocular Manifestations among HIV/AIDS Patients in Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia.
Conclusion. In this study, a higher proportion of ocular manifestations were detected in HIV/AIDS patients. Visual acuity and CD4 counts were the independent predictors of ocular manifestations. This finding gives an insight for policy makers and concerned body to integrate ophthalmic examination in ART clinics to improve the health condition of HIV/ADIS patients. PMID: 26000175 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Ophthalmology)
Second generation physical and linkage maps of yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata) and comparison of synteny with four model fish
Conclusions: The second generation linkage and physical maps were constructed using 6,025 contigs having SNP markers. These maps will aid the de novo assembly of sequencing reads, linkage studies and the identification of candidate genes related to important traits. The comparison of marker contigs in the radiation hybrid map indicated that yellowtail is evolutionarily closer to medaka than to green-spotted pufferfish, three-spined stickleback or zebrafish. The synteny analysis may aid studies of chromosomal evolution in yellowtail compared with model fish. (Source: BioMed Central)
EMA Panel Recommends Evotaz for Adults With HIV-1EMA Panel Recommends Evotaz for Adults With HIV-1
An EMA panel has recommended marketing authorization for atazanavir/cobicistat for the treatment of adults with HIV-1 infection and no known mutations associated with atazanavir resistance. International Approvals (Source: Medscape Hiv-Aids Headlines)
Rush to judgment: the STI-treatment trials and HIV in sub-Saharan Africa.
CONCLUSIONS: Shortcomings in published RCTs render invalid the conclusion that treating STIs and other cofactor infections is ineffective in HIV prevention. Meta-analyses of observational studies conclude that STIs can raise HIV transmission efficiency two- to fourfold. Health policy is always implemented under uncertainty. Given the known benefits of STI control, the irreparable harm from not treating STIs and the likely decline in HIV incidence resulting from STI control, it is appropriate to expand STI control programmes and to use funds earmarked for HIV prevention to finance those programmes. PMID: 25990095 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Global funding dips by 90 per cent, may cripple war on AIDS
Many organizations, mainly bilateral and philanthropic donors, have shifted focus to other diseases such as tuberculosis and family planning, sources said. (Source: The Economic Times)
Learning about Cognition Risk with the Radial-Arm Maze in the Developmental Neurotoxicology Battery
Publication date: Available online 23 May 2015 Source:Neurotoxicology and Teratology Author(s): Edward D. Levin Cognitive dysfunction has been found in epidemiological studies to be among the most sensitive impairments associated with developmental exposure to a variety of environmental contaminants from heavy metals to polyhalogenated hydrocarbons and pesticides. These chemicals have been also shown to impair cognitive function after developmental exposure in experimental animal models. The radial-arm maze (RAM) has proven to be a sensitive and reliable way to assess both learning and memory in a variety of species, most often in rats and mice. The RAM is a very adaptable test method that takes advantage of rodents? instinct to explore new places in the environment to forage. That is,...
Multicomponent systems with cyclodextrins and hydrophilic polymers for the delivery of Efavirenz
Publication date: 5 October 2015 Source:Carbohydrate Polymers, Volume 130 Author(s): Alexandre Couto Carneiro Vieira , Danilo Augusto Ferreira Fontes , Luise Lopes Chaves , Lariza Darlene Santos Alves , José Lourenço de Freitas Neto , Monica Felts de La Roca Soares , Jose L. Soares-Sobrinho , Larissa Araújo Rolim , Pedro José Rolim-Neto Efavirenz (EFZ) is one of the most used drugs in the treatment of AIDS and is the first antiretroviral choice. However, since it has low solubility, it does not exhibit suitable bioavailability, which interferes with its therapeutic action and is classified as a class II drug according Biopharmaceutical Classification System (low solubility and high permeability). Among several drug delivery systems, the multicomponent systems with cyclodextrins and h...
The Importance of Finding Your Tribe (VIDEO)
I'm From Driftwood is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit archive for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer stories. New stories are posted on the site every Wednesday. Throughout Robert Scott's life, he had an alcoholic father, became overweight and addicted to drugs, and was affected by the AIDS crisis in San Francisco in the 1980s. Reflecting on his life, he realizes one thing: the importance of finding one's tribe. Robert recalls: I went from academic, grad school, Ph.D. candidate to a hippy living on a commune to a fat gay man coming to San Francisco, losing 130 pounds, finding tribes at every juncture. The only tribe that's actually stuck for me at this juncture in my life is the tribe that I found in recovery. I'm still friends with those people, and it's 40 years later. After watchi...
Nigeria: HIV Positive Robber Infects Women
[Daily Trust] Kaduna -Police sources told Daily Trust in Kaduna yesterday that a HIV-positive member of a robbery gang recently smashed by detectives from the command confessed to have befriended a number of women and deliberately raped some, to infect them with the virus. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
'I want nothing more than to hear my children': Emotional video captures the incredible moment three deaf people hear the voices of their families and friends
A new video captures the incredible moment that the men and women who live in Puerto Princesa, one of the poorest areas in the Philippines, are made able to hear sounds after being fitted with hearing aids. (Source: the Mail online | Health)
Botswana: PAC Member Against Patients Segregation
[Botswana Daily News] Gaborone -A member of Public Accounts Committee (PAC) says government needs to act promptly but cautiously towards addressing the seemingly disturbing scenario of segregating ARV drugs recipients from the rest of other outpatient drug dispensing units. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Tanzania: Aids Deaths Seen Coming Down
[Daily News] THE number of deaths that have resulted from AIDS has gone down by 40 per cent while the prevalence of infections has decreased by 50 per cent for the past ten years, following various initiatives carried out by Tanzania Commission for AIDS (TACAIDS) and other stakeholders. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Intestinal Microsporidiosis
Infection by the ingested pathogens of microsporidia occur primarily in immunosuppressed patients (including untreated HIV/AIDS) and are diagnosed by stool examination, small bowel biopsy with special stains, or electron microscopy (for definitive speciation), or by various molecular techniques. Although electron microscopy has been the definitive diagnostic tool for speciation, genetic sequencing increasingly provides the definitive diagnosis for new species, such as Anncaliia algerae. Further genetic sequencing of the common pathogens may allow for the development of advanced molecular diagnostics providing high diagnostic sensitivity and throughput. (Source: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine)
Implementing Implementation Science: An Approach for HIV Prevention, Care and Treatment Programs.
Authors: Lambdin BH, Cheng B, Peter T, Mbwambo J, Apollo T, Dunbar M, Udoh IC, Cattamanchi A, Geng EH, Volberding P Abstract Though great progress has been realized over the last decade in extending HIV prevention, care and treatment in some of the least resourced settings of the world, a substantial gap remains between what we know works and what we are actually achieving in HIV programs. To address this, leaders have called for the adoption of an implementation science framework to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of HIV programs. Implementation science (IS) is a multidisciplinary scientific field that seeks generalizable knowledge about the magnitude of, determinants of and strategies to close the gap between evidence and routine practice for health in real-world setting...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Phosphorylation?dependent and Phosphorylation?independent Regulation of Helicobacter pylori Acid Acclimation by the ArsRS Two?component System
ConclusionsArsRS has a dual function in acid acclimation: regulation of urease trafficking to UreI at the cytoplasmic membrane, driven by ArsS, and regulation of urease gene cluster expression, driven by phosphorylation of ArsR. ArsS and ArsR work through phosphorylation?dependent and phosphorylation?independent regulatory mechanisms to impact acid acclimation and allow gastric colonization. Furthering understanding of the intricacies of acid acclimation will impact the future development of targeted, nonantibiotic treatment regimens. (Source: Helicobacter)
Disease progression of HIV-1 infection in symptomatic and asymptomatic seroconverters in Osaka, Japan: a retrospective observational study
We examined the interval until disease progression in HIV-1 seroconverters in whom the timing of infection could be estimated within 1 year before diagnosis. Methods: Subjects included newly diagnosed patients at Osaka National Hospital between 2003 and 2010 who had either (1) symptomatic acute HIV-1 infection with a negative or intermediate reaction on Western blotting and a positive reaction on an HIV RNA test (symptomatic acute group) or (2) a positive reaction on Western blotting at diagnosis and a (Source: AIDS Research and Therapy)
National Library of Medicine Announces Solicitation of Quotations for the 2015 HIV/AIDS Community Information Outreach Projects
The National Library of Medicine (NLM) is pleased to announce the solicitation of quotations from organizations and libraries to design and conduct projects for improving HIV/AIDS information access for patients and the affected community as well as their caregivers and the general public. Patients and the affected community need access to the most up-to-date and accurate health information to effectively manage and make informed decisions about their health. Health care providers and health educators also need access to the most current information to provide the highest quality of care. NLM is committed to assisting organizations in accessing the spectrum of information resources and services that are currently available. The NLM is particularly interested in proposals with creative and ...
Recent HIV/AIDS News from FDA, NIAID, and NIH
News from FDA May 12, 2015: Draft Blood Donor Deferral Policy for Men Who Have Had Sex With Another Man (MSM) News from NIAID May 19, 2015: HIV Reservoirs Remain Obstacles to Cure May 18, 2015: HIV Vaccine Awareness Day 2015 May 13, 2015: NYVAC-HIV Vaccine Used in the HVTN 092 and HVTN 096 Clinical Trials News from NIH May 18, 2015: Dr. Robert W. Eisinger to Serve as Acting Associate Director for AIDS Research, NIH (Source: AIDSinfo At-a-Glance: Offering Information on HIV/AIDS Treatment, Prevention, and Research, A Service of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS))
Blue Marble Health and ?The Big Three Diseases?: HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria
Publication date: Available online 21 May 2015 Source:Microbes and Infection Author(s): Peter J. Hotez (Source: Microbes and Infection)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Interrater Agreement Between Visual Analysts of Single-Case Data: A Meta-Analysis
Visual analysis is the most widely applied method of data interpretation for single-case research as it encompasses multifaceted considerations relevant to evaluating behavior change. However, a previous research synthesis found low levels of interrater agreement between visually analyzed ratings of graphed data across all variables under analysis. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the peer-reviewed literature to date for potential moderators affecting the proportion of interrater agreement between visual analysts. Nineteen articles with 32 effects were assembled. Potential moderators evaluated included (a) design families, (b) rater expertise, (c) the provision of contextual information for graphs, (d) the use of visual aids, (e) the provision of an operational definition ...
Bronchopulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma
We describe a case of Bronchopulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma in a patient with AIDS who was successfully treated with HAART and Liposomal Doxorubicin chemotherapy. (Source: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports)
Outcomes of antiretroviral treatment in HIV-infected adults: a dynamic and observational cohort study in Shenzhen, China, 2003-2014
Conclusions Sustained virological and immunological outcomes show that patients have responded positively to long-term antiretroviral treatment with low mortality. This 10-year data study provides important information for clinicians and policymakers in the region as they begin to evaluate and plan for the future needs of their own rapidly expanding programmes. (Source: BMJ Open)
Red Nose Charity Celeb Supporters Include Kim Kardashian, Reese Witherspoon
The carpet won't be the only thing red at the Hammerstein Ballroom Thursday night. Dozens of Hollywood are supporting Red Nose Day -- a three-hour televised event held at the New York City venue raising awareness and funds for several nonprofits, including Feeding America, Save the Children and the United Way. Although the show will raise money through a telethon, the NBC broadcast will be "very, very, very different" from the conventional method of fundraising, event creator and film writer-director Richard Curtis told The Associated Press. The event -- which has raised more than 78 million British pounds, or about $122 million, in the U.K. since its inception in 1988, according to CNN -- will incorporate both live and pre-recorded segments. Funds donated toward past events have bene...
[In Depth] Canadian registry to track thousands of pot smokers
Fifteen years after learning about the medical benefits of cannabis from patients in a sickle cell clinic in Kingston, Mark Ware is studying the drug on a grand scale. A pain management researcher at McGill University Health Centre in Montreal, Canada, he directs the Quebec Cannabis Registry, a new, one-of-a-kind database that aims to gather information on every patient prescribed marijuana in the province over the next 10 years?an estimated 3000 in all. By collecting data on symptoms, dosage, improvement, and side effects, the registry, launched on 11 May and funded by a grant from the nonprofit Canadian Consortium for the Investigation of Cannabinoids, aims to fill gaps in knowledge about the efficacy and safety of medical marijuana. Even as more and more states and countries legalize ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Arhp: hiv/aids
Resources for improving HIV/AIDS prevention and patient care. (Source: PHPartners.org)
Zimbabwe: Zimbabwe Has Highest Condom Usage in the World
[News24Wire] Zimbabwe has the highest condom usage in the world and this has contributed to a reduction in HIV infections, the state-run National Aids Council (NAC) has revealed. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Zimbabwe: Zimbabwe Has 'Highest Condom Usage in World'
[News24Wire] Zimbabwe has the highest condom usage in the world and this has contributed to a reduction in HIV infections, the state-run National Aids Council (NAC) has revealed. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Zimbabwe: Informal Sector to Pay Aids Levy
[Financial Gazette] The majority of those in the informal sector are involved in survivalist ventures with evidence showing that 40 percent of them earn less than US$200 per month while 11 percent do not have a monthly income. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Cleric uses video to tell congregation she has HIV
Watch this heartwarming video of a pastor who uses a series of cardboard messages to tell her congregation that she is HIV positive (Source: Telegraph Health)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Namibia: Dancers Need Sponsors for Ovcs' Fundraiser
[New Era] Tov HIV and AIDS Orphans & Vulnerable Children Organisation will host a Non-stop Dancing Event next Saturday, May 30, at the Tov Multi Purpose Centre in Tsumeb. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Malawi: Commercial Sex Workers Who Were Forced for HIV Test Win Case in Court
[Malawi24] The High Court of Malawi has today ruled that subjecting people to mandatory HIV Test is a violation of fundamental human rights such the right to equality and non-discrimination, right to dignity and right not to be subjected to cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Zimbabwe: HIV On the Prowl in Mining Towns
[The Herald] In the heart of Mashonaland Central province lies Shamva town, a hub of mining activities approximately 90km north-east of Harare. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Evaluation of 2 Novel Devices for Calculation of Fluid Requirements in Pediatric Burns
Conclusions: Both novel devices provide safer and faster alternatives to conventional methods for calculation of fluid requirements in pediatric burns. (Source: Annals of Plastic Surgery)
Burns in sub-Saharan Africa: A review
Conclusions These statistics indicate the need for an urgent review of burn policies and related legislation across the sub-Saharan region to help reduce burns, and provide a safe environment for children. (Source: Burns)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Overdose of dolutegravir in combination with tenofovir disaproxil fumarate/emtricitabine in suicide attempt in a 21-year old patient
A 21 year old MSM patient with newly diagnosed HIV infection was hospitalized in our department after ingestion of an overdose of his antiretroviral therapy (ART) comprising dolutegravir (DTG - Tivicay®) and tenofovir disaproxil fumarate/emtricitabine (Truvada®) in suicidal intention. On admission, the patient did not show any clinical signs of intoxication and laboratory findings were unremarkable. After 6 hours of intensive care monitoring, the patient was referred to a psychiatric clinic. 5 days after the day of intoxication, serum creatinine levels increased to high normal values (1.2 mg/dl). However, levels never exceeded the upper threshold. 8 and 12 weeks later, serum creatinine normalized to levels measured prior to the intoxication. No other adverse events occurred, and the...
The role of conspicuity in preventing bicycle crashes involving a motor vehicle
Conclusion: Conspicuity aids may not be effective in preventing bicycle&ndash;motor vehicle crashes in New Zealand, particularly in Auckland, where attention conspicuity is low. (Source: The European Journal of Public Health)
Erratum to: Sexual Mixing in Shanghai: Are Heterosexual Contact Patterns Compatible With an HIV/AIDS Epidemic?
(Source: Demography)
Lifetime suicide attempt history, quality of life, and objective functioning among HIV/AIDS patients with alcohol and illicit substance use disorders - Walter KN, Petry NM.
This cross-sectional study evaluated lifetime prevalence of suicide attempts in 170 HIV/AIDS patients with substance use disorders and the impact of suicide attempt history on subjective indices of quality of life and objective indices of cognitive and phy... (Source: SafetyLit: All (Unduplicated))
Africa: UN Agency Calls for Renewed Global Commitment to Develop Effective HIV Vaccine
[UN News] To mark HIV Vaccine Awareness Day, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, or UNAIDS, has renewed its call for a sustained worldwide commitment to finding an effective HIV vaccine. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Work Productivity Loss Is Highest in U.S. Workers with AIDS, Broken...
New results from the National Health and Wellness Survey show that although overall impairment is 15 percent for the U.S. workforce, impairment for people with AIDS or broken bones tops 40 percent.(PRWeb May 19, 2015)Read the full story at http://www.prweb.com/releases/2015/05/prweb12724595.htm (Source: PRWeb: Medical Pharmaceuticals)
Screening and Treatment to Prevent Cryptococcal MeningitisScreening and Treatment to Prevent Cryptococcal Meningitis
Does cryptococcal antigen screening and testing have an impact on preventing cryptococcal meningitis in people with AIDS? JAIDS: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
Increased systemic immune activation and inflammatory profile of long-term HIV-infected ART-controlled patients is related to personal factors, but not to markers of HIV infection severity
Conclusions In these long-term treatment-controlled HIV-infected patients, all systemic markers of inflammation and immune activation were increased compared with healthy controls. This was related to demographic and behavioural factors, but not to markers of severity of the HIV infection. Intervention to decrease low-grade inflammation must thus prioritize modifiable personal factors. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Low HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance in Bulgaria against a background of high clade diversity
Conclusions We found a low prevalence of TDR against a background of high HIV-1 genetic diversity among antiretroviral-naive patients in Bulgaria. Our results provide baseline data on TDR and support continued surveillance of high-risk populations in Bulgaria to better target treatment and prevention efforts. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Knowledge, attitudes and practices on HIV/AIDS and prevalence of HIV in the general population of Sucre, Bolivia
Conclusions Prevalence of HIV infection is very low and unsafe sex is relatively uncommon. Inadequate knowledge on HIV/AIDS and discriminatory attitudes towards PLWHA are extremely high and are associated to gender, ethnic and economic inequalities. (Source: The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
CCR5 ?32 homozygous cord blood allogeneic transplantation in a patient with HIV: a case report
We present a 37-year-old patient with HIV-1 infection and aggressive lymphoma who had disease progression after five lines of radiochemotherapy including an autologous HCT, and in the absence of matched sibling donors, received an allogeneic HCT with four of six HLA-matched CCR5 ?32 homozygous cord blood cells (StemCyte, Covina, CA), supported with purified CD34+ cells from a haploidentical sibling. Blood or tissue samples were obtained before and weekly after HCT to monitor transplant and HIV infection, including chimerism analysis, CCR5 genotyping and viral tropism, viral isolation and sequence, viral reservoir analysis, immune activation and proliferation, and ex-vivo cell infectivity assays. Combined antiretroviral therapy continued during the procedure. Findings The patient's HIV wa...
Efavirenz treatment causes arterial stiffening in apolipoprotein E-null mice
The development of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has transformed HIV-1 infection from a terminal diagnosis to a chronic, yet manageable disease. However, people living with HIV-1 exhibit a host of non-AIDS-related co-morbidities including cardiovascular disease (CVD). Several HAART drugs have been implicated in the development of CVD; however, the role of efavirenz (EFV), a highly prescribed HAART drug, in early-onset CVD is poorly understood. We treated apolipoprotein E-null (ApoE-/-) mice with EFV (75mg/kg/day) or vehicle, via oral gavage, for 35 days and quantified commonly measured preclinical markers of CVD (intima-media thickening, arterial stiffening) and plaque area. (Source: Journal of Biomechanics)
HIV/AIDS Among American Indians and Alaska Natives in the United States
Describes how HIV infection affects American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/AN) and why it is a serious public health issue among AI/AN. Compares survival rates of infected AI/AN with other races/ethnicities. (Source: Rural publications via the Rural Assistance Center)
UN agency calls for renewed global commitment to develop effective HIV vaccine
To mark HIV Vaccine Awareness Day, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, or UNAIDS, has renewed its call for a sustained worldwide commitment to finding an effective HIV vaccine. (Source: UN News Centre - Health, Poverty, Food Security)
Africa: From Africa, With One Voice
[GFO] As the continent receiving the lion's share of Global Fund investments in the fight against AIDS, TB and malaria, Africa must do more to ensure its voices are heard in decision-making and strategy development: this was the clarion call made in Addis Ababa on 5 May at the first official meeting of the Africa Bureau. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Kenya: Farming Promotes Health and Wealth of HIV - Aids Patients in Naivasha
[The Star] Long stimatised by the community, HIV positive patients in Naivasha have become more confident and are now some of the leading crop and dairy farmers in the region, thanks to a programme on poverty eradication run by the Catholic Church under the Assumption Sisters of Nairobi. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Nigeria: HIV/Aids Blamed for 59.3 Percent Female Deaths in Four Yrs - Report
[Daily Trust] HIV/AIDS accounted for 59.3 percent of female deaths recorded in Nigeria for four years on the average according to figures released by the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS). (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Twitter could provide valuable details about transgender people?s health needs, UCLA-led study finds
Transgender and gender-nonconforming people have a higher-than-average risk for AIDS and are more vulnerable than others to depression. But because stigma about gender identities makes them less likely to disclose information about themselves to researchers, it also has been difficult for doctors to understand the best ways to provide care for them. New research by the University of California Institute for Prediction Technology suggests that social media could help fill that knowledge gap. In a study published in the peer-reviewed journal JMIR Mental Health, the researchers reported that because transgender and gender-nonconforming people frequently use social media to discuss important health and social needs, resources like Twitter may provide a wealth of useful information for docto...
Stability and survival of bone-anchored hearing aid implant systems in post-irradiated patients
Abstract Bone-anchored hearing aids (BAHAs) are based on the principle of osseointegration, which is fundamental to implant stability and survival. Previous exposure to ionising radiation may compromise this, as evidenced in relation to dental and craniofacial implants. There is a dearth of data, however, regarding BAHA implant systems in patients with previously irradiated implant sites. We sought, therefore, to investigate implant stability and survival in such patients. Patients were identified retrospectively from our electronic BAHA database. Hospital records were reviewed for demographics; operative technique; complications; and details regarding previous irradiation. Implant stability was assessed by resonance frequency analysis (RFA), generating a numerical value?implan...
'Redesigned' antibodies may control HIV: Vanderbilt study
(Vanderbilt University Medical Center) With the help of a computer program called 'Rosetta,' researchers at Vanderbilt University have 'redesigned' an antibody that has increased potency and can neutralize more strains of the AIDS-causing human immunodeficiency virus than can any known natural antibody. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Behavioral Economics Matters for HIV Research: The Impact of Behavioral Biases on Adherence to Antiretrovirals (ARVs)
We present novel evidence on the prevalence of the common behavioral decision-making errors of present-bias, overoptimism, and information salience among 155 Ugandan HIV patients, and analyze their association with subsequent medication adherence. 36 % of study participants are classified as present-biased, 21 % as overoptimistic, and 34 % as having salient HIV information. Patients displaying present-bias were 13 % points (p = 0.006) less likely to have adherence rates above 90 %, overoptimistic clients were 9 % points (p = 0.04) less likely, and those not having salient HIV information were 17 % points (p &lt; 0.001) less likely. These findings indicate that BE may be used to screen for future adherence problems and to better design and target interventions addressing these ...
Correlates of HIV Testing Among Men Who have Sex with Men in Three Urban Areas of Mozambique: Missed Opportunities for Prevention
Abstract This is the first study to identify levels of recent HIV testing and associated factors among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Mozambique. Using data from Maputo (n = 493), Beira (n = 572), and Nampula/Nacala (n = 347), collected via respondent-driven sampling in 2011, and excluding those with prior known infection, we found that 30.4 % [95 % confidence interval (CI) 25.0?36.3 %], 42.1 % (95 % CI 36.8?47.3 %) and 29.8 % (95 % CI 22.9?36.9 %), respectively, had recently tested for HIV (?12 months), while between three and five out of 10 MSM had never tested. A range of factors was associated with recent HIV testing such as familiarity with the modes of transmission, knowledge of antiretroviral treatment for HIV, contact with peer educators and awa...
D-Ribose aids heart failure patients with preserved ejection fraction and diastolic dysfunction: a pilot study
Conclusions: This pilot study revealed some beneficial trends with D-ribose even with this small cohort size. However, future investigations are necessary to further substantiate these observed benefits. (Source: Therapeutic Advances in Cardiovascular Disease)
Integrating small molecule signalling and H?NS antagonism in Vibrio cholerae, a bacterium with two chromosomes
Abstract H?NS is a well?established silencer of virulence gene transcription in the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae. Biofilm formation aids V. cholerae in colonizing both its host and its external environments and H?NS silences biofilm gene expression. Cyclic?di?guanosine monophosphate acts through the DNA binding proteins VpsR and VpsT to overcome H?NS?mediated repression of biofilm genes, driving a transition between a planktonic and a colonial/biofilm lifestyle. The H?NS binding pattern has now been charted on both chromosomes in V. cholerae but whether or not this abundant DNA?binding?and?bridging protein plays any roles in nucleoid organization in this bacterium remains an open question. (Source: Molecular Microbiology)
Highlights from this issue
In 1970, the US Surgeon General is said to have declared that it was time to "close the book on infectious diseases, declare the war against pestilence won and shift national resources to such chronic problems as cancer and heart disease". Though this attribution has been disputed,1 the undoubted optimism of that era over infectious disease now seems a world away, after a year in which Ebola both reached and was transmitted within the United States of America. In recent years we have been alarmed by the re-emergence of ancient diseases in newly resistant form&mdash;particularly gonorrhoea and tuberculosis. This month, Tuddenham and Ghanem's editorial introduces a mini-series on the threat of antimicrobial resistant (AMR) gonorrhoea,2 featuring expert analyses by international experts Rice,...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Spotting the Signs: a national toolkit to help identify young people at risk of child sexual exploitation
It has been widely reported in research and inquiries that child sexual exploitation (CSE) is both under-reported and unrecognised by statutory and voluntary sector organisations.1&ndash;3 A report by the Office of the Children's Commissioner found that at least 16&nbsp;500 children were identified as being at risk of CSE each year by gangs and groups.1 Between 5% and 17% of children under 16 (between 650&nbsp;000 and 2 million children) experience sexual abuse, and more than one in three do not tell anyone during childhood.2 CSE has been defined by the National Working Group for Sexually Exploited Children and Young People3 as the involvement of those aged &lt;18 in exploitative situations, contexts and relationships where the young people (or a third person) receive something (eg, affect...
Delaying the widespread emergence of cephalosporin-resistant gonorrhoea: what is the best target?
Neisseria gonorrhoeae is associated with high morbidity worldwide. The emergence of cephalosporin and macrolide resistance represents a grave threat to the control of a disease, which, if untreated, can lead to serious reproductive complications in women, blindness in neonates, facilitated spread of HIV and, in rare cases, life-threatening disseminated infections.1 2 A plenary was convened at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) sexually transmitted disease (STD) Prevention Conference held in Atlanta, Georgia, 9&ndash;12 June 2014, to discuss several key aspects pertaining to this issue. The Scientific Committee, including Drs Matthew Golden from the University of Washington, Kevin Karem from CDC and Khalil Ghanem from Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, invited ...
Will targeting oropharyngeal gonorrhoea delay the further emergence of drug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains?
Gonorrhoea is an important sexually transmitted infection associated with serious complications and enhanced HIV transmission. Oropharyngeal infections are often asymptomatic and will only be detected by screening. Gonococcal culture has low sensitivity (&lt;50%) for detecting oropharyngeal gonorrhoea, and, although not yet approved commercially, nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) are the assay of choice. Screening for oropharyngeal gonorrhoea should be performed in high-risk populations, such as men-who-have-sex-with-men(MSM). NAATs have a poor positive predictive value when used in low-prevalence populations. Gonococci have repeatedly thwarted gonorrhoea control efforts since the first antimicrobial agents were introduced. The oropharyngeal niche provides an enabling environment for...
Imiquimod 5% cream for five consecutive days a week in an HIV-infected observational cohort up to 32 weeks in the treatment of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions
Conclusions Topical imiquimod 5% cream is useful in HSIL. A five consecutive days treatment regimen with imiquimod 5% cream for HSIL does not seem to be more effective compared with the customary prescription for 3&nbsp;days a week. A prolonged course of imiquimod 5% cream is warranted for intra-anal HSIL. Adverse effects are comparable between 3 and 5&nbsp;days treatment regimen. (Source: Sexually Transmitted Infections)
Engaging young adult clients of community pharmacies for HIV screening in Coastal Kenya: a cross-sectional study
Conclusions About a quarter of targeted pharmacy clients took up HIV-1 testing. Clients seeking care directly at the pharmacy (ie, without a prescription) and those with STI symptoms were more likely to take up HIV-1 testing. Engagement of adult pharmacy clients for HIV-1 screening may identify undiagnosed individuals and offers opportunities for HIV-1 prevention research. (Source: Sexually Transmitted Infections)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Discordance of HIV and HSV-2 biomarkers and self-reported sexual behaviour among orphan adolescents in Western Kenya
Conclusions Our study demonstrates the discordance between infections measured by biomarkers and self-reports of having had sex among orphan adolescents in Kenya. In order to detect programme effects accurately in prevention research, it is necessary to collect both baseline and endline biological data. Furthermore, it is recommended to triangulate multiple data sources about adolescent participants&rsquo; self-reported information about marriage and pregnancies from school records and parent/guardians to verify the information. Researchers should recognise potential threats to validity in data and design surveys to consider cognitive factors and/or cultural context to obtain more accurate and reliable information from adolescents regarding HIV/sexually transmitted infection risk behaviour...
Interest in using rectal microbicides among Australian gay men is associated with perceived HIV vulnerability and engaging in condomless sex with casual partners: results from a national survey
Conclusions Interest in using rectal microbicides was associated with self-perceived vulnerability to HIV, engaging in sexual practices that increase the risk of HIV acquisition and less uncertainty about the efficacy of microbicides. There appears to be a group of men who would benefit from, and are highly motivated to use, a rectal microbicide product. (Source: Sexually Transmitted Infections)
Key factors in the acceptability of treatment as prevention (TasP) in Scotland: a qualitative study with communities affected by HIV
Conclusions Our results suggest that potential use and management of TasP may not be straightforward. It could be contingent on reducing inequalities in HIV literacy, minimising the perceived burden of treatment and other potential risks, and addressing the dynamics of existing and socially acceptable risk management strategies, especially in relation to long-term serodiscordant relationships. (Source: Sexually Transmitted Infections)
Anogenital preinvasive and invasive lesions in the Limpopo Province of South Africa
Anogenital preinvasive and invasive lesions are known to have been on the increase in the industrialised world since the 1970s.1 The increase in anal squamous cell carcinomas and Kaposi's sarcomas (KS) has often been associated with the HIV epidemic, especially among men having sex with men. KS and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma are virus-related (KS-associated herpes virus and Epstein&ndash;Barr, respectively) AIDS-defining illnesses.2 Among anogenital cancers, only cervical cancer is listed as AIDS-defining illness. A large proportion of anogenital preinvasive and invasive lesions are human papillomavirus (HPV)-related, with a variable proportion of low-grade and high-grade (HG) HPV. HPV is a necessary cause of cervical cancer.3 Vulvar carcinomas are either HPV-related or not.4 The proportion of...
Repeated STI and HIV testing among HIV-negative men who have sex with men attending a large STI clinic in Amsterdam: a longitudinal study
Conclusions The proportion of MSM testing for STI annually is low. MSM testing repeatedly had higher baseline levels of risk behaviour. Strategies to motivate MSM to test annually should be explored. (Source: Sexually Transmitted Infections)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Clinical roundup
What are the chances, doctor? The risk of HIV transmission from a single sexual encounter is a popular topic of conversation between sexual healthcare providers and patients. Patel et al have recently updated the USA&rsquo; Centers for Disease Control 2005 review, in which this risk was previously estimated.1 2 Their review includes the most recent observational and interventional study findings, in particular those pertaining to the use of treatment as prevention (TasP). The review reports that receptive anal intercourse carries a risk of 138 transmissions per 10&nbsp;000 acts (1.38%) in the absence of antiretroviral therapy (ART) or condoms, compared with 4 transmissions per 10&nbsp;000 acts of insertive penile&ndash;vaginal sex (0.04%). The use of both condoms and ART reduces the risk o...
Use of new antiretroviral drugs and classes in Bahia, Brazil: a real life experience on salvage therapy of AIDS patients
Publication date: Available online 19 May 2015 Source:The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases Author(s): Carlos Brites , Isabella Nóbrega , Eduardo Martins Netto Antiretroviral therapy has significantly evolved in the last decade, with an increasing number of new drugs and classes. Currently, even heavily experienced patients can be successfully treated with new regimens. In Brazil, the recent incorporation of some new antiretroviral drugs made it possible to suppress HIV plasma viremia in most treated patients, with significant benefits in terms of quality of life and survival. However, little has been published on outcomes of patients under new drugs-based regimens. We reviewed the safety and efficacy of antiretroviral regimens using recently introduced drugs in Bahia. Our result...
Applying Qualitative Data Derived from a Rapid Assessment and Response (RAR) Approach to Develop a Community-Based HIV Prevention Program for Adolescents in Thailand
HIV education programs are needed to address risk-taking behavior for adolescents. The purpose of our study was to use the World Health Organization?s Rapid Assessment and Response (RAR) method to design a community-based, cultural- and age-appropriate HIV prevention program for adolescents in Bangkok, Thailand. Adolescent single-gender-specific focus groups (n = 3; 28 participants) were used to gather reactions/ideas about program topics/approaches. An adult, mixed-gender group was held to review information identified by adolescents. (Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)
Provider perspectives regarding the health care needs of a key population: HIV-infected prisoners after incarceration
During incarceration, many HIV-infected prisoners receive care and are adherent to medication. However, following release, many have difficulty engaging in HIV care and remaining on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Community-based service providers for HIV-infected releasees have a deep understanding of the health needs and challenges these individuals face on community re-entry. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 38 health care and service professionals in 2 U.S. southern states regarding the barriers releasees faced in meeting their health needs, including HIV care and treatment post-release. (Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)
Antiretroviral Drugs in Meconium: Detection for Different Gestational Periods of Exposure
To determine whether antiretroviral (ARV) medications can be detected in meconium from second or third trimester, labor and delivery (L&D), or postnatal exposures. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
ChiNet uncovers rewired transcription subnetworks in tolerant yeast for advanced biofuels conversion
Analysis of rewired upstream subnetworks impacting downstream differential gene expression aids the delineation of evolving molecular mechanisms. Cumulative statistics based on conventional differential correlation are limited for subnetwork rewiring analysis since rewiring is not necessarily equivalent to change in correlation coefficients. Here we present a computational method ChiNet to quantify subnetwork rewiring by statistical heterogeneity that enables detection of potential genotype changes causing altered transcription regulation in evolving organisms. Given a differentially expressed downstream gene set, ChiNet backtracks a rewired upstream subnetwork from a super-network including gene interactions known to occur under various molecular contexts. We benchmarked ChiNet for its hi...
Lack of replication of four candidate SNPs implicated in human male fertility traits: a large-scale population-based study
This study indicated that none of the four SNPs rs7867029, rs12870438, rs7174015 and rs724078 displayed a significant association with semen parameters in the meta-analysis of two Japanese male cohorts. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION Only four SNPs identified in the Hutterite GWAS were examined for associations with semen quality traits in a Japanese population. In addition, the linkage disequilibrium structures around the testing markers were different between ethnic groups. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS Locus mapping studies using a set of tagging SNPs across the loci will be necessary in populations with larger sample sizes in order to understand the contribution of specific genes to semen quality. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST (S) This study was supported in part by the Mi...
An association study of four candidate loci for human male fertility traits with male infertility
This study was supported in part by the Ministry of Health and Welfare of Japan (1013201) (to T.I.), Grant-in-Aids for Scientific Research (C) (23510242) (to A.Ta.) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, the European Union (BMH4-CT96-0314) (to T. I.) and the Takeda Science Foundation (to A.Ta.). None of the authors has any competing interests to declare. (Source: Human Reproduction)
Pacific Trade Pact Would Mean Higher Drug Prices, Says Report
Trans Pacific Partnership, now being negotiated by U.S., will keep low-cost generics off the market, says the Foundation for AIDS Research -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com (Source: Scientific American - Official RSS Feed)
Andrew Pusipher Is HIV Positive, But His Wife And Kids Are Not. Here's Why.
33-year-old Andrew Pulsipher is HIV positive. He has a wife and three kids, and all of them are HIV negative. Pulsipher, who lives in Phoenix, Arizona, was born with HIV. Both of his parents died of AIDS when he was kid, so Pulsipher was raised by his aunt and uncle. When he met his wife Victoria and realized he wanted to start a family, Pulsipher was nervous about passing it on. So he and Victoria had his daughter, now five, through fertility treatments. But because Pulsipher's HIV is currently "undetectable," he was able to have his second two children naturally. Pulsipher told The Huffington Post: HIV is very modernized these days. I just went to the doctor today. They just check your levels and make sure you?re still undetectable. That?s everyone?s goal, to be undetectable...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Stopping Cancer Before It Starts
On May 20, 2015, New York State will host its Cancer Prevention Summit in Manhattan. This bold initiative is the work of the New York State Commissioner of Health, Dr. Howard Zucker, and his colleagues at the New York State Department of Health. Many health related organizations in New York are participating in the Summit, and the audience will be challenged with action points. I am honored to participate in the Cancer Prevention Summit as a speaker, and will introduce the keynote speaker, Dr. Graham Colditz, an internationally recognized leader in the prevention of cancer and other diseases. The Summit's focus is the primary prevention of cancer -- stopping cancer before it starts -- and leading experts will present their research and insights with those present, and remotely through a...
Uganda: Uganda Tipped On ICT for HIV Awareness
[EA Business] Kampala -HIV/AIDS activists in Uganda have suggest the government and NGOs integrate the use of modern information and communication technology platforms in sensitizing the public, particularly young people about HIV/AIDS. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Treating HIV in DRC: "They Couldn't Just Let Me Die Like That"
Field newsTreating HIV in DRC: &quot;They Couldn&#039;t Just Let Me Die Like That&quot; May 18, 2015 Despite the tremendous progresses made in the fight against HIV/AIDS, many patients in West and Central Africa still struggle to get the treatment they need. Barely a third of the people in those two regions who need anti-retroviral (ARV) treatment receive it. (Source: MSF News)
How Does a Decision Aid Help People Decide Whether to Disclose a Mental Health Problem to Employers? Qualitative Interview Study
Conclusions Data from our 13 participants suggest that the CORAL decision aid acts on several dimensions of decisional conflict: clarifying the pros and cons of different choices; increasing knowledge; structuring the decision making process; and clarifying needs and values. The current study indicated that it would be most effective when delivered by a professional well versed in employment and mental health matters such as a vocational adviser. The need for employers and policymakers to reduce the negative impact of disclosure is also highlighted. (Source: Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation)
Nigeria: HIV Vaccine - Experts Explore Viable Options
[Vanguard] AS Nigeria joins the rest of the world to mark the HIV Vaccine Awareness Day today, an Associate Professor of Paediatric Dentistry and Consultant at the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria, Dr. Morenike Ukpong, has called for all hands to be on deck to ensure that all available HIV prevention methods reach people who need them. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Zambia: HIV/Aids - Epidemic of Fear
[Times of Zambia] The following article was written by Martin Choo, in his essay in the first edition of AIDS Today, a publication of the International HIV Alliance, a USA based organisation. The article sums up how HIV is "the epidemic of fear." (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Adherence to PrEP and HIV Risk Among People Who Inject DrugsAdherence to PrEP and HIV Risk Among People Who Inject Drugs
How does PrEP adherence impact the risk of HIV infection? AIDS (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
Hodgkin Lymphoma Is as Common as Non-Hodgkin in HIV PatientsHodgkin Lymphoma Is as Common as Non-Hodgkin in HIV Patients
This study compares HIV-infected patients with Hodgkin Lymphoma and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma with respect to antiretroviral therapy exposure. HIV Medicine (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
Zimbabwe: 10 Percent of Harare's 10,000 STI Cases Among Vendors
[New Zimbabwe] SEXUALLY transmitted infections are rife among vendors, accounting for 36 percent of cases recorded in Harare alone, the National AIDS Council (NAC) has said. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Zimbabwe: Same Name, Different People
[The Herald] A Harare woman is suffering stigma and discrimination after another person who shares her name appeared at the Harare Civil Court claiming her boyfriend deliberately infected her with HIV and was now stealing her ARVs. Chipo Kamuriwo of 183 Monavale Road, Milton Park, said she has not known peace since The Herald last week published the story about he namesake. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Kenya: The Diary of a Medical Student - HIV-Aids Vaccine Will Revive Hope
[The Star] There is no doubt that having a HIV vaccine would be a miracle for all human kind. But as we approached World AIDS Vaccine day, I couldn't help but think of my own species -the female. And just how much more it would mean to us, and the world of difference it would create. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
[Correspondence] HIV/AIDS registration in Pakistan
Meaningful national-level HIV/AIDS registration can only be imagined in Pakistan?an Islamic country of more than 185 million inhabitants, where people hesitate to discuss their sexual practices. Moreover, knowledge, attitude, and practices regarding HIV/AIDS are poor, not only within the general population, but also among general medical practitioners in Pakistan.1 As a result, a country previously regarded as low-prevalence but high risk has become a country with a concentrated HIV epidemic2 that is a potential threat to national and international health security. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
[Correspondence] India's budget reduction and AIDS initiatives
India is ranked third in the world for AIDS prevalence, with 2·1 million people living with HIV. This lethal disease took the lives of about 130?000 people in 2013 alone across the country.1,2 Nevertheless, the pandemic is lessening its virulence, with a 57% fall in new cases during 2000?11 and a 29% fall in AIDS-related mortality during 2007?11.1 (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
[Comment] From the big three to the big four
The increasing global burden of viral hepatitis was recognised by the World Health Assembly with the passing of two resolutions, the first in 2010,1 followed by a second in 2014.2 These resolutions identified viral hepatitis as a global health issue needing an ?integrated and cost-effective approach? to its prevention, control, and management. At a global level, viral hepatitis is responsible for 1·44 million deaths every year (compared with 1·46 million deaths from HIV/AIDS, 1·20 million from tuberculosis, and 1·17 million from malaria). (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
South Africa: Gauteng Health Hosts HIV and Aids Candlelight Memorial, 17 May
[SA Govt] The Gauteng Department of Health will on Sunday 17 May 2015, host a candlelight memorial in remembrance of those who succumbed to AIDS at Sedibeng. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Correction
Quesada AE, Tholpady A, Wanger A, et al. Utility of bone marrow examination for workup of fever of unknown origin in patients with HIV/AIDS. J Clin Pathol 2015;68:241&ndash;5. doi:10.1136/jclinpath-2014-202715 The following sentence has been amended to read: The average white blood cell count for all patients was x109/L (range 0.1&ndash;23.7 x109/L). The average haemoglobin was 91&nbsp;g/L (range 54&ndash;135&nbsp;g/L). The average platelet count was 146 x109/L (range 4&ndash;642 x109/L). Table 2 has also been amended to read: Table&nbsp;2Complete blood cell counts BM culture negativeBM culture positiveWhite blood cell count4 x109/L2.8 x109/LReference range: 4.5&ndash;11.0 x109/L0.1&ndash;23.7 x109/L1.2&ndash;5.6 x109/LHaemoglobin93&nbsp;g/L83&nbsp;g/LReference range: 54&ndash;135&nbsp;g/L...
Virtual support for paediatric HIV treatment decision making
Conclusions Combined multidisciplinary virtual input with adult expertise in resistance and newer agents, paediatric knowledge of pill swallowing, childhood formulations/weight banding and parental support, assists complex treatment decision making in paediatric HIV infection. The Virtual Clinic model could be applied to the management of other rare complex diseases of childhood within a clinical network. (Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood)
Answers to Epilogue questions: Troublesome Thai travels
Answers TO THE EPILOGUE QUIZ From questions on page 144 The answers to question 1 are C, E, H, I, J. Three broad categories of aetiologies can be considered for his renal impairment.NSAID use. Prerenal impairment secondary to dehydration, which should be readily reversible with volume replacement. Volume depletion alone can cause acute tubular necrosis. Infectious. Any patient returning from a tropical country with fever should have imported tropical illnesses high on the differential list. The activities of swimming in open water and eating partially cooked meat increased the likelihood of this patient having an imported tropical infective cause. Renal involvement is a recognised feature of a wide number of tropical illnesses, including leptospirosis, malaria, typhoid, viral haemorrhagic ...
Decision Aids in Serious Illness
Shared decision making is often challenging and never entirely rational. Even seemingly simple decisions, such as taking antibiotics for an upper respiratory tract infection or repairing a fractured bone, may encompass trade-offs, are influenced by cognitive biases, and can be clouded by emotion. Serious illness amplifies these biases and their effects. Decision making is even more complicated in the setting of advance care planning, when patients are trying to decide for their future selves rather than their current selves. (Source: JAMA Internal Medicine)
Tools to Promote Shared Decision Making in Serious Illness
This review of tools for shared decision making in serious illness finds that future randomized clinical trials are needed for further development of novel decision aids for serious diagnoses and key decisions. (Source: JAMA Internal Medicine)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Prevalence of hepatitis C antibodies in the population aged 16?80 years in the Community of Madrid 2008?2009
Together with AIDS, the burden of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in Spain heads the list of communicable diseases in terms of impact on public health. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of HCV antibodies in the Community of Madrid, assess changes in recent years and analyse associated risk factors. Descriptive cross?sectional study of a target population consisting of Community of Madrid residents aged 16?80 years old. Two?stage cluster sampling was performed, with stratification by socioeconomic status and percentage immigrant population. The sampling frame consisted of public blood extraction centers attached to the Madrid Health Service. Seroprevalence of HCV antibodies, prevalence ratios by age groups in comparison with 1999 survey data and prevalence association with ...
Improving the Global HIV/AIDS Care Continuum for Adolescents
This Viewpoint discusses the importance of improving care globally for adolescents with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS. (Source: JAMA Pediatrics)
The Challenge of a "Functional Cure" for AIDS by Gene Modified HSCT Therapy.
The Challenge of a "Functional Cure" for AIDS by Gene Modified HSCT Therapy. Curr Stem Cell Res Ther. 2015 May 18; Authors: Xu L, Chen H, Zhang B Abstract Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), an infectious disease which is difficult to be cured, is regularly and effectively treated with anti-retroviral therapy in clinic. When considering about the defects of antiretroviral therapy (ART), patients need a new way to cure AIDS. With the development of genetic engineering technology and humanized mouse models, a new way has been found to achieve a "functional cure" for AIDS. One/some specific gene(s), such as CCR5 and CXCR4, can be knocked out to produce HIV-resisting cells, so as to achieve the purpose of curing AIDS. To find a safe and effective therapy for AIDS, t...
Late diagnosis and vulnerabilities of the elderly living with HIV/AIDS
CONCLUSION Late diagnosis of HIV infection or AIDS among the elderly happens in the secondary or tertiary service. Issues related to sexual life of the elderly are only questioned by health professionals after the diagnosis, also the time that condom use becomes absolute. It is believed that the investigation of the vulnerability of the elderly to HIV/AIDS allows for carrying out appropriate interventions for this population. OBJETIVO Identificar las vulnerabilidades de los ancianos con VIH/SIDA y el camino recorrido por ellos hasta el diagnóstico de la enfermedad. MÉTODO Investigación cualitativa conducida en ambulatorio especializado en el interior del Estado de São Paulo, de enero a junio de 2011. Se llevó a cabo entrevista semiestructurada con 11 añosos que se descubrieron infect...
Early Antiretroviral Therapy Is Protective Against Epilepsy in Children With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Botswana
Conclusions: Earlier initiation of cART may be protective against epilepsy in children with HIV. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
HIV-1 Coreceptor CXCR4 Antagonists Promote Clonal Expansion of Viral Epitope-Specific CD8+ T Cells During Acute SIV Infection in Rhesus Monkeys In Vivo
Conclusions: Antagonists of HIV coreceptors, particularly CXCR4, play an important role in the clonal expansion of SIV epitope-specific CD8+ T cells in vivo, thus inhibitors of chemokine receptors such as CXCR4 or CCR5 may contribute to the ability of epitope-specific CD8+ T cells to inhibit SIV or HIV infection. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Transcutaneous Bone-anchored Hearing Aids Versus Percutaneous Ones: Multicenter Comparative Clinical Study
Conclusion: We can confirm that both transcutaneous and percutaneous techniques are effective in the rehabilitation of conductive hearing loss when conventional hearing aids cannot be used. However, both of the systems have some advantages and limitations in terms of audiological and surgical perspectives. (Source: Otology and Neurotology)
Comparison of Audiologic Results and Patient Satisfaction for Two Osseointegrated Bone Conduction Devices: Results of a Prospective Study
Conclusion: Amplification-wise, both devices are suitable treatments for hearing-impaired patients. Nevertheless, audiometric tests do not reflect subjective benefit and patients? satisfaction, and both options should be tested to provide each patient with the best possible hearing solution. The study further elucidates the importance and necessity of questionnaires in the process of evaluating the hearing benefit of hearing devices. (Source: Otology and Neurotology)
CROI 2015: Basic Science Review.
Authors: Stevenson M Abstract The 2015 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) represents a forum that encompasses all facets of research on HIV/AIDS and its complications. CROI is a valuable venue for scientific and public health researchers, clinicians, policy makers, and community representatives to be updated on the latest advances in their specific areas of interest and beyond. CROI 2015 continued to surprise. New insights into the viral reservoirs that persist in the face of antiretroviral therapy were prominently featured, as were therapeutic approaches aimed at curtailing and eliminating persistent viral reservoirs in HIV-infected individuals. Basic science is providing surrogates that could be valuable in how viral reservoirs are measured and, ultima...
HIV Drug Therapy in the Americas 16-18 April 2015, Mexico City, Mexico.
Authors: PMID: 25967936 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
San Francisco woman proves that HIV doesn't always cause AIDS: no symptoms after 23 years
(NaturalNews) In the 23 years since she was diagnosed with HIV, 61-year-old Loreen Willenberg of Sacramento, Calif., has never taken any drugs to restrain the virus. She has never shown symptoms or become ill from HIV or AIDS. She has experienced no drop in her CD4 T-cells, the immune... (Source: NaturalNews.com)
Simultaneous Multibeam Resource Allocation Scheme for Multiple Target Tracking
A colocated multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar system has the ability to address multiple beam information. However, the simultaneous multibeam working mode has two finite working resources: the number of beams and the total transmit power of the multiple beams. In this scenario, a resource allocation strategy for the multibeam working mode with the task of tracking multiple targets is developed in this paper. The basis of our technique is to adjust the number of beams and their directions and the transmit power of each beam through feedback, with the purpose of improving the worst tracking performance among the multiple targets. The Bayesian Cram&#x00E9;r&#x2013;Rao lower bound (BCRLB) provides us with a lower bound on the estimated mean square error (MSE) of the target state. He...
A cross-sectional study of leukopenia and thrombocytopenia among Chinese adults with newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS.
Authors: Shen Y, Wang J, Wang Z, Shen J, Qi T, Song W, Tang Y, Liu L, Zhang R, Zeng Y, Lu H Abstract We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence and risk factors of leukopenia and thrombocytopenia among Chinese adults with newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS. One thousand nine hundred and forty-eight newly diagnosed HIV-infected patients were enrolled between 2009 and 2010. Serum samples obtained from each individual were collected for complete blood count. Factors associated with the presence of leukopenia and thrombocytopenia were analyzed by multiple logistic regression. The overall prevalence of leukopenia and of thrombocytopenia was 33.2% and 15.6%, respectively. The prevalence of leukopenia was higher among females than among males (39.4% versus 31.2%). The prevalen...
The Plain Jane of All Remedies
The Emperor of All Maladies, a PBS documentary by Ken Burns based on the Pulitzer prize-winning book of the same name, is promoted as a "biography" of cancer. However, it is more accurately described as a history of cancer treatment. And while I was hopeful there would be some relevant content on cancer prevention, it was no surprise that the focus was primarily on a cancer treatment model. The movie attracted sponsors such as David Koch, Cancer Treatment Centers of America and Genentech, to name a few. Such prosperous sponsors are not involved in our organization's work for Less Cancer. While I honor the work of all those seeking better treatments and hope for a cure, a sharp devil's advocate might wonder why these companies and individuals would support the work for prevention. What wou...
Revised Recommendations for Reducing the Risk of HIV Transmission by Blood and Blood Products
This guidance document provides you, blood establishments that collect blood or blood components, including Source Plasma, with FDA?s revised donor deferral recommendations for individuals with increased risk for transmitting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Share Your Ideas for Updating the National HIV/AIDS Strategy
The White House Office of National AIDS Policy invites you to share your ideas, feedback, and recommendations for updating the National HIV/AIDS Strategy. Comments are due May 22, 2015. (Source: PHPartners.org)
Role of myeloid cells in HIV-1-host interplay
This article will overview research that is examining the role of macrophage in virus-host interplay and will discuss features of this interplay that could impact efforts to eliminate myeloid cell reservoirs. (Source: Journal of NeuroVirology)
Kenya: There is Still Hope for Aids Vaccine, Researchers Say
[Capital FM] Nairobi -As the world prepares to mark HIV Vaccine Awareness Day, researchers in Kenya are concerned that the public may have lost faith in one ever being developed. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Cobicistat?vinblastine interaction and severe peripheral neuropathy
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Acute myocardial infarction following thalidomide treatment for AIDS-related ulcers
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Anti-tumor necrosis factor monoclonal antibody for steroid-dependent TB-IRIS in AIDS
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Impact of protease inhibitors on intracellular concentration of tenofovir-diphosphate among HIV-1 infected patients
Intracellular nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) concentrations are associated with plasma HIV-1 response. Coadministration of protease inhibitors with NRTIs can affect intracellular concentrations due to protease inhibitor inhibition of efflux transporters. Tenofovir-diphosphate (TFV-DP) concentrations within peripheral blood mononuclear cells were compared among individuals receiving either atazanavir or darunavir-based regimens. There was a trend towards higher TFV-DP concentrations among women and among participants receiving atazanavir. TFV-DP intracellular concentrations were positively associated with undetectable plasma HIV-1 RNA. (Source: AIDS)
HAART and lungs: do HIV protease inhibitors impact cancer risk?
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Protease inhibitors exposure is not related to lung cancer risk in HIV smoker patients: a nested case?control study
Conclusion: These results suggest that the risk of lung cancer is not influenced by pharmacologically induced P450 cytochrome protease inhibitors inhibition among smokers or ex-smokers. (Source: AIDS)
Concurrency can drive an HIV epidemic by moving R0 across the epidemic threshold
Conclusion: Concurrency can be a driver of an HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa for low levels of concurrency, although it is not decisive in MSM populations. A small increase in the level of concurrency can lead to R0 crossing the epidemic threshold in a sub-Saharan African setting. (Source: AIDS)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Effects of syndemics on HIV viral load and medication adherence in the multicentre AIDS cohort study
The objective of this study is to determine associations between intertwining epidemics (syndemics) and HIV medication adherence and viral load levels among HIV-positive MSM and to test whether adherence mediates the relationship between syndemics and viral load. Design: We analysed participant data collected between 2003 and 2009 from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, a prospective HIV/AIDS cohort study in four U.S. cities. Methods: We conducted longitudinal analyses (repeated measures mixed models) to assess whether differences in viral load levels, undetectable viral load and self-reported HIV medication adherence were associated with count of syndemic conditions (substance use, depression symptoms and sexual risk behaviour, range 0?3), adjusting for race/ethnicity, age and income. M...
Changes in the contribution of genital tract infections to HIV acquisition among Kenyan high-risk women from 1993 to 2012
Conclusion: Bacterial vaginosis and HSV-2 have consistently been the largest contributors to HIV acquisition risk in the Mombasa Cohort over the past 20 years. Interventions that prevent these conditions would benefit women's health and could reduce their risk of becoming infected with HIV. (Source: AIDS)
The burden of dialysis-requiring acute kidney injury among hospitalized adults with HIV infection: a nationwide inpatient sample analysis
Conclusion: These data suggest that the incidence of dialysis-requiring AKI among hospitalized adults with HIV infection continues to increase, and that severe AKI remains a significant predictor of in-hospital mortality in this population. The increased incidence of dialysis-requiring AKI was largely explained by ageing of the HIV population and increasing prevalence of chronic non-AIDS comorbidities, suggesting that these trends will continue. (Source: AIDS)
CD4+ gain percentile curves for monitoring response to antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected adults
Objectives: We constructed CD4+ cell count gain percentile distributions standardized by baseline CD4+ cell count and assessed the association between poor CD4+ cell count gain and subsequent death and virological failure on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Design: Secondary analysis of 10 years of clinical data from a cohort of adults initiated on ART at the Themba Lethu clinic in Johannesburg, South Africa. Methods: The generalized additive model for location, scale and shape was used to construct percentile curves for CD4+ cell count gain standardized by baseline CD4+ cell count in the first 28 months of ART. Cox proportional models were used to assess the association between lower percentiles ( (Source: AIDS)
Young age at start of antiretroviral therapy and negative HIV antibody results in HIV-infected children when suppressed
Conclusion: Testing negative on standard HIV antibody tests occurs fairly commonly among HIV-infected children who started ART 3 months of age or less and are virally suppressed. It would be prudent in clinical practice to avoid HIV antibody tests among virally suppressed, early-treated children to prevent unnecessary confusion. (Source: AIDS)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Effect of selenium supplementation on CD4+ T-cell recovery, viral suppression and morbidity of HIV-infected patients in Rwanda: a randomized controlled trial
Conclusions: This randomized clinical trial demonstrated that 24-month selenium supplementation significantly reduces the rate of CD4+ cell count decline among ART-naive patients. (Source: AIDS)
White matter microstructure among youth with perinatally acquired HIV is associated with disease severity
Conclusion: Our findings suggest that PHIV youth have a higher risk of alterations in white matter microstructure than typically developing youth, and certain alterations are related to past disease severity. Further, white matter alterations potentially mediate associations between HIV disease and working memory. (Source: AIDS)
Low cross-neutralization of hepatitis C correlates with liver disease in immunocompromized patients
Conclusion: Serum neutralization in HIV-coinfected patients and HCV-infected liver transplant recipients is poor enhancing HCV entry through HVR1/SR-BI interplay. This may contribute to the severity of hepatitis C in these settings. (Source: AIDS)
Identification and characterization of a subpocket on the N-trimer of HIV-1 Gp41: implication for viral entry and drug target
Conclusion: These data have provided important information for the structure?function relationship of HIV-1 gp41 and for the development of antiviral entry inhibitors. (Source: AIDS)
Dendritic cell type-specific HIV-1 activation in effector T cells: implications for latent HIV-1 reservoir establishment
Conclusions: In this study, we show that HIV-1 provirus residing in effector T cells is activated from latency by tissue-specific dendritic cell subsets and other immune cells with remarkably different efficiencies. Our new assay system points to an important, neglected aspect of HIV-1 research: the ability of other immune cells, especially dendritic cells, to differentially affect latency establishment as well as virus reactivation. (Source: AIDS)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Multilayered HIV-1 gag-specific T-cell responses contribute to slow progression in HLA-A*30-B*13-C*06-positive patients
Conclusion: We conclude that a single ?appropriate? Gag-specific T-cell response appears to be sufficient to protect patients from disease progression. HLA-A*30-B*13-C*06-positive individuals benefited from having a choice of numerous immunodominant gag epitopes for T cells to react. The study offers new insight for future design of T-cell-based HIV-1 vaccine. (Source: AIDS)
A tale of two viruses: HIV, Ebola and health systems
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
HIV-infected adults experience accentuated but not accelerated ageing
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Two recent studies find Depo-Provera use increases HIV risk
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Burkina Faso: What a Funding Crisis Is Doing to Aids Patients
[IRIN] Ouagadougou -For years you couldn't tell if someone in Burkina Faso had HIV/AIDS just by looking at them. Now it's getting easier again because cuts in food assistance are depriving them of nutrition, AIDS advocates say. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Nigeria: Appraising Nigeria's HIV/Aids Control Efforts
[Leadership] Medical experts observe that the incidence of HIV and AIDS in Nigeria poses a serious threat to the socio-economic development of the country. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Variations in the Role of Social Support on Disclosure Among Newly Diagnosed HIV-Infected People Who Inject Drugs in Vietnam
Abstract Stigma and perceived social support can influence the decision to disclose HIV positive status, especially for people who inject drugs (PWID). In this analysis, the association between social support and HIV disclosure among 336 newly diagnosed HIV-infected PWID in Northern Vietnam was assessed. One month after diagnosis, 34.8 % of participants had not disclosed to anyone. Disclosure to anyone and to a family member specifically, was associated with baseline social support in the form of positive interactions and a history of incarceration. Disclosing to a family member was less likely among those who had unprotected sex in the previous 3 months. Disclosure to an injecting partner was more likely among those with a history of being in a drug treatment program, knowing s...
Trade agreement could limit access to medicines
If approved in its leaked form, the Trans-Pacific Partnership would pose barriers for generic drugs to enter the market and keep drug prices high, warns the Foundation for Aids Research (Source: Chemistry World | Latest News)
Cancer Treatment in Patients With HIV Infection and Non-AIDS-Defining Cancers: A Survey of US Oncologists [Original Contributions]
Conclusion: Provider-level factors are associated with delivery of nonstandard cancer treatment to HIV-infected patients. Policy change, provider education, and multidisciplinary collaboration are needed to improve access to cancer treatment. (Source: Journal of Oncology Practice)
Partners Connected Health To Consider Using iThermonitors
http://media.boston.cbslocal.com/CBSBOS_1405201517464800000AA.mp4 BOSTON (CBS) &#8211; Eighteen-month old Isla Woulfe of Malden is a happy, healthy child, but a few months ago when she spiked a fever, she had a seizure. ?It was in the middle of the night and so obviously I was really nervous,? says her mom, Alyssa Woulfe. Afraid it might happen again, Alyssa tried a new device called an iThermonitor. Placed under the armpit with an adhesive patch and synced through Bluetooth with a smartphone or tablet, the iThermonitor records a child&#8217;s temperature every four seconds. If the temperature rises above or below a preset threshold, the caregiver is alerted ?It was great because I could get a little sleep,? says Alyssa. ?And I didn&#8217;t have to set my alarm every ho...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Factors related to NT-proBNP levels in HIV patients aged over 40 years.
CONCLUSIONS: We found, with the limitations of a small serie, that higher levels of NTproBNP in HIV patients could be linked to the occurrence of cardiovascular events, this fact suggest that NTpro BNP could be used in patients at moderate or high vascular risk in order to optimise the primary prevention of vascular events. PMID: 25960760 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Therapy)
Hundreds with HIV Could Donate Organs to Others with HIV
Although ban was lifted on such surgeries in 2013, none has taken place, researchers say Source: HealthDay Related MedlinePlus Pages: HIV/AIDS, Organ Transplantation (Source: MedlinePlus Health News)
Africa: Making Global Fund Money Work for Young People in the HIV Response
[GFO] In many parts of the world, the HIV epidemic has a new face: the face of a young person. The promise of the next generation could be dramatically restricted without smart, targeted investments in reaching these young people, particularly adolescent girls and young key populations. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
South Africa: Science and Technology on Creation of Forum to Strengthen HIV Research in Africa
[SA Govt] The Department of Science and Technology (DST) is planning to create a forum to strengthen HIV research, not only in South Africa, but throughout the African continent. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Zimbabwe: Self-Testing - Brave New Approach to HIV Fight
[The Herald] Total elimination of HIV is a herculean task for the government and its development partners as it calls for innovative approaches in HIV prevention, treatment and care. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Ethiopia: A Lot Can Happen in 15 Years
[Global Fund] Remarks delivered at the closing session of the 7-8 May 2015 Partnership Forum in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Kenya: Plea for HIV Programmes
[The Star] The National Council for Population and Development director in-charge of communication, advocacy and education Peter Nyakwara has urged counties to design new and effective ways of fighting HIV. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Malawi: Do Not Stop Medication Because of Prayers - Manet+
[Malawi News Agency] Lilongwe -The Malawi Network of People Living with HIV (MANET+) says it might consider seeking legal actions against faith organisations that are encouraging people to stop taking Antiretroviral Treatment (ARVs). (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Malawi: Malawi Making Commendable Progress in HIV Management
[Malawi News Agency] Acting National Executive Director of National Aids Commission (NAC), Davie Kalomba says as a country we need to pat ourselves on the back as we have made commendable progress in managing HIV. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Pretreatment platelet count improves the prognostic performance of the TNM staging system and aids in planning therapeutic regimens for nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a single-institutional study of 2,626 patients.
CONCLUSIONS: Pretreatment platelet count, when combined with TNM classification, is a useful indicator for metastasis and survival in patients with NPC. It may improve the predictive value of the TNM classification and help to identify patients likely to benefit from more aggressive therapeutic regimens. PMID: 25962816 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Chinese Journal of Cancer)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Addressing preference heterogeneity in public health policy by combining Cluster Analysis and Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis: Proof of Method
Abstract The use of subgroups based on biological-clinical and socio-demographic variables to deal with population heterogeneity is well-established in public policy. The use of subgroups based on preferences is rare, except when religion based, and controversial. If it were decided to treat subgroup preferences as valid determinants of public policy, a transparent analytical procedure is needed. In this proof of method study we show how public preferences could be incorporated into policy decisions in a way that respects both the multi-criterial nature of those decisions, and the heterogeneity of the population in relation to the importance assigned to relevant criteria. It involves combining Cluster Analysis (CA), to generate the subgroup sets of preferences, with Multi-Criteri...
Prospects for Malaria Elimination in Mesoamerica and Hispaniola
by Sócrates Herrera, Sergio Andrés Ochoa-Orozco, Iveth J. González, Lucrecia Peinado, Martha L. Quiñones, Myriam Arévalo-Herrera Malaria remains endemic in 21 countries of the American continent with an estimated 427,000 cases per year. Approximately 10% of these occur in the Mesoamerican and Caribbean regions. During the last decade, malaria transmission in Mesoamerica showed a decrease of ~85%; whereas, in the Caribbean region, Hispaniola (comprising the Dominican Republic [DR] and Haiti) presented an overall rise in malaria transmission, primarily due to a steady increase in Haiti, while DR experienced a significant transmission decrease in this period. The significant malaria reduction observed recently in the region prompted the launch of an initiative for Malaria Elimination in...
The tumor virus landscape of AIDS-related lymphomas
Immunodeficiency dramatically increases susceptibility to cancer as a result of reduced immune surveillance and enhanced opportunities for virus-mediated oncogenesis. Although AIDS-related lymphomas (ARLs) are frequently associated with known oncogenic viruses, many cases contain no known transforming virus. To discover novel transforming viruses, we profiled a set of ARL samples using whole transcriptome sequencing. We determined that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was the only virus detected in the tumor samples of this cohort, suggesting that if unidentified pathogens exist in this disease, they are present in &lt;10% of cases or undetectable by our methods. To evaluate the role of EBV in ARL pathogenesis, we analyzed viral gene expression and found highly heterogeneous patterns of viral tran...
Erratum to: Alcohol-Related Diagnoses and All-Cause Hospitalization Among HIV-Infected and Uninfected Patients: A Longitudinal Analysis of United States Veterans from 1997 to 2011
(Source: AIDS and Behavior)
Is Location of Sex Associated with Sexual Risk Behaviour in Men Who Have Sex with Men? Systematic Review of Within-Subjects Studies
Abstract To understand associations between location of sex and sexual risk, it is most helpful to compare sexual encounters within persons. We systematically reviewed within-subjects comparisons of sexual encounters reported by men who have sex with men (MSM) with respect to location of sex. Within-subjects comparisons of sexual risk and location of sex were eligible if they collected data post-1996 from samples of MSM. We independently screened results and full-text records in duplicate. Of 6,336 deduplicated records, we assessed 138 full-text studies and included six, most of which compared unprotected anal intercourse against other anal intercourse. This small, but high quality, body of evidence suggests that associations between attendance at sex-on-premises venues and person...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Exploring risk of experiencing intimate partner violence after HIV infection: a qualitative study among women with HIV attending postnatal services in Swaziland
Conclusions The results highlight a need to mitigate the risk of IPV for women with HIV in shorter and longer terms in Swaziland. While broader changes are needed to resolve gender disparities, practical steps can be institutionalised within health facilities to reduce, or avoid increasing, IPV pathways for women with HIV. These might include mutual disclosure between partners, greater engagement of Swazi males with HIV services, and promoting positive masculinities that support and protect women. Trial registration number NCT01694862. (Source: BMJ Open)
Mervyn Susser (1921-2014): Fighter for Social Justice and Pioneer in Epidemiology.
Authors: Fee E, Brown TM, Manuelpillai W Abstract Mervyn Susser, MB, Bch, FRCP(E), DPH, was one of the towering figures of epidemiology in the 20th century.(1) From the start, he drew attention to the interrelationships between health, disease, and social injustice. His influence extended to the foundations of life course epidemiology, genetic epidemiology, and global health (later including HIV/AIDS), among other areas. Much of his work was conducted with his wife and intellectual partner, Zena Stein. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print May 14, 2015: e1-e4. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2015.302633). PMID: 25973815 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Public Health)
Impact of TB on the survival of people living with HIV infection in England, Wales and Northern Ireland
Discussion The unexpected high mortality in patients with HIV-TB in a population with good healthcare access and ART availability highlights the importance of improving active and latent TB case-finding among patients with HIV, and HIV-testing among patients with TB, to ensure appropriate and prompt treatment initiation for both diseases. (Source: Thorax)
A good night for a bad day
A 40-year-old-man was admitted to the emergency department for sudden dyspnoea. He had no medical history. He had given up smoking a few years back having had a cigarette consumption of 10 packs/year. He stopped drinking alcohol 2&nbsp;months ago. He had been a drug (heroin and cocaine) misuser for 15&nbsp;years. Methadone had been introduced as a substitution therapy since 2012. He came back from a journey to China 1&nbsp;month beforehand. The day of admission, he awoke with dyspnoea and a dry cough. In the emergency room, he had no fever, and lung and cardiac auscultation was normal. Oxygen saturation was 94% and the respiratory rate was over 20/min. Laboratory findings showed an increase in the leucocyte count at 18.1 109/L. C reactive protein was normal (6.5x10&ndash;3&nbsp;g/L). Arter...
A review of how the quality of HIV clinical services has been evaluated or improved
To examine approaches being used to evaluate and improve quality of HIV clinical services we searched the MEDLINE, Cochrane Library collection, EMBASE, Global Health, and Web of Science databases for articles and abstracts focused on evaluating or improving quality of HIV clinical services. We extracted country income level, targeted clinical services, and quality evaluation approaches, data sources, and criteria. Fifty journal articles and 46 meeting abstracts were included. Of the 96 studies reviewed, 65% were programme evaluations, 71% focused on low- and middle-income countries, and 65% focused on antiretroviral therapy services. With regard to quality, 45% used a quality improvement model or programme, 13% set a quality threshold, and 51% examined patient records to evaluate quality. ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
HSV oropharyngeal shedding among HIV-infected children in Tanzania
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) oral shedding has not been studied among HIV-positive children in Africa. We sought to evaluate longitudinal oral HSV reactivation in HIV-positive and -negative children. Twenty HIV-positive antiretroviral-naive and 10 HIV-negative children aged 3&ndash;12 years in Tanzania were followed prospectively for 14 days. Oral swabs were collected daily and submitted for HSV DNA PCR analysis. Clinical data were collected via chart review and daily diaries. HSV DNA was detected in 10 (50%) of HIV-positive and 4 (40%) of HIV-negative children. Children who shed HSV had virus detected in a median of 21.4% of samples; shedding was intermittent. Median CD4 count among HIV-infected children was 667 cells/&micro;L in those with positive HSV DNA and 886 cells/&micro;L in those w...
Should we screen heterosexuals for extra-genital chlamydial and gonococcal infections?
This study not only confirmed a large reservoir of extra-genital infection amongst men who have sex with men, but also demonstrates that a comparable reservoir of extra-genital infection is present amongst heterosexual women. Our study adds to the mounting evidence that extra-genital site testing in heterosexual women should occur when oral or anal sexual activity is reported. (Source: International Journal of STD and AIDS)
HIV care engagement within 30 days after hospital discharge among patients from a Thai tertiary-care centre
A cohort study was conducted to assess the rate of follow-up visit within 30 days after hospital discharge and to determine factors associated with no follow-up among Thai HIV-infected adults during the period from November 2012 to October 2013. Of the 120 eligible patients, 76 (63%) were males, median age was 40 years, and 57 (48%) were newly diagnosed with HIV infection. The rate of follow-up within 30 days after hospital discharge was 69%. Independent factors associated with no follow-up were no caregiver (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 7.82; p = 0.002), age (aOR 1.06; p = 0.007 for each year younger), being immigrant (aOR 5.10; p = 0.03) and monthly household income less than $US 300 (aOR 2.99; p = 0.04). These findings suggest the need for interventions to improve care engagement including...
Changes in the pattern of Kaposi's sarcoma at Ocean Road Cancer Institute in Tanzania (2006-2011)
Tanzania has high human immunodeficiency virus and human herpes virus-8 rates linked to Kaposi&rsquo;s sarcoma. We conducted a study at the Ocean Road Cancer Institute in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania to examine changes in proportions of Kaposi&rsquo;s sarcoma to all cancers over the period (2006&ndash;2011) of increased acquired immune deficiency syndrome management by anti-retroviral therapy. We included 1504 Kaposi&rsquo;s sarcoma cases from Ocean Road Cancer Institute and abstracted information regarding age, gender, human immunodeficiency virus and tuberculosis, anti-retroviral therapy duration and Kaposi&rsquo;s sarcoma lesions. Male Kaposi&rsquo;s sarcoma patients (59.6%) were older (42.1 &plusmn; 11.5 years) than women (40.4%) (36.2 &plusmn; 9.6 years). Kaposi&rsquo;s sarcoma proportions...
Urinary protein-to-creatinine ratio versus 24-h proteinuria in the screening for nephropathy in HIV patients
To determine the correlation between protein-to-creatinine ratio and 24-h urinary protein, proteinuria was measured in 45 patients attending a public HIV clinic in Porto Alegre, Brazil, using 24-h urinary protein excretion (24hUP) and urinary protein-to-creatinine ratio. Spearman&rsquo;s correlation test was done to evaluate the association between spot protein-to-creatinine ratio and 24hUP. The limits of agreement between the two methods were analysed by the Bland&ndash;Altman method. For protein excretion &lt;1 g/day, limits (95%) of agreement of protein-to-creatinine ratio and 24hUP were +0.112 and &ndash;0.097 g/day. A strong correlation (r = 0.957) was found between protein-to-creatinine ratio and 24hUP excretion. The conclusion is that the protein-to-creatinine ratio in spot urine sp...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Components of resilience in gender: a comparative analysis of HIV outcomes in Kenya
Gender is a critical concept of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) sexual risk; yet, few studies have examined the intersection between risk and protective factors associated with incidence of HIV among couples. The paper examines gender-specific constructs of resiliency among couples in Kenya. Using data from the Demographic and Health Surveys, Kenya (2008/2009), we apply logistic regression techniques to analyse three resilience-related outcomes (condom use, HIV test and knowing an HIV test place) in estimating the gender differences and barriers to HIV/AIDS sexual risk. Men&rsquo;s outcomes were significantly associated with previous HIV testing, urban residence, being insured and higher levels of education. Predictors for women&rsquo;s indicators included previous experience of sexual ...
Prevalence of suicidal ideation and associated factors among HIV-positive MSM in Anhui, China
The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and factors associated with suicidal ideation among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) in Anhui, China. A cross-sectional study was conducted to recruit HIV-positive MSM in Anhui, China. A total of 184 HIV-positive MSM gave informed consent and completed the interview. Correlates of suicidal ideation were assessed using multivariable logistic regression. Fifty-seven (31%) of HIV-positive MSM had suicidal ideations within six months before the interview. Multivariable analyses showed that learning of their HIV status in the past 12 months (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 3.4, 95% CI = 1.6&ndash;7.3), perceived HIV stigma (AOR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.1&ndash;5.2), depression symptoms (AOR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.1&ndash;5.9) and anxiety sympt...
An audit of HIV care in English prisons
Previous studies have highlighted disparities in care and outcomes in HIV-positive prisoners compared to HIV-positive individuals in the population. We audited clinical outcomes of HIV-positive prisoners accessing care in 2011. Public Health England were notified of 161 prisoners with HIV in the time period studied. Audit proformas were sent to clinics reporting prisoners to the genitourinary medicine clinic activity dataset in 2011. Thirty-two clinics responded. Data for 151 HIV-positive prisoners were reported by 12 clinics, with the other clinics not reporting any prisoners. Outcomes were compared to a previous audit, British HIV Association (BHIVA) and the National AIDS Trust guidelines. Initial CD4 counts were available for 101 patients, of which 42/101 had CD4 &lt;350 cells/mm3. At r...
Condylomata acuminata in the neovagina after male-to-female reassignment treated with CO2 laser and imiquimod
We report a case of condylomata acuminata arising on the neourethral meatus and the transplanted skin of the neovagina in a male-to-female transsexual, which was successfully treated with CO2 laser irradiation followed by topical application of imiquimod cream on the residual warts. This is a first report of using imiquimod cream for condylomata acuminata arising on the neovagina in a male-to-female transsexual. (Source: International Journal of STD and AIDS)
Lichenoid drug reaction to isoniazid presenting as exfoliative dermatitis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
We report here a rare case of lichenoid drug reaction to isoniazid presenting as exfoliative dermatitis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. (Source: International Journal of STD and AIDS)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
A case of proliferative diabetic retinopathy that regressed on human immunodeficiency virus treatment
We report the case of a patient with proliferative diabetic retinopathy, who was later found to have human immunodeficiency virus infection that progressed rapidly. However, we could not determine the clinical course after the onset of human immunodeficiency virus because the patient died shortly after it was detected. In this patient, the activity of proliferative diabetic retinopathy showed regression after treatment for human immunodeficiency virus was initiated. (Source: International Journal of STD and AIDS)
Malignant lues in an immunocompetent patient
We present the case of a 57-year-old homosexual man referred to our department due to a 4-month history of a disseminated, slightly painful, nodular-ulcerative cutaneous eruption associated with low-grade fever, malaise and aesthenia. Regarding the clinical features and serological and histopathological findings, the diagnosis of syphilis maligna was assumed. Serology for HIV was repeatedly negative. This case is interesting, not only because a very uncommon form of secondary syphilis was identified but also for being diagnosed in an immunocompetent patient. Lack of awareness of this type of presentation delays the diagnosis and treatment, leading to an increase in morbidity and spread of infection. (Source: International Journal of STD and AIDS)
Addressing preference heterogeneity in public health policy by combining Cluster Analysis and Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis: Proof of Method
The use of subgroups based on biological-clinical and socio-demographic variables to deal with population heterogeneity is well-established in public policy. The use of subgroups based on preferences is rare, except when religion based, and controversial. If it were decided to treat subgroup preferences as valid determinants of public policy, a transparent analytical procedure is needed. In this proof of method study we show how public preferences could be incorporated into policy decisions in a way that respects both the multi-criterial nature of those decisions, and the heterogeneity of the population in relation to the importance assigned to relevant criteria. It involves combining Cluster Analysis (CA), to generate the subgroup sets of preferences, with Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis...
Unexpected Diagnosis of Cerebral Toxoplasmosis by 16S and D2 Large-Subunit Ribosomal DNA PCR and Sequencing [Case Reports]
The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii causes severe opportunistic infections. Here, we report an unexpected diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis. T. gondii was diagnosed by 16S and D2 large-subunit (LSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequencing of a cerebral biopsy specimen and confirmed by T. gondii-specific PCR and immunohistochemistry. The patient was later diagnosed with HIV/AIDS. (Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology)
Secretome protein signature of human gastrointestinal stromal tumor cells.
Authors: Berglund E, Daré E, Branca RM, Akcakaya P, Fröbom R, Berggren PO, Lui WO, Larsson C, Zedenius J, Orre L, Lehtiö J, Kim J, Bränström R Abstract Strategies for correct diagnosis, treatment evaluation and recurrence prediction are important for the prognosis and mortality rates among cancer patients. In spite of major improvements in clinical management, gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) can still be deadly due to metastasis and recurrences, which confirms the unmet need of reliable follow-up modalities. Tumor-specific secreted, shed or leaked proteins (collectively known as secretome) are considered promising sources for biomarkers, and suitable for detection in biofluids. Herein, we stimulated cell secretion in the imatinib-sensitive GIST882 cell line and profile...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Money May Convince Smokers to Quit
Study found financial incentives were better alternative than free counseling, cessation aids (Source: WebMD Health)
The music teacher who can't hear:  27-year-old stopped from studying the subject at school defies the odds to land 'dream job'
John Thompson, from east London, was born prematurely with a severe hearing impairment, leaving him deaf in both ears. He can teach thanks to heavy-duty hearing aids and his ability to read lips. (Source: the Mail online | Health)
How To Feed A Numbat: Zoo Cookery Aids Endangered Species
Zoo nutritionists these days have to do more than try to keep displayed animals happy and healthy. Sometimes the goal is to bring endangered wildlife back from the brink.&raquo; E-Mail This (Source: NPR Health and Science)
Aspidosperma subincanum II. Usefulness of uleine and ribonucleic fragments in the treatment of AIDS patients
Aids patients were treated during a year with three different food supplements commercially available: para-pau-aspido (Aspidosperma subincanum Mart. ex A. DC., Apocynaceae); 2Leid (nucleic acids and cytokines); and Para Immuno (propolis, pollen and royal jelly). All foods, given either alone or in combination, proved useful to all AIDS patients who received the supplements, be these under tri-therapy (Triomine: stavudine, lamivudine, névirapine) or left unattended. (Source: Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia)
Ebola Not Mutating Beyond 'Normal' Rate, Scientists Say
New genetic information aids planning for future outbreaks Source: HealthDay Related MedlinePlus Page: Ebola (Source: MedlinePlus Health News)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Persistence yields progress in AIDS vaccine research
After 30 years of working on AIDS research, an American lab has developed new vaccine candidates that appear promising enough to consider advancing into clinical trials within the next two years. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)
South Africa: Plans in Place to Deal With High Teen HIV Rates
[Parliament of South Africa] The Portfolio Committee on Basic Education heard today that HIV-related deaths were declining in all age groups, accept for adolescents where infection rates have doubled. Mr Granville Whittle, Deputy Director-General in the Department of Basic Education, said there are 2 363 new HIV infections each week among African girls. "The epidemic amongst adolescents is growing. We are not on track to achieve an Aids-free generation." (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Kenya: Partnership Forum 2015
[Global Fund] Phelister Abdallah spoke at the opening session of the Partnership Forum in Addis, aiming to voice the concerns of sex workers and other people most affected by HIV, TB and malaria. She did so by mentioning her personal story. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
South Africa: DST to Set Up Forum for HIV Research
[SAnews.gov.za] Pretoria -The Department of Science and Technology (DST) is planning to create a forum to strengthen HIV research, not only in South Africa, but throughout the African continent. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
End Ban on Gay Men Donating Blood, FDA ProposesEnd Ban on Gay Men Donating Blood, FDA Proposes
The draft guidance to blood centers would eliminate a lifetime deferral of donations from gay and bisexual men dating back to the dawn of the AIDS epidemic. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Judge Rules Against Abstinence-Only Sex Ed Program
A judge in Fresno County, California, has ruled against an abstinence-only sex education program, saying a school district violated state law by failing to provide adequate instruction on sexual health and HIV prevention. Fresno County Superior Court Judge Donald Black said a lawsuit against Clovis Unified School District was justified because the district failed to offer "comprehensive, medically accurate, objective and bias-free" education, in violation of the California Comprehensive Sexual Health & HIV/AIDS Prevention Act, adopted in 2003. The law requires public schools to "provide a pupil with the knowledge and skills necessary to protect his or her sexual and reproductive health from unintended pregnancy and STDs." "Given the high social cost of teen pregnancy and similar toll on...
Informal Caregiver Characteristics Associated with Viral Load Suppression Among Current or Former Injection Drug Users Living with HIV/AIDS
Abstract Few studies have examined the association between having an informal (unpaid) caregiver and viral suppression among persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) who are on antiretroviral therapy. The current study examined relationships between caregivers? individual and social network characteristics and care recipient viral suppression. Baseline data were from the BEACON study caregivers and their HIV seropositive former or current drug using care recipients, of whom 89 % were African American (N = 258 dyads). Using adjusted logistic regression, care recipient?s undetectable viral load was positively associated with caregiver?s limited physical functioning and negatively associated with caregivers having few family members to turn to for problem solving, a greater numb...
Mediation of an Efficacious HIV Risk Reduction Intervention for South African Men
Abstract ?Men, Together Making a Difference!? is an HIV/STD risk-reduction intervention that significantly increased self-reported consistent condom use during vaginal intercourse compared with a health-promotion attention-control intervention among men (N = 1181) in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. The present analyses were designed to identify mediators of the intervention?s efficacy. The potential mediators were Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) constructs that the intervention targeted, including several aspects of condom-use self-efficacy, outcome expectancies, and knowledge. Mediation was assessed using a product-of-coefficients approach where an ? path (the intervention?s effect on the potential mediator) and a ? path (the potential mediator?s effect on the ou...
Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Adherence Measured by Plasma Drug Level in MTN-001: Comparison Between Vaginal Gel and Oral Tablets in Two Geographic Regions
We examined recent adherence as measured by plasma tenofovir (TFV) concentration in participants of MTN-001, a phase 2 cross-over trial comparing oral tablet and vaginal gel formulations of TFV among 144 HIV-uninfected women at sites in the United States (U.S.) and sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Adherence to daily product use was higher in the U.S. than in the SSA sites. Within region, however, adherence was similar between products. In the U.S., gel adherence was higher among married women, and lower among women using male condoms and injectable contraceptives. At the SSA sites, gel adherence was lower for younger women. Inconsistent adherence points to challenges in use of daily PrEP, even during a trial of short duration. (Source: AIDS and Behavior)
Repeat Use of Post-exposure Prophylaxis for HIV Among Nairobi-Based Female Sex Workers Following Sexual Exposure
In this study we analyze patterns of repeated post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) access in the context of a large FSW program in Nairobi. During close to 6000 person-years of follow-up, 20 % of participants (n = 1119) requested PEP at least once and 3.7 % requested PEP more than once. Repeat PEP users were younger, had a higher casual partner volume, and were more likely to use condoms with casual and regular partners, have a regular partner, and test for HIV prior to enrolment. Barriers to PEP included stigma, side effects, and lack of knowledge, suggesting repeated promotion may be required for higher rates of uptake. A small subset of FSW, potentially those with heightened risk perception, showed a higher frequency of PEP use; these individuals may be most amenable to rollout of pre-ex...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Depression and Social Stigma Among MSM in Lesotho: Implications for HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention
Abstract Social stigma is common among men who have sex with men (MSM) across Sub-Saharan Africa, and may influence risks for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) via its association with depression. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 530 MSM in Lesotho accrued via respondent-driven sampling. Using generalized structural equation models we examined associations between stigma, social capital, and depression with condom use and testing positive for HIV/STIs. Depression was positively associated with social stigma experienced or perceived as a result of being MSM. In contrast, increasing levels of social cohesion were negatively associated with depression. Social stigma was associated with testing positive for HIV; however, this association did not appear to be mediat...
HIV Testing Among Spanish Youth: Analysis of the Mediating Role of the Big Five Personality and Other Psychological Factors
Abstract Early diagnosis of HIV improves the effectiveness of treatments and stops the progression of the disease. The influence of personality and other psychological variables in testing for HIV is analyzed. The first part of the study is composed of 4,929 young people (M age = 20.45, SD = 2.16). For the second part, young heterosexuals who participated in a broader project on HIV prevention were selected (n = 240, M age = 20.78, SD = 2.29). Only 23.3 % of the total sample have ever been tested for HIV antibodies. The main reason for not testing was fear of positive result (25.4 %). Statistically significant differences in Agreeableness (p = .027), Trust (p = .022) and Straightforwardness (p = .024) were found between HIV-tested and not HIV-tested youth. Trust ...
Service delivery interventions to improve adolescents' linkage, retention and adherence to antiretroviral therapy and HIV care
ConclusionsThis review identified limited evidence on the effectiveness of service delivery interventions to support adolescents' linkage from HIV diagnosis to ART initiation, retention on ART and adherence to ART. Although recommendations are qualified because of the small numbers of studies and limited methodological quality, offering individual and group education and counselling, financial incentives, increasing clinic accessibility and provision of specific adolescent?tailored services appear promising interventions and warrant further investigation. (Source: Tropical Medicine and International Health)
HIV infection is associated with an increased prevalence of coronary noncalcified plaque among participants with a coronary artery calcium score of zero: Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS)
ConclusionsAmong men with CAC scores of zero, HIV infection is associated with an increased prevalence of noncalcified coronary plaque independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. This finding suggests that CAC scanning may underestimate plaque burden in HIV?infected men. (Source: HIV Medicine)
Ten-year Survival by Race/Ethnicity and Sex Among Treated, HIV-infected Adults in the United States
Conclusions.&nbsp;These data serve as a call to action to identify modifiable mechanisms leading to these observed mortality disparities among HIV-infected black patients. Effective interventions are needed to ensure that the goal of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy to overcome health disparities becomes a reality. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Valacyclovir Decreases Plasma HIV-1 RNA in HSV-2 Seronegative Individuals: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Crossover Trial
Conclusions.&nbsp;These data indicate that the effects of valACV on HIV-1 replication are not related to the suppression of HSV-2-mediated inflammation and are consistent with a direct effect of ACV on HIV-1 replication. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Impact of the Timing of Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy During Primary HIV-1 Infection on the Decay of Cell-Associated HIV-DNA
Conclusions.&nbsp;This study provides strong arguments in favor of cART initiation at the earliest possible time point after HIV infection. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
A population-based study comparing patterns of care delivery on the quality of care for persons living with HIV in Ontario
Conclusions How care is provided had a potentially important influence on the quality of care delivered. Our key limitation is potential confounding due to the absence of HIV stage measures. (Source: BMJ Open)
FDA Ready to Lift Ban on Blood Donations by Gay Men
Studies from other countries show such donations wouldn't compromise blood supply, health officials say (Source: Fertility News - Doctors Lounge)
Offer Smokers Variety of Cessation Options, Says USPSTF
The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recently released a draft recommendation on smoking cessation in adults and recommends that physicians offer a variety of cessation aids, including behavioral therapy. (Source: AAFP News)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
A single-loop recombinant pseudotyped-virus-based assay to detect HIV-1 phenotypic resistance
Abstract HIV/AIDS is a leading public health concern throughout the world. Currently, treatment of HIV/AIDS still depends on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART); however, there is increasing evidence showing the emergence of resistance to antiretroviral drugs in HIV-1 strains, making ART less effective over time. Intensive monitoring of HIV-1 drug resistance is therefore of great importance to evaluate the current sensitivity of antiretroviral agents and is urgently needed. The aim of this study was to develop a single-loop recombinant pseudotyped-virus-based assay to detect phenotypic resistance in clinical HIV-1 strains. HIV-1 RNA was extracted from HIV-1-infected human plasma samples, and an approximately 3-kb fragment containing p7/p1/p6 cleavage sites and full-lengt...
Dangerous Binge Drinking Has Increased Among Teens And Young Adults Around The Globe
PARIS (AP) ? Alcohol consumption in wealthy, developed countries has declined over the past two decades but dangerous binge drinking has increased among the young, according to a new study released Tuesday. The 34-nation Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development says average annual alcohol consumption in its member countries has fallen 2.5 percent over the past 20 years to 9.1 liters (2.4 gallons) of pure alcohol per capita. But that overall trend hides a dangerous increase in hazardous drinking by young people, the OECD says, as measured by both the amount and the rate that alcohol is consumed. The OECD warned that binge drinking by the young is a "major public health and social concern," with children taking up drinking at increasingly earlier ages. Harmful consumption o...
Africa: Johnson & Johnson Expands Ip Policy to Create Broad Access in 128 Countries for Development of New and Optimized HIV Medicine Formulations for Children Living With HIV
[PR Newswire] Raritan, New Jersey -Expanded Policy will Increase Access for Darunavir Pediatric Formulations in 128 Resource-Limited Countries (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Angola: Angola - Government Committed to Protecting HIV/Aids Positive Children
[ANGOP] Luanda -The promotion of policies for the protection of children infected with and affected by HIV/Aids and the decrease of the stigma they face are some of the commitments of the Angolan government to tackle this pandemic disease in the country, said last Monday, in Luanda, the national director of the Institute of Fight against Aids (INLS), Ducelina Serrano. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Cell Counting Market to Growing at 6.5% - 7% to 2020: New Research...
Globally cell counting market witnessed healthy growth during the last decade due to the growing stem cell research and rising incidences of cancer and AIDS.(PRWeb May 11, 2015)Read the full story at http://www.prweb.com/releases/cell-counting-market/research-report-2020/prweb12712245.htm (Source: PRWeb: Medical Pharmaceuticals)
HIV immunity: rare gene differences offer hope for treatment
Seven years after the ?Berlin patient? was cured of HIV, scientists are looking to natural immunity through genetic variation to create vaccine and gene therapies Continue reading... (Source: Guardian Unlimited Science)
Kenya: Circumcision Does Not Prevent HIV/Aids, Migori Youth Warned
[The Star] Multi-pronged camapigns must be carried out in Migori county to alter the belief that circumcised men cannot contract HIV/Aids, an official has said. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Smoking cessation among transit workers: beliefs and perceptions among an at-risk occupational group
Conclusion: Beliefs play an important role and influence the extent to which transit workers participate in smoking cessation. Being cognizant of and addressing these beliefs so that workers gain an informed understanding is important when designing cessation programs. Doing so may help in creating tobacco cessation efforts that are seen as both attractive and beneficial to transit workers. (Source: BioMed Central)
Using Interactive Web-Based Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment in an Urban, Safety-Net HIV Clinic
We examined whether patients would participate in a technology-based SBIRT program in an urban HIV clinic. An SBIRT intervention was programmed into the clinic?s web-based patient portal linked to their personal health record. We examined: demographic, health, HIV, and substance use characteristics of participants who completed the web-based intervention compared to those who did not. Fewer than half of the 96 participants assigned to the web-based SBIRT completed it (n = 39; 41 %). Participants who completed the web-based intervention had significantly higher amphetamine SSIS scores than those who did not complete the intervention. Participants whose substance use is more harmful may be more motivated to seek help from a variety of sources. In addition, it is important that technolog...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Using Capture-Recapture Methods to Estimate the Population of People Who Inject Drugs in Washington, DC
Abstract No current estimates exist for the size of the population of people who inject drugs (PWID) in the District of Columbia (DC). The WHO/UNAIDS Guidelines on Estimating the Size of Populations Most at Risk to HIV was used as the methodological framework to estimate the DC PWID population. The capture phase recruited harm reduction agency clients; the recapture phase recruited community-based PWID. The 951 participants were predominantly Black (83.9 %), male (69.8 %), and 40+ years of age (68.2 %). Approximately 50.3 % reported injecting drugs in the past 30 days. We estimate approximately 8829 (95 % CI 4899 and 12,759) PWID in DC. When adjusted for possible missed sub-populations of PWID, the estimate increases to 12,000; thus, the original estimate of approximately 90...
Explaining the Efficacy of Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV Prevention: A Qualitative Study of Message Framing and Messaging Preferences Among US Men Who have Sex with Men
Abstract We investigated message comprehension and message framing preferences for communicating about PrEP efficacy with US MSM. We conducted eight focus groups (n = 38) and n = 56 individual interviews with MSM in Providence, RI. Facilitators probed comprehension, credibility, and acceptability of efficacy messages, including percentages, non-numerical paraphrases, efficacy ranges versus point estimates, and success- versus failure-framed messages. Our findings indicated a range of comprehension and operational understandings of efficacy messages. Participants tended to prefer percentage-based and success-framed messages, although preferences varied for communicating about efficacy using a single percentage versus a range. Participants reported uncertainty about how to i...
Usefulness of 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose-position emission tomography with computed tomography and gallium-67 scintigraphy for detection of Kaposi sarcoma lesions in a 40-year-old Japanese man with AIDS
Publication date: Available online 11 May 2015 Source:IDCases Author(s): Jun Suzuki , Teppei Sasahara , Masaki Toshima , Masataro Norizuki , Tsubasa Onishi , Taro Okabe , Kensuke Minami , Yuji Morisawa A 40-year-old Japanese man with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome was diagnosed with Kaposi sarcoma (KS) on the basis of the results of skin lesion biopsies. In addition, 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-position emission tomography-computed tomography revealed abnormal fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in KS lesions, whereas gallium-67 scintigraphy did not show uptake of gallium. These findings indicate that combining these imaging modalities can help distinguish KS from other malignancies and opportunistic infections. (Source: IDCases)
Longitudinal trends of recent HIV?1 infections in Slovenia (1986?2012) determined using an incidence algorithm
This study could help promote the idea of introducing periodic HIV incidence monitoring using a simple and affordable algorithm. J. Med. Virol.© 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Source: Journal of Medical Virology)
The Lisbon Cohort of men who have sex with men
Purpose Newly diagnosed HIV infections among men who have sex with men (MSM) are rising in many European countries. Surveillance tools must be tailored to the current state of the epidemic, and include decentralised prospective monitoring of HIV incidence and behavioural changes in key populations. In this scenario, an open prospective cohort study was assembled&mdash;The Lisbon Cohort of MSM&mdash;aiming to dynamically monitor the frequency of disease and its predictors. Participants The Lisbon Cohort of MSM is an ongoing observational prospective study conducted at a community-based voluntary HIV counselling and testing centre in Lisbon, Portugal (CheckpointLX). Men testing negative for HIV, aged 18 or over and reporting having had sex with men are invited to follow-up visits every 6&nb...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Oxidative Stress and Epigenetic Modifications in the Pathogenesis of Diabetic Retinopathy
Publication date: Available online 11 May 2015 Source:Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Author(s): Renu A. Kowluru , Anjan Kowluru , Manish Mishra , Binit Kumar Diabetic retinopathy remains the major cause of blindness among working age adults. Although a number of metabolic abnormalities have been associated with its development, due to complex nature of this multi-factorial disease, a link between any specific abnormality and diabetic retinopathy remains largely speculative. Diabetes increases oxidative stress in the retina and its capillary cells, and overwhelming evidence suggests a bidirectional relationship between oxidative stress and other major metabolic abnormalities implicated in the development of diabetic retinopathy. Due to increased production of cytosolic reactive oxyg...
A Framework for Evaluating the Cost-Effectiveness of Patient Decision Aids: A Case Study Using Colorectal Cancer Screening
Conclusions This study provides proof-of-concept evidence for future studies examining the cost-effectiveness of decision aids. The results suggest that decision aids can be beneficial and cost-effective. (Source: Preventive Medicine)
South Africa: Basic Education Releases Draft National Policy on HIV, STIs and TB for Public Comment
[SA Govt] Basic Education invites comments from the public on the DBE Draft National Policy on HIV, STIs and TB (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: I'll Pay Every HIV-Positive South African N0.84m to Wear a Tatoo - - Zuma
[Vanguard] CONFIRMED HIV positive South Africans that volunteer to be marked near their genital area with a tatoo depicting their status, will in addition to free counselling and medication. be paid an equivalent of N840, 000 (50 000 Rands) each, according to a bill newly signed by President Jacob Zuma. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Namibia: HIV/Aids Activists Hail Awareness Walk
[New Era] Local HIV/AIDS activists on Saturday hailed the walk aimed at promoting community awareness on HIV/AIDS, which was organised by the Immanuel Sheefeni AIDS Foundation. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Partnership Takes Aim at Curing HIV/AIDS
GlaxoSmithKline and UNC Chapel Hill are launching an HIV research center focused on finding a cure for the virus that causes AIDS. (Source: WSJ.com: Health)
High-Grade Anal Intraepithelial Neoplasia in HIV+ MSMHigh-Grade Anal Intraepithelial Neoplasia in HIV+ MSM
What risk factors predict the progression to high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-infected MSM? AIDS (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
Anogenital HIV RNA in Thai men who have sex with men in Bangkok during acute HIV infection and after randomization to standard vs. intensified antiretroviral regimens.
CONCLUSIONS: Among MSM with AHI, HIV RNA was highest in blood, followed by seminal plasma and anal lavage. ART rapidly reduced HIV RNA in all compartments, with regimen intensified by raltegravir and maraviroc showing faster HIV RNA reductions in blood and seminal plasma. PMID: 25956171 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Hunt for AIDS cure accelerates as GSK and U.S. experts link up
LONDON (Reuters) - Britain's GlaxoSmithKline, which decided last week to retain rather than float off its HIV drugs business, is to collaborate with U.S. scientists in developing a cure for AIDS. (Source: Reuters: Health)
Drugmaker and University Ally to Seek Cure for AIDS
GlaxoSmithKline will contribute a total of $20 million to start a research institute and a company with the goal of curing patients infected with H.I.V. (Source: NYT Health)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
A moving blocks empirical likelihood method for longitudinal data
Summary In the analysis of longitudinal or panel data, neglecting the serial correlations among the repeated measurements within subjects may lead to inefficient inference. In particular, when the number of repeated measurements is large, it may be desirable to model the serial correlations more generally. An appealing approach is to accommodate the serial correlations nonparametrically. In this article, we propose a moving blocks empirical likelihood method for general estimating equations. Asymptotic results are derived under sequential limits. Simulation studies are conducted to investigate the finite sample performances of the proposed methods and compare them with the elementwise and subject?wise empirical likelihood methods of Wang et al. (2010, Biometrika 97, 79?93) and the bloc...
Zolpidem and eszopiclone prime ?1?2?2 GABAA receptors for longer duration of activity
Conclusions and ImplicationsAs the derived mechanism successfully simulated the effects of eszopiclone and zolpidem on ensemble currents, we propose it as the definitive mechanism accounting for the effects of both drugs. Importantly, eszopiclone and zolpidem enhanced GABAA receptor currents via a mechanism that differs from that proposed for benzodiazepines. (Source: British Journal of Pharmacology)
Pharmacokinetics of tenofovir during pregnancy and postpartum
ConclusionsThis study found lower tenofovir AUC and troughs during pregnancy. Transplacental passage with chronic TDF use during pregnancy was high. Standard TDF doses appear to be appropriate for most HIV?infected pregnant women but therapeutic drug monitoring with dose adjustment should be considered in pregnant women with high weight (&gt;?90?kg) or inadequate HIV RNA response. (Source: HIV Medicine)
Do GPs think patient decision aids are a useful tool?
A small survey among a group of GPs has identified certain barriers to the use of patient decision aids. But without such aids can we really claim to practice shared decision making? (Source: Prescriber)
A health promotion logic model to review progress in HIV prevention in China
Using the theory and concepts of health promotion, this paper proposes a logic model for HIV/AIDS prevention and control which provides a structure for describing planned actions and predicted impacts/outcomes from comprehensive HIV prevention interventions. The potential usefulness of the model is examined by reviewing the evolution of HIV prevention and management in China, drawing on evidence from interventions reported from a mixture of study designs and formats. It reports that HIV interventions in China can be considered in two distinctive phases, before and after 2003 when China commenced its &lsquo;official&rsquo; response to the HIV epidemic. The logic model was useful in comparing actions taken over these two periods highlighting the importance of political leadership in distingu...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Use of the Nerve Integrity Monitor during Thyroid Surgery Aids Identification of the External Branch of the Superior Laryngeal Nerve
Conclusion Using the NIM and meticulous dissection of the upper thyroid pole improves EBSLN identification. As the EBSLN is at risk during thyroidectomy and can lead to voice morbidity, the NIM can aid identification of the EBSLN and provide a functional assessment of the EBSLN after thyroid resection. (Source: Annals of Surgical Oncology)
The Psychological Context of Sexual Compulsivity Among Men Who Have Sex with Men
Abstract Among men who have sex with men (MSM), sexual compulsivity is associated with overlapping psychosocial and behavioral health problems. Because difficulties with emotion regulation are thought to be one important feature, this study examined whether affective states and traumatic stress symptoms were independently associated with key dimensions of sexual compulsivity. Data were collected in San Francisco for the Urban Men?s Health Study-2002 from May 24, 2002 to January 19, 2003. In total, 711 MSM recruited via probability-based sampling completed a mail-in questionnaire that assessed psychological factors and substance use. Dissociation related to traumatic stress and any stimulant use in the past 6 months were independently associated with more frequent sexual thought...
Social Cognition Variables and Victimization as Predictors of Sexual Debut Among Adolescents in South Africa and Tanzania: A Multi-group SEM Analysis
Abstract Early sexual debut is common in South Africa and Tanzania, with potentially negative reproductive health outcomes. The role of violence as a predictor of sexual debut was studied, in a context of predictors borrowed from social cognition models. Data were taken from cluster-randomized trials of school-based HIV prevention interventions in three sites in South Africa and Tanzania. Analyses consisted of descriptive statistics and multi-group structural equation modelling. The basic model functioned fairly well for Cape Town, but less well for Mankweng and Dar es Salaam (low R2 values). Attitudes were the strongest predictor of intention. Adding socio-demographic variables to the model did not reduce the associations much and neither did subsequent inclusion of violence. Sex...
Strategies to uncover undiagnosed HIV infection among heterosexuals at high risk and link them to HIV care with high retention: a &#8220;seek, test, treat, and retain&#8221; study
DiscussionHeterosexuals do not test for HIV as frequently as and are diagnosed later than other risk groups. The study has the potential to contribute an efficient, innovative, and sustainable multi-level recruitment approach and intervention to the HIV prevention portfolio. Because the majority of heterosexuals at high risk are African American/Black or Latino, the study has great potential to reduce racial/ethnic disparities in HIV/AIDS.Trial registrationClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01607541, Registered May 23, 2012. (Source: BMC Public Health)
Factors related to NT-proBNP levels in HIV patients aged over 40&#160;years
Conclusions: We found, with the limitations of a small serie, that higher levels of NTproBNP in HIV patients could be linked to the occurrence of cardiovascular events, this fact suggest that NTpro BNP could be used in patients at moderate or high vascular risk in order to optimise the primary prevention of vascular events. (Source: AIDS Research and Therapy)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
The difficult management of disseminated Sporothrix brasiliensis in a patient with advanced AIDS.
This report describes a case of disseminated sporotrichosis caused by S. brasiliensis in a patient with advanced AIDS. The skin, lungs, bones and central nervous system were affected. Medical treatment involved the administration of amphotericin B, terbinafine, itraconazole and posaconazole. Posaconazole was associated with the best clinical response and clearing of the fungus from the central nervous system. PMID: 25949269 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Therapy)
Partner notification in the context of HIV: an interest-analysis.
We present an interest-analysis of partner notification in the context of HIV service rendition. Using principles-based analysis, the interests of the individual, the state/public health, and the bioethicist's are discussed. The public health interests in partner notification, which are usually backed by state statutes and evidence, are premised on the theory that partners are entitled to knowledge. This theory posits that knowledge empowers individuals to avoid continuing risks; knowledge of infection allows for early treatment; and that knowledgeable partners can adapt their behavior to prevent further transmission of infection to others. However, persons infected with HIV often have counter interests. For instance, an infected person may desire to maintain the privacy of their health st...
Insomnia Could Kill You -- By Accident
We talk a lot about the dangers of poor sleep, the risks to health, mental and physical well being and performance, and to quality of life. One serious consequence of poor sleep that sometimes gets overlooked? The risk it poses to accidental death. A recent study puts in stark relief the dangers that insomnia can pose by increasing the risks for unintended fatal injury. Researchers in Norway undertook a large-scale evaluation of the relationship between symptoms of insomnia and the risk of fatal accidental injury. Their study included 54,399 men and women between the ages 20-89, all of whom participated in a public health study during the years 1995-1997. Researchers collected data on participants over a 14-year period, collecting survey data about the presence of insomnia symptoms, incl...
Hospitalization Rates and Reasons Among HIV Elite Controllers and Persons With Medically Controlled HIV Infection
Conclusions.&nbsp;Elite controllers are hospitalized more frequently than persons with medically controlled HIV and cardiovascular hospitalizations are an important contributor. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Quantitative and Qualitative Antibody Responses to Immunization With the Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine in HIV-Infected Patients After Initiation of Antiretroviral Treatment: Results From a Randomized Clinical Trial
Conclusions.&nbsp;In HIV+ with CD4 &ge; 200, delaying PPV23 until &ge;6 months of ART does not improve responses and may lead to missed opportunities for immunization. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Association of Cytokines With Exosomes in the Plasma of HIV-1-Seropositive Individuals
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and viremic individuals exhibit elevated levels of plasma cytokines. Here we show that most cytokines are not in free form but appear associated with exosomes that are distinct from virions. Purified exosomes were analyzed to determine the levels of 21 cytokines and chemokines and compared with exosome-depleted plasma. Most cytokines were markedly enriched in exosomes from HIV-positive individuals relative to negative controls and to plasma. Moreover, exposure of naive peripheral blood mononuclear cells to exosomes purified from HIV-positive patients induced CD38 expression on naive and central memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, probably contributing to inflammation and viral propagation via bystander cell activation. (Source: The Journal of Infectiou...
Bone Marrow-Imprinted Gut-Homing of Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells (pDCs) in Acute Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Results in Massive Accumulation of Hyperfunctional CD4+ pDCs in the Mucosae
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), a primary source of interferon &alpha; (IFN-&alpha;), provide a first line of innate immune defense against human immunodeficiency virus infection. However, their kinetics and functions during acute infection are poorly understood. In mucosal tissues of normal rhesus macaques, we found CD4+ pDCs to be the subset responsible for most IFN-&alpha; and tumor necrosis factor &alpha; (TNF-&alpha;) production in response to Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7/8 stimulation, compared with relatively anergic CD4&ndash; pDCs. During acute simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection, gut homing was imprinted on pDCs in the bone marrow, resulting in a decline in pDCs from circulation and secondary lymphoid tissues. Although the accumulated pDCs in the gut mucosae had robu...
Course and Clinical Significance of CD8+ T-Cell Counts in a Large Cohort of HIV-Infected Individuals
Conclusions.&nbsp;CD8+ T-cell counts are elevated during HIV infection and do not normalize despite long-term cART. Low CD8+ T-cell counts are associated with increased AIDS-related mortality. Marked elevations in CD8+ T-cell counts after long-term cART are associated with increased non&ndash;AIDS-related mortality. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Global Dispersal Pattern of HIV Type 1 Subtype CRF01_AE: A Genetic Trace of Human Mobility Related to Heterosexual Sexual Activities Centralized in Southeast Asia
Discussion.&nbsp;The central role of Thailand in the global spread of CRF01_AE can be probably explained by the popularity of Thailand as a vacation destination characterized by sex tourism and by Thai emigration to the Western world. Our study highlights the unique case of CRF01_AE, the only globally distributed non&ndash;B clade whose global dispersal did not originate in Africa. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Medroxyprogesterone Acetate Regulates HIV-1 Uptake and Transcytosis but Not Replication in Primary Genital Epithelial Cells, Resulting in Enhanced T-Cell Infection
Although clinical and experimental evidence indicates that female sex hormones and hormonal contraceptives regulate susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Genital epithelial cells (GECs) are the first cells to encounter HIV during sexual transmission and their interaction with HIV may determine the outcome of exposure. This is the first report that HIV uptake by GECs increased significantly in the presence of the hormonal contraceptive medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and progesterone and that uptake occurred primarily via endocytosis. No productive infection was detected, but endocytosed virus was released into apical and basolateral compartments. Significantly higher viral transcytosis was observed in the presen...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
High Transmissibility During Early HIV Infection Among Men Who Have Sex With Men--San Francisco, California
We estimate the relative transmission rate in early versus later infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) in San Francisco, California, by studying the characteristics of a sample of transmitters, recruited through newly diagnosed, recently infected MSM between 1996 and 2009. Of 36 transmitters identified, 9 were determined on the basis of testing history and serologic testing to have been recently infected. The unadjusted odds ratio of transmitting during early infection was 15.2 (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.3&ndash;33.4; P &lt; .001); the odds ratio was 8.9 (95% CI, 4.1&ndash;19.4) after adjustment for self-reported antiretroviral treatment. This high transmissibility could be due to both high infectiousness and high rates of sex partner change or concurrent partnerships. (Sou...
Do Surgeons Treat Their Patients Like They Would Treat Themselves?
CONCLUSIONS: Surgeons are slightly more likely to recommend surgery for a patient than they are to choose surgery for themselves and they choose for themselves with a little more confidence. Different perspectives, preferences, circumstantial information, and cognitive biases might explain the observed differences. This emphasizes the importance of (1) understanding patients' preferences and their considerations for treatment; (2) being aware that surgeons and patients might weigh various factors differently; (3) giving patients more autonomy by letting them balance risks and benefits themselves (ie, shared decision-making); and (4) assessing how dispassionate evidence-based decision aids help inform the patient and influences their decisional conflict. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, di...
Polyomaviruses and disease: is there more to know than viremia and viruria?
Purpose of review: Polyomavirus nephropathy (PVN) mainly caused by BK virus (BKV) remains the most common productive viral infection of the kidney. Over the past decade, clinical interest often focused on BK viremia and viruria as the diagnostic mainstays of patient management. The purpose of this review is to discuss viral nephropathy in the context of BK viremia and viruria and new strategies to optimize diagnostic accuracy and patient management. The emerging roles of polyomaviruses in oncogenesis, salivary gland disease, and post-bone marrow transplantation as well as novel Polyomavirus strains are highlighted. Recent findings: Areas of investigation include proposals by the Banff working group on the classification of PVN and studies on PVN progression and resolution, including the ro...
[Correspondence] A public health approach to hypertension
Sonia Angell and colleagues1 present constructive ideas to address hypertension globally. However, the daunting challenges of implementation of rapid control of hypertension deserve fuller discourse. The fact that ?in the USA, barely half of people with hypertension have their blood pressure at target levels?1 speaks volumes. Moreover emulating single-purpose AIDS programming is largely unrealistic. Undertaking of further multibillion dollar initiatives to establish largely parallel health systems is simply not feasible. (Source: LANCET)
Africa: Partnership Forum Focuses On Strategy
[Global Fund] Addis Ababa, Ethiopia -Partners in global health gathered here today to participate in consultations about the strategy the Global Fund partnership should implement to best accelerate the end of AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria as epidemics and to contribute to building resilient health systems. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Malawi: Key Correspondent Receives Malawi Media Award
[Key Correspondents] Key Correspondent Owen Nyaka has been awarded 'Best Paediatric and HIV Journalist of the Year' by the Malawi Chapter of the Media Institute of Southern Africa (MISA). (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
South Africa: Service Delivery to Improve At Clinic 2
[SAnews.gov.za] Pretoria -Residents of Soshanguve Block G in Pretoria have requested for more nurses to be employed at Clinic 2 to relieve one dedicated nurse who attends to patients living with HIV and Aids at the clinic. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: New Platform for Reports of Human Rights Violations in Global Fund Programs Launched
[GFO] A first response to complaints will be made within 48 hours (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Outstanding Directors 2015: Linda Washington Cropp
Linda Washington Cropp knows how to navigate boards: She served as the first-ever chairwoman of the Council of the District of Columbia from 1997 to 2007. But the guidance counselor-turned-politician has always had a flare for health care. While chairing the D.C. council?s Committee on Human Services, she helped create the city?s department of health and reorganized the agency to focus on priorities like substance abuse, infant mortality and HIV/AIDs. Thus, Cropp was a natural fit for CareFirst? (Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Hospitals headlines)
Kenya: Aids Conference Starts in Nairobi
[The Star] SCIENTISTS and policymakers converged in Nairobi yesterday to develop local solutions for HIV-Aids response. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Self-Reported HIV and HCV Screening Rates and Serostatus Among Substance Abuse Treatment Patients
Abstract Substance users are at increased risk for HIV and HCV infection. Still, many substance use treatment programs (SUTP) fail to offer HIV/HCV testing. The present secondary analysis of screening data from a multi-site randomized trial of rapid HIV testing examines self-reported HIV/HCV testing patterns and serostatus of 2473 SUTP patients in 12 community-based sites that had not previously offered on-site testing. Results indicate that most respondents screened for the randomized trial tested more than a year prior to intake for HIV (52 %) and HCV (38 %). Prevalence rates were 3.6 and 30 % for HIV and HCV, respectively. The majority of participants that were HIV (52.2 %) and HCV-positive (40.5 %) reported having been diagnosed within the last 1?5 years. Multivari...
"Drugs That Fight HIV-1" Brochure Recently Updated
The "Drugs That Fight HIV-1" brochure has been updated to include antiretroviral (ARV) drugs recently approved by FDA. The NIH publication features images of FDA-approved ARVs, grouped by drug class and identified by both generic and brand names. The brochure, available in both English and Spanish, offers health care professionals a visual aid to use when discussing HIV treatment with patients. The brochure can be found in the HIV/AIDS Images section of Health Topics on our website. &nbsp; For more information on FDA-approved and investigational HIV/AIDS-related medications, please visit our Drug Database or download the AIDSinfo Drug Database app. The free app provides on-the-go access to the same information found in our Drug Database. The app is available for Apple and Android devices ...
May 18 is HIV Vaccine Awareness Day
Join AIDSinfo in observing HIV Vaccine Awareness Day on May 18. The annual observance is dedicated to the many scientists, health professionals, community members, and volunteers who are collaborating to develop both preventive and therapeutic HIV vaccines. Visit our HIV Vaccine Awareness Day webpage to learn more about the annual observance and about advances in HIV vaccine research. (Source: AIDSinfo At-a-Glance: Offering Information on HIV/AIDS Treatment, Prevention, and Research, A Service of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS))
May 19 is National Asian and Pacific Islander HIV/AIDS Awareness Day
. This observance aims to raise awareness about HIV/AIDS in Asian and Pacific Islander communities. Explore our National Asian and Pacific Islander HIV/AIDS Awareness Day webpage to learn more about the observance and about research related to HIV/AIDS and Asians and Pacific Islanders. (Source: AIDSinfo At-a-Glance: Offering Information on HIV/AIDS Treatment, Prevention, and Research, A Service of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS))
SIV Encephalitis Lesions Are Composed of CD163 Macrophages Present in the Central Nervous System during Early SIV Infection and SIV-Positive Macrophages Recruited Terminally with AIDS
Macrophage recruitment to the central nervous system (CNS) during AIDS pathogenesis is poorly understood. We measured the accumulation of brain perivascular (CD163+) and inflammatory (MAC387+) macrophages in SIV-infected monkeys. Monocyte progenitors were 5-bromo-2?-deoxyuridine (BrdU) labeled in bone marrow, and CNS macrophages were labeled serially with fluorescent dextrans injected into the cisterna magna. MAC387+ macrophages accumulated in the meninges and choroid plexus in early inflammation and in the perivascular space and SIV encephalitis (SIVE) lesions late. (Source: American Journal of Pathology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Comparison of the 2-step tuberculin skin test and QuantiFERON-TB Gold in-Tube test in the screening of latent tuberculosis infection in cancer patients
This study suggests that the QFT-GIT test maintains its sensitivity and performance in immunocompromised cancer patients, identifying a large number of truly infected patients being anergy to the tuberculin skin test. (Source: Egyptian Journal of Chest Diseases and Tuberculosis)
Discriminatory attitudes toward people living with HIV among health care workers in Aceh, Indonesia: A vista from a very low HIV caseload region
Conclusions Our study found that knowledge on transmission and prevention of HIV, value-driven stigma and overestimated risk to HIV transmission are the only significant predictors of discriminatory attitudes towards PLHIV among HCWs in Aceh. Therefore to reduce those factors, trainings on HIV-related discrimination to HCWs and clear guidelines and protocols related to PLHIV care are urgently needed. (Source: Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health)
Targeting of Aids Related Encephalopathy Using Phenylalanine Anchored Lipidic Nanocarrier
Publication date: Available online 2 May 2015 Source:Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces Author(s): Anil Vyas , Ankit Jain , Pooja Hurkat , Ashish Jain , Sanjay K. Jain Transport of the anti-HIV agents across the blood brain barrier (BBB) is a prerequisite to treat acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) related encephalopathy. In the present study, we explored facilitated transport of efavirenz (EFV, a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor) across BBB using phenylalanine anchored solid lipid nanoparticles (PA-SLN). PA (amino acid micro-nutrient) was used as a ligand which facilitated carrier mediated transport (CMT) via L-amino acid transporter i.e. LAT1 to traverse BBB. PA was coupled to SLN via amide linkage using carbodiimide chemistry and coupling was confirmed by comp...
Pre-HIV Test Counseling and the Perpetuation of Stigma
(Source: Journal of the International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care (JIAPAC))
The Montreal Cognitive Assessment: A Pilot Study of a Brief Screening Tool for Mild and Moderate Cognitive Impairment in HIV-Positive Veterans
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs) are common, often go undetected, and can impact treatment outcomes. There is limited evidence on how to perform routine cognitive screening in HIV clinical settings. To address this, 44 HIV-positive males were recruited from a Veteran Affairs Infectious Disease clinic and completed the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS), and Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale-21. In all, 50% scored below the MoCA cutoff and 36% scored below the IHDS cutoff. Current CD4 was the strongest predictor of an abnormal MoCA score (P = .007, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.987-0.998) and elevated depression was the second strongest predictor (P = .008, CI: 1.043-1.326). Combination antiviral therapy use and age were not sign...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Daptomycin Experience in Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Resistant Gram-Positive Infections
Conclusions: In HIV-infected patients, daptomycin appears to be a useful agent for treating resistant GPIs. (Source: Journal of the International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care (JIAPAC))
STD Clinic Patients' Awareness of Non-AIDS Complications of HIV Infection
Participants were recruited from a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic in Florida and were assessed regarding the knowledge and awareness of non-AIDS conditions associated with HIV infection. Questionnaires were administered before and after a brief information session on non-AIDS conditions associated with HIV infection. Participants included men (n = 46) and women (n = 51). Prior to the information session, at baseline, only 34% of the participants were worried about HIV infection. Most participants (82%) agreed that HIV could be treated with antiretroviral therapy (ART), while only 38% were aware that HIV-associated conditions cannot be easily treated with ART. After the information session, almost all participants reported they were concerned regarding the risk of HIV infection. ...
Initial Experience with the Use of Thrombopoetin Receptor Agonists in Patients with Refractory HIV-Associated Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura: A Case Series
HIV-associated immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) has decreased in incidence 10-fold since the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). For patients with detectable HIV viral loads, first-line treatment approaches involve optimizing HAART followed by standard ITP options used to treat those without HIV infection. In the general population, the thrombopoetin receptor agonists (TRAs), eltrombopag and romiplostim, are effective when used as salvage ITP therapy. In addition, eltrombopag has been used effectively in patients with thrombocytopenia secondary to hepatitis C&mdash;a virus seen commonly in HIV-infected patients, especially in those who also have a history of intravenous drug use. There are, however, few reports or studies of TRAs use in those with HIV infection. He...
The Continuing Challenge of Reducing HIV Risk among Haitian Youth: The Need for Intervention
There is a dire need for interventions that will address the multiple factors&mdash;poverty, substance use, early sexual debut, and violence&mdash;that influence Haitian youth&rsquo;s engagement in risky behaviors. The deteriorating socioeconomic and political state of the country has had a deleterious effect on the sociocultural milieu and on the boundaries that have heretofore kept risky behaviors in check. Historically, the lakou system, a community-based approach that supports the family unit, has disintegrated, leading to the disruption of traditional parenting patterns. The unstable economic system has also led to the increasing use of children from poor families, who through the restavek system, are sent to work as servants in other households. The breakdown of traditional systems, ...
How Setswana Cultural Beliefs and Practices on Sexuality Affect Teachers' and Adolescents' Sexual Decisions, Practices, and Experiences as well as HIV/AIDS and STI Prevention in Select Botswanan Secondary Schools
This article reports the results of a survey of a sample of teachers and students at junior secondary schools and senior secondary schools, first, on their views and opinions regarding the Talk Back program as a TCBP. Second, how Setswana cultural beliefs, myths, and practices on sexuality affect teachers&rsquo; and adolescents&rsquo; sexual decisions, practices, and experiences as well as HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infection prevention. A questionnaire survey and focus group interviews were used as data collection instruments in selected secondary schools. The findings of the study suggest that the Talk Back program has not met much success as a TCBP. The findings further suggest that several myths, beliefs, misconceptions, and attitudes about HIV/AIDS exist among Botswana teachers...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Predictors of HIV Serodiscordance among Couples in Southwestern Ethiopia
Conclusion: The prevalence of serodiscordance in the study area was found to be low, but it contributes to a clinically significant population that mandates implementation of preventive strategy. Sero-positive individuals who use condoms rarely should be encouraged to have their partners tested, and the association between active TB and serodiscordance underscores the need for further study. (Source: Journal of the International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care (JIAPAC))
Cervical Cancer Screening among HIV-Positive Women in Nigeria: An Assessment of Use and Willingness to Pay in the Absence of Donor Support
Conclusion: Willingness to pay for Pap smear by HIV-positive women in Enugu, Nigeria, is high. This has implication for the program sustainability. (Source: Journal of the International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care (JIAPAC))
Clinician Perspectives on Delaying Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy for Clinically Eligible HIV-Infected Patients
Conclusion: Reasons for delaying ART were consistent with clinical guidelines and were both patient level and structural. Providers may benefit from training and access to referrals for ancillary services to enhance their ability to monitor and address these issues with their patients. (Source: Journal of the International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care (JIAPAC))
Determinants of Survival in Adult HIV Clients on Antiretroviral Therapy in Lawra and Jirapa Districts of Upper West Region, Ghana
We describe the rate of death and identify the determinants of survival in a cohort of adults starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) in 2 hospitals in Upper West Region, Ghana. Kaplan-Meier model was used to estimate the survival probability after ART initiation and Cox proportional hazard model used to assess the relationship between baseline variables and mortality. A total of 91 clients who were initiated on ART in both hospitals participated in the study. Clients staged in the World Health Organization (WHO) clinical stage III/IV had a higher risk of mortality than those staging I/II (hazard ratio [HR] of 3.93). Hemoglobin value at baseline with a cutoff &ge;12 g/dL for women (and &ge;13 for men) was strongly associated with mortality in participants with an HR of 3.87 (95% confidence i...
Neutropenia in HIV-Infected Kenyan Women Receiving Triple Antiretroviral Prophylaxis to Prevent Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission Is Not Associated with Serious Clinical Sequelae
Conclusion: More than half of KiBS women met criteria for neutropenia. The mild clinical experience of most participants with low ANCs supports that these values might be typical for this population and may not result in adverse clinical sequelae. (Source: Journal of the International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care (JIAPAC))<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Predictors of Mortality among Tuberculosis/HIV-Coinfected Persons in Southwest Ethiopia: A Case-Control Study
Conclusion: Mortality among TB/HIV-coinfected patients accounted for a considerable number of deaths among the cohort. Patients with cough at ART initiation and with poor functional status should be strictly followed to reduce death. (Source: Journal of the International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care (JIAPAC))
Boundaries of confidentiality in nursing care for mother and child in HIV programmes.
DISCUSSION: The material indicates a delicate balance between the nurses' attempt to secure the HIV-free survival of the babies and the mothers' desire to preserve confidentiality. Profound confidentiality-related dilemmas emerged in actual practice, and indications of a lack of thorough consideration of the implication of a patient's restricted disclosure came to light during follow-up of the HIV-positive women and the third party - the child who is at risk of HIV infection through mother's milk. World Health Organization's substantial focus on infant survival (Millennium Development Goal-4) and the strong calls for disclosure among the HIV-positive are reflected on in the discussion. PMID: 25956154 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Nursing Ethics)
Clinical performance and safety of adapters for intradermal delivery with conventional and autodisable syringes.
Authors: Tsals I, Jarrahian C, Snyder FE, Saganic L, Saxon E, Zehrung D, Zimmerman G, Papania M, Klaff L Abstract Although the number of vaccines and diagnostic tests currently delivered intradermally is limited, this route of administration offers potential advantages due to the high concentration of antigen-presenting cells in the skin. One factor which may in part be limiting development and use of intradermal (ID) administration is concern about the ease and reliability of the needle and syringe-based Mantoux technique. A phase I clinical study was conducted to evaluate two ID adapters that have been developed as injection-delivery aids to increase the safety, simplicity, and reliability of ID injection: a prototype autodisable, intradermal (ADID) adapter for autodisable (AD) s...
VIDEO: Aids can be eradicated, says Elton
Sir Elton John says he believes Aids can be eradicated in his lifetime if research funding is continued. (Source: BBC News | Health | UK Edition)
Starting a Juice Cleanse? 4 Things You Need to Know
Juices cleanses are a trendy weight-loss method. Proponents of juice cleanses claim you will lose weight and remove toxins from your body. Is it really healthy to only have liquids for as long as a week? If you don't get enough fruits and vegetables in your diet, juicing may help in that area. In most cases, a 3 to 5 day juice cleanse may not hurt you, but it won't necessarily help your overall health very much either. Consider these 4 facts before deciding whether a juice cleanse is right for you. 1. We don't really need a "cleanse" to remove toxins from our bodies. Proponents of juicing often claim that these "cleanses" will remove toxins from the body. However, we already have a "cleansing" mechanism in our bodies -- the liver, kidneys and intestines. The job of these organs is to ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Liberia: UNAIDS Urges Support to HIV/Aids Program
[NEWS] UNAIDS Country Director, Dr. BetruWoldesemayat, has called on participants at the just-ended Joint UNAIDS and partners retreat, to make significant contributions to develop the new UN Joint Program of Support to HIV/AIDS in Liberia. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: Innovation for Greater Impact - Exploring Domestic Resource Mobilization Efforts in Collaboration With the Global Fund
[GFO] As Aidspan has explored previously, international aid for AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria is plateauing, and a critical transition is underway to find more sustainable approaches to health financing in implementing countries. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Liberia: Curbing Spread of HIV Requires Political Commitmen
[New Republic] The Chairman of the National AIDS Commission (NAC), Dr. Ivan F. Camanor, has called for increased political commitment, domestic resource mobilization, scaled-up treatment and support services to curb the spread of HIV in the country. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: Revealed - 10,606 Lagosians Test HIV Positive in One Year
[Independent (Lagos)] The Lagos State Commissioner for Health, Dr Jide Idris, has said that no fewer than 10, 606 people resident in the state have tested HIV positive. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Elton John to Congress: You have "the power to end AIDS"
In passionate testimony, musician and HIV/AIDS activist thanks lawmakers for past efforts to combat the virus, urges further action (Source: Health News: CBSNews.com)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
MnO2 Nanosheets: One?Step Synthesis of Single?Layer MnO2 Nanosheets with Multi?Role Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate for High?Performance Pseudocapacitors (Small 18/2015)
One?step synthesis of single?Layer MnO2 nanosheets with multi?role sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is demonstrated by H. Sun, S. Yin, and co?workers on page 2182. Interestingly, SDS, normally recognized as a surfactant, not only aids the formation of single?layer MnO2 nanosheets as a structure?inducing agent, but also serves as the precursor of dodecanol to reduce KMnO4. A mechanism is proposed based on carefully designed control experiments and the resultant MnO2 nanosheets exhibit high specific capacitance and excellent durability. (Source: Small)
Watchful waiting or induction of labour &#8211; a matter of informed choice: identification, analysis and critical appraisal of decision aids and patient information regarding care options for women with uncomplicated singleton late and post term pregnancies: a review
Conclusions: There is an urgent need for the design of an evidence-based decision aid of good quality for late-term or post-term pregnancy, particularly in German language. (Source: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine)
Nontuberculous Mycobacteria
Skin and soft tissue infections caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria are increasing in incidence. The nontuberculous mycobacteria are environmental, acid-fast bacilli that cause cutaneous infections primarily after trauma, surgery and cosmetic procedures. Skin findings include abscesses, sporotrichoid nodules or ulcers, but also less distinctive signs. Important species include Mycobacterium marinum and the rapidly growing mycobacterium: M. fortuitum, M. abscessus and M. chelonae. Obtaining tissue for mycobacterial culture and histopathology aids diagnosis. Optimal therapy is not well-established, but is species-dependent and generally dictated by susceptibility studies. Management often includes use of multiple antibiotics for several months and potential use of adjunctive surgery. (Sour...
The difficult management of disseminated Sporothrix brasiliensis in a patient with advanced AIDS
Sporotrichosis is an infection caused by a dimorphic fungus of the Sporothrix schenckii complex. Host immunity is an important factor in the clinical manifestations of the disease. Deeply immunocompromised individuals, especially those infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and T CD4 counts? (Source: AIDS Research and Therapy)
Rapid regression of Kaposi?s sarcoma of the hard palate under therapy with boosted elvitegravir-containing fixdose antiretroviral combination therapy
Conclusion In this case of a treatment-naive HIV-infected patient with coexisting KS, antiretroviral therapy with E/c/FTC/TDF was very well suited to achieve rapid complete remission of KS. (Source: Infection)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Meaning of care for terminally-ill HIV-infected patients by HIV-infected peer caregivers in a simulation-based training program in South Korea
The purpose of this study was to develop a simulation-based training program for people living with HIV (PLWH) as peer caregivers who would take care of terminally ill, HIV-infected patients. We used qualitative research methods and standardized patients to explore the meaning of caring for patients as peer caregivers. Study participants included 32 patients registered as PLWH at the South Korea Federation for HIV/AIDS. The meanings of peer caregiving were categorized into 4 dimensions: physical, psychological, relational, and economic. (Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)
Contraceptive need and use among individuals with HIV/AIDS living in the slums of Nairobi, Kenya
To understand contraceptive need and use among individuals with HIV/AIDS living in slums. (Source: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics)
A New Zealand pilot randomized controlled trial of a web-based interactive self-management programme (MSInvigor8) with and without email support for the treatment of multiple sclerosis fatigue.
CONCLUSIONS: MSInvigor8 delivered with email-based support is a potentially promising, acceptable, and cost-effective approach to treating fatigue in people with multiple sclerosis in New Zealand. PMID: 25952587 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Clinical Rehabilitation)
Fragment-Based QSAR and Structural Analysis of a Series of Hydroxyethylamine Derivatives as HIV-1 Protease Inhibitors.
Authors: Ferreira LG, Andricopulo AD Abstract HIV-1 protease is a key enzyme for viral maturation because it cleaves precursor polypeptides into mature structural and functional proteins. The introduction of protease inhibitors into therapy in the mid-1990s has dramatically changed the AIDS panorama worldwide. However, resistance to currently available protease inhibitors remains a serious challenge that must be overcome. Herein, we report a fragment-based QSAR study of a series of highly potent HIV-1 protease inhibitors, as well as the structural basis of their binding affinity. Hologram QSAR (HQSAR) analyses were performed, resulting in robust statistical models that consistently correlated the bioactivity profile with the two-dimensional molecular descriptors. The robustness of ...
Therapy Stratifications and Novel Approach in Pursuit of Aids Related Kaposi's Sarcoma Management - A Paradigm for Non Invasiveness.
Authors: Sharma M, Sharma V, Pathak K Abstract Cancer in individuals suffering with HIV and AIDS has become a common source of morbidity and mortality, especially in the underdeveloped world in which Kaposi's sarcoma is the most occurring tumor of vascular endothelium frequently seen in patients suffering from AIDS. Suffering individuals are invariably co-infected with HIV and HHV-8 virus. The conventional modes for chemotherapies may be clinically useful in patients with kaposi's sarcoma. Though advancements in treatment modalities of AIDS related Kaposi's sarcoma have been successfully achieved, till date an exclusive therapy of golden standard has not been principally defined that can deliver the drug via non-invasive route. Novel concepts of treatment primarily address the fact...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Nutritional status and its association with quality of life among people living with HIV attending public anti-retroviral therapy sites of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.
CONCLUSION: Nutrition interventions should form an integral part of HIV care programs. Understanding the presence of OI, decline in CD4 count, and advancing WHO clinical stages as risk factors can be helpful in preventing under nutrition from developing. Longitudinal research is necessary to further explicate associations between nutritional status and QoL. PMID: 25937825 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Therapy)
Tonsillectomy Appears to Protect Against Tonsil CancerTonsillectomy Appears to Protect Against Tonsil Cancer
Danish data also correlate the decline of tonsillectomies and the rise of oropharyngeal cancer over time. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Hiv-Aids Headlines)
Elton John: U.S. Congress "has the power to end AIDS"
Musician and activist Sir Elton John thanks the U.S. Congress for its prior efforts on HIV/AIDS relief and urges further action to end the epidemic. (Source: Health News: CBSNews.com)
GlaxoSmithKline scraps float plans for HIV business
Drugmaker decides to retain ViiV Healthcare as part of a plan to revive performance and boost growth in emerging markets Continue reading... (Source: Guardian Unlimited Science)
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID): HIV/AIDS
NIAID supports research at NIH, universities, medical centers, and clinical trial sites around the globe to better understand HIV and how it causes disease, find new tools to prevent HIV infection, develop new and more effective treatments for HIV-infected people, and find a cure. (Source: PHPartners.org)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
More Aging Americans Using Canes, Walkers
Many seniors rely on more than one mobility device, study finds Source: HealthDay Related MedlinePlus Pages: Mobility Aids, Seniors' Health (Source: MedlinePlus Health News)
Liberia: 'Together We Can End HIV in the Post 2015 Era'
[New Republic] President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf has called on all Liberians to end the spread of HIV infection as part of the country's post 2015 development agenda. The president made the call Tuesday April 28, 2015 at the National AIDS Commission (NAC) Board of Directors Meeting held in the C. Cecil Dennis, Jr. Auditorium of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Monrovia. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: Malaria - WDI Facilitates Free Treatment in Alimosho
[Vanguard] In a bid to reduce absenteeism from work and eliminate the scourge of malaria, Westfield Development Initiative, WDI a non-governmental orgainsation has offered free malaria treatment to the resident of Alimosho Local Government Area of Lagos state. The programme which has over 700 people in attendance offer free malaria treatment, HIV/AIDs screening, blood pressure test, blood sugar tests, and free insecticide treated mosquito nets. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Liberia: 'Together We Can End HIV in the Post 2015 Era'
[New Republic] President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf has called on all Liberians to end the spread of HIV infection as part of the country's post 2015 development agenda. The president made the call Tuesday April 28, 2015 at the National AIDS Commission (NAC) Board of Directors Meeting held in the C. Cecil Dennis, Jr. Auditorium of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Monrovia. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Obesity in Ireland ?worse than HIV/AIDS in the 1980s?
Ireland set to be the most obese country in Europe by 2030, WHO says (Source: The Irish Times - Health)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Zimbabwe: Man Abuses HIV+ Wife, Court Told
[The Herald] A Harare man is chasing away his HIV-positive wife from their matrimonial home, saying he can no longer stay with her because she is "rotten", the Civil Court heard yesterday.Susan Machingura claimed her husband Sergio Tarwirei was in the habit of physically abusing her and locking her outside the house at night because of her HIV status. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Cancer Risk and Combination Antiretroviral TherapyCancer Risk and Combination Antiretroviral Therapy
How does combination ART affect the risk of cancer? JAIDS: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
Lower Efavirenz Dose Effective in HIVLower Efavirenz Dose Effective in HIV
Starting daily HIV treatment with efavirenz 400 mg rather than 600 mg may offer advantages, according to extended analysis of the non-inferiority ENCORE1 trial. Reuters Health Information (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)
A systematic review of hepatic tuberculosis with considerations in human immunodeficiency virus co-infection
Conclusions: Clinicians in TB-endemic regions should maintain a high index of suspicion for hepatic TB in patients presenting with hepatomegaly, fever, respiratory symptoms, and elevated liver enzymes. The most sensitive imaging modality is a CT scan, while the most specific diagnostic modality is a liver biopsy with nucleic acid testing of liver tissue samples. Upon diagnosis, 4-drug anti-TB therapy should promptly be initiated. HIV co-infected patients may have more complex cases and should be closely monitored for complications. (Source: BMC Infectious Diseases)
The successful use of dronabinol for failure to thrive secondary to intestinal dysmotility
Conclusion Dronabinol has the potential to improve quality of life for patients beyond those undergoing chemotherapy or suffering from AIDS. Lack of access to this medicine for patients with intestinal dysmotility after all other modalities have been tried can lead to morbid and expensive complications, such as inpatient admission and surgery for enteral access. (Source: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Evaluation of antiretroviral treatment programme monitoring in Eastern Cape, South Africa
Conclusions Recommendations to address the inaccuracy of ART programme data include improving knowledge translation during training of ART programme staff, ensuring the implementation of established data verification policies and procedures, rethinking the design of the programme to reduce the burden on health facilities and personnel, and standardizing information management procedures amongst the various governmental and non-governmental stakeholders. The challenges with reporting in the Eastern Cape may be shared by other South African provinces as well as other low-middle income countries that require high quality data to inform well-designed and well-implemented interventions in the fight against HIV/AIDS. (Source: Health Policy and Planning)
The correlation between perceived social support and illness uncertainty in people with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome in Iran
Conclusion: Uncertainty is a serious aspect of illness experience in Iranian PLWH. Providing adequate, structured information to patients as well as opportunities to discuss their concerns with other PLWH and receive emotional support from their health care providers may be worthwhile. (Source: Indian Journal of Palliative Care)
Expression levels of MHC class I molecules are inversely correlated with promiscuity of peptide binding
We report that breadth of peptide presentation and level of cell surface expression of class I molecules are inversely correlated in both chickens and humans. This relationship correlates with protective responses against infectious pathogens including Marek's disease virus leading to lethal tumours in chickens and human immunodeficiency virus infection progressing to AIDS in humans. We propose that differences in peptide binding repertoire define two groups of MHC class I molecules strategically evolved as generalists and specialists for different modes of pathogen resistance. We suggest that differences in cell surface expression level ensure the development of optimal peripheral T cell responses. The inverse relationship of peptide repertoire and expression is evidently a fundamental pr...
Evaluating patient experience in a cystic fibrosis centre using a disease-specific patient satisfaction questionnaire
Conclusion: Exploring the patients? perspectives aids to identify strengths and weaknesses and helps to provide patient-centred care, which is important for persons with chronic illness. What is Known: ? Patients? views are important if health professionals aim at providing patient-centred care. ? To evaluate the patients? and parents? perspective of care provided by specialized cystic fibrosis (CF) centres, a disease-specific questionnaire was developed and used for a nationwide survey in over 2000 parents and adult patients from ...
Clinical Relevance of Kynurenine Pathway in HIV/AIDS: An Immune Checkpoint at the Crossroads of Metabolism and Inflammation.
Authors: Routy JP, Mehraj V, Vyboh K, Cao W, Kema I, Jenabian MA Abstract Tryptophan degradation along the kynurenine pathway is associated with a wide variety of pathophysiological processes, of which tumor tolerance and immune dysfunction in several chronic viral infections including HIV are well known. The kynurenine pathway is at the crossroads of metabolism and immunity and plays an important role in inflammation while also playing an opposing role in the control of acute and chronic infections. In this review we have summarized findings from recent studies reporting modulation of tryptophan degrading the kynurenine pathway in the context of HIV infection. This immuno-metabolic pathway is modulated by three distinct inducible enzymes: indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 and 2 and tr...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Impact of Antiretroviral Therapy on HIV-1 Persistence: The Case for Early Initiation.
Authors: Hong FF, Mellors JW Abstract Combination antiretroviral therapy suppresses HIV-1 replication, but is not curative because of the persistence of both residual viremia and long-lived cells carrying latent, intact proviruses. Recent data, however, have highlighted the substantial impact of early initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy on the number of HIV-1-infected cells that persist after treatment and on the possibility of post-treatment control of viral replication. The well-publicized case of the "Mississippi baby" has fueled great interest in outcomes following immediate initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy in both infants and adults. Here, we review current knowledge of the impact of combination antiretroviral therapy on HIV-1 reservoirs, with spec...
The teaching portfolio as a professional development tool for anaesthetists
This article explains why and how anaesthetists might use a TP as a tool for professional development in medical education. (Source: Anaesthesia and Intensive Care)
Sri Lanka?s Development Goals Fall Short on Gender Equality
In peacetime Sri Lanka, women still bear a heavy load in looking for jobs and tending to their families. Credit: Adithya Alles/IPSBy Ranjit PereraCOLOMBO, May 5 2015 (IPS)When Rosy Senanayake, Sri Lanka?s minister of state for child affairs, addressed the U.N. Commission on Population and Development (CPD) in New York last month, she articulated both the successes and shortcomings of gender equality in a country which prided itself electing the world?s first female head of government: Mrs. Sirimavo Bandaranaike in July 1960.After surviving a 26-year-long separatist war, which ended in 2009, Sri Lanka has been registering relatively strong economic growth, and also claiming successes in its battle against poverty and hunger."Women also bear primary responsibility for care work ? which...
What Hillary Clinton Could Do About the Opioid Crisis
During a recent campaign stop, presidential candidate Hillary Clinton promised to make the "quiet epidemic" involving heroin and prescription opioids an important part of her presidential campaign -- and, presumably, of her presidency, should she be elected. She mentioned the issue of substance misuse again in her highly publicized speech on criminal justice reform last week. As someone intimately familiar with the devastating impact of this public health crisis on individuals, families and communities, I was very pleased to hear this, and thought of several ways she could make good on her pledge. Here are five simple steps Clinton could take, as candidate or President, that could significantly shape the course of opioid addiction in the United States. 1. Define the problem in the ri...
Liberia: UNAIDS Urges Support to HIV/Aids Program in Liberia
[LINA] UNAIDS Country Director, Dr. Betru Woldesemayat, has called on participants at the just-ended Joint UNAIDS and partners retreat, to make significant contributions to develop the new UN Joint Program of Support to HIV/AIDS in Liberia. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
MMWR Community Outbreak of HIV Infection Linked to Injection Drug Use of Oxymorphone
On January 23, 2015, the Indiana State Department of Health (ISDH) began an ongoing investigation of an outbreak of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, after Indiana disease intervention specialists reported 11 confirmed HIV cases traced to a rural county in southeastern Indiana. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
Rwanda: HIV Prevention Is Everyone's Mandate
[Focus] Whilst the Rwandan government has made tremendous efforts in narrowing the knowledge gap about HIV and fast tracking of new HIV infections in its citizens, more efforts need to be invested in behavior change communications to deeply embrace the ABC concept to super match the cultural norms and values as measures for cubing down its prevalence rate. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Zambia: South Churches Urged to Work With State
[Times of Zambia] SOUTHERN Province Minister Nathaniel Mubukwanu has urged churches in the province to collaborate with the Government to combat HIV/AIDS. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Penn Medicine researchers receive $7.5 million to expand HIV gene therapy work
(University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine) Researchers from the Perelman School of Medicine and the Penn Center for AIDS Research have been awarded $7.5 million over five years from the National Institutes of Health to initiate a multi-project HIV study investigating a new gene therapy approach to render immune cells of HIV positive patients resistant to the virus. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Swaziland: Health Minister - HIV Response Can Help Tackle Malaria in Southern Africa
[Key Correspondents] Sibongile Ndlela-Simelane, Swaziland's minister of health and social welfare, has called for lessons learned from the HIV response in Southern Africa to be applied to the response to malaria. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Partner notification in the context of HIV: an interest-analysis
We present an interest-analysis of partner notification in the context of HIV service rendition. Using principles-based analysis, the interests of the individual, the state/public health, and the bioethicist?s are discussed. The public health interests in partner notification, which are usually backed by state statutes and evidence, are premised on the theory that partners are entitled to knowledge. This theory posits that knowledge empowers individuals to avoid continuing risks; knowledge of infection allows for early treatment; and that knowledgeable partners can adapt their behavior to prevent further transmission of infection to others. However, persons infected with HIV often have counter interests. For instance, an infected person may desire to maintain the privacy of their health ...
Revisions in Table
This article was corrected online. (Source: JAMA)
Clinical utility of a next generation sequencing panel assay for Marfan and Marfan?like syndromes featuring aortopathy
Aortopathy can be defined as aortic dilation, aneurysm, dissection, and tortuosity. Familial aortopathy may occur secondary to fibrillin?1 (FBN1) mutations in the setting of Marfan syndrome, or may occur as a result of other genetic defects with different, but occasionally overlapping, phenotypes. Because of the phenotypic overlap and genetic heterogeneity of disorders featuring aortopathy, we developed a next generation sequencing (NGS) assay and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) array to detect mutations in 10 genes that cause thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAAs). Here, we report on the clinical and molecular findings in 175 individuals submitted for aortopathy panel testing at ARUP laboratories. Ten genes associated with heritable aortopathies were targeted using hybridization captu...
The Neglected Topic: Presentation of Cost Information in Patient Decision Aids
Costs are an important component of patients&rsquo; decision making, but a comparatively underemphasized aspect of formal shared decision making. We hypothesized that decision aids also avoid discussion of costs, despite their being tools designed to facilitate shared decision making about patient-centered outcomes. We sought to define the frequency of cost-related information and identify the common modes of presenting cost and cost-related information in the 290 decision aids catalogued in the Ottawa Hospital Research Institute&rsquo;s Decision Aid Library Inventory (DALI) system. We found that 56% (n = 161) of the decision aids mentioned cost in some way, but only 13% (n = 37) gave a specific price or range of prices. We identified 9 different ways in which cost was mentioned. The most ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Patients or Volunteers? The Impact of Motivation for Trial Participation on the Efficacy of Patient Decision Aids: A Secondary Analysis of a Cochrane Systematic Review
Conclusions. There is a tendency toward greater PtDA efficacy in trials in which participants initiate the pathway of care. Knowledge acquisition appears to be greater in trials where participants are predominantly patients rather than volunteers. (Source: Medical Decision Making)
Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health and Health Care: an Assessment and Analysis of the Awareness and Perceptions of Public Health Workers Implementing a Statewide Community Transformation Grant in Texas
Conclusion Among public health workers, recent exposure to information regarding health disparities may be associated with their perceptions of health disparities. Further research is needed to investigate the impact of such exposure on their long-term perception of disparities, as well as the equity of services and programs they administer. (Source: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities)
The effects of item familiarity on the neural correlates of successful associative memory encoding.
Authors: Dennis NA, Turney IC, Webb CE, Overman AA Abstract Associative memory is considered to be resource-demanding, requiring individuals to learn individual items and the specific relationships between those items. Previous research has shown that prior studying of items aids in associative memory for pairs composed of those same items, as compared to pairs of items that have not been prelearned (e.g., Kilb & Naveh-Benjamin, 2011). In the present study, we sought to elucidate the neural correlates mediating this memory facilitation. After being trained on individual items, participants were scanned while encoding item pairs composed of items from the pretrained phase (familiarized-item pairs) and pairs whose items had not been previously learned (unfamiliarized-item pairs)....
SIV Encephalitis Lesions Are Composed of CD163(+) Macrophages Present in the Central Nervous System during Early SIV Infection and SIV-Positive Macrophages Recruited Terminally with AIDS.
Authors: Nowlin BT, Burdo TH, Midkiff CC, Salemi M, Alvarez X, Williams KC Abstract Macrophage recruitment to the central nervous system (CNS) during AIDS pathogenesis is poorly understood. We measured the accumulation of brain perivascular (CD163(+)) and inflammatory (MAC387(+)) macrophages in SIV-infected monkeys. Monocyte progenitors were 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) labeled in bone marrow, and CNS macrophages were labeled serially with fluorescent dextrans injected into the cisterna magna. MAC387(+) macrophages accumulated in the meninges and choroid plexus in early inflammation and in the perivascular space and SIV encephalitis (SIVE) lesions late. CD163(+) macrophages accumulated in the perivascular space and SIVE lesions with late inflammation. Most of the BrdU(+) cells we...
Liberia: NAC Craves Increased Political Commitment to Curb Spread of HIV
[LINA] The Chairman of the National AIDS Commission (NAC), Dr. Ivan F. Camanor, is calling for increased political commitment, domestic resource mobilization, scale-up treatment and support services to curb the spread of HIV in the country. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Global Warming May Spread Lyme Disease
Scientists tackle the difficult problem of how climate change aids the spread of the tick-borne disease -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com (Source: Scientific American - Official RSS Feed)
Dawn of antioxidants and immune modulators to stop HIV-progression and boost the immune system in HIV/AIDS patients: An updated comprehensive and critical review.
Authors: Singh G, Pai RS Abstract In the last two decades, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the retrovirus responsible for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality, worldwide. Providing the optimum management of HIV/AIDS is a major challenge in the 21st century. Since, HIV-infected persons have an extended lifespan due to the development of effective antiretroviral therapies, malnutrition is becoming central factors of long-term survivors. The nutrition status of AIDS patients has a significant influence on the maintenance and optimal effectiveness of the immune system. Micronutrient therapy in combination with allopathic treatments can extend and improve the quality and quantity of life in individuals infected with H...
Botswana: Participants Get Peer Educators Certificates
[Botswana Daily News] Francistown -Standard Chartered Bank (SCB) and the Ministry of Youth Sports and Culture (MYSC) have awarded the Botswana National Service Programme (BNSP) participants certificates as peer educators. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Potential Epidemiological Impact of Pre-Exposure ProphylaxisPotential Epidemiological Impact of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis
Could an HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis program make a significant epidemiological impact? AIDS (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
Community Perspective on the START TrialCommunity Perspective on the START Trial
When should ART be initiated? The START study is expected to be completed in 2016 and should give us that answer. HIV Medicine (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Liberia: 'Together We Can End HIV in Post 2015 Era' - Pres. Sirleaf
[FrontPageAfrica] Monrovia -President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf has called on all Liberians to end the spread of HIV infection as part of the country's post 2015 development agenda. The president made the call Tuesday, April 28, 2015 at the National AIDS Commission (NAC) Board of Directors Meeting held in the C. Cecil Dennis, Jr. Auditorium of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Monrovia. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Strengthening adherence to Anti Retroviral Therapy (ART) monitoring and support: operation research to identify barriers and facilitators in Nepal
This study was aimed at identifying the overall adherence level of, and barriers and facilitators to adherence for patients taking ART in different clinics in all five development regions of Nepal. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among ART clients receiving free ART from Government of Nepal ART clinics. A total of 435 clients taking ART from 12 ART clinics in different regions of Nepal, aged 15 years and above were interviewed on one-and-one basis using questionnaires developed in reference to Adult AIDS Clinical Trial Group (AACTG) toolkit among them data from 404 were analyzed after cleaning. Data was entered and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software where the P value of? (Source: BioMed Central)
Zimbabwe: More Women Know Their HIV Status Than Men
[New Zimbabwe] FIFTY percent of women have been tested for HIV and know their status compared to 40 percent of men, a Zimbabwe National Statistics Agency (ZIMSTAT) report has revealed. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Patients with AIDS at increased risk of developing age-related macular degeneration
(The Mount Sinai Hospital / Mount Sinai School of Medicine) Patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome have a four-fold increase in their risk of developing intermediate-stage age-related macular degeneration compared to people of the same age who are not infected with HIV, according to results from the Longitudinal Study of the Ocular Complications of AIDS presented today at the 2015 ARVO Annual Meeting in Denver, Colo. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
The burden of disease on HIV-infected orphaned and non-orphaned children accessing primary health facilities in a rural district with poor resources in South Africa: a cross-sectional survey of primary caregivers of HIV-infected children aged 5¿18 years
This study found that maternal orphans bear the brunt of the disease and are more likely to delay HIV testing and diagnosis as compared to non-orphans. In practice, HIV testing relies on children having HIV-related symptoms, with regard to orphans, primary caregivers lack relevant information to identify HIV related symptoms, and as a result, HIV diagnosis for orphans occurs in late childhood following recurrent and chronic infections. Image: Early HIV diagnosis-a strategy to unite against HIV/AIDS for children. (Source: BioMed Central)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
The Dhaga Technique for Tissue plane preservation after decompressive craniectomy: Comparison of new technique with institutional standard
Conclusion The utilization of 'dhaga technique' can potentially improve outcomes and reduce costs by decreasing operative time and blood loss. Moreover, the temporalis muscle preservation in the dhaga technique may also enhance aesthetic outcomes and chewing which were not assessed in this study. There were no differences in complication between the two techniques (Source: World Neurosurgery)
Rheumatologists' Views and Perceived Barriers to Using Patient Decision Aids in Clinical Practice
Conclusion: There was a sense of ambivalence among rheumatologists about PtDAs. Our interviews further revealed concerns regarding the utility and benefits of PtDAs in clinical practice. The results showed a need to familiarize physicians with PtDAs, and to develop strategies to support their integration in clinical practice. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Arthritis Care and Research)
Comparative Mortality Among People Diagnosed with HIV Infection or AIDS in the U.S., 2001-2010.
CONCLUSION: State mortality figures varied based on population composition and disease stage at diagnosis, possibly indicating a need for state-specific testing, linkage to care, and viral suppression strategies to reduce mortality. PMID: 25931629 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Public Health Reports)
Cord formation in BACTECTM medium aids rapid identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex
(Source: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease)
Nutritional status and its association with quality of life among people living with HIV attending public anti-retroviral therapy sites of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal
Background: Little evidence exists on the connections between nutrition, diet intake, and quality of life (QoL) among people living with HIV (PLHIV). The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of under-nutrition among PLHIV in Nepal, and identify risk factors and assess correlations with PLHIVs? QoL and nutritional status. Methods: This quantitative cross-sectional study used Body Mass Index (BMI) as an indicator for nutritional status, and additional information on opportunistic infections (OIs), CD4 count, and World Health Organization (WHO) clinical staging was collected from medical records. Participants were asked to complete surveys on food security and QoL. Descriptive analysis was used to estimate the prevalence of under nutrition. To assess associations between nutrition status ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Report of a successful ongoing pregnancy as a result of IMSI with assisted oocyte activation
We report a successful ongoing pregnancy obtained in a case of total globozoospermia after intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI) with oocyte activation. The first semen analysis on investigation showed partial globozoospermia. However, under high magnification assessment at oocyte retrieval only round headed sperm were observed. Considering the high risk of a complete failure to fertilize from IMSI the couple gave written informed consent to the use of oocyte activation media post IMSI. One embryo fertilized, developed to a hatching blastocyst and was transferred resulting in an ongoing pregnancy. This successful outcome shows the use of IMSI is useful in the evaluation of total globozooozpermia and therefore aids in the justification of the use of oocyte activat...
Assessment of Contamination and Misclassification Biases in a Randomized Controlled Trial of a Social Network Peer Education Intervention to Reduce HIV risk Behaviors Among Drug Users and Risk Partners in Philadelphia, PA and Chiang Mai, Thailand
Abstract Controlled trials of HIV prevention and care interventions are susceptible to contamination. In a randomized controlled trial of a social network peer education intervention among people who inject drugs and their risk partners in Philadelphia, PA and Chiang Mai, Thailand, we tested a contamination measure based on recall of intervention terms. We assessed the recall of test, negative and positive control terms among intervention and control arm participants and compared the relative odds of recall of test versus negative control terms between study arms. The contamination measures showed good discriminant ability among participants in Chiang Mai. In Philadelphia there was no evidence of contamination and little evidence of diffusion. In Chiang Mai there was strong eviden...
The Association Between Alcohol Consumption and Condom Use: Considering Correlates of HIV Risk Among Black Men Who Have Sex with Men
Abstract Epidemiological data indicate Black men who have sex with men (MSM) are the most at-risk group for HIV infection. However, the factors driving this disparity are not fully understood. Condom use remains a significant point of intervention in mitigating sexually transmitted infections. Alcohol consumption is highly prevalent among Black MSM, has a significant role in the culture of sex, and may significantly interfere with condom use. This review will examine the relationship between alcohol consumption and condom use among Black MSM. In this review we, (a) discuss the prevalence of alcohol use among MSM and its association with condom use; (b) consider the role of alcohol in the culture of MSM; (c) review the literature on the relationship between alcohol and condom use; ...
Hydration and chemical ingredients in sport drinks: food safety in the european context.
HYDRATION AND CHEMICAL INGREDIENTS IN SPORT DRINKS: FOOD SAFETY IN THE EUROPEAN CONTEXT. Nutr Hosp. 2015;31(n05):1889-1899 Authors: Urdampilleta A, Gómez-Zorita S, Soriano JM, Martínez-Sanz JM, Medina S, Gil-Izquierdo A Abstract Before, during and after physical activity, hydration is a limiting factor in athletic performance. Therefore, adequate hydration provides benefits for health and performance of athletes. Besides, hydration is associated to the intake of carbohydrates, protein, sodium, caffeine and other substances by different dietary aids, during the training and/or competition by athletes. These requirements have led to the development of different products by the food industry, to cover the nutritional needs of athletes. Currently in the European context,...
Osteonecrosis of the jaw in an AIDS patient: a case report.
We report a rare case of osteonecrosis of the jaw following necrotizing gingivitis in a Japanese AIDS patient. Intraoral examination showed exposed necrotic bone in the left mandible and spontaneous loss of teeth. This patient was successfully treated with highly active anti-retroviral therapy combined with minimally invasive surgical procedures to remove the osteonecrosis of the jaw. PMID: 25932039 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Therapy)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Pediatric and Adult Spinal Tuberculosis Imaging and Pathophysiology
Publication date: May 2015 Source:Neuroimaging Clinics of North America, Volume 25, Issue 2 Author(s): Tracy Kilborn , Pieter Janse van Rensburg , Sally CandyTeaser The prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) has increased in developing and developed countries as a consequence of the AIDS epidemic, immigration, social deprivation, and inadequate TB control and screening programs. Spinal TB may be osseous or nonosseous. Classic findings of multiple contiguous vertebral body involvement, gibbus formation, and subligamentous spread with paravertebral abscesses are optimally evaluated with MR imaging. Nonspondylitic spinal TB is less well described in the literature, may develop in the absence of TB meningitis, and is often associated with meningovascular cord ischemia. Radiologists should be famili...
Reconstructing genome-scale metabolic models with merlin
The Metabolic Models Reconstruction Using Genome-Scale Information (merlin) tool is a user-friendly Java application that aids the reconstruction of genome-scale metabolic models for any organism that has its genome sequenced. It performs the major steps of the reconstruction process, including the functional genomic annotation of the whole genome and subsequent construction of the portfolio of reactions. Moreover, merlin includes tools for the identification and annotation of genes encoding transport proteins, generating the transport reactions for those carriers. It also performs the compartmentalisation of the model, predicting the organelle localisation of the proteins encoded in the genome and thus the localisation of the metabolites involved in the reactions promoted by such enzymes....
Targeting of AIDS related encephalopathy using phenylalanine anchored lipidic nanocarrier.
Authors: Vyas A, Jain A, Hurkat P, Jain A, Jain SK Abstract Transport of the anti-HIV agents across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a prerequisite to treat acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) related encephalopathy. In the present study, we explored facilitated transport of efavirenz (EFV, a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor) across BBB using phenylalanine anchored solid lipid nanoparticles (PA-SLN). PA (amino acid micro-nutrient) was used as a ligand which facilitated carrier mediated transport (CMT) via l-amino acid transporter i.e. LAT1 to traverse BBB. PA was coupled to SLN via amide linkage using carbodiimide chemistry and coupling was confirmed by comparative infrared spectroscopic analysis. SLNs (SLN and PA-SLN) were nanometric in size (around 150nm) and ...
Lack of evidence for the selection of E138 mutations by first-generation non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in patients infected with HIV-1 non-B subtypes
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Telaprevir decreases estimated glomerular filtration rate in HIV-hepatitis C virus coinfected patients
We investigated kidney function outcome in 24 chronic hepatitis C genotype 1 patients coinfected with HIV receiving telaprevir in a single tertiary care hospital in Spain. A statistically significant median (interquartile range) decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, ml/min/1.73?m2) relative to baseline [93.6 (73.0?109.0)] was seen at weeks 4 [86.5 (34.0?112.0), P?=?0.014], 8 [90.0 (49.0?111.0), P?=?0.026] and 12 [89.5 (54.0?113.0), P?=?0.017]. These changes reversed after telaprevir discontinuation. Patients presenting an eGFR decrease had a higher risk of haematological toxicity. (Source: AIDS)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Acute porphyria precipitated by efavirenz
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Apparent spontaneous clearance of chronic hepatitis C virus infection in a HIV co-infected patient with decompensated cirrhosis: a case report
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
An unexpected interaction between warfarin and cobicistat-boosted elvitegravir
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Nonalbumin proteinuria predominates in biopsy-proven tenofovir nephrotoxicity
The objective of this study was to determine the pattern of proteinuria in patients with biopsy-proven TDF nephrotoxicity. Design: Retrospective chart review. Methods: Patients with biopsy-proven TDF nephrotoxicity were identified and their medical charts and biopsy reports were reviewed. Comparison was made with HIV-infected patients not on TDF who underwent kidney biopsy. Results: We identified 43 biopsy-proven cases of TDF nephrotoxicity; mean age 54.7?±?0.4 years, 53% men, 42% whites. Thirty-seven cases reported proteinuria by dipstick of which only 60% had at least 2+ proteinuria. Twenty-seven patients had urine protein quantified by either 24-h collection or spot urine protein-to-creatinine ratio; median proteinuria was 1742?mg/day [interquartile range (IQR) 1200?2000?mg] ...
Time above 1500 copies: a viral load measure for assessing transmission risk of HIV-positive patients in care
Conclusion: HIV patients in care spent an average of nearly a quarter of their time with viral loads above 1500?copies/ml, higher among some subgroups, placing them at risk for potentially transmitting HIV to others. (Source: AIDS)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
What do Dutch MSM think of preexposure prophylaxis to prevent HIV-infection? A cross-sectional study
Conclusion: The overall intention to use PrEP was relatively low, but higher among high-risk MSM. If PrEP implementation among high-risk MSM in the Netherlands becomes reality, PrEP awareness should be increased and psychosocial determinants that will influence uptake should be addressed. (Source: AIDS)
The causal effect of opioid substitution treatment on HAART medication refill adherence
Conclusion: In a setting characterized by universal healthcare and widespread access to both office-based OST and HAART, OST substantially increased the odds of HAART adherence. This underlines the need to address barriers to OST globally to reduce the disease burden of both opioid dependence and HIV/AIDS. (Source: AIDS)
Securing opioid substitution treatment access and quality for people who inject drugs
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
A better screening tool for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders: is it what clinicians need?
Conclusion: Quantifying performance on MoCA items through Rasch analysis improves its accuracy as a screening tool for HAND, and demonstrates that cognition can be measured as a unidimensional construct in HIV, at least at the level of precision of bedside testing. However, the current categorical diagnostic approach to HAND is poorly aligned with summary measures of cognitive ability. Measuring cognition as a quasi-continuous construct may be more relevant than conventional HAND diagnostic categories for many clinical purposes. (Source: AIDS)
Adding rituximab to CODOX-M/IVAC chemotherapy in the treatment of HIV-associated Burkitt lymphoma is safe when used with concurrent combination antiretroviral therapy
Conclusion: Our multicenter analysis is the largest to date in this population and showed that the addition of rituximab to CODOX-M/IVAC chemotherapy confers no increase in toxicity and results in significantly improved OS and PFS in PLWH with Burkitt lymphoma who receive concomitant combination antiretroviral therapy. (Source: AIDS)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Early antiretroviral therapy with raltegravir generates sustained reductions in HIV reservoirs but not lower T-cell activation levels
Objective: The initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) during primary infection may offer clinical benefits for HIV-infected individuals by reducing HIV DNA reservoir size and chronic T-cell activation. Current evidence for the advantages of early ART, however, are mostly derived from cross-sectional studies, with the long-term benefits yet to be ascertained. Design/methods: We conducted an open-label, nonrandomized study, monitoring for 3 years: plasma viral load (pVL), T-cell phenotypes, and peripheral CD4+ T-cell associated total, integrated and 2-long terminal repeat HIV DNA species. The study included 16 treatment-naive individuals initiating ART with raltegravir and Truvada during either primary (PHI, n?=?8) or chronic (CHI, n?=?8) HIV infection. Results: ART initiated dur...
Limited reporting of major harms in studies of initial combination antiretroviral therapy: a systematic review
Objectives: Risk?benefit assessment of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) requires consideration of all potential serious harms. Studies of initial cART may permit identification of associations between particular regimens and uncommon harms, but only if comprehensively reported in the public domain. Design: Study-based, systematic review of published initial cART studies (in adult patients) for completeness of serious harms reporting. Methods: Electronic databases, abstracts, and regulatory/sponsor reports were searched (1 January 1996 ? 31 December 2012). Reporting of pre-specified harms ? deaths, new/recurrent AIDS events, serious non-AIDS events (2010 INSIGHT classification) and serious adverse events (SAEs) ? were assessed as the proportion of studies providing data (re...
Reduction of soluble CD163, substance P, programmed death 1 and inflammatory markers: phase 1B trial of aprepitant in HIV-1-infected adults
Conclusion: Aprepitant was safe and well tolerated. At the dose used in this proof-of-concept phase IB study, aprepitant did not show a significant antiviral activity. Aprepitant-treated patients had decreased numbers of CD4+ programmed death 1-positive cells and decreased plasma levels of substance P and soluble CD163, suggesting that blockade of the neurokinin 1 receptor pathway has a role in modulating monocyte activation in HIV infection. Prospective studies in virologically-suppressed individuals are warranted to evaluate the immunomodulatory properties of aprepitant. Exposures exceeding those attained in this trial are more likely to elicit clinical benefit. (Source: AIDS)
Role of intestinal myofibroblasts in HIV-associated intestinal collagen deposition and immune reconstitution following combination antiretroviral therapy
Conclusion: Our data support the hypothesis that activated IMFs may be among the major cells contributing to the profibrotic changes, and thus, the establishment and maintenance of systemic inflammation interfering with immune reconstitution in HIV patients. (Source: AIDS)
Interferon-induced transmembrane protein-3 rs12252-C is associated with rapid progression of acute HIV-1 infection in Chinese MSM cohort
Conclusion: A novel association between IFITM3 gene polymorphism and rapid disease progression is reported in an acute HIV-1-infected MSM cohort in China. (Source: AIDS)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Viremic control and viral coreceptor usage in two HIV-1-infected persons homozygous for CCR5 ?32
Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that individuals may be infected by minority X4 viruses from a population that predominately uses CCR5 for entry, and that viruses may bypass traditional HIV-1 coreceptors (CCR5 and CXCR4) completely by engaging alternative coreceptors to establish and propagate HIV-1 infection. (Source: AIDS)
Funding Announcement PS15-1506:
Health Department Demonstration Projects to Reduce HIV Infections and Improve Engagement in HIV Medical Care among Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) and Transgender Persons. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
Funding Announcement PS15-1506
Health Department Demonstration Projects to Reduce HIV Infections and Improve Engagement in HIV Medical Care among Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) and Transgender Persons. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
Rethinking Retirement in the 21st Century
Conclusion In the 21st century, many seniors are not retiring from something. Instead, retirement is an opportunity for reinventing, reimagining and reconnecting to one's self, family, friends and community. Robert Browning once wrote, "Grow old along with me! The best is yet to be." By investing in your physical, mental and financial health today, you can help ensure that your best years are just ahead. Rear Admiral Susan Blumenthal, M.D., M.P.A. (ret.) is the Public Health Editor of The Huffington Post. She is a Senior Fellow in Health Policy at New America and a Clinical Professor at Tufts and Georgetown University Schools of Medicine. She is also Senior Policy and Medical Adviser at amfAR, The Foundation for AIDS Research. Dr. Blumenthal served for more than 20 years in senior Federa...
Uganda: Uganda Athletes Rape Coach Tests HIV Positive
[Capital FM] Nairobi -Besieged former Ugandan police athletics coach, Peter Wemali faces the maximum death penalty when the charge against him was amended from rape to aggravated defilement after he was found to be HIV positive. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Ethiopia: Commemoration of World Malaria Day in Addis Ababa
[Walta Info] Addis Ababa -Prime Minister Hailemariam of Ethiopia, Chairperson of the African Leaders' Malaria Alliance and Deputy Chair of the AIDS Watch Africa, in a key note address stressed that Malaria Day presented African leaders, actors and stakeholders with the opportunity to review progress, re-affirm their commitment and address challenges related to the prevention and control of malaria. (Source: AllAfrica News: Malaria)
Biological impact of recurrent sexually transmitted infections on HIV seroconversion among women in South Africa: results from frailty models.
CONCLUSIONS: The results indicated that women who were at risk for STIs were also at risk of HIV infection. In fact, they share the similar risk factors. In addition to this, repeated STI diagnoses also increased women's susceptibility for HIV infection significantly. Decreasing STIs by increasing uptake of testing and treatment and reducing partner change plays a significant role in the trajectory of the epidemic. PMID: 25912181 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Tanzania: Kagera Region Gets 4,500 Cartons of Male Condoms
[Daily News] Bukoba -A NON-governmental organisation, PSI Tanzania, distributed 4,500 cartons of male condoms to residents in Kagera region last year in efforts to control the spread of HIV/AIDS, PSI Tanzania Regional Manager, Mr Amos Mtimba, has disclosed. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Kenya: Stop Behaviour That Exposes You to HIV/Aids, First Lady Tells Kisumu Fishermen
[The Star] First Lady Margaret Kenyatta on Thursday asked fishermen and fish-mongers in Kisumu County to stop engaging in risky behaviour that exposes them to the HIV virus. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Knowledge, Attitudes, Beliefs, and Practices in Registered Nurses and Care Aids About Urinary Incontinence in Korean Nursing Homes: A Cross-sectional Survey: Erratum
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nursing)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Basic Recovery Aids: What?s the Evidence?
This review summarizes the evidence base for using compression, massage, caloric replacement, cold, and heat as exercise recovery aids in sport. (Source: Current Sports Medicine Reports)
Barriers to Utilization of HIV Care Services Among Adolescents and Young Adults in Rakai, Uganda: the Role of Economic Strengthening
Conclusion Economic barriers are highly prevalent as obstacles to utilization of care by young people, suggesting the role of economic strengthening for young persons living with HIV, so as to promote utilization of HIV care services. (Source: Global Social Welfare)
Successful triplet pregnancy in an African with pure gonadal dysgenesis: A plus for assisted reproduction
We present a unique case of pure gonadal dysgenesis in an ?about to be? married lady resident in a society where high premium and success in marriage is dependent on childbirth. With astute evaluation and counseling, assisted reproductive technology (ART) was safely and successfully used in this case with eventual triplet pregnancy and delivery. Our index experience shows that situations with compromised fertility the availability and access to ART aids effective treatment planning and births a re-invigorated hope for family life. (Source: Asian Pacific Journal of Reproduction)
Histomorphologic Features of Biopsy Sites Following Excisional and Core Needle Biopsies of the Breast
Abstract Mammographic studies have documented a number of architectural changes occurring around breast biopsy sites. These changes are well described in the radiological literature, but similar studies do not appear to be present in the pathology literature. We reviewed 100 consecutive mastectomy specimens from women who had undergone prior core needle or excisional biopsies. Multiple sections of the needle tract or excisional biopsy site were reviewed and morphologic findings reported. Hemorrhage, fat necrosis, granulation tissue, necrosis of fibrous tissue, and epithelium along with fibrosis and foreign body type giant cells were common features. Less frequent were areas of synovial metaplasia, atypical spindle cells, atypical duct?like structures, single atypical cells, squamous meta...
Relative Risk for HIV Infection Among Men Who Have Sex with Men Engaging in Different Roles in Anal Sex: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis on Global Data
Abstract We systematically reviewed and meta-analyzed global data on the relative risk for HIV infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) engaging in different roles in anal sex. MSM engaging in receptive anal sex only (MRAI) and MSM engaging in both insertive and receptive anal sex (MIRAI) were 6.9 (95 % CI 5.5?8.6) and 4.3 (95 % CI 3.6?5.3) times more likely to have prevalent HIV compared to MSM engaging in insertive anal sex only (MIAI) in 1981?1985. These figures were 1.8 (95 % CI 1.6?2.0) and 2.2 (95 % CI 2.0?2.4) in 1986?2010. Overall, MRAI and MIRAI were 6.2 (95 % CI 3.3?11.8) and 6.6 (95 % CI 3.8?11.7) times more likely to develop incident HIV infection compared to MIAI. MRAI are at higher risk for HIV infection compared to MIAI. HIV prevalence ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Understanding Adherence to Daily and Intermittent Regimens of Oral HIV Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Kenya
Abstract A qualitative assessment of Kenyan men who have sex with men taking daily and intermittent oral HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) found stigma, sex work, mobility, and alcohol impacted adherence. We analyzed quantitative data from the same cohort to explore different definitions of intermittent adherence. Volunteers were randomized to daily emtricitabine/tenofovir or placebo, or intermittent (prescription: Mondays/Fridays/after sex, maximum 1 dose/day) emtricitabine/tenofovir or placebo (2:1:2:1), and followed for 4 months. By electronic monitoring, median adherence for daily dosing was 80 %. Median adherence for intermittent dosing was 71 % per a ?relaxed? definition (accounting for off-prescription dosing) and 40 % per a ?strict? definition (limited to th...
Accuracy of Self-Report and Pill-Count Measures of Adherence in the FEM-PrEP Clinical Trial: Implications for Future HIV-Prevention Trials
We describe the accuracy of self-reported adherence to FTC/TDF and pill counts when compared to drug concentrations in the FEM-PrEP trial. Using drug concentrations of plasma tenofovir (TFV) and intracellular tenofovir diphosphate (TFVdp) among a random sub-sample of 150 participants assigned to FTC/TDF, we estimated the positive predictive value (PPV) of four adherence measures. We also assessed factors associated with misreporting of adherence using multiple drug-concentration thresholds and explored pill use and misreporting using semi-structured interviews (SSIs). Reporting use of ?1 pill in the previous 7 days had the highest PPV, while pill-count data consistent with missing ?1 day had the lowest PPV. However, all four measures demonstrated poor PPV. Reported use of oral contra...
Health Outcomes of HIV-Infected People with Mental Illness
Abstract Improving outcomes for people with HIV and mental illness will be critical to meeting the goals of the US National HIV/AIDS Strategy. In a retrospective analysis of the 2008?2010 cycles of the locally representative Philadelphia Medical Monitoring Project, we compared the proportions of HIV-infected adults with and without mental illness: (1) retained in care (?2 primary HIV visits separated by ?90 days in a 12-month period); (2) prescribed antiretroviral therapy (ART) at any point in a 12-month period; and (3) virally suppressed (HIV-1 RNA ?200 copies/mL at the last measure in the 12-month period). Multivariable regression assessed associations between mental illness and the outcomes, adjusting for age, gender, race/ethnicity, insurance, alcohol abuse, injection...
Individual-Level and Partner-Level Predictors of Newly Diagnosed HIV Infection Among Black and White Men Who Have Sex with Men in Baltimore, MD
This study assesses the relationship between partner-level and respondent-level characteristics and newly diagnosed HIV infection among a sample of MSM. Ego-centric data were gathered using venue-based time?space sampling on 335 men who reported on a total of 831 male anal sex partners. In multivariate analyses, age of partner, HIV status of partner, and respondent having had an STD in the past twelve months were associated with a newly diagnosed HIV infection among black MSM. Efforts for black MSM are needed that aim to increase HIV and STD testing, foster open communication between partners about HIV status, and address social determinants of health. (Source: AIDS and Behavior)
Female Partner Acceptance as a Predictor of Men?s Readiness to Undergo Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision in Zambia: The Spear and Shield Project
Abstract The World Health Organization has recommended the scale-up of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) for HIV prevention in sub-Saharan Africa; however, men are often uninterested in undergoing VMMC. The Spear & Shield project enrolled 668 men and female partners from ten Zambian community health centers into parallel interventions promoting VMMC for HIV prevention or time-matched control conditions. A mediation model was utilized to examine the relationships between changes in women?s acceptance of VMMC and men?s readiness to undergo the procedure. Results demonstrated that, at 12 months post-intervention, a 5.9 % increase in the likelihood of undergoing VMMC among men in the experimental condition could be attributed to increased women?s acceptance. From ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Acceptability of HIV Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (P r EP) Among People Who Inject Drugs (PWID) in a Canadian Setting
We examined willingness to use PrEP among HIV-negative PWID in Vancouver, Canada (n = 543) to inform PrEP implementation efforts. One third (35.4 %) expressed willingness to use PrEP, with adjusted models indicating that younger age, no regular employment, requiring help injecting, engaging in sex work, and reporting multiple recent sexual partners were positively associated with willingness to use PrEP. Although willingness to use PrEP was low, PrEP was acceptable to some PWID at heightened risk for HIV infection. (Source: AIDS and Behavior)
HIV Prevalence and Risk Behaviors Among Female Sex Workers in Botswana: Results from the 2012 HIV/STI Bio-Behavioral Study
Abstract To evaluate HIV/STI prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs) in Botswana, and assess HIV-related risk behaviors. Cross-sectional study using time-location sampling in three districts of Botswana. Adjusted HIV prevalence at district level ranged from 53.5 to 68.5 %. Syphilis prevalence ranged from 3.7 to 14.5 %; chlamydia prevalence ranged from 4.8 to 16.3 %; and gonorrhoea prevalence ranged from 8.3 to 11.7 %. FSWs had been practicing sex work for a mean of 4.7 years, and had a mean of 7.6 sex partners in the week before the survey. While 67.1 % of FSWs surveyed reported always using condoms with clients in the past month. 59.5 % reported one or more of the following: being paid more not to use a condom, having a condom break, or being forced not to use a condom...
Socio-demographic, Behavioral and Health Characteristics of Underage Female Sex Workers in Mozambique: The Need to Protect a Generation from HIV Risk
Abstract Characteristics, HIV risk, and program coverage for underage female sex workers (FSW) are rarely systematically described worldwide. We compared characteristics of underage (15?17 years old) and adult (?18 years old) FSW in three main urban areas of Mozambique (Maputo, Beira and Nampula) using data from three respondent-driven sampling surveys implemented in 2011?2012. Among survey participants, 9.8 % (39/400) in Maputo, 17.0 % (70/411) in Beira and 25.6 % (110/429) in Nampula were underage. Over half reported performing sex work to afford daily living, and 29.7?50.0 % had unprotected sex with their last client. The proportion of underage FSW having accessed care and prevention services was lower compared to adult FSW. While HIV prevalence among underage FSW...
The Demand for Antiretroviral Drugs in the Illicit Marketplace: Implications for HIV Disease Management Among Vulnerable Populations
This study identified various structural barriers to HIV treatment and ARV adherence that incentivized ARV diversion. Findings highlight the need to improve patient-provider relationships, ensure continuity of care, and integrate services to engage and retain high-needs populations. (Source: AIDS and Behavior)
Factors Associated with Adherence and Concordance Between Measurement Strategies in an HIV Daily Oral Tenofovir/Emtricitibine as Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (Prep) Clinical Trial, Botswana, 2007?2010
This study examined study product adherence and its determinants in the Botswana oral pre-exposure prophylaxis efficacy trial. Among the 1,219 participants, the mean adherence by pill count and 3-day self-report was 94 % for each. In multivariable models, pill count adherence was significantly associated with adverse events (nausea, dizziness, vomiting) (RR 0.98 95 % CI 0.98?1.00; p = 0.03) and side effect concerns (RR 0.98 95 % CI 0.96?0.99; p = 0.01). Self-reported adherence was significantly associated with having an HIV-positive partner (RR 1.02 95 % CI 1.00?1.04; p = 0.02) and Francistown residence (RR 0.98 95 % CI 0.96, 0.99; p = 0.0001). Detectable drug concentrations showed modest associations with self-report and pill count adherence, and drug levels were higher...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Male Partner Influence on Women?s HIV Prevention Trial Participation and Use of Pre-exposure Prophylaxis: the Importance of ?Understanding?
Abstract There is widespread evidence that male partners influence women?s ability and willingness to join HIV prevention trials and to use female-controlled prevention strategies such as microbicide gels. VOICE-C was an ancillary study to the Microbicide Trials Network?s VOICE trial at the Johannesburg site that explored social and structural factors influencing women?s use of study tablets and vaginal gel. Qualitative data were analyzed from 102 randomly-selected VOICE participants interviewed through in-depth interviews (IDI, n = 41); ethnographic interviews (n = 21) or focus group discussions (FGD, n = 40) and 22 male partners interviewed in 14 IDI and 2 FGD. Male partners? ?understanding? pervaded as a central explanation for how male partners directly and ...
Understanding Concerns About Treatment-as-Prevention Among People with HIV who are not Using Antiretroviral Therapy
Abstract The use of antiretroviral therapy to prevent HIV transmission is now advocated in many settings, yet little research has documented the views of people with HIV. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in Australia between 2012 and 2014 with 27 HIV-positive people not using treatment at the time of interview. Thematic analysis of views on treatment-as-prevention found that while many participants recognised potential prevention benefits, only a minority was in support of initiating treatment solely to achieve those benefits. A range of uncertain or critical views were expressed regarding who would benefit, risk reduction, and changing treatment norms. Participants resisted responsibility narratives that implied treatment should be used for the public good, in favour of...
Prescription Drug Misuse and Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Young Men Who have Sex with Men (YMSM) in Philadelphia
This study examined the relationship between prescription drug misuse and sexual risk behaviors (i.e. unprotected sex, increased number of sex partners) in a sample of young men who have sex with men (YMSM) in Philadelphia. Data come from a cross-sectional study of 18?29 year old YMSM (N = 191) who misused prescription drugs in the past 6 months. Associations were investigated in two regression models: logistic models for unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) and zero-truncated Poisson regression model for number of sex partners. Of 177 participants engaging in anal intercourse in the past 6 months, 57.6 % engaged in UAI. After adjusting for socio-demographic variables and illicit drug use, misuse of prescription pain pills and muscle relaxants remained significantly associated with ...
Profiles of Risk Among HIV-Infected Youth in Clinic Settings
Abstract Despite the rising number of new HIV infections among youth, few tailored interventions for youth living with HIV (YLH) have been developed and rigorously tested. Developing tailored interventions necessitates identifying different profiles of YLH and understanding how risk and protective factors cluster together. Obtaining this critical information requires accessing a sufficiently large sample of YLH from diverse geographic settings such as those available through the Adolescent Trials Network for HIV Interventions (ATN). We recruited a cross-sectional sample of 1,712 YLH from ATN clinics; participants completed a survey on psychosocial and health factors. Using latent class analysis on nine composite variables representing risk factors, we identified five classes dist...
Innovative Strategies for Scale up of Effective Combination HIV Prevention Interventions in Sub-Saharan Africa
Abstract For the last three decades, sub-Saharan Africa has been the epicentre of the HIV epidemic. Some key drivers of the epidemic are specific to this region and there is an urgent need to develop context-specific strategies to reduce HIV-related burden. Implementation frameworks should endeavour to combine structural, behavioural and biomedical interventions and the future of the HIV response involves embracing different approaches for different populations; it is not ?one-size fits all approach?. Expanded use of community-based interventions will be key in expanding the role of antiretroviral treatment as prevention (TasP) in the region. For TasP to be effective, high antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage rates need to be attained. Data from programmatic trials currently ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
A Political and Social History of HIV in South Africa
Abstract For the past 25 years, South Africa has had to deal with the inexorable and monumental rise of HIV. From one or two isolated cases, in the late 1980s, South Africa now has an estimated 6.4 million people infected with HIV, with high rates of concomitant tuberculosis, which will profoundly affect the country for decades to come. For nearly 10 years, the South African government?s response to the HIV epidemic was described as denialist, which was estimated to have resulted in the deaths of 330,000 people because lifesaving antiretroviral therapy (ART) was not provided (Chigwedere et al. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 49:410?15, 2008; Heywood 2004). However, the story of the HIV and AIDS response in South Africa over the past 5 years is one of great progress after almos...
Epidemiological Trends for HIV in Southern Africa: Implications for Reaching the Elimination Targets
Abstract Southern Africa is the region worst affected by HIV in the world and accounts for one third of the global burden of HIV. Achieving the UNAIDS 90-90-90 target by 2020 and ending the AIDS epidemic by 2030 depend on success in this region. We review epidemiological trends in each country in southern Africa with respect to the prevalence, incidence, mortality, coverage of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) and TB notification rates, to better understand progress in controlling HIV and TB and to determine what needs to be done to reach the UNAIDS targets. Significant progress has been made in controlling HIV. In all countries in the region, the prevalence of HIV in people not on ART, the incidence of HIV, AIDS-related mortality and, in most countries, TB notification rates, are fal...
Association between hepatitis B vaccine antibody response and CD4 reconstitution after initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected persons
Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine antibody response has been associated with reduced risk of AIDS or death. However, it is unknown whether HBV vaccine responsiveness is associated with improved immune reconstitution during treatment with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). We evaluated the relationship between HBV vaccine response status and CD4 reconstitution on cART in the U.S Military HIV Natural History Study. Methods: Participants with viral load (Source: BMC Infectious Diseases)
Pediatric and Adult Spinal Tuberculosis
The prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) has increased in developing and developed countries as a consequence of the AIDS epidemic, immigration, social deprivation, and inadequate TB control and screening programs. Spinal TB may be osseous or nonosseous. Classic findings of multiple contiguous vertebral body involvement, gibbus formation, and subligamentous spread with paravertebral abscesses are optimally evaluated with MR imaging. Nonspondylitic spinal TB is less well described in the literature, may develop in the absence of TB meningitis, and is often associated with meningovascular cord ischemia. Radiologists should be familiar with the spectrum of imaging findings, allowing early diagnosis and treatment of this serious condition. (Source: Neuroimaging Clinics)
Categories of foot at risk in patients of diabetes at a tertiary care center: Insights into need for foot care.
CONCLUSIONS: This study brings forth that foot at risk of ulcer is rampant in patients with diabetes. There are lacunae in diabetic foot care at all levels of care. With the increase in diabetes, cost effective steps are required to improve foot care among diabetes in India. Considering the demographic profile of patients in our study, growing number of patients with diabetes, lack of time and staff allocated for foot care in our setup, audiovisual aids seems a good option to spread foot care awareness among diabetes. PMID: 25932399 [PubMed] (Source: Diabetes Metab)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Prostate Cancer Decision Making
This survey study found low use of decision aids among specialists treating patients with prostate cancer. (Source: JAMA Internal Medicine)
Sleep Medication Users and their Characteristics
Sleep deprivation and disturbances can result in reduced quality of life, lowered productivity and impaired daytime functioning leading to increased errors & accidents. Use of sleep aids to treat insomnia is fairly common among the general population and analyzing the factors predicting the use of sleep medication would help us develop better treatment programs for those affected with this problem. To investigate the relationship among age, gender, ethnicity, employment status, perceived health status and other aspects related to the use of sleep medication in the United States population. (Source: Value in Health)
Impact of walking impairment on Healthcare resource utilisation in multiple sclerosis Patients
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, progressive disease. Mobility and walking impairment affect up to 90% of MS patients (Hemmett et al 2004). In clinical trials, walking impairment is often measured by walking speed (WS). The impact of walking impairment on direct and indirect healthcare resource utilisation (HCRU) and support resources, such as walking aids and home/workplace modifications, provides important information on burden of MS-related symptoms for healthcare decision makers. This analysis sought to investigate association between WS, measured by timed 25 foot walk test (T25FW), and direct HCRU, walking aid use and modifications to daily living at home and work. (Source: Value in Health)
Sex Differences In over-the-counter sleep aid use in older adults
Over-the-counter (OTC) sleep aids are widely self-administered and are generally safe, but their primary ingredients (diphenhydramine and doxylamine (DPH/DOX)) may pose risks, especially in older adults who may use these products outside of their label recommendations. This analysis characterizes the use of DPH/DOX for sleep disturbances by age and sex in older American adults. (Source: Value in Health)
Development and validation of patient decision aid regarding Antidepressant Medications
The aim of the study is to develop and validate a decision aids (DA) fro Arabic depressed patients. (Source: Value in Health)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
The Relationship Between Patient-Related Factors and Medication Adherence among nigerian Patients Taking Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy
The objectives of this study were to describe and compare adherence rates and to determine what factors are related to adherence to therapy among patients living with HIV/AIDS receiving Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) in a treatment center in Lagos, Nigeria. (Source: Value in Health)
Survival Analysis of HIV and aids Treatment In Kenya
The objective of this research was to estimate the survival rate and factors associated with survival of the HIV positive patients on ART and those not on ART. (Source: Value in Health)
Longitudinal And Cross Sectional Assessments Of Health Utility In Adults With Hiv/Aids: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis
Utility estimates are important health outcomes for economic evaluation of care and treatment interventions for patients with HIV/AIDS. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of utility measurements to examine the performance of preference-based instruments, estimate health utility of patients with HIV/AIDS by disease stages, and investigate changes in their health utility over the course of antiretroviral treatment. (Source: Value in Health)
Body mass index and early CD4 T?cell recovery among adults initiating antiretroviral therapy in North America, 1998?2010
ConclusionsA BMI of approximately 30?kg/m2 at ART initiation was associated with greater CD4 T?cell recovery at 12 months compared with higher or lower BMI values, suggesting that body composition may affect peripheral CD4 T?cell recovery. (Source: HIV Medicine)
Basic Recovery Aids: What's the Evidence?
Authors: Peterson AR, Smoot MK, Erickson JL, Mathiasen RE, Kregel KC, Hall M Abstract This review summarizes the evidence base for using compression, massage, caloric replacement, cold, and heat as exercise recovery aids in sport. PMID: 25968857 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current Sports Medicine Reports)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Tunable Luminescent Carbon Nanospheres with Well?Defined Nanoscale Chemistry for Synchronized Imaging and Therapy
In this work, we demonstrate the significance of defined surface chemistry in synthesizing luminescent carbon nanomaterials (LCN) with the capability to perform dual functions (i.e., diagnostic imaging and therapy). The surface chemistry of LCN has been tailored to achieve two different varieties: one that has a thermoresponsive polymer and aids in the controlled delivery of drugs, and the other that has fluorescence emission both in the visible and near?infrared (NIR) region and can be explored for advanced diagnostic modes. Although these particles are synthesized using simple, yet scalable hydrothermal methods, they exhibit remarkable stability, photoluminescence and biocompatibility. The photoluminescence properties of these materials are tunable through careful choice of surface?p...
Markers of renal disease and function are associated with systemic inflammation in HIV infection
ConclusionsRenal disease and function were associated with systemic inflammation in HIV infection, both before and after ART. Systemic inflammation may partially explain the relationships between proteinuria, albuminuria, and reduced renal function and future adverse outcomes. (Source: HIV Medicine)
Halo Sign Aids Vasculitis Dx
(MedPage Today) -- A shadow could be seen on ultrasound around the temporal artery in half of patients with giant cell arteritis. (Source: MedPage Today Primary Care)
MarkerMiner 1.0: An easy-to-use bioinformatics platform for DNA analysis in angiosperms
Researchers have developed MarkerMiner, a new software that simplifies analysis of next-generation sequencing data in angiosperms. MarkerMiner is an automated, open-source, bioinformatics workflow that aids plant researchers in the discovery of single-copy nuclear genes. The software is easy to use, offers a multipurpose, configurable output, and is accessible to users with limited bioinformatics training or without access to computing resources. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)
Nigeria: Hearing Impaired Adolescents Excluded From Sexual Health Education
[Key Correspondents] Around 14 per cent of adolescents in Nigeria are hearing impaired, yet their specific sexual and reproductive health needs as young people with a disability have long been ignored. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Zimbabwe: Gweru City Council Clinics Turn Away HIV Patients
[New Zimbabwe] HIV PATIENTS who access anti-retroviral drugs at Gweru City Council-run clinics were on Tuesday and Wednesday turned away from the health centres. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Kennel Cough in a Dog and His Best Friend: Bordetella bronchiseptica Causing Pneumonia Transmitted From Dog and a Review of the Literature
We present a case of a 54-year-old man who underwent elective back surgery and developed complications leading to prolonged intubation. He began to have spiking fevers with profuse sputum production and had evidence of pneumonia on chest radiograph. He was started on broad-spectrum antibiotics, but continued having high fevers. His sputum revealed a gram-negative, nonenteric oxidase-positive organism, which was later identified as B. bronchiseptica, likely transmitted from his puppy, which had been diagnosed with kennel cough. Both the patient and his best friend received effective antibiotics with a full recovery. Results: Sixty-two human cases of B. bronchiseptica have been published in the English literature; 84% had pneumonia/bronchitis. The majority of the patients were immunocompromi...
Nigeria: How U-Report Tackled Ebola, HIV, Unemployment in Nigeria With Text Messages
[Independent (Lagos)] While Nigeria battled the Ebola outbreak last year, a quite intervention bubbled underneath. It involves the use of text message bearing awareness messages shared through U-Report, an innovative platform that shares information on various development issues via sms and the social media. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Magazine prints cover with HIV+ blood-infused ink
Special edition seeks to get people talking about HIV and AIDS, but at least one reader "was too scared to pick it up" (Source: Health News: CBSNews.com)
Improving Access to Mental Health Services for Racialized Immigrants, Refugees, and Non-Status People Living with HIV/AIDS.
Authors: Chen YY, Li AT, Fung KP, Wong JP Abstract The demographic characteristics of people living with HIV/AIDS (PHAs) in Canada are increasingly diverse. Despite literature suggesting a potentially heightened mental health burden borne by racialized immigrant, refugee, and non-status PHAs (IRN-PHAs), researchers have hitherto paid insufficient attention to whether existing services adequately address this need and how services might be improved. Employing community-based research methodology involving PHAs from five ethnoracial groups in Toronto, Ontario, this study explored IRN-PHAs' mental health service-seeking behaviors, service utilization experiences, and suggestions for service improvements. Results showed that while most IRN-PHAs were proactive in improving their mental ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
What's New in the Updated HIV Guidelines?What's New in the Updated HIV Guidelines?
Dr Paul Sax summarizes changes to the Department of Health and Human Services' HIV treatment guidelines, including newly recommended HIV regimens. Medscape HIV/AIDS (Source: Medscape Hiv-Aids Headlines)
Texas Biomed receives NIH grant to study Papillomavirus-based AIDS vaccine
(Texas Biomedical Research Institute) Scientists at Texas Biomedical Research Institute have begun work on a study to create an attenuated, or weakened, virus that is a hybrid of the papilloma virus and the human immunodeficiency virus, with the potential to jumpstart a body's immune response to develop antibodies against both viruses. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
MarkerMiner 1.0: An easy-to-use bioinformatics platform for DNA analysis in angiosperms
(Botanical Society of America) Researchers have developed MarkerMiner, a new software that simplifies analysis of next-generation sequencing data in angiosperms. MarkerMiner is an automated, open-source, bioinformatics workflow that aids plant researchers in the discovery of single-copy nuclear genes. The software (published in Applications in Plant Sciences) is easy to use, offers a multipurpose, configurable output, and is accessible to users with limited bioinformatics training or without access to computing resources. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
The patient's experience of early discharge following total hip replacement
Conclusion Findings from this study demonstrated a need to review the discharge process and implement strategies to prepare patients for the stressors that the participants in this study encountered as a result of their early discharge. (Source: International Journal of Orthopaedic and Trauma Nursing)
Teacher Training through School-based Program in Participatory Learning Promotion
Publication date: 22 April 2015 Source:Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, Volume 177 Author(s): Prawit Erawan This research aims to study the learning of teachers and teaching behavior change of those trained to teach life skills and attitudes to AIDS prevention, to study factors and conditions of teacher development in training form through school-based program, and to create an indicator of success in teacher training through the School-based Program. The research is a kind of mixed method research treated by an investigation into the questionnaires of the samples including 22 educational supervisors, administrators and teachers under 22 school programs and 4 of which selected for participating observation, deep interview, and focus group. The results show that there are five f...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Playing with fire? Factors influencing risk willingness with the unlicensed fat burner drug 2,4-Dinitrophenol (DNP) in young adults
Efficient, but safe, pharmacological aids to weight loss is the holy grail of obesity research. From the public health point of view, it is concerning that hazards of the past seem to be a permanent or returning feature of today's off-street ?supplement? market, mainly through retail networks that fall outside standard safety regulations: the Internet.1 2,4-Dinitrophenol (DNP) was used until the late 1930s to treat obesity and was subsequently withdrawn owing to its severe toxicity.2 However, industrial uses of DNP as a dye, wood preserver, herbicide and film-developer have remained in place over the years. (Source: Public Health)
Structural and electrical properties of Si- and Ti-doped Cu2SnSe3 bulks
Publication date: July 2015 Source:Journal of Solid State Chemistry, Volume 227 Author(s): Walelign Wubet , Dong-Hau Kuo Silicon-doped (Cu2(Sn1?x Si x )Se3 and titanium-doped (Cu2(Sn1?x Ti x )Se3 at x=0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, and 0.2 were prepared at 550°C for 2h with soluble sintering aids of volatile Sb2S3 and Te. Defect chemistry was studied by measuring structural and electrical properties of Si-doped and Ti-doped Cu2SnSe3 (CTSe) as a function of dopant concentration. Si-doped CTSe pellets show p-type at x=0 and 0.05 and n-type at x=0.1, 0.15, and 0.2, whereas Ti-doped CTSe pellets show p-type at x=0, 0.05 and 0.1 and n-type at x=0.15 and 0.2. The lowest hole concentration of 3.6×1017 cm?3 and the highest mobility of 1525cm2 V?1 s?1 were obtained for the Si-doped (Cu2(Sn1?x ...
Mutational analysis of HIV-2 Vpx shows that proline residue 109 in the poly-proline motif regulates degradation of SAMHD1
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which is the causative agent of AIDS, is classified into two types, HIV-1 and HIV-2 [1]. Each type has a unique set of accessory proteins: HIV-1 carries Vif, Vpr, Vpu and Nef, while HIV-2 carries Vif, Vpx, Vpr and Nef. After the studies of Vif [2?4], some accessory proteins have been shown to act as adaptors of the E3 ubiquitin ligase complex to antagonize host antiviral factors; thus, providing advantages in viral replication [5]. (Source: FEBS Letters)
Abstract S4-03: Identification of a notch-driven breast cancer stem cell gene signature for anti-notch therapy in an ER+ presurgical window model
Background: Resistance to endocrine therapy (ET; tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors, AI) for ER+ breast cancer is a major cause of mortality and new treatment paradigms are needed. Cancer stem cells drive breast cancer growth and are resistant to standard therapy. Notch signaling aids survival of these resistant stem cells and is inhibited by gamma-secretase inhibitors (GSI). We showed combining GSI with ET in mice caused shrinkage of breast cancer tumors. A presurgical window biomarker modulation model was used to confirm this discovery in humans. Methods: The GSI MK-0752 was added to ET in patients before definitive surgery (ClinTrials.gov NCT00756717). There were 3 biopsies: day 0 (prestudy), day 14 (after ET alone), and day 25 at definitive surgery (after continued ET plus MK-0752, 350 ...
Abstract P1-07-13: Extramedullary hematopoiesis aids initiation of cancer metastasis
Despite the recent advances in treatment of primary tumors, metastatic disease is resistant to current therapies and remains the primary cause of cancer-related death. Therefore, prevention and improved therapy of cancer metastasis are the ultimate goals of cancer research. Although tumor cells are the driving force of metastasis, novel findings suggest that the tumor microenvironment also plays a key role. Microenvironments distant from the primary tumor are primed for future metastatic growth by the recruitment of bone marrow-derived myeloid cells, creating "pre-metastatic niches", and ready for arrival of circulating cancer cells. The number of platelets is often increased in the late stage of cancer patients and experimental evidences show that platelets facilitate tumor metastasis. Wi...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Osteonecrosis of the jaw in an AIDS patient: a case report
We report a rare case of osteonecrosis of the jaw following necrotizing gingivitis in a Japanese AIDS patient. Intraoral examination showed exposed necrotic bone in the left mandible and spontaneous loss of teeth. This patient was successfully treated with highly active anti-retroviral therapy combined with minimally invasive surgical procedures to remove the osteonecrosis of the jaw. (Source: AIDS Research and Therapy)
Polyomaviruses and disease: is there more to know than viremia and viruria?
Authors: Nickeleit V, Singh HK Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Polyomavirus nephropathy (PVN) mainly caused by BK virus (BKV) remains the most common productive viral infection of the kidney. Over the past decade, clinical interest often focused on BK viremia and viruria as the diagnostic mainstays of patient management. The purpose of this review is to discuss viral nephropathy in the context of BK viremia and viruria and new strategies to optimize diagnostic accuracy and patient management. The emerging roles of polyomaviruses in oncogenesis, salivary gland disease, and post-bone marrow transplantation as well as novel Polyomavirus strains are highlighted. RECENT FINDINGS: Areas of investigation include proposals by the Banff working group on the classification of PVN and studies...
Abstract CS1-2: Contralateral prophylactic mastectomy: Patient preferences and risk perceptions
Recent studies have revealed increasing rates of contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM) among women with unilateral early stage breast cancer. Bilateral mastectomy at diagnosis of unilateral breast cancer is particularly common among young women, with younger age consistently identified as a predictor of CPM. This trend for more surgery rather than less has raised concerns, given the lack of evidence for a survival benefit from CPM and the relatively low risk of contralateral breast cancer for most women in this setting. Although mastectomy is a safe procedure and major complications are rare, there are potential negative consequences including cosmetic concerns and clinically significant potential long-term sequelae such as numbness of the chest skin and chronic pain and decreased fu...
Abstract P2-13-24: DCIS in low resource settings: The black swan of breast health care?
Conclusion: Though rare, the management of DCIS in this set up serves to highlight the challenges of diagnosing and managing breast malignancies in LMICs. Practical interventions like increasing health worker training in core biopsy methods, and in the use of supportive aids like ultrasound, alongside increasing human capacity in cancer diagnostics, could help to improve the management scope of cancers in LMICs. Citation Format: Miriam Mutebi, Lydia Cairncross, Eugenio Panieri, Hannah Simonds. DCIS in low resource settings: The black swan of breast health care? [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the Thirty-Seventh Annual CTRC-AACR San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium: 2014 Dec 9-13; San Antonio, TX. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Res 2015;75(9 Suppl):Abstract nr P2-13-24. (Source: Cancer Resea...
Interventions to improve medication adherence in adult kidney transplant recipients: a systematic review
Conclusions The findings of this review suggest an intervention targeting behavioural risk factors or a combination of behavioural, educational and emotional changes is effective in enhancing medication adherence. Effectiveness of an intervention may be further enhanced if patients are encouraged to participate in the development process. (Source: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Improving bioavailability and biodistribution of anti-HIV chemotherapy.
Authors: Giacalone G, Hillaireau H, Fattal E Abstract In the context of the treatment of HIV/AIDS, many improvements have been achieved since the introduction of the combination therapy (HAART). Nevertheless, no cure for this disease has been so far possible, because of some particular features of the therapies. Among them, two important ones have been selected and will be the subject of this review. The first main concern the poor drug bioavailability, resulting in repeated administrations and therefore a demanding compliance (drug regimens consist of multiple drugs daily intake, and non-adherence to therapy is among the important reasons for treatment failure). A second important challenge is the need to target the drugs into the so-called reservoirs and sanctuaries, i.e. cells o...
The 13th International Workshops on Opportunistic Protists (IWOP13)
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: The Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology)
Updated Fact Sheet: HIV among Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders
HIV among Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders describes the burden of HIV on this population and what CDC is doing about it. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
Experimental AIDS Vaccine Targets Hidden Virus
HIV-infected patients appear to get an immune system boost, study found (Source: WebMD Health)
Press release: Dispersion stability test aids characterisation of functionalised graphene materials
(Source: Nanotechweb.org Your News)
Risk Factors and Mortality Associated With Resistance to ARTRisk Factors and Mortality Associated With Resistance to ART
What factors are associated with the development of HIV drug resistance? JAIDS: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
Liberia: Media Guide On HIV/Aids Reporting Launched
[New Dawn] Anti-AIDS Media Network or AAMIN, in collaboration with the Press Union of Liberia or PUL, National AIDS Commission (NAC), National AIDS/STIs Control Program or NACP and the Liberia Coordinating Mechanism (LCM), has launched Liberia's first HIV Media Guide for Liberian Journalists and media practitioners with support from the Joint United Nations Program on HIV and AIDS or UNAIDS. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Kenya: Save Fisherfolk From HIV, Government Urged
[The Star] The Homa Bay government has been urged to step up its fight against the spread of HIV-Aids on Lake Victoria beaches. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Experimental AIDS Vaccine Targets Hidden Virus
Title: Experimental AIDS Vaccine Targets Hidden VirusCategory: Health NewsCreated: 4/29/2015 12:00:00 AMLast Editorial Review: 4/29/2015 12:00:00 AM (Source: MedicineNet HIV General)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
? Such Behaviors Are Not in My Home Village, I Got Them Here ?: A Qualitative Study of the Influence of Contextual Factors on Alcohol and HIV Risk Behaviors in a Fishing Community on Lake Victoria, Uganda
Abstract In Uganda, elevated HIV prevalence in fishing communities along Lake Victoria have been attributed in part to heavy alcohol use, but qualitative research is needed to understand the contextual factors influencing alcohol and sexual risk. Eight focus group discussions were conducted (n = 50; 23 male, 27 female) in Gerenge, Uganda with five occupational groups: fishermen, fishmongers, alcohol-sellers, commercial sex workers, and restaurant owners. Data was analyzed using content analysis. Alcohol use was prevalent and said to influence risky sex. Sex-related alcohol expectancies and occupational factors influenced individuals to drink during sex and structural factors related to the built environment, economy, and policy were identified as key contributors to both alcohol...
Histopathology of Disseminated Mycobacterium bovis Infection Complicating Intravesical BCG Immunotherapy for Urothelial Carcinoma
We report 3 additional cases of BCG-osis complicating BCG therapy, all confirmed by cultures and molecular assays, including the first cases of wedge biopsy-confirmed BCG pneumonia and BCG olecranon bursitis. When suggested by a relevant clinical history, recognition of randomly distributed granulomas in any organ should prompt consideration of BCG-osis and liberal performance of AFB stains, aided by targeted molecular assays. Physicians should maintain a high index of suspicion when miliary infiltrates arise after intravesical BCG instillation, and close multidisciplinary communication is essential. Pathologist awareness of this rare cause of granulomatous inflammation aids recognition of BCG-osis and facilitates prompt initiation of antimycobacterial therapy. (Source: International Journ...
Use of Pharmacotherapies for Smoking Cessation Analysis of Pregnant and Postpartum Medicaid Enrollees
Conclusions Smoking-related pregnancy complications and substance use are predictive of filling a prescription for pharmacotherapies for smoking cessation during pregnancy. Low use of pharmacotherapies during pregnancy is consistent with clinical guidelines; however, low use postpartum suggests an unmet need for cessation aids in Medicaid populations. (Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine)
Definitions of implementation science in HIV/AIDS
Publication date: May 2015 Source:The Lancet HIV, Volume 2, Issue 5 Author(s): Thomas A Odeny , Nancy Padian , Meg C Doherty , Stefan Baral , Chris Beyrer , Nathan Ford , Elvin H Geng (Source: The Lancet HIV)
Chemokine co-receptor usage in HIV-1-infected treatment-naive voluntary counselling and testing clients in Southern Taiwan
Conclusions We found that 74% of the VCT clients were infected with R5-tropic virus strains. HIV-transmitted drug resistance was not associated with CRT predictions. Higher viral load at presentation was predictive of R5 co-receptor usage. (Source: BMJ Open)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Risk behaviours and prevalence of sexually transmitted infections and HIV in a group of Dominican gay men, other men who have sex with men and transgender women
Conclusions In this group of GMT persons, seroprevalence of STI was high, and a number of risk behaviours were associated with STI. These preliminary data will help inform policy and programmes to prevent HIV/STI in GMT persons in the region. (Source: BMJ Open)
Differentiating primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma from ?butterfly glioma?; a case report
We present a case of PCNSL proven by brain biopsy in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). (See Fig. 1.) (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Differentiating primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma from ?butterfly glioma?: A case report
We present a case of PCNSL proven by brain biopsy in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS treated by the specialized service in Vitória-ES, Brazil
The aim of this study is to establish the factors that influence the quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS being treated at a specialized public service. The participants answered the questionnaire on sociodemographic conditions, issues related to HIV and daily habits. The quality of life was analyzed using the HIV/AIDS-targeted quality of life (HAT-QoL) instrument with 42 items divided into 9 fields: General Activity, Sexual Activity, Confidentiality Concerns, Health Concerns, Financial Concerns, HIV Awareness, Satisfaction with Life, Issues related to Medication and Trust in the Physician. Bivariate and multiple linear regressions were performed. Of the participants, 53.1% were women and had a mean age of 42 years. In analyzing the quality of life, the HAT-QoL domain with the lo...
The family's role as a support network for people living with HIV/AIDS: a review of Brazilian research into the theme
In this study 31 articles were used from journals covering the following áreas: Nursing (n = 15), Psychology (n = 6) and Science Health / Biomedica (n = 6), were included, which some principal authors were affiliated to higher education public institutions (n = 17). In relation to the methodology used, priority wasgiven to conducting: qualitative research (n = 18), cross-sectional studies (n = 19) and studies that involved talking to people living with HIV/AIDS (n = 13). Particular importance was placed on analytic categories related to: adherence to treatment (n = 6), the family (n = 4), vulnerability (n = 3) and support from social networks (n = 5). Within this paper we argue for more investments into studies that focus on the family, carers and their households, as well as deepening th...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Completeness of tuberculosis reporting forms for disease control in individuals with HIV/AIDS in priority cities of Bahia state
The control of HIV / Tuberculosis (TB) co -infection remains a challenge for public health. Notification is mandatory for both diseases and the National Case Registry Database (Sinan) is responsible for the collection and processing of individual forms of reporting and monitoring. The adequate fulfillment of these fields chips (completeness) is essential to follow the dynamics of the disease and set priorities for intervention. The aim of this study was to evaluate the completeness of the notification forms of tuberculosis in the priority municipalities of Bahia (Camaçari , Feira de Santana , Ilhéus , Itabuna, Jequié, Lauro de Freitas , Porto Seguro , Teixeira de Freitas , Paulo Afonso, Barreiras and Salvador) to control the disease in individuals with HIV/AIDS using tabulations obtaine...
The historic data series on AIDS in the state of Ceará, Brazil
This study describes the historic records on AIDS in the Brazilian state of Ceará, with analysis by gender, age group and race. It is a descriptive, retrospective, ecological study, analyzing 7,896 notifications of cases of AIDS, of people aged 13 and above, resident in the Ceará, over the period 2001 through 2011. Percentage occurrences and other data were calculated based on the variables gender, age group and race. Average and comparison tests were made, considering p &lt; 0.05 and the trend line. There is a progressive increase in the number of cases. The majority of cases are in men. The ratio between the sexes falls from 2003 through 2007, but the number of women is still lower overall in the period. Higher rates of occurrence were found between the ages of 30 and 39, and of those ...
Accuracy of the Free-hand Placement of Pedicle Screws in the Lumbosacral Spine Using a Universal Entry Point: Clinical Validation
Conclusions: The proposed method of PS placement is safe and reliable for all levels from L2 to S1, with the accuracy similar to image-guided navigation systems. (Source: Journal of Spinal Disorders and Techniques)
Rural HIV Education and Training Conference
October 23-24, 2015, Savannah, GA. The Rural HIV Research and Training Conference is a two-day forum for exchanging the latest information and learning the newest tools to address the challenges of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in rural communities. (Source: PHPartners.org)
Nigeria: UK Spends £100 Million to Prevent 2.5 Million Unwanted Pregnancies
[Daily Trust] Distribution of some 1.2 billion condoms in eight states under a programme funded by the British government against HIV/AIDS helped prevent 2.5 million unintended pregnancies, according to new findings released in Abuja. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Africa: Diseases of Poverty - Shrinking the Map On Malaria and Other Neglected Tropical Diseases
[Global Fund] Dr. Mirta Roses Periago is a board member of the Global Fund and a Special Envoy for the Global Network for Neglected Tropical Diseases. Silvio Martinelli is the head of access to funding at the Global Fund. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
25th European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID)25th European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID)
Read clinically focused news coverage of key developments from ECCMID 2015. Medscape Infectious Diseases (Source: Medscape Hiv-Aids Headlines)
Africa: Health, Human Rights and the Global Fund
[Global Fund] Respecting human rights is key to ensuring that services for HIV and AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria reach all those who need them. Global Fund grants are expected to meet five minimum human rights standards, the first of which is provide services to all, without discrimination. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: Speak Up for the Right to Health
[Global Fund] Since it was founded, in response to global advocacy for the right to health, the Global Fund has committed itself to human rights principles such as transparency and accountability. From 2012, our strategy has included a pillar committing the Global Fund to protecting and promoting human rights. It requires that the programs the Global Fund finances do not infringe human rights. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: Global Fund Launches Human Rights Complaints Procedure
[Global Fund] Geneva -The Global Fund partnership has launched a human rights complaints procedure as part of its commitment to protect and promote human rights in the context of fighting AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Zambia: Traditional Tales Support Sex Education
[Key Correspondents] A new book, published by Zambia's National Museums Board, uses traditional stories and indigenous knowledge to educate young people about HIV and AIDS. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Malawi: NAC Releases K45 Million to Chiradzulu CBOS
[Malawi News Agency] Chiradzulu -The Chiradzulu District Council has received K45 million from National Aids Commission (NAC) to enable Community Based Organizations (CBOs) in the district carry out HIV/AIDS related activities. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Acoustically Evoked Auditory Change Complex in Children With Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder: A Potential Objective Tool for Identifying Cochlear Implant Candidates
Conclusions: The clinical application of the onset response in predicting open-set speech-perception ability is relatively limited in children with ANSD. The ACC recordings can be used to objectively evaluate temporal resolution abilities in children with ANSD having no severe comorbidities, and who are older than 1.9 years. The ACC can potentially be used as an objective tool to identify poor performers among children with ANSD using properly fit amplification, and who are thus, cochlear implant candidates. (Source: Ear and Hearing)
HIV-1 subtypes and drug resistance profiles in a cohort of heterosexual patients in Istanbul, Turkey
Abstract Turkey is seeing a steady rise in rates of HIV infection in the country. The number of individuals with HIV/AIDS was greater than 7000 in 2014 according to data released by the Ministry of Health, and heterosexual contacts were reported to be the main transmission routes. Istanbul has the highest number of reported cases of HIV infection. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of HIV-1 drug resistance in 50 heterosexual patients from Istanbul. The most prevalent subtype was found to be subtype B (56.2 %). Resistance-associated mutations were found in 14 patients with 6/14 patients being therapy-experienced and 8/14 therapy naive at the time point of analysis. With increasing number of patients who require treatment and the rapid up-scaling of the antire...
Compartmentalization, Viral Evolution, and Viral Latency of HIV in the CNS
Abstract Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection occurs throughout the body and can have dramatic physical effects, such as neurocognitive impairment in the central nervous system (CNS). Furthermore, examining the virus that resides in the CNS is challenging due to its location and can only be done using samples collected either at autopsy, indirectly form the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), or through the use of animal models. The unique milieu of the CNS fosters viral compartmentalization as well as evolution of viral sequences, allowing for new cell types, such as macrophages and microglia, to be infected. Treatment must also cross the blood?brain barrier adding additional obstacles in eliminating viral populations in the CNS. These long-lived infected cell types a...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Factors associated with HIV counseling and testing behavior among undergraduates of universities and vocational technical training schools in Tbilisi, Georgia
Conclusions: Intervening on HIV stigmatizing attitudes may be a critical prevention or HCT promotion strategy among youth in Georgia. In order to better inform policy and programs, future research should examine contextual factors in secondary and post-secondary schools that impact HCT among Georgian youth. Specifically, factors impacting differential rates of HCT among males and females, the social stigma and knowledge related to HCT and HIV, and the impact of leisure time activity involvement on HCT should be examined further. In addition, interventions and policies that might impact attitudes toward HIV and HCT should be investigated and considered. (Source: BMC Public Health)
Physical Stability of Octenyl Succinate?Modified Polysaccharides and Whey Proteins for Potential Use as Bioactive Carriers in Food Systems
This study characterized the physical stability (water sorption and state transition behavior) of selected starch and proteins: octenyl succinate?modified depolymerized waxy corn starch (DWxCn), waxy rice starch (DWxRc), phytoglycogen, whey protein concentrate (80%, WPC), whey protein isolate (WPI), and ??lactalbumin (??L) to determine their potential as carriers of bioactive compounds under different environmental conditions. After enzyme modification and particle size characterization, glass transition temperature and moisture isotherms were used to characterize the systems. DWxCn and DWxRc had increased water sorption compared to native starch. The level of octenyl succinate anhydrate (OSA) modification (3% and 7%) did not reduce the water sorption of the DWxCn and phytoglycogen...
Safety of instrumentation and fusion at the time of surgical debridement for spinal infection
Publication date: Available online 22 April 2015 Source:Journal of Clinical Neuroscience Author(s): Adrian J. Talia , Michael L. Wong , Hui C. Lau , Andrew H. Kaye The present study aims to assess the results of single-stage instrumentation and fusion at the time of surgical debridement of spinal infections; vertebral osteomyelitis or epidural abscess. Nine patients with spinal infection were treated with instrumentation and fusion after radical debridement in a single-stage operation. Predisposing factors and comorbidities, pain, American Spinal Injury Association motor scores, primary pathologies, microbiology and perioperative markers were recorded. Seven patients with pyogenic and two with tuberculous spinal infection were encountered; the most common pathogen was Staphylococcus aure...
Pretreatment HIV Drug Resistance and HIV-1 Subtype C Are Independently Associated With Virologic Failure: Results From the Multinational PEARLS (ACTG A5175) Clinical Trial
Conclusions.&nbsp;In this global clinical trial, pretreatment resistance and HIV-1 subtype were independently associated with virologic failure. Pretreatment genotyping should be considered whenever feasible. Clinical Trials Registration.&nbsp;NCT00084136. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Editorial Commentary: Clinical Significance of HIV Subtype Variability in Regard to Treatment Outcome
(Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Lopinavir/Ritonavir Monotherapy as Second-line Antiretroviral Treatment in Resource-Limited Settings: Week 104 Analysis of AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) A5230
Conclusions.&nbsp;LPV/r monotherapy after first-line VF with FTC/TDF intensification when needed provides durable suppression of HIV-1 RNA over 104 weeks. Clinical Trials Registration.&nbsp;NCT00357552. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
High Prevalence of Anal Human Papillomavirus-Associated Cancer Precursors in a Contemporary Cohort of Asymptomatic HIV-Infected Women
Conclusions.&nbsp;HIV-infected women with a history of HPV-associated cervical disease are at increased risk for HG-AIN+ and should be offered anal cancer screening. Anal cytology and HPV-16 genotyping had the best screening performance. Anal cytology is easy to perform routinely; it may be the best candidate for screening for HG-AIN among HIV-infected women. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis and Hepatic Fibrosis in HIV-1-Monoinfected Adults With Elevated Aminotransferase Levels on Antiretroviral Therapy
Conclusions.&nbsp;HIV-infected adults with chronic aminotransferase elevations while receiving ART have a high rate of liver disease. Noninvasive testing can help identify liver disease in such patients, but liver biopsy is necessary to definitively identify those at risk for liver disease progression and complications. Longitudinal follow-up of this cohort will better characterize the natural history of aminotransferase elevations in this population and identify noninvasive biomarkers of liver disease progression. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Editorial Commentary: Elevated Aminotransferase Levels Among HIV-Infected Persons: What's Lurking Under the Surface?
(Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Towards informed decisions on breast cancer screening: Development and pilot testing of a decision aid for Chinese women
Decision aids (DAs) are systematically developed interventions that support better informed decision making by enhancing individuals? cognitive attributes and decision-making process related-outcomes, including knowledge and beliefs about a disease and its associated medical interventions, and improving their risk perception accuracy[1]. DAs play an important role in cancer screening with growing evidence indicating that they improve individual decision-making process-related outcomes[1?6] including reducing proportions of undecided patients and related decisional conflicts[5,6]. (Source: Patient Education and Counseling)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Topical antifungals for seborrhoeic dermatitis.
CONCLUSIONS: Ketoconazole and ciclopirox are more effective than placebo, but limited evidence suggests that either of these agents is more effective than any other agent within the same class. Very few studies have assessed symptom clearance for longer periods than four weeks. Ketoconazole produced findings similar to those of steroids, but side effects were fewer. Treatment effect on overall quality of life remains unknown. Better outcome measures, studies of better quality and better reporting are all needed to improve the evidence base for antifungals for seborrhoeic dermatitis. PMID: 25919043 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews)
An Investigation of a Mathematical Model for the Internal Velocity Profile of Conical Diffusers Applied to DAWTs.
Authors: Barbosa DL, Vaz JR, Figueiredo SW, Silva MO, Lins EF, Mesquita AL Abstract The Diffuser Augmented Wind Turbines (DAWTs) have been widely studied, since the diffusers improve the power coefficient of the wind turbine, particularly of small systems. The diffuser is a device which has the function of causing an increase on the flow velocity through the wind rotor plane due to pressure drop downstream, therefore resulting in an increase of the rotor power coefficient. This technology aids the turbine to exceed the Betz limit, which states that the maximum kinetic energy extracted from the flow is 59.26%. Thus, the present study proposes a mathematical model describing the behavior of the internal velocity for three conical diffusers, taking into account the characteristics of ...
Identifiable biomarker and treatment development using HIV-1 long term non-progressor sera
Conclusions: Our results indicate that the use of LTNP samples may be a useful for identifying further anti-viral epitopes, and may be a possible predictor for determining if patients show higher resistances of converting the HIV infection to AIDS. (Source: Epidemiologic Perspectives and Innovations)
Reliably Detecting Cognitive Impairment in HIV InfectionReliably Detecting Cognitive Impairment in HIV Infection
Is multivariate normative comparison a reliable way to detect cognitive impairment in HIV patients? AIDS (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
3.7 HIV and AIDS.
Authors: Saloojee H, Cooper P PMID: 25906879 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Namibia: Male Circumcision - the Right Time Is Now
[New Era] Have you been considering getting circumcised? Have you been waiting for the right time? Maybe you have concerns about the procedure or you have heard things that make you wonder if this is the right thing for you. An old African proverb says, 'The right time to plant a tree is 20 years ago. The second best time is now!' The right time to prepare for you and your family's healthy future is now. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Liberia: UNAIDS Sponsored HIV Media Guide for Liberian Journalists Launched
[Observer] The Anti-AIDS Media Network (AAMIN), in collaboration with the Press Union of Liberia (PUL), the National AIDS Commission (NAC), National AIDS/STIs Control Program (NACP) and the Liberia Coordinating Mechanism (LCM), has launched Liberia's first HIV Media Guide for Liberian Journalists and media practitioners with support from the Joint United Nations Program on HIV and AIDS (UNAIDS). (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Malawi: Disability Body Claims Government 'Too Weak' On Support
[Malawi24] The Malawi Against Physical Disability (MAP) on Friday commemorated the life of people who have become disabled due HIV and AIDs in Blantyre at Kachere Rehabilitation Centre. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Liberia: HIV Media Guide Launched
[NEWS] The Anti-AIDS Media Network (AAMIN), in collaboration with the Press Union of Liberia (PUL), the National AIDS Commission (NAC), National AIDS/STIs Control Program (NACP) and the Liberia Coordinating Mechanism (LCM), has launched Liberia's first HIV Media Guide for Liberian Journalists and media practitioners. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Liberia: Official Urges Media to Share Adequate Information On HIV/Aids
[LINA] The Head f the National AIDS Commission (NAC) of Liberia, Juanita Ramirez, has challenged Liberian journalists to disseminate adequate and relevant information about HIV/AIDs to the public. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Guidelines for antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1 infected adults and adolescents 2014, Thailand.
Authors: Manosuthi W, Ongwandee S, Bhakeecheep S, Leechawengwongs M, Ruxrungtham K, Phanuphak P, Hiransuthikul N, Ratanasuwan W, Chetchotisakd P, Tantisiriwat W, Kiertiburanakul S, Avihingsanon A, Sukkul A, Anekthananon T, Adults and Adolescents Committee of the Thai National HIV Guidelines Working Group Abstract New evidence has emerged regarding when to commence antiretroviral therapy (ART), optimal treatment regimens, management of HIV co-infection with opportunistic infections, and management of ART failure. The 2014 guidelines were developed by the collaborations of the Department of Disease Control, Ministry of Public Health (MOPH) and the Thai AIDS Society (TAS). One of the major changes in the guidelines included recommending to initiating ART irrespective of CD4 cell count...
Nigeria: NGO Advocates Empowerment of Phcs to Reduce Spread of HIV/Aids
[Leadership] Dr Akudo Anyanwu-Ikemba, Founder, Friends Africa Initiative, an NGO, on Friday in Lagos said the empowerment of Primary Healthcare Centres (PHCs), could reduce the spread of HIV/AIDS in Nigeria. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: UK Spends £100 Million to Prevent 2.5 Million Unwanted Pregnancies
[Daily Trust] Distribution of some 1.2 billion condoms in eight states under a programme funded by the British government against HIV/AIDS helped prevent 2.5 million unintended pregnancies, according no new findings released in Abuja. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Georgetown is 1 of 6 institutions in new District of Columbia Center for AIDS research
(Georgetown University Medical Center) An interdisciplinary, city-wide consortium of institutions, including Georgetown University Medical Center, has received a significant National Institutes of Health (NIH) grant to establish the District of Columbia Center for AIDS Research (DC CFAR). The consortium, led by George Washington University, also includes Howard University, American University, the Children's National Medical Center and the Washington DC VA Medical Center. The five-year NIH grant totals approximately $7.5 million. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
DC Center for AIDS Research established with new grant from the NIH
(George Washington University Milken Institute School of Public Health) An interdisciplinary, city-wide consortium of researchers, led by Alan E. Greenberg, M.D., M.P.H., professor and chair, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics at Milken Institute School of Public Health at the George Washington University, has received a grant from the National Institutes of Health for an expected $7.5 million over five years to fund the newly established District of Columbia Center for AIDS Research. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Secondary mania due to AIDS and cryptococcal meningitis in a 78?year?old patient
We report a 78?year?old man without past psychiatric history who experienced his first manic episode successfully treated with quetiapine and lorazepam, but was ultimately found to have AIDS and Cryptococcus neoformans meningitis. Our presented case highlights the importance of comprehensive differential diagnoses to rule out secondary causes of psychiatric symptoms presenting for the first time in elderly patients. (Source: Psychogeriatrics)
Ultrasound aids in identifying anatomic landmarks prior to lumbar puncture [HEALTH BRIEFS]
(Source: AAP News)
Near Patient CD4 Count in a hospitalized HIV patient population
Conclusions: The MBio System holds promise as a POC system for quantitation of CD4 T cells in resource?limited settings given system throughput (80 to 100 cartridges/day), design simplicity, and ease?of?use. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Cytometry Part B: Clinical Cytometry)
Safe-sex belief and sexual risk behaviours among adolescents from three developing countries: a cross-sectional study
Conclusions This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first study conducted specifically to evaluate this phenomenon and that has used the same questionnaire and the same data collection protocol in three different developing countries from Asia, Central and South America. These results reasonably suggest that there could be an association between safe sex beliefs and sexual initiation. Longitudinal studies are needed to better understand this possible association as it could influence how to better promote sexual health. (Source: BMJ Open)
Discovery of piperidin-4-yl-aminopyrimidine derivatives as potent non-nucleoside HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors.
Authors: Wan ZY, Yao J, Tao Y, Mao TQ, Wang XL, Lu YP, Wang HF, Yin H, Wu Y, Chen FE, De Clercq E, Daelemans D, Pannecouque C Abstract A novel series of piperidin-4-yl-aminopyrimidine derivatives were designed fusing the pharmacophore templates of etravirine-VRX-480773 hybrids our group previously described and piperidine-linked aminopyrimidines. Most compounds displayed significantly improved activity against wild-type HIV-1 with EC50 values in single-digit nanomolar concentrations compared to etravirine-VRX-480773 hybrids. Selected compounds were also evaluated for activity against reverse transcriptase, and had lower IC50 values than that of nevirapine. The improved potency observed in this in vitro model of HIV RNA replication partly validates the mechanism by which this class...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Incision and stress regulation in borderline personality disorder: neurobiological mechanisms of self-injurious behaviour.
Conclusions Decreased stress levels and amygdala activity after incision support the assumption of an influence of NSSI on emotion regulation in individuals with borderline personality disorder and aids in understanding why these patients use self-inflicted pain to reduce inner tension. PMID: 25906795 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Psychiatry for Mental Science)
South Africa: HIV Infections Decline Over Last Decade
[SAnews.gov.za] Pretoria -According to an International Labour Organisation (ILO) study, the number of HIV infections has declined steadily over the last decade in general terms. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Zimbabwe: Man Dumps Wife After She Tested HIV Positive
[New Zimbabwe] THE Mutare Civil court was left stunned last week after a local man revealed he dumped his wife after she tested HIV positive and was now living with his girlfriend. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Determination of HIV-1 coreceptor tropism using proviral DNA in women before and after viral suppression.
CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that pvDNA tropism in women with HIV-1 suppression is concordant with prior RNA tropism results, even after a median time of &gt;4 years. pvDNA tropism testing may be useful to determine eligibility of patients with viral suppression to switch to a CCR5-antagonist based regimen as well as for research purposes. PMID: 25897314 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Therapy)
Herpes Virus Entry Mediator, which Decreases in HIV Infection, Can Enhance the Suppressive Activity of Regulatory T Cell and Predict Recovery of CD4+T-cells During HAART.
In this study, we found that the blockage of the HVEM could weaken Tregs' suppressive activity to effector T cells (Teffs). HVEM expression is reduced during the asymptomatic phase of HIV infection and fairly predictive of the recovery of CD4+T-cells in response to highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), more so than nadir CD4+T-cell count or viral load. Taken together, these findings demonstrate the importance of HVEM in relation to Treg function and HIV disease progression, which would have therapeutic implications and provide insight into the pathogenesis of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). PMID: 25892413 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current HIV Research)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
CDC Warns of HIV, HCV Outbreaks Among Injection Drug UsersCDC Warns of HIV, HCV Outbreaks Among Injection Drug Users
Once again, the agency urged clinicians to talk to patients about all pain-management options, and not just prescription analgesics, which can be dissolved and injected illicitly. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)
Antibody response to VZV vaccination in HIV infected children
Conclusion Serological immune response to varicella vaccination in HIV-infected children was insufficient. (Source: HIV and AIDS Review)
Clinical data and practical experience related to Stribild as an option in patients with HIV infection
Publication date: Available online 16 April 2015 Source:HIV &amp; AIDS Review Author(s): Mi?osz Parczewski , Magdalena Witak-J?dra Single tablet combination of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, emtricitabine, elvitegravir and cobicistat [TDF/FTC/EVG/COBI] has been licensed for the use in HIV infected individuals as Stribild®. In treatment naïve subjects high virological efficacy of the regimen was proved. Recently use of this combination has been investigated as the switch option for the virologically suppressed individuals without drug resistance to the components of the compound. In twin studies ? STRATEGY-NNRTI and STRATEGY-PI non-inferiority of the switch to TDF/FTC/EVG/COBI was confirmed, discontinuations due to adverse events were infrequent and no emergence of integrase dru...
The impact of the activities of Ghana AIDS Commission on new HIV infections in Ghana: An intervention time series analysis
Publication date: Available online 15 April 2015 Source:HIV &amp; AIDS Review Author(s): Patrick Aboagye-Sarfo , Ute Mueller , James Cross The study examines the impact of Ghana AIDS Commission (GAC) activities on new HIV infections. Secondary data from 1 January 1996 to 31 December 2007 were obtained from the Ghana National AIDS Control Programme and Biostatistics Department of the Health Ministry. Intervention time series analysis was applied separately to the data from the northern and southern sectors due to data collection mechanism and location of two tertiary teaching hospitals. The impact of GAC activities is measured by the statistical significance of the coefficients of the intervention variable. The intervention variable is coded as zero (0) for the period before and one (...
Recovery of the wild type atomic flexibility in the HIV-1 protease double mutants
Publication date: Available online 24 April 2015 Source:Journal of Molecular Graphics and Modelling Author(s): Valderes De Conto , Antônio S.K. Braz , David Perahia , Luis P.B. Scott The emergence of drug resistant mutations due to the selective pressure exerted by antiretrovirals, including protease inhibitors (PIs), remains a major problem in the treatment of AIDS. During PIs therapy, the occurrence of primary mutations in the wild type HIV-1 protease reduces both the affinity for the inhibitors and the viral replicative capacity compared to the wild type (WT) protein, but additional mutations compensate for this reduced viral fitness. To investigate this phenomenon from the structural point of view, we combined Molecular Dynamics and Normal Mode Analysis to analyze and compare the va...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
GI bleeding as the initial presentation of HIV/AIDS
A 28-year-old man with no significant medical history presented with melena. Physical examination revealed erythematous plaques on his forearm (A). Laboratory data revealed a hemoglobin level of 7.3 g/dL (normal 13.5-17.5 g/dL). The patient underwent an EGD, revealing numerous 1- to 2-cm, erythematous, nodular lesions, some of which were ulcerated, in the stomach and duodenum (B, C). Endoscopic therapy was not required. Biopsies of the margins of the duodenal ulcer (C) were performed, revealing focal proliferating spindle cells, with positive markers for human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) consistent with Kaposi?s sarcoma (KS). (Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy)
Drug-Related HIV Outbreak Spurs Nationwide Alert
More than 140 cases of the AIDS-causing virus reported in rural Indiana (Source: WebMD Health)
Sudan: U.S. $81 Million Announced to Fight Malaria in Sudan
[UNDP] Geneva -A new agreement reached in Sudan by the UN Development Programme (UNDP) and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria is set to provide a major boost in the fight against malaria in the country. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Africa: Malaria Vaccine Trial Raises Hopes
[Global Fund] Geneva -Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria welcome the results of a large-scale trial of a malaria vaccine candidate in sub-Saharan Africa. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
South Africa: Minister Mildred Oliphant - Launch On ILO Multi-Country Study On Effective Responses to HIV and Aids At Work
[SA Govt] Programme Director (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: 3.2 Million Nigerians Live With HIV, Society Insists
[Daily Trust] The Society for Family Health says more than 3.2 million Nigerians are still living with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Botswana: Behavioural Change Remains Challenge
[Botswana Daily News] Gaborone -Progress made with regards to addressing issues of HIV/AIDS is impressive, but the nation is still faced with a challenge of behavioural change, the Vice President, Mr Mokgweetsi Masisi has said. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: 'Yedi Is Kicking Against Malaria'
[This Day] As the World Malaria Day is marked tomorrow with a wide range of activities across the globe, the Youth Empowerment and Development Initiative (YEDI), a Nigerian-run Non-Governmental Organisation that creates awareness on malaria and HIV/AIDS, is joining the bandwagon with its "Kick Against Malaria", football tournament billed to hold in various communities Nigeria. The Executive Director, YEDI, Anuoluwa Ishola, tells Mary Ekah the essence of the football tournament and its impacts on lives (Source: AllAfrica News: Malaria)
Zimbabwe: Fighting Sexual Abuse Against Children With Disabilities.
[Financial Gazette] Sexual abuse of disabled children is a deplorable, vile, and detestable act. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Guidelines for antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1 infected adults and adolescents 2014, Thailand
New evidence has emerged regarding when to commence antiretroviral therapy (ART), optimal treatment regimens, management of HIV co-infection with opportunistic infections, and management of ART failure. The 2014 guidelines were developed by the collaborations of the Department of Disease Control, Ministry of Public Health (MOPH) and the Thai AIDS Society (TAS). One of the major changes in the guidelines included recommending to initiating ART irrespective of CD4 cell count. However, it is with an emphasis that commencing HAART at CD4 cell count above 500 cell/mm3 is for public health, in term of preventing HIV transmission and personal benefit. In tuberculosis co-infected patients with CD4 cell counts ?50 cells/mm3 or with CD4 cell counts >50 cells/mm3 who have severe clinical disease, A...
Piloting a Social Networks Strategy to Increase HIV Testing and Counseling Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Greater Accra and Ashanti Region, Ghana
Abstract The 2011 Ghana Men?s Study identified a high prevalence of HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Accra/Tema (34.4 %) and in Kumasi (13.6 %), whereas the HIV rate among MSM referred through peer educators (PEs) to HIV testing and counseling (HTC) services in these two sites was substantially lower (8.4 %). These findings raised questions about possible limitations of the peer-education strategy to reach high-risk MSM. Therefore, a pilot study was conducted to assess the feasibility of using a social network strategy (SNS) to identify and refer MSM to HTC services. Within 3 months, 166 MSM were reached and referred to HTC services: 62.7 % reported no recent exposure to PEs; 61.5 % were unaware of their recent HIV serostatus; and 32.9 % were newly diagnosed H...
Revised Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Section of the Adult and Adolescent Opportunistic Infection (OI) Guidelines Released
The Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) section in the Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Infected Adults and Adolescents&nbsp;was updated on April 16, 2015. &nbsp; There is new information on techniques to evaluate the stage of liver fibrosis. New data on HBV immunization regimens is included in recommendations regarding the choice of the optimal immunization regimen. There are also new recommendations regarding the duration of anti-HBV therapy following initiation of ART. &nbsp; Please send your comments with the subject line "Comments on Adult and Adolescent OI Guidelines" to ContactUs@aidsinfo.nih.gov by April 30, 2015. (Source: AIDSinfo At-a-Glance: Offering Information on HIV/AIDS Treatment, Prevention, and Research, A Service of the U.S. Department of...
News from NIH and NIAID
April 15, 2015: NIH Launches Largest Clinical Trial Focused on HIV-Related Cardiovascular Disease "Researchers have begun enrolling participants in a multicenter international clinical trial to test whether statin administration can reduce the risk for major adverse cardiovascular events, such as heart attacks, strokes, and heart disease, in people with HIV infection." &nbsp; April 15, 2015: Whitescarver Steps Down as Director of NIH&rsquo;s Office of AIDS Research &nbsp; "Jack Whitescarver, Ph.D., who has led the Office of AIDS Research (OAR) at the National Institutes of Health since 2000, announced that he will step down from his post, effective July 1, 2015." &nbsp; April 13, 2015: NIH, South African Medical Research Council Award $8 Million in HIV, TB Grants &nbsp; "The National Inst...
HIV service delivery models towards &#8216;Zero AIDS-related Deaths&#8217;: a collaborative case study of 6 Asia and Pacific countries
Conclusions: The analytical framework was useful to identify similarities and considerable variations in service availability and linking approaches across the countries. The study findings would help each country critically adapt and adopt global recommendations on HIV service decentralization, linkages and integration. Especially, the findings would inform cross-fertilization among the countries and national HIV program reviews to determine county-specific measures for maximizing HIV case detection and retention. (Source: BMC Health Services Research)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
HIV/AIDS in mid-sized cities in Senegal: From individual to place-based vulnerability
Publication date: May 2015 Source:Social Science &amp; Medicine, Volume 133 Author(s): Fatou Maria Drame , Ellen E. Foley In Senegal, recent data indicates that the HIV epidemic is increasingly driven by concurrent sexual partners among men and women in stable relationships. In order to respond to this changing epidemiological profile in Senegal, multi-lateral and national AIDS actors require information about these emerging trends in unstudied populations. To that end, this study has several objectives, first, to assess local dynamics of sexual behaviors among individuals at popular socializing venues in areas at increased risk of HIV transmission; and then to examine how particular venues may influence risks of HIV transmission. In 2013 we collected data at 314 venues in 10 cities ...
Enhancing learning during lecture note-taking using outlines and illustrative diagrams
Publication date: Available online 21 March 2015 Source:Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition Author(s): Dung C. Bui , Mark A. McDaniel The current study examined the effects of providing learning aids during a lecture on later test performance, and its relationship to structure-building ability. Before taking notes on an audio lecture, participants were either given a skeletal outline, an illustrative diagram, or no learning aid at all. After the lecture, participants were given a free recall test and a short-answer test that probed understanding of target concepts (requiring explanation). For low-ability structure builders, outlines improved free recall but not short-answer performance compared to the no-aid control condition. By contrast, providing high-ability structure...
Radiologic Features of Hydatid Disease: The Importance of Sonography
This article gives an overview of the spectrum of sonographic manifestations of hydatid disease in various locations, along with common differential diagnoses. A brief description of therapeutic management is also presented. (Source: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine)
Mapping chemical structure-activity information of HAART-drug cocktails over complex networks of AIDS epidemiology and socioeconomic data of U.S. counties.
Authors: Herrera-Ibatá DM, Pazos A, Orbegozo-Medina RA, Romero-Durán FJ, González-Díaz H Abstract Using computational algorithms to design tailored drug cocktails for highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on specific populations is a goal of major importance for both pharmaceutical industry and public health policy institutions. New combinations of compounds need to be predicted in order to design HAART cocktails. On the one hand, there are the biomolecular factors related to the drugs in the cocktail (experimental measure, chemical structure, drug target, assay organisms, etc.); on the other hand, there are the socioeconomic factors of the specific population (income inequalities, employment levels, fiscal pressure, education, migration, population structure, etc.) to s...
Zimbabwe: HIV+ Man Jailed for Raping a 10 Year Old Girl
[New Zimbabwe] AN HIV positive Filabusi man will spend the next dozen years behind bars after he forced himself on a 10-year-old neighbour (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Cameroon: HIV/Aids - U.S. Offers Fcfa 121 Million for Six Regions
[Cameroon Tribune] The President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) is to benefit over 50,000 people. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Malawi: Manaso Briefs Members on New HIV/ Aids Strategic Plan
[Malawi News Agency] Mulanje -The Malawi Network of Aids Services Organizations (MANASO) has embarked on a briefing exercise for its members in readiness for the yet to be launched HIV/AIDS strategic plan expected to run from 2015 through 2020. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Malawi: New ARV's Have Helped Reduce Side Effects - Manerela
[Malawi News Agency] Malawi Network of Religious Leaders Living with or affected by HIV and AIDS (MANERELA), has commended government for swiftly introducing a new ARV regime which is reported to have less side effects compared to the previous regime. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Botswana: Dingake Reserves Judgement in ARV Case
[Botswana Daily News] Gaborone -Justice Key Dingake of Gaborone High Court has reserved judgement in a case in which an HIV positive foreign prison inmate is asking government to provide him with free Anti-Retroviral Therapy treatment. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Sexual Mixing in Shanghai: Are Heterosexual Contact Patterns Compatible With an HIV/AIDS Epidemic?
Abstract China?s HIV prevalence is low, mainly concentrated among female sex workers (FSWs), their clients, men who have sex with men, and the stable partners of members of these high-risk groups. We evaluate the contribution to the spread of HIV of China?s regime of heterosexual relations, of the structure of heterosexual networks, and of the attributes of key population groups with simulations driven by data from a cross-sectional survey of egocentric sexual networks of the general population of Shanghai and from a concurrent respondent-driven sample of FSWs. We find that the heterosexual network generated by our empirically calibrated simulations has low levels of partner change, strong constraints on partner selection by age and education, and a very small connected core, ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
HIV Type 1 Disease Progression to AIDS and Death in a Rural Ugandan Cohort Is Primarily Dependent on Viral Load Despite Variable Subtype and T-Cell Immune Activation Levels
Conclusions.&nbsp;These findings suggest that the independent contribution of T-cell activation on morbidity and mortality observed in European and North American cohorts may not be directly translated to the HIV epidemic in East Africa. In this setting, HIV-1 load appears to be the primary determinant of disease progression. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Downregulation of Cytokines and Chemokines by GB Virus C After Transmission Via Blood Transfusion in HIV-Positive Blood Recipients
Conclusions.&nbsp;GBV-C has a protective effect, in part through a competition mechanism leading to decreased inflammation and improved HIV disease outcome in cases. Further studies are necessary to establish whether GBV-C may have deleterious effects on the host at the cellular level, including depleting the cells that are the targets of HIV. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Cellular Immune Activation in Cerebrospinal Fluid From Ugandans With Cryptococcal Meningitis and Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome
Conclusions.&nbsp;After CM, T cells in CSF tend to evolve with the development of IRIS, with increasing proportions of activated CD4+ T cells, migration of intermediate monocytes to the CSF, and declining fungal burden. These changes provide insight into IRIS pathogenesis and could be exploited to more effectively treat CM and prevent CM-IRIS. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Prevalence of intestinal protozoan infections among individuals living with HIV/AIDS at Felegehiwot Referral Hospital, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia
(Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Novel Neuroimaging Methods to Understand How HIV Affects the Brain
Abstract In much of the developed world, the HIV epidemic has largely been controlled by antiretroviral treatment. Even so, there is growing concern that HIV-infected individuals may be at risk for accelerated brain aging and a range of cognitive impairments. What promotes or resists these changes is largely unknown. There is also interest in discovering factors that promote resilience to HIV and combat its adverse effects in children. Here, we review recent developments in brain imaging that reveal how the virus affects the brain. We relate these brain changes to changes in blood markers, cognitive function, and other patient outcomes or symptoms, such as apathy or neuropathic pain. We focus on new and emerging techniques, including new variants of brain MRI. Diffusion tensor ima...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
The diagnostic performance evaluation of the SD BIOLINE HIV/syphilis Duo rapid test in southern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study
Conclusions The excellent performance of the SD BIOLINE HIV/syphilis Duo test to detect HIV as well as syphilis facilitates the integration of syphilis testing and treatment to the already established HIV prevention programme, ultimately contributing to the dual HIV and syphilis elimination goal. (Source: BMJ Open)
Living with constant suffering: A different life following the diagnosis of HIV
We used grounded theory in semi-structured interviews with 32 persons living with HIV (PLWH) in Barcelona, Spain, and found that PLWH live with constant suffering, a core category combining 4 realities: I need help; My life is constantly controlled; I have a new imposed life; and I have an uncertain reality. Participants described being constantly controlled by health policies and medications. They thought their lives were in the hands of others and that a new life, characterized by the constant fear of stigma, had been imposed on them. (Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)
The transplantation of solid organs from HIV-positive donors to HIV-negative recipients: ethical implications
HIV-positive individuals have traditionally been barred from donating organs due to transmission concerns, but this barrier may soon be lifted in the USA in limited settings when recipients are also infected with HIV. Recipients of livers and kidneys with well-controlled HIV infection have been shown to have similar outcomes to those without HIV, erasing ethical concerns about poorly chosen beneficiaries of precious organs. But the question of whether HIV-negative patients should be disallowed from receiving an organ from an HIV-positive donor has not been adequately explored. In this essay, we will discuss the background to this scenario and the ethical implications of its adoption from the perspectives of autonomy, beneficence/non-maleficence and justice. (Source: Journal of Medical Ethi...
Maternal transmission of HIV infection: a crime against my child?
This paper considers whether section 20 of the Offences Against the Person Act 1861, which has been used to prosecute those who transmit the HIV virus in sexual relationships (eg, R v Konzani), could be used to prosecute women (in England and Wales) who transmit the virus to their child during pregnancy, delivery or via breast feeding. The discussion concludes that prosecution for transmission in pregnancy/delivery is unlikely. However, it is argued that there might be scope to prosecute the transmission of the virus via breast feeding in the event that there was sufficient evidence. However, this would also be subject to the Crown Prosecution Service deeming such a prosecution to be in the public interest. The paper does not seek to examine the ethical issues involved. However, it acknowl...
A Decision Aid to Support Informed Choices for Patients Recently Diagnosed With Prostate Cancer: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Conclusions: Decision aid not only improved patient knowledge about localized prostate cancer and its treatment and their satisfaction with decision making but also decreased their decisional conflict. Implications for Practice: Decision aid represents a rather innovative approach for a health insurance fund to develop and offer this format of information and decision support. This opens a new field of study for nurses to empower patients in the decision-making process and develop new roles in this area. (Source: Cancer Nursing)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Progress Toward Eliminating Mother to Child Transmission of HIV in Kenya: Review of Treatment Guideline Uptake and Pediatric Transmission at Four Government Hospitals Between 2010 and 2012
Abstract We analyzed prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) data from a retrospective cohort of n = 1365 HIV+ mothers who enrolled their HIV-exposed infants in early infant diagnosis services in four Kenyan government hospitals from 2010 to 2012. Less than 15 and 20 % of mother-infant pairs were provided with regimens that met WHO Option A and B/B+ guidelines, respectively. Annually, the gestational age at treatment initiation decreased, while uptake of Option B/B+ increased (all p?s &lt; 0.001). Pediatric HIV infection was halved (8.6?4.3 %), yet varied significantly by hospital. In multivariable analyses, HIV-exposed infants who received no PMTCT (AOR 4.6 [2.49, 8.62], p &lt; 0.001), mixed foods (AOR 5.0 [2.77, 9.02], p &lt; 0.001), and care at one of t...
Do People Know I?m Poz?: Factors Associated with Knowledge of Serostatus Among HIV-Positive African Americans? Social Network Members
We examined how functional social support, HIV-related discrimination, internalized HIV stigma, and social network structure and composition were cross-sectionally associated with network members? knowledge of respondents? serostatus among 244 HIV-positive African Americans in Los Angeles. Results of a generalized hierarchical linear model indicated people in respondents? networks who were highly trusted, well-known to others (high degree centrality), HIV-positive, or sex partners were more likely to know respondents? HIV serostatus; African American network members were less likely to know respondents? serostatus, as were drug-using partners. Greater internalized stigma among respondents living with HIV was associated with less knowledge of their seropositivity within their soci...
Antiretroviral Therapy Use, Medication Adherence, and Viral Suppression Among PLWHA with Panic Symptoms
Abstract Panic symptoms are prevalent among PLWHAs, yet few studies have examined their relationship with HIV outcomes. Using data from an observational cohort study in Baltimore, MD, we examined the association between panic symptoms and antiretroviral therapy (ART) use, medication adherence, and viral suppression. Data were analyzed using generalized estimating equations and adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, cocaine and/or heroin use, clinic enrollment time, alcohol use, and depressive symptoms. Between June 2010 and September 2012, 1195 individuals participated in 2080 audio computer assisted interviews; 9.9 % (n = 118) of individuals endorsed current panic symptoms. In multivariate analysis, panic symptoms were associated with decreased ART use (IRR 0.94; p = 0.05). ...
Gambia: Stakeholders Renew Commitment to Fight HIV and Aids
[The Point] Officials of the National HIV and AIDS Response Team recently paid a courtesy call on the governor of North Bank Region during which they restated and renewed their commitment to the fight against HIV and AIDS. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Kenya: Ojaamong Launches Project to Fight HIV
[The Star] A cross-border health project meant to fight HIV-Aids infection has been launched in Busia. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Nigeria: HIV/Aids in Nigeria - Towards the Finish Line
[Guardian] ACROSS all indices, the incidence of Human Immuno-Deficiency Virus, HIV, the precursor of the deadly Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, AIDS, has nosedived to the bottom. Not only has the prevalence of HIV dropped to a commendable 3.1 per cent from the about 3.8 per cent it peaked between 2004-2005, the amount of new HIV infection has also dropped significantly to less than 0.22 per cent (about 220,394 cases of infection) from a worrying peak of 0.49 (about 348, 564 cases) per cent in 2003. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Insect-Inspired Hearing Aids Aim To Eliminate Background Noise
Experts say that the next generation of hearing aids could be modeled after insects&rsquo; ears. A team of Scottish scientists is testing a new hearing aid design that can locate specific sounds and eliminate unwanted background noise, inspired by the way some insects hear sounds. (Source: Medical Design Online News)
Algeria: Algeria Meets MDGs in Combatting TB, Malaria and HIV/Aids
[Algerie Presse Service] Algiers -World Health Organization (WHO) representative in Algerie, Bah Keita, praised Algeria's efforts to meet the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs 2000/2015) in the fight against TB, malaria and HIV/Aids. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Zambia: Chief Macha Rallies People Against Aids
[Times of Zambia] CHIEF Macha of the Tonga-speaking people in Choma has called for more efforts in sensitising people in the fight against HIV/AIDS, citing rural areas where the majority lack information. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Characteristics and critical function of CD8+ T cells in the Toxoplasma -infected brain
Abstract The rise of the AIDS epidemic made the requirement for T cells in our continuous protection from pathogens critically apparent. The striking frequency with which AIDS patients exhibited profound neurological pathologies brought attention to many chronic infections that are latent within the immune-privileged CNS. One of the most common lethal opportunistic infections of these patients was with the protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. Reactivation of Toxoplasma cysts within the brain causes massive tissue destruction evidenced as multiple ring-enhancing lesions on MRI and is called toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE). TE is not limited to AIDS patients, but rather is a risk for all severely immunocompromised patients, including recipients of chemotherapy or transplant recipien...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Molecules, Vol. 20, Pages 7396-7437: Phytomelatonin: Assisting Plants to Survive and Thrive
This review summarizes the advances that have been made in terms of the identified functions of melatonin in plants. Melatonin is an endogenously-produced molecule in all plant species that have been investigated. Its concentration in plant organs varies in different tissues, e.g., roots versus leaves, and with their developmental stage. As in animals, the pathway of melatonin synthesis in plants utilizes tryptophan as an essential precursor molecule. Melatonin synthesis is inducible in plants when they are exposed to abiotic stresses (extremes of temperature, toxins, increased soil salinity, drought, etc.) as well as to biotic stresses (fungal infection). Melatonin aids plants in terms of root growth, leaf morphology, chlorophyll preservation and fruit development. There is also evidence ...
Bildgebende Diagnostik der Peronealsehnen
Publication date: Available online 8 April 2015 Source:Fuß &amp; Sprunggelenk Author(s): Arbab Dariusch , Abbara Mona , Rath Björn , Waizy Hazibullah , Bouillon Bertil , König Dietmar Pierre Akute oder chronische Beschwerden im Bereich des Außenknöchels können eine Vielzahl von Ursachen haben. Differentialdiagnostisch ist immer auch eine Verletzung der Peronealsehnen zu berücksichtigen. Tendinopathien, Luxationen und komplette oder inkomplette Rupturen der Peronealsehnen sind relativ selten und werden daher häufig verkannt oder verspätet diagnostiziert. Neben einer sorgfältigen Anamnese und klinischen Untersuchung kommt der bildgebenden Diagnostik eine wesentliche Bedeutung für die Sicherung der Diagnose zu. Das Wissen um die Pathologie ist die Voraussetzung für den gezie...
Human Polyomavirus 6 DNA in the cerebrospinal fluid of an HIV-positive patient with leukoencephalopathy
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a severe, often fatal, demyelinating disease of the white matter of the Central Nervous System (CNS), due to polyomavirus JC (JCV) lytic infection of oligodendrocytes [1]. PML occurs in severely immunocompromised patients, such as in the context of HIV infection, hematological malignancy, exposure to chemotherapy or immunomodulatory antibodies, transplantation and various causes of lymphocyte depletion [2,3]. Although the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) significantly reduced PML mortality, it remains the third most common neurological infectious disease in HIV/AIDS, following Toxoplasma encephalitis and HIV-1 encephalopathy [4]. (Source: Journal of Clinical Virology)
Successes in sexual health communications development, programmatic implementation and evaluation in the Torres Strait region 2006 to 2012.
CONCLUSIONS: This is an uncommon comprehensive evaluation of population-based sexual health communications strategies delivered over years in a remote Australian setting. The findings are encouraging but demonstrate that positive shifts take time and are incremental. IMPLICATIONS: In addition to clinical strategies, strategic and sustained investment in sexual health promotion expertise that leads community partnership and program development is required to reduce youth risk and prevent HIV/AIDS in remote populations. PMID: 25903545 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health)
Bimodal Fitting: A survey of current clinical practice.
Conclusion: Although a growing number of cochlear implant recipients choose to wear a hearing aid on the contralateral ear there is inconsistency in our current clinical approach to bimodal programming. These survey results provide evidence of large variability in our current bimodal programming practices and indicate a need for more structured clinical recommendations and programming approaches. PMID: 25907807 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Audiology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Pin1 liberates the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1): Must we stop it?
Authors: Hou H, Wang JZ, Liu BG, Zhang T Abstract Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is mainly caused by the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). To our knowledge, this is the first review focusing on the vital role of Pin1 in the infection of HIV-1 and the development of AIDS. We and others have demonstrated that Pin1, the only known cis-to-trans isomerase recognizing the pThr/pSer-Pro motifs in proteins, plays striking roles in several human diseases. Interestingly, recent evidence gradually indicates that Pin1 regulates several key steps of the life cycle of HIV-1, including the uncoating of the HIV-1 core, the reverse transcription of the RNA genome of HIV-1, and the integration of the HIV-1 cDNA into human chromosomes. Whereas inhibiting Pin1 suppresses all of ...
'Fake Medicines' Pose Huge Risk To Public Health, Officials Warn
A collection of journal articles published this week points to poor quality medicine as a "real and present" threat to the fight against ongoing health crises around the globe. The articles, including 17 published in "The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene," calls the proliferation of fake drugs a global pandemic responsible for hundreds of thousands of deaths and a troubling increase in antimicrobial resistance. Scientists found up to 41 percent of medications used to treat HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis weren't up to international standards, part of an estimated $75 billion annual trade in illicit medicine. One study points to the deaths of 122,450 African children in 2013 due to counterfeit malaria drugs. "The pandemic of falsified and substandard medicines is perv...
Enbrel Aids in JIA Subtype (CME/CE)
(MedPage Today) -- A 35% reduction in flare risk in enthesitis-related arthritis. (Source: MedPage Today Pediatrics)
Meet The Man Whose Tablet Invention Could Save Millions Of Lives In Rural Africa
While HIV/AIDS is generally known to be the biggest killer in Africa, you might be surprised to learn cardiovascular disease (CVD) is second on that list, and for adults over 30 years old, it is the most common cause of death in the continent. The lack of cardiologists in impoverished rural areas means CVD's impact is greater than it needs to be. -- This feed and its contents are the property of The Huffington Post, and use is subject to our terms. It may be used for personal consumption, but may not be distributed on a website. (Source: Science - The Huffington Post)
Risk and Protective Factors for HIV Self-disclosure among Poor African-American Women Living with HIV/AIDS
Issues in Mental Health Nursing, Volume 36, Issue 3, Page 171-181, March 2015. (Source: Issues in Mental Health Nursing)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
South Africa: Deputy Minister Mduduzi Manana Launches Testing and Counselling Programme
[SA Govt] Today, the Deputy Minister of Higher Education and Training, Mr Mduduzi Manana, MP launched the Higher Education and Training HIV/AIDS Programme (HEAIDS) First Things First HIV/TB/STIs and general health & wellness programme for students in the higher education and training sector at the Mthashana Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) College in Mthashana, Ulundi. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: Global Fund Launches Online Platform for Strategy Development
[Global Fund] Geneva -The Global Fund partnership has launched a consultation as part of a process to engage a wide range of stakeholders in developing its 2017-2021 strategy. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Kenya: Bed Bugs Do Not Spread HIV, Malaria, Expert Says
[The Star] A health expert has dismissed claims that bed bugs transmit HIV and malaria following an infestation in Eastlands, Nairobi. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Botswana: Masilo Condemns Excessive Drinking
[Botswana Daily News] Gabane -Excessive alcohol consumption is still a challenge to the wellbeing of the country's population. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Botswana: Achap Records Positive Results in SMC Operations
[Botswana Daily News] Gaborone -The African Comprehensive HIV/AIDS Partnership (ACHAP) has scored progressive results in relation to Safe Male Circumcision (SMC) operation as at end of 2014. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Recording and Accounting for Stakeholder Involvement in Systematic Reviews
ConclusionsWe propose the TRASI as a first step in resolving the challenges of detecting and reconstructing stakeholder influences. Potential new applications of the TRASI are discussed. (Source: Health Information and Libraries Journal)
How understanding immunology contributes to managing CMV disease in immunosuppressed patients: now and in future
This article considers the immunology of cytomegalovirus in the normal human host, and the interrelated issue of the sites of HCMV latency and mechanisms of reactivation in the myeloid cell lineage, and in related in vitro model systems. The way in which this site of latency conditions the immune response, and emerging information on the special features of the adaptive immune response to HCMV during latency are also considered. Examples of HCMV disease associated with acquired immunosuppression, principally in the context of transplantation, but also as a consequence of HIV/AIDS and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome, are then discussed, with a particular emphasis on how understanding the immunology of persistent infection may contribute to managing CMV disease now and in future....
Buprenorphine/naloxone treatment practices in Malaysia: Results of national surveys of physicians and patients
The high prevalence of interrelated problems with opioid use disorder, injection drug use (IDU), and HIV/AIDS in Malaysia has led to the scale-up of public health approaches, including opioid agonist maintenance treatment with buprenorphine or methadone. Malaysia has more than 300,000 registered people who use drugs (PWUD)-approximately 1.1% of its population of about 30 million-and an estimated 170,000 people who inject drugs (PWID; Nazar and Ahlam, 2007; Global AIDS Response, 2012), with heroin continuing to be the drug most frequently injected. (Source: Drug and Alcohol Dependence)
Changes in the influence of lymphoma- and HIV-specific factors on outcomes in AIDS-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma
Conclusions Our results demonstrate a significant improvement of CR rate and survival for all patients with AIDS-related lymphomas. Effective HIV-directed therapies reduce the impact of HIV-related prognostic factors on outcomes and allow curative antilymphoma therapy for the majority of patients with aggressive NHL. (Source: Annals of Oncology)
Click Chemistry, A Potent Tool in Medicinal Sciences.
This article describes examples of click chemistry applications that are aimed at finding new lead candidates against pathologies such as cancer, AIDS and Alzheimer's disease, and explores the impact that the technique could have in therapy and prevention in the near future, through application in drug delivery systems, bio conjugation and diagnostic. An introduction, addressed to researchers who intend to use this methodology, examines the opportunities to perform click reactions according to the most common and best studied techniques, such as synthesis in water, on solid phase, and under microwave or ultrasound irradiation. Every topic is furnished with examples which have appeared in the literature in the last five years and is clarified by schemes and figures. PMID: 25895896 [PubM...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Preventing Cryptococcosis?Shifting the Paradigm in the Era of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy
Abstract Cryptococcosis remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected patients, especially in sub-Saharan Africa where it causes up to 20 % of AIDS-related deaths in HIV programs. A new, highly sensitive, and affordable point of care diagnostic test for cryptococcal infection, the lateral flow assay, can detect early sub-clinical cryptococcosis especially in areas with limited laboratory infrastructure. With a prevalence of detectable sub-clinical cryptococcal infection averaging 7.2 % (95 % CI 6.8?7.6 %) among 36 cohorts with CD4 &lt;100 cells/?L in Africa, together with data showing that preemptive fluconazole prevents overt cryptococcal disease in this population, implementing a screen and treat strategy as part of HIV care practice among pati...
Global pandemic of fake medicines poses urgent risk, scientists say
Poor quality medicines are an urgent threat that could undermine decades of successful efforts to combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and TB, according to experts. Scientists report up to 41 percent of specimens failed to meet quality standards in global studies of about 17,000 drug samples. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)
Nigeria: Young People and Their Reproductive Health
[This Day] Over half of the world's population is below 25 years of age . Talking about the sexuality of young people is still very controversial, even though pregnancy is the main cause of death among women between 15 and 19 years worldwide. Complications in giving birth and unsafe abortion practices contribute greatly to these worrying numbers. Also, almost half of all new HIV infections occur among young people. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Insects inspire next generation of hearing aids
An insect-inspired microphone that can tackle the problem of locating sounds and eliminate background noise is set to revolutionize modern-day hearing aid systems, scientists say. Despite remarkable advances in sound analysis in hearing aids, the actual microphone itself has remained essentially unchanged for decades. Current directional microphone technology adds cost, weight and power requirements to hearing aids compromising their design. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)
Liberia: Supt. Wants Holistic HIV, TB Prevention
[NEWS] Grand Bassa County Superintendent has stressed the need for citizens of the country to take paramount the prevention of HIV, TB and Malaria. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Reflections That Led to the Conduct of the START TrialReflections That Led to the Conduct of the START Trial
This article reviews the START study- A large, long-term HIV trial that determines when ART should be initiated. HIV Medicine (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
Tanzania: Bukoba NGO Hailed for HIV/Aids Education
[Daily News] Bukoba -MISENYI District Sports and Cultural De v e l opme n t Officer, Marius Balyoluguru has commended Jambo Bukoba for taking a holistic approach in the fight against HIV/AIDS. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Global pandemic of fake medicines poses urgent risk, scientists say
(NIH/Fogarty International Center) Poor quality medicines are an urgent threat that could undermine decades of successful efforts to combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and TB, according to the editors of a journal supplement published today. Scientists report up to 41 percent of specimens failed to meet quality standards in global studies of about 17,000 drug samples. Seventeen articles are included in the supplement 'The Global Pandemic of Falsified Medicines,' published by The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)
IJERPH, Vol. 12, Pages 4321-4339: Traditional Healing, Biomedicine and the Treatment of HIV/AIDS: Contrasting South African and Native American Experiences
Traditional healing remains an important aspect of many people?s engagement with healthcare and, in this, responses to the treatment of HIV/AIDS are no different. However, given the gravity of the global HIV/AIDS pandemic, there has been much debate as to the value of traditional healing in this respect. Accordingly, this paper explores the extent to which meaningful accommodation between the biomedical and traditional sectors is possible (and/or even desirable). It does this through a consideration of Native American and South African experiences, looking at how the respective groups, in which medical pluralism is common, have addressed the issue of HIV/AIDS. The paper points to the importance of developing ?culturally appropriate? forms of treatment that emphasise complementary rat...
Adrenal gland volume, intra-abdominal and pericardial adipose tissue in major depressive disorder
Unipolar depression is one of the most common disorders worldwide with a lifetime prevalence of 17% in Western societies, and is expected to be among the three leading causes of burden of disease in 2030, together with HIV/AIDS and ischemic heart disease (CVD) (Murray et al., 2010). The comorbidity of MDD with type 2 diabetes mellitus and ischemic heart disease is common, and the conditions are considered to have a bidirectional relationship (Rugulies, 2002, Surtees et al., 2008, Mezuk et al., 2008). (Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Diary of an INSOMNIAPP: Will an app to track your sleep guarantee restful nights - or turn you into an exhausted, neurotic wreck?
ALICE SMELLIE put the most popular tracker, Sleep Cycle, to the test over a normal week. Are they useful aids in the battle against sleep disorders ? or just a fad? (Source: the Mail online | Health)
Bayesian Bivariate Linear Mixed-Effects Models with Skew-Normal/Independent Distributions, with Application to AIDS Clinical Studies
(Source: Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics)
Decision aids for benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer.
Conclusions Implementing patient DAs was associated with lower rates of elective surgery for previously treated BPH and active treatment for localized PRCA; however, implementation of these DAs was not associated with lower costs of care. PMID: 25880488 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The American Journal of Managed Care)
UCLA Center for World Health sends faculty to teach, train, treat around the globe
UCLA physicians recently traveled to Nicaragua to teach life-saving techniques to more than 50 local doctors as part of a weeklong course on resuscitating a patient after cardiac arrest and using ultrasound to diagnose life-threatening conditions at the bedside, among other critical topics.  These classes were part of an education initiative by Project SEMILLA (Strengthening Emergency Medicine Investing in Learners in Latin America), a volunteer organization of emergency health care professionals and a partner of the UCLA Center for World Health. ?Our aim is to help improve emergency health capacity throughout Latin America,? said Dr. Breena Taira, an assistant professor of clinical emergency medicine at UCLA, who led colleagues from Olive View-UCLA Medical Center on the trip. Partner...
Updated Slide Set: HIV Surveillance in Adolescents and Young Adults (through 2013)
This slide series presents HIV surveillance data for the United States and 6 dependent areas among adolescents and young adults. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Drug use patterns associated with risk of non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy among HIV-positive illicit drug users in a Canadian setting: a longitudinal analysis
Conclusions: Periods of heroin and cocaine injection appeared to have the most deleterious impact upon antiretroviral adherence. The findings point to the need for improved access to treatment for heroin use disorder, particularly methadone, and highlight the need to identify strategies to support ART adherence among cocaine injectors. (Source: BMC Infectious Diseases)
Determination of HIV-1 coreceptor tropism using proviral DNA in women before and after viral suppression
Background: An HIV-1 tropism test is recommended prior to CCR5 antagonist administration to exclude patients harboring non-R5 virus from treatment with this class of antiretrovirals. HIV-1 tropism determination based on proviral DNA (pvDNA) may be useful in individuals with plasma viral RNA suppression. We developed a genotypic tropism assay for pvDNA and assessed its performance in a retrospective analysis of samples collected longitudinally. Results: We randomly selected paired plasma/PBMC samples from the Women?s Interagency HIV Study with plasma viral load ?5,000 cp/mL at time 1 (T1), undetectable viral load maintained for ?1 year and CD4+ >200 cells/?L at time 2 (T2). pvDNA was isolated from cryopreserved PBMCs. Sequences were analyzed in triplicate from 49/50 women, with trop...
CD38, CD81 and BAFFR combined expression by transitional B cells distinguishes active from inactive systemic lupus erythematosus
Abstract In view of its heterogeneous presentation and unpredictable course, clinical management of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is difficult. There is a need for biomarkers and diagnostic aids to monitor SLE disease activity and severity prior to, during and after treatment. We undertook this study to search for unique phenotypic patterns in each peripheral blood (PB) B cell subset, capable of distinguishing SLE patients with inactive disease versus SLE patients with active disease versus controls by using an automated population separator (APS) visualization strategy. PB was collected from 41 SLE patients and 28 age- and gender-matched controls. We analyzed the cell surface markers (in a tube CD20/CD27/CD19/CD45/CD38/CD81/BAFFR combination) expression on PB B cell subs...
Two dozen new cases in Indiana HIV outbreak
AIDS virus continues to spread as state tries emergency measures to stop it (Source: Health News: CBSNews.com)
Hearing aids may slow cognitive decline tied to hearing loss
(Reuters Health) - - Hearing aids may lessen the forgetfulness and mental confusion tied to moderate to severe hearing loss, suggests a new study. (Source: Reuters: Health)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Indiana Sees Jump In New HIV Cases In Rural Outbreak
April 17 (Reuters) - An HIV outbreak in southeastern Indiana related to abuse of intravenous prescription drugs has jumped by 24 cases in the past week, an increase attributed to offering more testing resources, state health officials said on Friday. The outbreak centered in rural Scott County near the border with Kentucky has reached 130 cases, including 10 preliminary positive tests, up from 106 a week ago, health officials said. Scott County, about 30 miles north of Louisville, Kentucky, has been the center of the outbreak, the biggest in the state's history. A needle exchange program started April 4 for Scott County residents has so far distributed 5,322 clean syringes to 86 people and collected 1,400 used syringes, health officials said. Although Indiana bans needle exchanges, Gov...
Cytochrome P450 2B6 genetic variants are associated with plasma nevirapine levels and clinical response in HIV-1 infected Kenyan women: a prospective cohort study.
CONCLUSIONS: CYP2B6 516G&gt;T and CYP2B6 983T&gt;C genotypes were strongly associated with plasma nevirapine concentration, which predicted immunologic response in women on nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy. These data support continued work on the potential utility of human genetic testing to inform nevirapine dosage optimization for individual patients. PMID: 25878720 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Therapy)
Nigeria: Achieving an End to the Aids Epidemic - Laying the Groundwork
[Guardian] CONTINUED FROM TUESDAY, APRIL 14, 2015 (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Kenya: 17 Per Cent Aids Deaths in Kenya Occur Among Youth, Says NACC
[The Star] Seventeen per cent of Aids-related deaths every year occur among adolescents and youth, the National Aids Control Council has said. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Zimbabwe: Harare Records 10,000 Cases of STIs in Three Months
[New Zimbabwe] HARARE recorded 10,128 cases of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI) between January and March this year, National Aids Council (NAC) Harare province coordinator, Adonijah Muzondiona has said. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
[Correspondence] HIV incidence and mortality in China
We read with interest, the Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD) by Christopher Murray and colleagues1 reporting global, regional, and national estimates of HIV/AIDS incidence and mortality for 1990?2013, which included an estimate of 35?665 new HIV cases and 12?145 deaths in China in 2013. This number of deaths is almost a third lower than the 19?716 deaths reported for the same year by the National Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention (NCAIDS) within the Chinese Center For Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (Source: LANCET)
Alcohol Use and Associated Sexual and Substance Use Behaviors Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Moscow, Russia
This study explored relationships between alcohol use and behavioral risks for HIV transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Moscow, Russia. Alcohol use disorder identification test (AUDIT) scores for 1367 MSM participating in a cross-sectional survey and HIV testing were categorized to: ?abstinence/low use?, ?hazardous use?, ?harmful use/dependency?. Multiple logistic regression models compared dependent variables for sexual and drug use behaviors across alcohol use strata. Hazardous and harmful/dependent alcohol use were significantly associated with high-risk sexual behaviors and drug use. Harmful use/dependency was associated with an increased odds of having more than five male sex partners (last 12 months; adjusted odds ratios?AOR 1.69; 95 % CI 1.25?2.27)...
Rwanda: Gasabo District Gets New HIV Clinic, Laboratory
[New Times] The AIDS Healthcare Foundation (AHF) - Rwanda yesterday inaugurated a new HIV clinic and laboratory at Kabuye Health Centre in Gasabo District. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: The Case for Keeping Viral Hepatitis in the SDGs
[SciDev.Net] Globally, viral hepatitis kills an estimated 1.5 million people each year - a death toll comparable to HIV/AIDS. The chronic disease caused by hepatitis B and C viruses accounts for 78 per cent of all cases of liver cancer, which is the second most common cause of cancer deaths after lung cancer. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Botswana: ACHAP Track Record Speaks Volumes
[Botswana Daily News] Gaborone -The African Comprehensive HIV/AIDS Partnerships (ACHAP) prides itself on various achievements and looks forward to continuous partnerships with the government and other stakeholders in the fight against HIIV/AIDS and Tuberculosis. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Epidemiology and management of antiretroviral-associated cardiovascular disease.
Authors: Chastain DB, Henderson H, Stover KR Abstract Risk and manifestations of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) will continue to evolve as improved treatments and life expectancy of these patients increases. Although initiation of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy has been shown to reduce this risk, some ARV medications may induce metabolic abnormalities, further compounding the risk of CVD. In this patient population, both pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic strategies should be employed to treat and reduce further risk of CVD. This review summarizes epidemiology data of the risk factors and development of CVD in HIV and provides recommendations to manage CVD in HIV-infected patients. PMID: 25866592 [PubMed] (Source: Open A...
Kenya: 17 Per Cent Youth Have HIV, Says NACC
[The Star] Seventeen per cent of AIDs related deaths every year occur among adolescents and youth, the National Aids Control Council has said. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Kenya: Wanted - Anti-HIV Messaging for the Age of Social Media
[The Star] THE National Aids Control Council says 17 per cent of Aids-related deaths occur among adolescents and youth. This is a distressing statistic and strikes right at the heart of the nation's future. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Consumer Information on: Gastric Emptying Breath Test (GEBT) - P110015
The Gastric Emptying Breath Test (GEBT) measures how fast solid food moves from the stomach to the small intestine during the digestive process and aids in the diagnosis of delayed stomach emptying (gastroparesis). Gastroparesis is a disorder that slows.. (Source: Food and Drug Adminstration (FDA): CDRHNew)
Number of Drinks to ?Feel a Buzz? by HIV Status and Viral Load in Men
Abstract The impact of HIV and its treatment on the effects of alcohol remain unclear. Blood alcohol concentrations have been noted to be higher in HIV infected individuals prior to antiretroviral initiation. Our goal was to compare number of drinks to ?feel a buzz or high? among HIV infected and uninfected men, stratified by viral load (VL) suppression. Data includes 1478 HIV infected and 1170 uninfected men in the veterans aging cohort study who endorsed current drinking. Mean (SD) number of drinks to feel a buzz was 3.1 (1.7) overall. In multivariable analyses, HIV infected men reported a lower mean number of drinks to feel a buzz compared to uninfected men (coef = ?14 for VL &lt; 500; ?34 for VL ? 500; p ? .05). Men with HIV, especially those with a det...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Antiretroviral Drug Diversion Links Social Vulnerability to Poor Medication Adherence in Substance Abusing Populations
This study applies the Gelberg?Andersen behavioral model of health care utilization for vulnerable populations to understand how social vulnerability is linked to ARV diversion and adherence. Cross-sectional data were collected from a targeted sample of vulnerable people living with HIV in South Florida between 2010 and 2012 (n = 503). Structured interviews collected quantitative data on ARV diversion, access and utilization of care, and ARV adherence. Logistic regression was used to estimate the goodness-of-fit of additive models that test domain fit. Linear regression was used to estimate the effects of social vulnerability and ARV diversion on ARV adherence. The best fitting model to predict ARV diversion identifies having a low monthly income and unstable HIV care as salient enabli...
Comparison of Sexual Risk, HIV/STI Prevalence and Intervention Exposure Among Men Who Have Sex with Men and Women (MSMW) and Men Who Have Sex with Men Only (MSMO) in India: Implications for HIV Prevention
Abstract Using data from a cross-sectional bio-behavioral survey conducted among men who have sex with men (n = 3833) in India, we examined differences related to HIV-related sexual risk, HIV/STI prevalence and intervention exposures between men who have sex with men and women (MSMW, 35 % of the sample) and men who have sex with men only (MSMO). Among MSMW, 93 % reported having female regular partners, 14 % had female paid partners, and all types of male partners (regular 55 %; casual 77.1 %; paying 47 %; paid 19 %). Logistic regression revealed that MSMW had higher odds of being aged 26 years and above (AOR 4.45, 95 % CI 3.66?5.42), lower odds of inconsistently using condoms with male partners (AOR 0.82, 95 % CI 0.67?0.98) and lower odds of having kothi (feminine/...
Novel Approaches for Visualizing and Analyzing Dose-Timing Data from Electronic Drug Monitors, or ?How the ?Broken Window? Theory Pertains to ART Adherence?

Sweating on the palm and sole: physiological and clinical relevance
Abstract In mammals, sweating is a multifunctional response that aids in locomotion, thermal regulation, self-protection, and communication of psychological state. Humans possess three types of sweat glands (apocrine, eccrine, and apoeccrine) that are differentially distributed on the body surface and make unique contributions to these distinct functions of the sweating response. In humans, eccrine glands, which are widely distributed on hairy skin, play an important role in thermoregulation. They are also found on the glabrous skin of the palm and sole, where they are not usually activated by heat, but rather by deep respiration, mental stress, and local tactile stimulation. Sweating on the palm and sole, so-called ?emotional sweating?, acts to prevent slippage while gras...
Highlights from this issue
Last month we re-introduced Clinical Roundup1 &ndash; a regular update on key research findings of relevance to our clinical readers. I'm delighted to introduce the next edition, which takes a tour of HPV vaccination, rectal chlamydia in women, and the targeting of diagnosis during primary HIV infection.2 The authors are early career specialists in STI and HIV &ndash; Lewis Haddow works in a specialist centre, while Sophie Forsyth has recently moved to Derby where she works in both HIV and STI in a smaller centre. We are delighted with the response to Clinical Roundup, which is an important opportunity to engage with the priorities and preoccupations of our clinical readers within a journal which brings cutting edge research to practitioners. Have you looked at our Blogs recently? At http:...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Launching a new era for behavioural surveillance
Despite systems to monitor the incidence of disease dating from the mid-1800s,1 behavioural surveillance is in relative infancy. The first systematic data on human sexual behaviour, the Kinsey Reports, were published in the late 1940s/early 1950s, but it was not until 40&nbsp;years later that national systematic efforts to collect data on sexual behaviours were undertaken. Great Britain's National Surveys of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (NATSAL) and the National Health and Social Life Survey in the USA were both launched in the early 1990s in response to the emerging HIV/AIDS epidemic, and both were accompanied by significant debate about public funding of research on the still taboo subject of sexual behaviour. Today, taboos have loosened and systematic collection of data on sexual beh...
Men who have sex with men in southern Vietnam report high levels of substance use and sexual risk behaviours but underutilise HIV testing services: a cross-sectional study
Conclusions Due to the scarcity of effective MSM-targeted prevention programmes, it is likely that substance use, risky sexual behaviours and low testing uptake may substantially contribute to the spread of HIV among Vietnamese MSM sampled. Harm reduction programmes targeting MSM, and in particular injecting MSM, should be rolled-out in this province. (Source: Sexually Transmitted Infections)
Factors associated with recent previous HIV testing among a sample of recently HIV-diagnosed gay men in Australia: a cross-sectional study
Conclusions Gay community plays a key role in the response to HIV in Australia. Building a sense of community through programmes that support social engagement between gay men may support earlier and more frequent testing. (Source: Sexually Transmitted Infections)
STI/HIV test result disclosure between female sex workers and their primary, non-commercial male partners in two Mexico-US border cities: a prospective study
Conclusions STI/HIV test result disclosure was highly prevalent within FSWs&rsquo; primary partnerships, suggesting couples-based STI/HIV testing with facilitated disclosure may be feasible for these and potentially other high-risk, socially marginalised couples. (Source: Sexually Transmitted Infections)
Gay and bisexual men engage in fewer risky sexual behaviors while traveling internationally: a cross-sectional study in San Francisco
Conclusions MSM engaged in proportionately fewer sexual activities which present a high HIV transmission risk when travelling internationally, namely unprotected receptive and insertive anal intercourse and particularly with HIV serodiscordant partners. The lower sexual risk-taking during international travel was robust to controlling for many factors, including self-reported HIV serostatus, age, relationship status and type of partnership. These findings suggest that when travelling internationally, MSM may experience behavioural disinhibition to a lesser extent than had been described previously. (Source: Sexually Transmitted Infections)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Clinical round-up
HPV vaccination As we write, the Food and Drug Administration (USA) has approved the use of the 9-valent human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine. Questions remain, however, about who to vaccinate. Should we be vaccinating boys/men, and how old is too old to be vaccinated? Skinner et al1 go some way to answering the second question with their interim analysis. The VIVIANE study is a multicentre double-blinded randomised controlled trial looking at the efficacy of the bivalent HPV 16/18 vaccine in women &gt;25&nbsp;years. (The PATRICIA study previously looked at this vaccine in women &lt;25&nbsp;years).2 In total, 15% of women included in the trial had prior exposure to HPV, and primary endpoints were persistent HPV 16/18 infection at 6&nbsp;months or CIN1 or greater associated with these subtyp...
Trends in prevalence of selected opportunistic infections associated with HIV/AIDS in Uganda
Background: After more than a decade of establishing and expanding access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), empirical evidence on its impact on trends of opportunistic infections (OIs) associated with the deadly human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in resource poor settings is scarce. The primary objective of this study was to assess the effect of HAART coverage on trends of five most common OIs in Uganda. Methods: Observational data from January 2002 to December 2013 for 5972 HIV positive individuals attending the AIDS Support Organisation (TASO) HIV/AIDS care programme in Uganda were extracted and analysed. Trends were analysed using autoregressive moving average time series and mixed effects linear regression models adjusting for all available potential confounders. Results...
Quitting experiences and preferences for a future quit attempt: a study among inpatient smokers
Conclusions The majority of smokers had attempted quitting in the previous 12&nbsp;months; NRT was a popular cessation treatment, although it was not used as recommended by most. This suggests a need for assistance in the selection and optimal use of cessation aids for hospitalised smokers. Trial registration number Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12612000368831. (Source: BMJ Open)
Barriers to antenatal care use in Nigeria: evidences from Non-users and implications for maternal health programming
Conclusion: Non-use of ANC was commonest among the poor, rural, currently married, less educated respondents from Northern Nigeria especially the North East zone. Affordability, availability and accessibility of ANC providers are the hurdles to ANC utilization in Nigeria. Addressing financial and other barriers to ANC use, quality improvement of ANC services to increase women?s satisfaction and utilization and ensuring maximal contacts among women, society, and ANC providers are surest ways to increasing ANC coverage in Nigeria. (Source: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth)
Facilitators and barriers to effective scale-up of an evidence-based multilevel HIV prevention intervention
Conclusions: The entire ecological system in which an EBI occurs affects implementation. It is imperative to focus capacity-building efforts on getting individuals at different levels of the HIV Prevention System into alignment regarding understanding and believing in the program?s goals and methods. For a Prevention Support System to be maximally useful, it must address facilitators or barriers to implementation, address the right people, and use modalities to convey information that are acceptable for users of the system. (Source: Implementation Science)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Factors facilitating and inhibiting the use of female condoms among female university students in Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
Conclusions Although the female condom can protect female students from infections and pregnancy, there are several barriers to its use. Interventions should aim to increase availability of the female condom, and male involvement should be increased to facilitate consistent use of the method. PMID: 25882648 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care)
Coping with cancer-related cognitive dysfunction: a scoping review of the literature.
CONCLUSIONS: CBT-based treatments and neuropsychological/cognitive training methods may ameliorate symptoms of CRCD. The most commonly-reported coping strategy is utilization of assistive technology and memory aids. Further research is needed about efficacious rehabilitation techniques for this population. Implications for Rehabilitation Cancer-related cognitive dysfunction (CRCD) may impact up to 50% of cancer survivors. CRCD can significantly decrease participation and quality of life during survivorship. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and neuropsychological/cognitive training methods may ameliorate symptoms of CRCD. The most common coping strategy reported by cancer survivors with CRCD is the use of assistive technology and memory aids. PMID: 25885669 [PubMed - as supplied by pu...
Adorable video: Baby hears mom for the first time
With new hearing aids, little Elijah can now respond to the sounds all around him, including his mother's voice (Source: Health News: CBSNews.com)
AIDS Infonet
Provides HIV/AIDS information in non-technical language in various languages. (Source: PHPartners.org)
Conference on Social Work and HIV/AIDS
May 21-24, 2015, New Orleans, LA. The theme of the conference is "Staying Relevant in an Era of Great Change - Challenges and Opportunities for HIV/AIDS Social Work." (Source: PHPartners.org)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
United States Conference on AIDS (USCA)
September 10-13, 2015, Washington, DC. AIDS-related gathering that will bring together workers from all fronts of the HIV/ AIDS epidemic - from case managers and physicians, to public health workers and advocates, people living with HIV/AIDS to policy-makers - to build national support networks, exchange the latest information and learn cutting-edge tools to address the challenges of HIV/AIDS. (Source: PHPartners.org)
Satisfaction with service needs among people living with multiple sclerosis
CONCLUSIONS: The results indicated that younger and mildly affected participants were least satisfied. Other areas of unmet need included transportation for the people more severely affected by MS and financial assistance to help people purchase mobility aids. Content Type Journal ArticlePages -DOI 10.3233/NRE-151204Authors Marita McCabe, Institute for Health and Ageing, Australian Catholic University, Level 5, 215 Spring St., Melbourne, VIC, Australia Journal NeuroRehabilitationOnline ISSN 1878-6448Print ISSN 1053-8135 (Source: NeuroRehabilitation)
Liberia: Grand Gedeh County Advances Strategy On HIV/TB
[FrontPageAfrica] Zwedru -A two day dialogue as part of a nationwide consultation organized by the Liberia Coordinating Mechanism (LCM) of the Global Fund has taken place in Zwedru, Grand Gedeh County bringing together over 25 representatives of civil society organizations, Muslim and Christian leaders, as well as, traditional leaders, health and medical practitioners to identity priority for HIV and TB program in the country. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: Global Recession Linked to Rising HIV Deaths, Study Finds
[FrontPageAfrica] Rising unemployment is linked to higher death rates from HIV, according to research published in the Journal of Global Health. The study, which looked at the effects of the global recession on HIV mortality, also found that increased public health spending helps to reduce deaths from the disease. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Tanzania: Make Regular Visits to Clinics, Pregnant Women Urged
[Daily News] Tabora -PREGNANT women in Tabora Region have been advised to maintain regular visits to maternal health clinics as a strategy to prevent their expected babies from HIV/AIDS infections. (Source: AllAfrica News: Pregnancy and Childbirth)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Namibia: MP Proposes HIV Grants
[New Era] Nudo MP Asser Mbai wants the government to financially assist all persons who are on anti-retroviral (ARV) treatment to help avoid that they take medication on empty stomachs. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Watch Deaf Infant Hear His Mom for the First Time
Hearing aids allow an infant to clearly hear his mother's voice for the first time. (Source: ABC News: Health)
Kenya: Lead Fight Against HIV-Aids Scourge, First Lady Tells Student Leaders
[The Star] Lead the fight against deadly diseases such as HIV/Aids and avoid all activities that promote their spread, First Lady Margaret Kenyatta has told young leaders. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: An Open Global Fund Means Closing the Implementer Level Data Gap At Country Level
[GFO] The Global Fund is one of the more transparent global health institutions despite dropping 6 places in the International Aid Transparency Initiative (IATI) ranking for the periods 2012 - 2014. It affords the public considerable access to data on grant funding flows and programme results. Such transparency reflects the Fund's responsibility to its donors, who together contribute around $4 billion annually to the response to AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria in more than 110 countries. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: Innovative Partnership Launches PR Management Dashboard
[GFO] New dashboard helps Global Fund principal recipients identify problems and progress with grant implementation (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Africa: Aidspan Produces New Guide to the Global Fund's Risk Management Policy
[GFO] In November 2014, at its 32nd meeting, the Global Fund Board adopted a new risk management policy that sought to outline in comprehensive detail the shared responsibility within the organization to nurture a culture that encourages prudent risk-taking within the context of maximizing impact of investments in the fight against the three diseases. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Swaziland: In Swaziland, Progress Towards Malaria Elimination
[GFO] New national strategic plan could make southern African nation first on continent to achieve elimination (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Patient positioning for Direct Laryngoscopy ? A national survey of 320 UK ENT Consultant Surgeons
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Clinical Otolaryngology)
Shared decision-making in epilepsy management
Publication date: Available online 8 April 2015 Source:Epilepsy &amp; Behavior Author(s): W.O. Pickrell , G. Elwyn , P.E.M. Smith Policy makers, clinicians, and patients increasingly recognize the need for greater patient involvement in clinical decision-making. Shared decision-making helps address these concerns by providing a framework for clinicians and patients to make decisions together using the best evidence. Shared decision-making is applicable to situations where several acceptable options exist (clinical equipoise). Such situations occur commonly in epilepsy, for example, in decisions regarding the choice of medication, treatment in pregnancy, and medication withdrawal. A talk model is a way of implementing shared decision-making during consultations, and decision aids are ...
Long-term Outcomes of Cytomegalovirus Retinitis in the Era of Modern Antiretroviral Therapy
To describe the long-term outcomes of patients with cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis and AIDS in the modern era of combination antiretroviral therapy. (Source: Ophthalmology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Temporal trends of time to antiretroviral treatment initiation, interruption and modification: examination of patients diagnosed with advanced HIV in Australia.
CONCLUSIONS: Recent HIV diagnoses are initiating therapy earlier in all diagnosis CD4 cell count groups, potentially lowering community viral load compared to earlier time periods. We found a marked reduction in the hazard of first treatment interruption, and found no difference in rates of major modification to ART by HIV presentation status in recent periods. PMID: 25865372 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Watch: See a 9-Week-Old Baby Hear His Mother Clearly for the First Time
Elijah Cook was given hearing aids after being born with hearing loss. (Source: ABC News: Health)
Effectiveness of a Federal Healthy Start Program on HIV/AIDS Risk Reduction among Women in Hillsborough County, Florida.
CONCLUSIONS: Lessons learned from the CHHS Project can be used to develop effective and comprehensive models for addressing the HIV epidemic. PMID: 25871995 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Southern Medical Journal)
Whitescarver steps down as director of NIH?s Office of AIDS Research
He led the office since 2000. (Source: National Institutes of Health (NIH) News Releases)
Inflammation and HIV Transmission in Sub-Saharan Africa
Abstract While the per-contact risk of sexual HIV transmission is relatively low, it is fourfold higher in sub-Saharan Africa, and this may partly explain the major global disparities that exist in HIV prevalence. Genital immune parameters are key determinants of HIV transmission risk, including epithelial integrity and the presence of highly HIV-susceptible intraepithelial or submucosal CD4+ T cell target cells. Biological parameters that may enhance mucosal HIV susceptibility in highly HIV-affected regions of sub-Saharan Africa include increased levels of mucosal inflammation, which can affect both epithelial integrity and target cell availability, as well as the increased mucosal surface area that is afforded by an intact foreskin, contraceptive choices, and intravaginal practi...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Implementation Research for the Prevention of Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission in Sub-Saharan Africa: Existing Evidence, Current Gaps, and New Opportunities
Abstract Tremendous gains have been made in the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) in sub-Saharan Africa. Ambitious goals for the ?virtual elimination? of pediatric HIV appear increasingly feasible, driven by new scientific advances, forward-thinking health policy, and substantial donor investment. To fulfill this promise, however, rapid and effective implementation of evidence-based practices must be brought to scale across a diversity of settings. The discipline of implementation research can facilitate this translation from policy into practice; however, to date, its core principles and frameworks have been inconsistently applied in the field. We reviewed the recent developments in implementation research across each of the four ?prongs? of a compreh...
A Mixed-Methods Study Supporting a Model of Chinese Parental HIV Disclosure
Abstract Parents who are HIV-positive confront difficult decisions regarding whether, when, and how to disclose their HIV status to their children. In China, a setting of acute HIV stigma where family harmony is culturally valued, limited research has been conducted on parental disclosure. We aimed to develop a model of parental disclosure that accounts for the cultural context in China based on a mixed-methods study. In our individual, in-depth interviews (N = 24) as well as survey data (N = 84) collected from parents living with HIV in Shanghai and Beijing, we found the primary barriers to disclosure were stigma, fear of exposing the mode by which they acquired HIV, psychologically burdening the child, rejection by the child, and negative social consequences for the fami...
HIV Clinics Lower Financial Risk and Improve RevenueHIV Clinics Lower Financial Risk and Improve Revenue
This intervention, conducted at HIV clinics, has significantly improved retention in HIV care. JAIDS: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
Updated HIV Surveillance Among Persons Who Inject Drugs (through 2013)
This slide series presents HIV surveillance data for the United States and 6 dependent areas among persons who inject drugs (PWID). (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
Malawi: Teachers Urged to Mitigate HIV/Aids Impact
[Malawi News Agency] Zomba -Minister of Education, Science and Technology, Dr Emmanuel Fabiano has reminded teachers of their responsibility and capacity in mitigating the spread and impact of HIV/AIDS at grass root level. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
CCG becomes first in the country to ration access to hearing aids
North Staffordshire Clinical Commissioning Group (CCG) has restricted access to NHS funded hearing aids Hide related content:&nbsp; Show related content read more (Source: Management in Practice)
Lyle Micheli: 40 years at the Boston Marathon finish line
From marathon volunteer to injury prevention pioneer?it?s all part of Dr. Lyle Micheli?s mission to keep runners and athletes of all types on the field. Sore quads. That?s one of Lyle Micheli?s memories from the 1975 Boston Marathon. But Dr. Micheli, Director of Boston Children?s Sports Medicine, wasn?t sore from running. As a medical volunteer at what was a ?very informal? event in 1975, Micheli spent the day ducking and ?limboing? under the ropes marking the last feet of the 26.2-mile run and making sure the athletes were OK to proceed beyond the finish area. Since that day, running has gained tremendous popularity. The Boston Marathon has increased from a mere 1,000 runners in 1975 to 30,000 in 2015. Micheli has been at the finish line year after year as a way ...
South Africa: Deputy Minister Mduduzi Manana Visits Mthashana TVET College for Higher Education Aids Programme
[SA Govt] The Deputy Minister of Higher Education and Training, Mr Mduduzi Manana, MP will visit the Mthashana TVET College on Monday, 20 April 2015 for the First Things First Higher Education AIDS (HEIADS) Programme. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: Discrimination, Stigmatisation, Major Hindrances to Combating HIV/Aids
[Independent (Lagos)] A medical researcher, Prof. Oni Idigbe, has identified stigmatisation and discrimination against people living with HIV/AIDS as the major hindrances to combating the disease. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Ethiopia: Thousands of Students Reached With Life-Saving HIV Information
[Key Correspondents] A higher education project known as TemariNet is working to address HIV and unintended pregnancy in universities and colleges across Ethiopia. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: New Approach Against HIV Virus 'Holds Promise'
[New Times] The first human trial of a new type of HIV therapy suggests it could be a promising weapon in the fight against the virus. A report in the journal 'Nature' shows that infusions of so-called 'broadly neutralising antibodies' could suppress the amount of HIV in a patient's blood. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Uganda: ARVs for HIV Negative People
[Independent (Kampala)] Should Health ministry approve PrEPs for people at high risk of infection? (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Kenya: Kenya Struggles to End Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission
[Capital FM] Nairobi -Jokes on lists of shame and visas into heaven punctuated the opening day of the Elimination of Mother to Child Transmission of HIV and Keeping Mothers Alive in Kenya Stocktaking Meeting. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Job opportunity with SIC
SIC is hiring for the role of Executive Director Location: Tanzania or USA, work from home Term: 2-year, full time or part time contract Context: Support for International Change (SIC) is a nongovernmental organization that seeks to limit the impact of HIV/AIDS in underserved communities in Tanzania and to train future leaders in global health and development. Our work in Tanzania focuses on community-based approaches to addressing HIV in rural and underserved areas. We support our community-based program and achieve our leadership development goals through a program of local and international volunteers in Tanzania. Our focus is to adequately train and support volunteers and to pair them with local counterparts to ensure that their contributions to communities are effective and rewarding....<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Perception of health professionals about the prevention of the AIDS epidemic in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil (1986-2006)
Socio-historical research whose aim was to know the perception of health professionals about AIDS epidemic prevention from 1986 to 2006. They worked in a reference hospital for infectious and contagious diseases. The data was collected from March to October 2011, using the oral story technique, and the subjects were twenty-three health professionals who looked after people suffering from Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome during the above mentioned period. The content analysis described by Bardin was used and two categories came up: the need for preventive strategies and the lack of using condoms. The results showed that the health professionals' perception about AIDS prevention was bad due to: the media fragility, the health professionals' actions regarding preventive strategies and the ...
Assessing the effectiveness of decision aids for decision making in prostate cancer testing: a systematic review
ConclusionsDecision aids increase patient knowledge and confidence in decision making about prostate cancer testing. Further research into effective methods of implementation is needed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. (Source: Psycho-Oncology)
Challenges to successful implementation of HIV and AIDS-related health policies in Cartagena, Colombia
This study focused on Cartagena ? one of Colombia's largest cities and an international touristic hub ? that presents one of the highest HIV prevalences in the country, to investigate whether the national plan accounts for local specificities and what are the barriers to local implementation. Based on the Contextual Interaction Theory (CIT), this qualitative research relied upon 27 interviews and 13 life stories of local inhabitants and stakeholders, collected in a first fieldwork in 2006?2007. A follow-up data collection took place in 2013 with 10 participants: key policymakers and implementers, NGO representatives and local inhabitants. Barriers identified by the participants included: local population's understandings and beliefs on condom use; stigma and discrimination; lack of c...
Service delivery interventions to improve adolescents? linkage, retention and adherence to antiretroviral therapy and HIV care
ConclusionsThis review identified limited evidence on the effectiveness of service delivery interventions to support adolescents? linkage from HIV diagnosis to ART initiation, retention on ART and adherence to ART. Although recommendations are qualified because of the small numbers of studies and limited methodological quality, offering individual and group education and counselling, financial incentives, increasing clinic accessibility, and provision of specific adolescent?tailored services appear promising interventions and warrant further investigation.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Tropical Medicine and International Health)
Urine lipoarabinomannan to monitor antituberculosis therapy response and predict mortality in an HIV-endemic region: a prospective cohort study
Conclusions Rapid urine LAM testing may be a valuable tool to monitor anti-TB therapy response and to assess prognosis of patients being treated for pulmonary TB in HIV-endemic regions. (Source: BMJ Open)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
The role of volunteer support in the community for adults with hearing loss and hearing aids
Hearing aids remain the most common treatment option offered for people affected by hearing loss. However approximately 40% of people fitted with hearing aids stop using them over time [1]. This may be due to lack of support, such as emotional and psychological support for adjustment to hearing loss [2] or practical help and assistance with hearing aid use and maintenance [3]. In the UK, volunteers who often have hearing loss and wear hearing aids themselves, have supported National Health Service (NHS) patients? use of hearing aids; however the nature and impact of the support provided to date has not been investigated in detail. (Source: Patient Education and Counseling)
Cytochrome P450 2B6 genetic variants are associated with plasma nevirapine levels and clinical response in HIV-1 infected Kenyan women: a prospective cohort study
Conclusions: CYP2B6 516G>T and CYP2B6 983T>C genotypes were strongly associated with plasma nevirapine concentration, which predicted immunologic response in women on nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy. These data support continued work on the potential utility of human genetic testing to inform nevirapine dosage optimization for individual patients. (Source: AIDS Research and Therapy)
An Insulated Isothermal PCR Method on a Field-Deployable Device for Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Canine Parvovirus Type 2 at Points of Need.
In conclusion, the iiPCR system has potential to serve as a useful tool for rapid and accurate PON, molecular detection of CPV-2. PMID: 25889355 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Virological Methods)
Retention of Adult Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis 2008?2013
Conclusions: Retention at 36 months on treatment averages 65%?70%. There are several important gaps in the evidence base, which could be filled by further research, especially in terms of geographic coverage and duration of follow-up. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Who Knows Their Partner's HIV Status? Results From a Nationally Representative Survey in Uganda
Conclusions: Respondents may be reporting the HIV status of their partners based on their own HIV status. Campaigns to inform people about the prevalence of serodiscordance in conjunction with further promotion of couple counseling may help increase the proportion of Ugandans who know their own HIV status and that of their partners. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Knowledge and Attitudes of Doctors Toward People Living With HIV/AIDS in Saudi Arabia
Conclusions: Evidence of poor knowledge of HIV suggests the need for further training of health workers on HIV transmission mode. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Africa: Champions Come Together to Announce Strengthened Efforts for an Aids-Free Generation in Africa
[UNAIDS] Johannesburg -The Champions for an AIDS-Free Generation gathered together today to announce new efforts to ensure that all children in Africa are born free from HIV and that children living with HIV have access to life-saving treatment. Since young people continue to be deeply affected by the epidemic, the Champions also announced that they will add adolescents and HIV to their portfolio of work. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
South Africa: Taxi Drivers Rave About Outreach TB, HIV Services
[Health-e] Sandile Ngcobo's day starts at 4am. By the time his 16-hour shift as a Pietermaritzburg taxi driver is over, local clinics are closed and that is why Ngcobo says he welcomed the chance to test for HIV and tuberculosis (TB) at work. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: HIV/Aids Anti-Discrimination Law and Essence of Implementation
[Guardian] After several years in the parliament, the HIV/AIDS Anti-Discrimination bill 2014 eventually scaled through and was subsequently passed to President Goodluck Jonathan. Without much pressures, he signed the bill into law. Now, stakeholders, very grateful for the law, demand the commencement of the implementation phase. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Mozambique: High HIV Prevalence Among Miners and Truck Drivers
[AIM] Maputo -More than one in every five migrant mineworkers in Maputo province is infected with the HIV virus that causes AIDS, according to a study on the sexual behavior of Mozambican workers in the South African mines and long range truck drivers, published in Maputo last week. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Six questions about HIV/AIDS that deserve more attention
(Cell Press) As HIV investigators work to control and eradicate the virus worldwide, certain myths or misconceptions about the disease have been embraced, whereas other concepts with merit have been left relatively unexplored, argues American HIV/AIDS researcher Jay Levy, M.D., in a Trends in Molecular Medicine commentary. He calls on fellow researchers to continue questioning and not to lose sight of alternative strategies that could ultimately lead to a sustainable, long-term solution to HIV infection. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)
Sodium chloride compared to talc as processing aid has similar impact on volatile compounds but more favourable on ortho?diphenols in virgin olive oil
The possibility of improvement of olive paste extractability by addition of talc or NaCl (1%, 2% and 3% mass ratio in olive paste), or their combinations (?talc 1.5% + NaCl 1.5%?; ?talc 1% + NaCl 2%?; ?talc 2% + NaCl 1%?), was investigated on a laboratory scale. Volatiles in oil samples were determined by headspace solid?phase microextraction with GC?MS, while ortho?diphenols by solid phase extraction and UV?VIS spectrophotometer. Significantly higher extractability of oil (from 25 to 29% compared to control, P &lt; 0.05) was obtained by 3% of talc or NaCl and their combinations in mass ratio 1:2 or 2:1. At 3% addition level, no significant decrease of C6 aldehydes was observed, while significant increase of C6 alcohols (talc or salt) as well as of C5 compounds and terp...
Gender Expression and Risk of HIV Infection Among Black South African Men Who Have Sex with Men
Abstract To explore demographic, behavioral and psychosocial risk factors for HIV infection in South African MSM we recruited 480 MSM (aged 18 and 44 years) using respondent-driven sampling. Data were collected through individual computer-assisted face-to-face interviews. Participants were tested for HIV. RDS-adjusted HIV prevalence is 30.1 % (unadjusted 35.6 %). Few participants had ever engaged in both receptive and insertive anal sex; sex with women was frequently reported. Independent demographic and behavioral correlates of HIV infection include age, education, number of male sexual partners, ever having been forced to have sex, and ever having engaged in transactional sex; engagement in sex with women was a protective factor. Psychosocial risk factors independently associ...
The Potential of the CNS as a Reservoir for HIV-1 Infection: Implications for HIV Eradication
Abstract The ability of HIV-1 to establish latent infection is a key obstacle to its eradication despite the existence of effective antiretroviral drugs. The brain has been postulated as a reservoir for latent infection, but its role in HIV persistence remains unclear. In this review, we discuss the evidence surrounding the role of the central nervous system (CNS) as a viral reservoir and the potential challenges this might present in eradicating HIV. The strategies for eradication of HIV and their application to latent CNS infection are explored. Finally, we outline new developments in drug delivery and new therapeutic modalities designed to target HIV infection in the CNS. (Source: Current HIV/AIDS Reports)
Southern Africa: the Highest Priority Region for HIV Prevention and Care Interventions
Abstract The global HIV pandemic began to expand rapidly in southern Africa a decade later than was noted in central Africa, Europe, the Caribbean, and North America. Multiple factors played a role in this rapid expansion which led Southern Africa to become the most heavily afflicted region for HIV/AIDS globally. In this issue of Current HIV/AIDS Reports, investigators with active research interests in the region have reviewed key elements of the causes of and responses to the epidemic. Putative causes of the high HIV prevalence in the region are discussed, including host and viral biology, human behavior, politics and policy, structural factors, health services, health workforce, migration, traditional healers? role, and other issues. Regional epidemiological trends are describ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Cancer Treatment in Patients With HIV Infection and Non-AIDS-Defining Cancers: A Survey of US Oncologists.
CONCLUSION: Provider-level factors are associated with delivery of nonstandard cancer treatment to HIV-infected patients. Policy change, provider education, and multidisciplinary collaboration are needed to improve access to cancer treatment. PMID: 25873060 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: JOP)
Interrater Agreement Between Visual Analysts of Single-Case Data: A Meta-Analysis.
Authors: Ninci J, Vannest KJ, Willson V, Zhang N Abstract Visual analysis is the most widely applied method of data interpretation for single-case research as it encompasses multifaceted considerations relevant to evaluating behavior change. However, a previous research synthesis found low levels of interrater agreement between visually analyzed ratings of graphed data across all variables under analysis. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the peer-reviewed literature to date for potential moderators affecting the proportion of interrater agreement between visual analysts. Nineteen articles with 32 effects were assembled. Potential moderators evaluated included (a) design families, (b) rater expertise, (c) the provision of contextual information for graphs, (d) the u...
Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) detected by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in HIV patients with or without Kaposi's sarcoma. An analytic cross-sectional study.
CONCLUSION: We observed an association between HHV-8 detection and disease staging, which was higher in the serum of patients in stage IV. This suggests that detection of HHV-8 DNA in serum could be very useful for clinical assessment of patients with KS and for monitoring disease progression. PMID: 25885486 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Sao Paulo Medical Journal)
The impact of HIV/AIDS on compliance with antidepressant treatment in major depressive disorder: A prospective study in a South African private healthcare cohort
Background: MDD and HIV/AIDS have a high prevalence worldwide with severe consequences for patients. In both conditions, compliance with treatment is key to successfully treat these disorders. In the current study, we examine the effect of MDD on the compliance with ADs in patients diagnosed with co-morbid HIV/AIDS and how different classes of ADs influence compliance in this group of patients. Methods: A prospective, cohort study design was used to analyse nationally representative medicine claims data submitted to a privately-owned South African Pharmaceutical Benefit Management (PBM) company. Two groups were distinguished in the database, namely patients with only MDD and patients with both MDD and HIV/AIDS, over a six-year study period. The study population was determined by the follow...
Extended proximal femoral osteotomy: technical tip
Abstract Extended proximal femoral osteotomy is a well-established technique in complex primary and revision hip surgery. It is commonly indicated for extraction of well-fixed femoral components either cemented or uncemented. Some of the problems encountered during this procedure are gaining an accurate reduction in the osteotomized fragment and a stable reduction and fixation. Here, we present a modification to the standard surgical technique which aids in anatomical reduction and enhances the stability of the reduced fragment. We make the distal transverse cut oblique rather than vertical. This modification allows for a more stable and anatomical reduction in the osteotomy. Our experience with this modified technique demonstrated 100 % union of the osteotomy. (Source: Europ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Towards an HIV cure based on targeted killing of infected cells: different approaches against acute versus chronic infection
We present perspectives for complementing cART with targeted cytotoxic therapy, whereby HIV infection is either eradicated or fully controlled, thereby eliminating the need for lifelong cART. (Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS)
Animal models in HIV-1 protection and therapy
Purpose of review: The purpose of this review is to highlight major advances in the development and use of animal models for HIV-1 research during the last year. Recent findings: Animal model research during the last year has focused on the development and refinement of models; use of these models to explore key questions about HIV entry, immune control, and persistence; and key discoveries with these models testing therapeutic and vaccine concepts. Some of the greatest breakthroughs have been in understanding early events surrounding transmission, the effectiveness of broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies as passive prophylaxis, and some new ideas in the area of eliminating the viral reservoir in established infection. Summary: Despite the lack of a flawless HIV-1 infection and...
Antibodies for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1
This article describes recent studies of antibody responses that protect against vertical HIV-1 transmission. Studies have shown that maternal neutralization breadth is not a critical factor in MTCT, yet the ability of maternal plasma to neutralize autologous virus variants may be important in infant protection. There is also new evidence that infants mount robust and durable antibody responses to HIV-1 envelope following vaccination and can develop broad neutralization during infection. Finally, passive immunization of infants with highly potent and broad neutralizing antibodies may be an effective strategy to protect infants against infection with postnatally transmitted variants. Summary: Defining the characteristics of maternal and infant antibody responses that protect against MTCT wi...
Antibodies for HIV prevention in young women
Purpose of review: Young women in sub-Saharan Africa bear a disproportionate HIV burden. They urgently require new HIV prevention approaches that they can use. This review provides an overview of the use of antiretrovirals for HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP), highlighting some of the challenges with this technology and explores the potential role of mAbs for HIV prevention in women. Recent findings: Recent findings on the initial steps in viral entry and establishment of a productive local infectious nidus in the vaginal epithelium has provided important clues for HIV prevention in the female genital tract. Topical and oral formulations of antiretroviral drugs have been shown to prevent HIV infection in women with varying levels of success, depending principally on adherence. Further, s...
Vectored antibody gene delivery for the prevention or treatment of HIV infection
Purpose of review: To discuss recent progress in the use of vectors to produce antibodies in vivo as an alternative form of HIV prophylaxis or therapy. Instead of passive transfer of monoclonal antibody proteins, a transgene encoding an antibody is delivered to cells by the vector, resulting in expression and secretion by the host cell. This review will emphasize adeno-associated virus (AAV)-based strategies and summarize the evidence in support of this strategy as an alternative to traditional vaccines. We will highlight the major findings in the field and discuss the impact that this approach could have on the prevention, treatment and possibly eradication of HIV in patients. Recent findings: In this emerging field, the emphasis has been on the use of vectors delivering antibodies as an ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Broadly neutralizing antibody and the HIV reservoir in acute HIV infection: a strategy toward HIV remission?
This article discusses the effects of early ART and bNAbs on HIV reservoirs and proposes research strategies in acute HIV infection aiming at HIV reservoir reduction and HIV remission. (Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS)
History of passive antibody administration for prevention and treatment of infectious diseases
We describe the history of passive immunization to provide context for the series of articles to follow. The history of passive immunization with antibodies to prevent or treat infectious diseases is a story of different eras. There was an extraordinary era of discovery and clinical implementation before the chemical nature of antibodies was even known. This empirical process provided the resources and reagents used to describe and characterize humoral immunity, better define the chemical properties and structure of antibodies, and extend the clinical use of immunoglobulin products to treat or prevent multiple viral and bacterial diseases over the ensuing several decades. The next distinct era came with the discovery of processes to produce monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), and development of ...
HIV broadly neutralizing antibody targets
Purpose of review: To provide an update on neutralizing antibody targets in the context of the recent HIV-1 envelope trimer structure, describe new antibody isolation technologies, and discuss the implications of these data for HIV-1 prevention and therapy. Recent findings: Recent advances in B-cell technologies have dramatically expanded the number of antibodies isolated from HIV-infected donors with broadly neutralizing plasma activity. These, together with the first high-resolution crystal and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures of a cleaved, prefusion HIV-1 trimer, have defined new regions susceptible to neutralization. This year, three epitopes in the gp120?gp41 interface were structurally characterized, highlighting the importance of prefusion gp41 as a target. Similar to...
Monoclonal antibodies to host cellular receptors for the treatment and prevention of HIV-1 infection
Purpose of review: Clinically relevant monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to host cellular receptors have been generated to both the CD4 receptor and the CCR5 coreceptor, cell surface proteins critical for HIV-1 entry. Ibalizumab is a novel humanized mAb that binds to a conformational epitope on CD4 and blocks entry of HIV-1. It has broad and potent antiviral activity in vitro and in vivo. PRO 140 is a humanized mAb that binds to the CCR5 coreceptor and inhibits CCR5-tropic HIV-1 by interfering with viral entry. Antiviral activity has been demonstrated both in vitro against R5 viruses and in vivo in HIV-1-infected individuals harboring CCR5-tropic virus. Recent findings: Both antibodies have been administered intravenously in early-phase clinical trials, and current emphasis is on the development...
Antibody engineering for increased potency, breadth and half-life
This article will discuss recent antibody engineering efforts to improve the breadth and potency of anti-HIV-1 antibodies. The polyreactivity of engineered HIV-1 bNAbs and the effect on serum half-life will be explored along with strategies to overcome problems introduced by engineering antibodies. Finally, advances in creating bispecific anti-HIV-1 reagents are discussed. (Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Prospects for engineering HIV-specific antibodies for enhanced effector function and half-life
Purpose of review: A wealth of recent animal model data suggests that as exciting possibilities for the use of antibodies in passive immunotherapy strategies continue to develop, it will be important to broadly consider how antibodies achieve anti-HIV-1 effect in vivo. Recent findings: Beyond neutralization breadth and potency, substantial evidence from natural infection, vaccination, and studies in animal models points to a critical role for antibody Fc receptor (FcR) engagement in reducing risk of infection, decreasing postinfection viremia, and delaying viral rebound. Supporting these findings in the setting of HIV, the clinical maturation of recombinant antibody therapeutics has reinforced the importance of Fc-driven activity in vivo across many disease settings, as well as opportunely...
Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS)
Systematic review of stigma reducing interventions for African/Black diasporic women.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that there are limited interventions designed to address multiple forms of stigma, including gender and racial discrimination, experienced by HIV-positive African/Black diasporic women. PMID: 25862565 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Liberia: Sail Concludes Training for Rights Advocates
[NEWS] Stop AIDS in Liberia (SAIL) in collaboration with Actionaid Liberia has concluded a two-day capacity building engagement with the Independent National Commission on Hunan Rights and representatives of various civil society organizations. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Uganda: Aine's Story - Addressing Stigma and Ignorance About HIV
[Key Correspondents] Aine, 28, lives in Biharwe village in Mbarara district in western Uganda, and is just one of many people who almost lost his life to HIV due to a lack of information about the virus. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Botswana: Court to Decide on the Right of Foreign Inmates to Free ARVs
[Botswana Daily News] Gaborone -Justice Terrence Rannowane of Gaborone High Court wil, on April 29, deliver a ruling in the case in which the Attorney Generals (AGs) wants the court to grant a stay of execution order in relation to a ruling that directed government to provide free ARV to foreign prison inmates. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
South Africa: Sex in Mother City Under Spotlight
[Health-e] Almost a quarter of Capetonians admit to starting a new relationship while still being in a relationship with someone else, according to a new study looking at sex in the Mother City. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Cameroon: CEMAC Stakeholders Discuss HIV/Aids Stigmatisation
[Cameroon Tribune] They met in Yaounde on April 10, 2015, to share best practices on protecting people living with AIDS. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
NIH, South African Medical Research Council award $8 million in HIV, TB grants
(NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases) NIH and the South African Medical Research Council are awarding 31 grants to US and South African scientists to support research targeting HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and HIV-related co-morbidities and cancers. The awards, which total $8 million in first-year funding, are the first to be issued through the South Africa-US Program for Collaborative Biomedical Research. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)
Social and psychosocial factors associated with high-risk sexual behaviour among university students in the United Kingdom: a web-survey
In the UK there are limited data about university students&rsquo; risky sexual behaviour. A cross-sectional web-survey was conducted to investigate factors associated with high-risk sex among students at two UK universities. High-risk sex was reported by 25% of 1108. High personal sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk perception and permissive attitudes towards casual sex were associated with high-risk sex for both men (odds ratio [OR]: 12.12; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.10&ndash;35.81; OR: 2.49; 95%CI: 1.11&ndash;5.56, respectively) and women (OR: 22.31; 95% CI: 9.34&ndash;53.26; OR: 3.02; 95% CI: 1.82&ndash;5.01, respectively). For men, drinking alcohol (OR: 17.67; 95% CI: 1.90&ndash;164.23) and for women age and frequent drinking (OR: 2.02; 95% CI: 1.05&ndash;3.89; OR: 1.89; 95%...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
High-risk human papillomavirus in HIV-infected women undergoing cervical cancer screening in Lilongwe, Malawi: a pilot study
Rates of abnormal visual inspection with acetic acid and prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) subtypes have not been well characterized in HIV-infected women in Malawi. We performed a prospective cohort study of visual inspection with acetic acid (N = 440) in HIV-infected women aged 25--59 years, with a nested study of HPV subtypes in first 300 women enrolled. Of 440 women screened, 9.5% (N = 42) had abnormal visual inspection with acetic acid with 69.0% (N = 29) having advanced disease not amenable to cryotherapy. Of 294 women with HPV results, 39% (N = 114) of women were positive for high-risk HPV infection. Only lower CD4 count (287 cells/mm3 versus 339 cells/mm3, p = 0.03) and high-risk HPV (66.7% versus 35.6%, p &lt; 0.01) were associated with abnormal visual inspection ...
Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis, Mycoplasma genitalium and Ureaplasma urealyticum in men with urethritis attending an urban sexual health clinic
We conducted a study to determine the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis (TV), Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) and Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) in men with urethritis, attending an urban sexual health clinic, in order to inform screening and treatment policies. Men attending an urban sexual health clinic between June 2011 and January 2012 were evaluated. Urine samples were collected from men with urethritis and tested for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) and TV using transcription-mediated amplification and for MG and UU using polymerase chain reaction. Eighty-three samples were analysed. The prevalence of CT was 33.7% (28/83), GC was 16.8% (14/83), TV was 3.6% (3/83), MG was 12.0% (10/83) and UU was 4.8% (4/83). Fifteen men had recurrent urethritis. Of these, three were f...
Serum ferritin in HIV-positive patients is related to immune deficiency and inflammatory activity
To analyse the prevalence of high ferritin levels in asymptomatic HIV patients and its related factors we conducted a cross-sectional study of a cohort of HIV outpatients in regular follow-up. Epidemiological, clinical, analytical and therapeutic data were collected. Patients completed a questionnaire about cardiovascular risk factors and underwent a physical examination and a 12-h fasting blood analysis. High ferritin levels were defined as a plasma ferritin level &gt;200 &micro;g/L in women and &gt;300 &micro;g/L in men. A total of 571 patients (78.1% men) were included. Median age was 43.2 years, HIV sexual transmission 68.5%, median CD4 count 474 cells/&micro;L, 36.3% AIDS cases, 86.2% on antiretroviral therapy and 74.8% of them with undetectable viral load; 14.6% metabolic syndrome cr...
Young people's comparative recognition and recall of an Australian Government Sexual Health Campaign
In 2009, the Australian Government&rsquo;s National Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention Program launched a multi-million dollar sexual health campaign targeting young people. We assessed campaign recognition among a community sample of young people. Individuals aged 16&ndash;29 years self-completed a questionnaire at a music festival. Participants were asked whether they recognised the campaign image and attempted to match the correct campaign message. Recognition of two concurrent campaigns, GlaxoSmithKline&rsquo;s The Facts genital herpes campaign (targeting young women) and the Drama Downunder campaign (targeting gay men) were assessed simultaneously. Among 471 participants, just 29% recognised the National Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention Program campaign. This compared ...
Case finding advantage of HIV rapid tests in community settings: men who have sex with men in 12 programme areas in China, 2011
We sought to describe the advantage of rapid tests over ELISA tests in community-based screening for HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM) in urban areas of China. Data of 31,406 screening tests conducted over six months in 2011 among MSM across 12 areas were analyzed to compare the differences between those receiving rapid testing and ELISA. Rapid tests accounted for 45.8% of these screening tests. The rate of being screened positive was 7.2% among rapid tests and 5.3% for ELISA tests ( 2 = 49.161, p &lt; 0.001). This advantage of rapid test in HIV case finding persisted even when socio-demographic, behavioural, screening recruitment channel and city were controlled for in logistic regression (exp[beta] = 1.42, p &lt; 0.001, 95% CI = 1.27,1.59). MSM who received rapid tests, c...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Spectrum of mucocutaneous manifestations in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients and its correlation with CD4 lymphocyte count
In this study, 100 HIV-positive cases (63 men, 37 women) with skin findings were included. The mean CD4 T cell count was 253 cells/mm3. A total of 235 dermatological manifestations were seen. The common infectious dermatoses were candidiasis (21%), Staphylococcal skin infections (20%), dermatophytoses (14%) and herpes zoster (6%). Among the non-infectious dermatoses were papular pruritic eruptions (20%), xerosis/ichthyosis (20%) and seborrhoeic dermatitis (16%). Statistically significant association (p &lt; 0.05) with CD4 T cell count was seen in pyodermas, dermatophytoses and papular pruritic eruptions. Adverse drug reactions, diffuse hair loss, straightening of hairs and pigmentary changes were also noted. Although there was an absence of Kaposi&rsquo;s sarcoma in our study, a case of ve...
Vaginal douching and sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers: a cross-sectional study in three provinces in China
Though vaginal douching is a common practice among female sex workers that could increase the risk of HIV and adverse reproductive health outcomes, it has drawn limited attention. From November 2010 to January 2011, a convenience sample of female sex workers was recruited in three cities in China. Face-to-face interviews were conducted to gather socio-demographic and behavioural information. Blood samples were collected for syphilis serological tests. Endo-cervical swabs were collected and tested for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis by polymerase chain reaction. A logistic regression model was used to determine factors associated with vaginal douching and the association between vaginal douching and sexually transmitted infection. A total of 1032 eligible female sex workers ...
Outreach sexual infection screening and postal tests in men who have sex with men: are they comparable to clinic screening?
We report the results of a pilot outreach sexually transmitted infection service using nurse-delivered screening and self-sampled postal testing at a sex on premises venue with comparison made against a sexual health clinic service. Thirty men were included in each group. Users of the nurse-delivered and postal services were older (nurse service median age 57.5 years vs. postal kit service 47 years vs. clinic 35.5 years, p &le; 0.001). Outreach groups were less likely to have undertaken sexually transmitted infection testing previously than the clinic group (53.3% and 60% vs. 93.3%, p &le; 0.001). Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae testing uptake was comparable across groups (nurse outreach 86.6%, &lsquo;do it yourself&rsquo; postal kit 100% vs. clinic 100%, p = 0.032), but up...
Behcet's disease diagnosed after acute HIV infection: viral replication activating underlying autoimmunity?
We describe a patient who presented with systemic vasculitis with skin and mucous membrane ulcerations in the setting of acute HIV infection, who was eventually diagnosed with Beh&ccedil;et&rsquo;s disease, demonstrating a possible link between acute HIV infection, immune activation and development of autoimmunity. (Source: International Journal of STD and AIDS)
Parenteral antiretroviral formulations are still urgently needed: a case report and commentary
This case report highlights a challenging clinical dilemma to administer antiretroviral therapy in a critically-ill human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient who presented with multiple opportunistic infections and a non-functional gastrointestinal tract. The need for parenteral antiretroviral drug options is discussed and investigational drugs are briefly reviewed. (Source: International Journal of STD and AIDS)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Atypical presentations of genital herpes simplex virus in HIV-1 and HIV-2 effectively treated by imiquimod
We report two cases with hypertrophic presentations which were effectively treated with imiquimod, one of which is the first reported case occurring in a patient with HIV-2. (Source: International Journal of STD and AIDS)
The role of quantitative ADME proteomics to support construction of physiologically based pharmacokinetic models for use in small molecule drug development
Pharmacokinetics (PK) refers to the time course of drug concentrations in the body and since knowledge of PK aids understanding of drug efficacy and safety, numerous PK studies are performed in animals and humans during the drug development process. In vitro to in vivo extrapolation and physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling are tools that integrate data from various in silico, in vitro, and in vivo sources to deliver mechanistic quantitative simulations of in vivo PK. PBPK models are used to predict human PK and to evaluate the effects of intrinsic factors such as organ dysfunction, age, and genetics as well as extrinsic factors such as co?administered drugs. In recent years, the use of PBPK within the industry has greatly increased. However, insufficient data on how the ...
Author's Response to Sanchez et al entitled ?On the importance of training aids and the definition of an explosive odor signature: Commentary on Kranz et al.?
What follows is our response to the letter to the editor from C.L. Sanchez, P.A. Prada and K.G. Furton. We address their claims and concerns with regards to our publication ?On the smell of Composition C-4?, followed by some concluding remarks. (Source: Forensic Science International)
Provision of onsite HIV services in substance use disorder treatment programs: A longitudinal analysis
This study uses two waves of nationally representative data of 265 privately-funded SUD treatment programs in the U.S. to examine organizational and patient characteristics associated with offering a dedicated HIV/AIDS treatment track, onsite HIV/AIDS support groups, and onsite HIV testing. (Source: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment)
Development of a collaborative professional group for HIV pharmacists: experience from the Canadian HIV/AIDS Pharmacists Network
(Source: International Journal of Pharmacy Practice)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Influence of Interpretation Aids on Attentional Capture, Visual Processing, and Understanding of Front-of-Package Nutrition Labels
To study the influence of 2 interpretational aids of front-of-package (FOP) nutrition labels (color code and text descriptors) on attentional capture and consumers? understanding of nutritional information. (Source: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior)
Dispelling myths and focusing on notable concepts in HIV pathogenesis.
Authors: Levy JA Abstract Since the discovery of HIV over three decades ago, major efforts have been made to control and perhaps eliminate HIV infection worldwide. During these studies, certain myths or misconceptions about this infectious disease have been emphasized and other potentially beneficial concepts have received less attention. A true long-term solution to HIV infection merits an appreciation of alternative ideas and findings that could be beneficial in the ultimate control of HIV/AIDS. Here, I discuss six issues and call for more attention to the science of HIV and well-designed clinical trials. PMID: 25883070 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Trends in Molecular Medicine)
Author's response to Sanchez et al. entitled ?On the importance of training aids and the definition of an explosive odor signature: Commentary on Kranz et al.?
What follows is our response to the letter to the editor from C.L. Sanchez, P.A. Prada and K.G. Furton. We address their claims and concerns with regards to our publication ?On the smell of Composition C-4?, followed by some concluding remarks. (Source: Forensic Science International)
Condom use in HIV/AIDS patients in Ethiopia
Shewamene Z, Legesse B, Tsega B, Bhagavathula AS, Endale A (Source: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management)
PrEP Works and Is a Valuable Addition to the HIV Prevention Toolkit
At the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care 2014 national conference in Miami, Florida, we participated in a number of panels, presentations, and discussions about preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to prevent HIV infection. We were pleased to see the recent JANAC article, ?Considerations for Implementing Oral Preexposure Prophylaxis: A Literature Review? (Sowicz, Teitelman, Coleman, & Brawner, 2014). We fully support the authors? observation that nurses will play a critical role in PrEP implementation. (Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Year of Ethics
The National Nurses Week theme for 2015 is Ethical Practice. Quality Care. On behalf of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care (ANAC) Board of Directors, I would like to extend a special thank you to ANAC members for your continued dedication to and caring for people living with and at risk for HIV disease. ANAC nurses deserve special recognition for long-standing efforts to deliver compassionate quality care while embodying the principles of ethical practice in our profession. As ANAC members, we are proud to acknowledge that a focus on ethics has always been a cornerstone of HIV nursing care. (Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)
Predatory Publishing and You
? like all predators they are looking for feeding grounds.Robert D. Hare (BrainyQuote, n.d.) (Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)
Cover 1
(Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)
Editorial Board
(Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)
Table of Contents
(Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Board of Directors
(Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)
Genomic analysis of xCT-mediated regulatory network: identification of novel targets against AIDS-associated lymphoma.
Authors: Dai L, Cao Y, Chen Y, Kaleeba JA, Zabaleta J, Qin Z Abstract Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiological agent of primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), a rapidly progressing malignancy mostly arising in HIV-infected patients. Even under conventional chemotherapy, PEL continues to portend nearly 100% mortality within several months, which urgently requires novel therapeutic strategies. We have previously demonstrated that targeting xCT, an amino acid transporter for cystine/glutamate exchange, induces significant PEL cell apoptosis through regulation of multiple host and viral factors. More importantly, one of xCT selective inhibitors, Sulfasalazine (SASP), effectively prevents PEL tumor progression in an immune-deficient xenograft model. In the current stu...
Repeated HIV Voluntary Counseling and Testing Increased Risk Behaviors Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in China: A Prospective Cohort Study
Abstract High risk MSM are recommended to take up HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) once every 6 months. 809 HIV-negative MSM in Beijing, China entered the 18-month prospective cohort study; 228 joined an extended study at month 21. The majority (92.5 %) of the participants had taken up four rounds of VCT over the study period. HIV prevalence at months 0, 6, 12, 18 and 21 ranged from 2.5 to 6.3 %; HIV incidences for the four intervals between the five visits ranged from 5.00 to 14.28 per 100-person year. Despite experiencing repeated VCT, high levels of risk behaviors were reported at month 21. 18 % of the participants interviewed at month 21 self-reported increased in UAI and other risk behaviors, comparing recent and pre-baseline experiences. HIV transmission an...
Venues for Meeting Sex Partners and Partner HIV Risk Characteristics: HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN064) Women?s HIV Seroincidence Study (ISIS)
Abstract Identifying venues where women meet sexual partners, particular partners who increase women?s risk of acquiring HIV, could inform prevention efforts. We categorized venues where women enrolled in HPTN 064 reported meeting their last three sex partners as: (1) Formal, (2) Public, (3) Private, and (4) Virtual spaces. We used multinomial logistic regression to assess the association between these venues and women?s individual characteristics and reports of their partners? HIV risk characteristics. The 2099 women reported meeting 3991 partners, 51 % at Public, 30 % Private, 17 % Formal and 3 % at Virtual venues. Women meeting partners at Formal venues reported more education and condom use than women meeting partners at other venues. Fewer partners met through F...
STI/HIV Sexual Risk Behavior and Prevalent STI Among Incarcerated African American Men in Committed Partnerships: The Significance of Poverty, Mood Disorders, and Substance Use
Abstract African Americans face disproportionate sexually transmitted infection including HIV (STI/HIV), with those passing through a correctional facility at heightened risk. There is a need to identify modifiable STI/HIV risk factors among incarcerated African Americans. Project DISRUPT is a cohort study of incarcerated African American men recruited from September 2011 through January 2014 from prisons in North Carolina who were in committed partnerships with women at prison entry (N = 207). During the baseline (in-prison) study visit, participants responded to a risk behavior survey and provided a urine specimen, which was tested for STIs. Substantial proportions reported multiple partnerships (42 %), concurrent partnerships (33 %), and buying sex (11 %) in the 6 months ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
HIV Vaccine Research: The Challenge and the Way Forward.
Authors: Wang HB, Mo QH, Yang Z Abstract Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a worldwide epidemic, with over 35 million people infected currently. Therefore, the development of a safe and effective HIV-1 vaccine is on top of the global health priority. In the past few years, there have been many promising advances in the prevention of HIV/AIDS, among which the RV144 Thai trial has been encouraging and suggests optimization of the current vaccine strategies or search for novel strategies. Here we reviewed the brief history of HIV-1 vaccine, analyzed key challenges existing now, and illustrated future research priority/directions for a therapeutic or prophylactic HIV-1 vaccine, with the hope of accelerating the speed of vaccine development. ...
Women's Health is Everyone's Health
This report complements the UN Secretary-General's global review of progress on gender equality, which was also released this spring. Together, these reports measure how women's and girls' lives have changed -- for better or worse -- in the 20 years since the historic UN Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing. For the optimist in me, the Full Participation report contains a lot to celebrate. I was especially interested to see the gains and gaps in women's health -- since health is an essential prerequisite to a full and productive life. The data tells us that in all of human history, there has never been a better time to be born female. Women are living longer, healthier lives than ever before. In the 20 years since the Beijing Conference, the number of women dying in pregnancy or c...
HIV: New Antibody Therapy Shows Promise in PatientsHIV: New Antibody Therapy Shows Promise in Patients
A broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibody, 3BNC117, lowered viral load for weeks, suggesting a novel route to prevention and treatment. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Hiv-Aids Headlines)
Developmental Change in the Effects of Sexual Partner and Relationship Characteristics on Sexual Risk Behavior in Young Men Who Have Sex with Men
Abstract Young men who have sex with men are substantially impacted by HIV/AIDS, and most new infections occur in serious romantic dyads. Young people experience substantial psychosocial and neurocognitive change between adolescence and emerging adulthood which impacts engagement in risk behaviors. We aimed to examine developmental change in the association between sexual partnership characteristics and condomless anal intercourse (CAI). Data were taken from an analytic sample of 114 young adult MSM from a longitudinal study of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender youth with 4-year follow-up. Rates of CAI were approximately 12 times higher in serious compared to casual partnerships, but this effect diminished in size over time. Partner age differences and violence were associate...
Low vision aid?A ray of hope for irreversible visual loss in the pediatric age group
Conclusion LVA is essential and effective in improving VA and QOL in children with LV. (Source: Taiwan Journal of Ophthalmology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
The physicochemical and environmental factors affecting the distribution of Anopheles merus along the Kenyan coast
Conclusions: Different physicochemical parameters and environmental parameters affect the occurrence of An. merus. In this study, higher temperatures accelerate the growth of the larvae and aids in growth of micro-organisms and algae which are food sources for the larvae. Saline waters favour the growth and development of An. merus larvae; they are also able to develop in a range of saline waters. Conductivity, total dissolved solids and canopy coverage are among the important factors influencing the development and abundance of An. merus larvae in their habitats. Habitat type also influences the abundance of An. merus larvae. They mainly prefer to breed in pools and ponds, but not swamps, hoof prints and wells. (Source: Parasites and Vectors)
Histoplasmosis Infections Worldwide: Thinking Outside of the Ohio River Valley
Abstract In the USA, histoplasmosis is generally thought to occur mainly in the Ohio and Mississippi river valleys, and the classic map of histoplasmosis distribution reflecting this is second nature to many US physicians. With the advent of the HIV pandemic, reports of patients with progressive disseminated histoplasmosis and AIDS came from regions of known endemicity, as well as from regions not thought to be endemic for histoplasmosis throughout the world. In addition, our expanding armamentarium of immunosuppressive medications and biologics has increased the diagnosis of histoplasmosis worldwide. While our knowledge of areas in which histoplasmosis is endemic has improved, it is still incomplete. Our contention is that physicians should consider histoplasmosis with the right ...
New Fact Sheet: HIV and Injection Drug Use
HIV and Injection Drug Use fact sheet is about the high risk of HIV transmission among people who inject drugs. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
Update on the Epidemiology and Prevention of HIV/AIDS in the USA
We describe the epidemiology of HIV disease in the USA and the HIV continuum of care based on data collected primarily through HIV surveillance systems led by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention including HIV incidence, prevalence, comorbidities, and death. Populations and geographic regions disparately impacted by HIV are also highlighted. The HIV prevention armamentarium is also described including behavioral approaches to prevention, the emerging availability of biomedical prevention interventions such as pre-exposure prophylaxis, and structural and population-level interventions including treatment as prevention. Finally, gaps in our understanding of the epidemic are underscored and suggestions for future epidemiologic research are proposed. (Source: Current Epidemiology Rep...
The latest health food fads revealed but which ones REALLY work? 
Dietitian Sophie Claessens picks the 'miracle' foods from the fads as she examines the latest 'superfoods' promising 'detox', weight loss aids and better heart health. (Source: the Mail online | Health)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Charcoal to detox, freekah for heart health and bone broth to lower your blood pressure: The latest health food fads revealed...but which ones REALLY work? 
Dietitian Sophie Claessens picks the 'miracle' foods from the fads as she examines the latest 'superfoods' promising 'detox', weight loss aids and better heart health. (Source: the Mail online | Health)
Engagement of Traditional Healers and Birth Attendants as a Controversial Proposal to Extend the HIV Health Workforce
Abstract ?Medical pluralism? is the use of multiple health systems and is common among people living with HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa. Healers and traditional birth attendants (TBAs) often are a patient?s first and/or preferred line of treatment; this often results in delayed, interrupted, or abandoned diagnosis and therapy. Literature from the study of medical pluralism suggests that HIV care and treatment programs are infrequently and inconsistently engaging healers around the world. Mistrust and misunderstanding among patients, clinical providers, and traditional practitioners make the development of effective partnerships difficult, particularly regarding early HIV diagnosis and antiretroviral therapy. We provide recommendations for the development of successful colla...
Neuropathology of HAND With Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy: Encephalitis and Neurodegeneration Reconsidered
Abstract HIV-1 infiltrates the central nervous system (CNS) during the initial infection and thereafter plays a persistent role in producing CNS dysfunction as the disease progresses. HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are highly prevalent in HIV-infected patient populations, including currently infected patients with good access to suppressive antiretroviral therapy (cART). cART decreased the severity of CNS dysfunction dramatically and, in doing so, upended the neuropathological foundation of HAND pathophysiology. It is clear that the working concept of pathophysiology prior to cART, which was driven by inflammation, encephalitis, and neurodegeneration, needs to be replaced. The NeuroAIDS field is reluctant to take that important step. This review explores the fact t...
Cerebrospinal Fluid HIV Escape from Antiretroviral Therapy
Abstract CNS infection is a nearly constant facet of systemic CNS infection and is generally well controlled by suppressive systemic antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, there are instances when HIV can be detected in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) despite suppression of plasma viruses below the clinical limits of measurement. We review three types of CSF viral escape: asymptomatic, neuro-symptomatic, and secondary. The first, asymptomatic CSF escape, is seemingly benign and characterized by lack of discernable neurological deterioration or subsequent CNS disease progression. Neuro-symptomatic CSF escape is an uncommon, but important, entity characterized by new or progressive CNS disease that is critical to recognize clinically because of its management implications. Finally, se...
Ureaplasma: Current perspectives
P Kokkayil, B DhawanIndian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2015 33(2):205-214Ureaplasma species are the most prevalent genital Mycoplasma isolated from the urogenital tract of both men and women. Ureaplasma has 14 known serotypes and is divided into two biovars- Ureaplasma parvum and Ureaplasma urealyticum. The organism has several genes coding for surface proteins, the most important being the gene encoding the Multiple Banded Antigen (MBA). The C-terminal domain of MBA is antigenic and elicits a host antibody response. Other virulence factors include phospholipases A and C, IgA protease and urease. Besides genital tract infections and infertility, Ureaplasma is also associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and diseases in the newborn (chronic lung disease and retinopathy of prematurity...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Plasma Cytokine Levels and Risk of HIV Type 1 (HIV-1) Transmission and Acquisition: A Nested Case-Control Study Among HIV-1-Serodiscordant Couples
Conclusions.&nbsp;Immune activation, as measured by levels of cytokine markers, particularly elevated levels of IL-10 and CXCL1, are associated with increased HIV-1 susceptibility and infectiousness. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Differences in HIV Type 1 Neutralization Breadth in 2 Geographically Distinct Cohorts in Africa
To investigate whether distinct populations have differing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) neutralizing antibody responses, we compared 20 women from Tanzania's HIV Superinfection Study (HISIS) cohort, who were infected multiple HIV subtypes, and 22 women from the Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa (CAPRISA) cohort, who were infected exclusively with HIV subtype C. By 2 years after infection, 35% of HISIS subjects developed neutralization breadth, compared with 9% of CAPRISA subjects (P = .0131). Cumulative viral loads between 3 and 12 months were higher in the HISIS group (P = .046) and strongly associated with breadth (P &lt; .0001). While viral load was the strongest predictor, other factors may play a role, as the odds of developing breadth remained hig...
Prothymosin {alpha} Variants Isolated From CD8+ T Cells and Cervicovaginal Fluid Suppress HIV-1 Replication Through Type I Interferon Induction
Soluble factors from CD8+ T cells and cervicovaginal mucosa of women are recognized as important in controlling human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and transmission. Previously, we have shown the strong anti-HIV-1 activity of prothymosin &alpha; (ProT&alpha;) derived from CD8+ T cells. ProT&alpha; is a small acidic protein with wide cell distribution, to which several functions have been ascribed, depending on its intracellular or extracellular localization. To date, activities of ProT&alpha; have been attributed to a single protein known as isoform 2. Here we report the isolation and identification of 2 new ProT&alpha; variants from CD8+ T cells and cervicovaginal lavage with potent anti-HIV-1 activity. The first is a splice variant of the ProT&alpha; gene, known as isof...
Use of Boosted Protease Inhibitors Reduces Kaposi Sarcoma Incidence Among Male Veterans With HIV Infection
Conclusions.&nbsp;Lower KS incidence was observed with longer BPI use, after accounting for potential IRIS and other factors. Future research should evaluate newer cART regimens and long-term benefits of PI-based cART on KS in other cohorts and prospective studies. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Myocardial Infarction Among Danish HIV-Infected Individuals: Population-Attributable Fractions Associated With Smoking
Conclusions.&nbsp;Smoking is associated with a higher risk of MI in the HIV-infected population than in the general population. Approximately 3 of 4 MIs among HIV-infected individuals are associated with ever smoking compared with only 1 of 4 MIs among population controls. Smoking cessation could potentially prevent more than 40% of MIs among HIV-infected individuals, and smoking cessation should be a primary focus in modern HIV care. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Editorial Commentary: Myocardial Infarction in HIV-Infected Persons: Time to Focus on the Silent Elephant in the Room?
(Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Antiretroviral Treatment Failure, Drug Resistance, and Subtype Diversity in the Only Pediatric HIV Clinic in Rhode Island
Conclusions.&nbsp;We report high HIV type 1 diversity, extensive drug resistance among ART-experienced children, and horizontal transmission of resistance in the Rhode Island pediatric HIV clinic. As HIV-infected children mature into adulthood, close monitoring of ART, adherence, and diagnosis disclosure are essential to optimize patient care. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Pyrenochaeta romeroi causing subcutaneous phaeohyphomycotic cyst in A diabetic female
We present a rare case of subcutaneous phaeohyphomycotic cyst in a diabetic female caused by Pyrenochaeta romeroi. (Source: Medical Mycology Case Reports)
The Potential Role of Employment on Neurocognitive Reserve in Adults with HIV: A Review of the Literature
The benefits of employment are enormous; when employed, people naturally: (a) engage socially with the public and colleagues/co-workers, (b) learn new skills to increase job productivity and competence, (c) establish routines that can prevent lethargy and boredom and may regulate sleep and healthy behaviors, (d) are provided purposeful and meaningful activity that may prevent depression, and (e) gain income to pursue cognitively stimulating interests. All of these and other employment influences can provide an enriched personal and social environment that stimulates positive neuroplasticity and promotes neurocognitive reserve, which are particularly relevant to adults with HIV because (a) approximately 50% of adults with HIV experience observable cognitive impairments that can adversely af...
Strategies to Improve HIV Testing in African Americans
Only 17% of Miami-Dade County residents are African American, yet this population accounts for 59% of the county?s HIV-related mortality. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend annual testing for persons at increased risk for HIV, but 40% of African Americans have never been tested. OraQuick®, the first FDA-approved home-based HIV rapid test (HBHRT), has the potential to increase testing rates; however, there are concerns about HBHRT in vulnerable populations. We conducted focus groups in an underserved Miami neighborhood to obtain community input regarding HBHRT as a potential mechanism to increase HIV testing in African Americans. (Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Forum on the brain and hearing aids.
Conclusion: Benefits from hearing aids and auditory training entail higher-level cortical/cognitive processing involved in categorizing and remembering sound. New approaches to predicting, designing and evaluating technological and behavioral interventions will need to consider the brain and not just the ears of listeners. PMID: 25863869 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Audiology)
About cognitive outcome measures at ecological signal-to-noise ratios and cognitive-driven hearing aid signal processing.
Conclusion: Two experiments indicate that it is possible to show improved memory with an experimental noise reduction algorithm at ecological signal-to-noise ratios and that it is possible to replicate these findings in a new language. The literature indicates that attention-controlled hearing aids may be developed in the future. PMID: 25863715 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Audiology)
Exosomes in human semen restrict HIV-1 transmission by vaginal cells and block intravaginal replication of LP-BM5 murine AIDS virus complex.
In this study, we examined the ability of healthy human semen exosomes to restrict HIV-1 and LP-BM5 murine AIDS virus transmission in three different model systems. We show that vaginal cells internalize exosomes with concomitant transfer of functional mRNA. Semen exosomes blocked the spread of HIV-1 from vaginal epithelial cells to target cells in our cell-to-cell infection model and suppressed transmission of HIV-1 across the vaginal epithelial barrier in our trans-well model. Our in vivo model shows that human semen exosomes restrict intravaginal transmission and propagation of murine AIDS virus. Our study highlights an antiretroviral role for semen exosomes that may be harnessed for the development of novel therapeutic strategies to combat HIV-1 transmission. PMID: 25880110 [PubMed...
In the News ? New York Daily News ? Nussenzweig
HIV vaccine on the horizon? Rockefeller University researchers call antibody ?extremely potent? against virus strains ?Researchers working in Dr. Michel Nussenzweig&#8217;s Laboratory of Molecular Immunology at Rockefeller University were able to isolate and clone [a] new generation of antibodies, so &#8230; More &#187; (Source: The Rockefeller University Newswire)
HIV immunotherapy treatment shows promise
Treatment using human antibodies helps fight the AIDS virus in study (Source: Health News: CBSNews.com)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Time for U.S. Parents to Reconsider the Acceptability of Infant Male Circumcision
Do the benefits of male circumcision outweigh the risks? The U.S. Centers for Disease Control -- echoing the 2012 policy statement of the American Academy of Pediatrics -- have recently suggested that they do. What many Americans are not aware of, however, is the fact that the United States is not just unusual, but actually unique among developed nations in finding such widespread medical support for infant male circumcision. This support originated in the late 1800s, when doctors promoted the operation as a "cure" for masturbation; today it comes primarily from doctors' trade associations -- such as the AAP -- that protect financial and other interests of physicians who continue to perform such surgeries. Doctors in peer nations, by contrast, along with the medical associations that repre...
Trial brings researchers closer to an antibody treatment for HIV
Although an effective therapy is still some years off, trial using high doses of antibody reduced HIV levels in patients? blood systems 300-foldResearchers are a step closer towards an antibody treatment for HIV, after trials of an experimental therapy reduced the amount of virus in patients? blood.A small trial in 17 HIV patients found that high doses of an antibody could slash levels of virus in patients? bodies, though scientists warned that an effective therapy was still years off. Continue reading... (Source: Guardian Unlimited Science)
Nigeria: Exclusive - How Sexual Abuse By Male Police Officers Fuels HIV Among Female Colleagues - Report
[Premium Times] The prevalence of HIV/AIDS is by far higher among female police personnel in Nigeria than among their male counterparts, and the lead cause is sexual exploitation by male officers who deliberately toughen police routines to make the women vulnerable to sexual abuse, an internal police assessment has found. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Disclosing haemophilia at school: strategies employed by mothers of children with haemophilia in Japan
ConclusionFor children with haemophilia to feel safe attending school, public schools must establish care management and anti?discrimination systems for children with chronic diseases, thus assuring parents of their children's welfare at school. (Source: Haemophilia)
Prediction of HIV Virologic Failure Among Adolescents Using the Pediatric Symptom Checklist
Abstract Psychosocial dysfunction is a risk factor for treatment non-adherence among children and adolescents. A previous study showed that high scores on the Pediatric Symptom Checklist (PSC) were associated with a history of HIV virologic failure. We assessed whether high scores on the PSC could predict virologic failure in HIV-infected youth. Caregivers of 234 adolescents between the ages of 10 and 16 years were asked to complete a PSC at baseline. Elevated PSC scores were associated with virologic failure in the subsequent 6 months. PSC scores may help guide resource utilization when viral load monitoring is limited. (Source: AIDS and Behavior)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Predictors of HIV Disclosure in Infected Persons Presenting to Establish Care
Abstract Persons receiving effective HIV treatment experience longevity and improvement in quality of life. For those infected, social support is associated with improved medication adherence. Disclosure of infection status is likely a prerequisite for social support. However, little research describes patterns of HIV disclosure by infected persons. We retrospectively evaluated factors associated with disclosure among patients initiating HIV care at a university-based clinic from 2007 to 2012. Of 490 persons initiating care, 13 % had not disclosed their HIV infection to anyone. Black race significantly predicted non-disclosure and persons living with a significant other or friends were more likely to have disclosed their HIV infection versus those living alone. CD4 + T lymphocy...
Adherence to Tobacco Dependence Treatment Among HIV-Infected Smokers
This study?s purpose was to examine participant responsiveness and tobacco dependence treatment adherence and their influences on tobacco abstinence among HIV-infected patients. This non-randomized study included HIV-infected smokers 18 years of age or older, who smoked at least 5 cigarettes per day, and had an interest in quitting smoking in the next 30 days. HIV-infected smokers (n = 247) received a 12-week tobacco dependence treatment intervention that included pharmacotherapy and telephone counseling. Younger age and non-White race were associated with lower adherence to pharmacotherapy. Younger age, non-White race, and increased monthly binge drinking were associated with lower adherence to telephone counseling. High participant responsiveness was associated with adherence to ph...
Quality of Care and Service Expansion for HIV Care and Treatment
Abstract The last two decades have seen exceptional development of antiretroviral treatment programs throughout the world. Over 14 million persons are accessing antiretroviral treatment (ART) treatment as of early 2015, and life expectancy has risen markedly in the most-affected populations. However, large patient numbers threaten to overwhelm already over-burdened health care systems and retention in care remains suboptimal. Developing innovative strategies to alleviate these burdens and retain patients in care remains a challenge. Furthermore, despite this expansion, large populations of HIV-infected persons remain undiagnosed and are unwilling or unable to access care and treatment programs. Marginalized and high-risk populations are particularly in danger of remaining outside ...
Sustained High HIV Incidence in Young Women in Southern Africa: Social, Behavioral, and Structural Factors and Emerging Intervention Approaches
Abstract Young women in southern Africa experience some of the highest incidence rates of HIV infection in the world. Across southern Africa, HIV prevalence among women increases rapidly between the teenage years and young adulthood. Adult HIV prevalence is 16.8 % in South Africa, 23 % in Botswana, 23 % in Lesotho, and 26.5 % in Swaziland. Existing research has illuminated some of the key social, behavioral, and structural factors associated with young women?s disproportionate HIV risk, including gendered social norms that advantage male power in sexual relationships and age disparities in relationships between younger women and older male partners. Important structural factors include the region?s history of labor migration and legacy of family disruption, and entrenched ...
Human Papilloma Virus and Cervical Cancer Education Needs among HIV-Positive Haitian Women in Miami
Haitian immigrant women, the largest growing Black ethnic group in Miami, experience the highest rates of cervical cancer and account for one of the largest populations diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in South Florida. Using community-based participatory research methods, we conducted a pilot study to examine human papilloma virus (HPV)/cervical cancer knowledge and identify intervention preferences among HIV positive Haitian women. (Source: Womens Health Issues)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
DNA-Based Authentication of Botanicals and Plant-Derived Dietary Supplements: Where Have We Been and Where Are We Going?
Planta MedDOI: 10.1055/s-0035-1545843Herbal medicines and botanicals have long been used as sole or additional medical aids worldwide. Currently, billions of dollars are spent on botanicals and related products, but minimal regulation exists regarding their purity, integrity, and efficacy. Cases of adulteration and contamination have led to severe illness and even death in some cases. Identifying the plant material in botanicals and phytomedicines using organoleptic means or through microscopic observation of plant parts is not trivial, and plants are often misidentified. Recently, DNA-based methods have been applied to these products because DNA is not changed by growth conditions unlike the chemical constituents of many active pharmaceutical agents. In recent years, DNA barcoding methods...
Severe morbidity after antiretroviral (ART) initiation: active surveillance in HIV care programs, the IeDEA West Africa collaboration
Background: The causes of severe morbidity in health facilities implementing Antiretroviral Treatment (ART) programmes are poorly documented in sub-Saharan Africa. We aimed to describe severe morbidity among HIV-infected patients after ART initiation, based on data from an active surveillance system established within a network of specialized care facilities in West African cities. Methods: Within the International epidemiological Database to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) - West Africa collaboration, we conducted a prospective, multicenter data collection that involved two facilities in Abidjan, Côte d?Ivoire and one in Cotonou, Benin. Among HIV-infected adults receiving ART, events were recorded using a standardized form. A simple case-definition of severe morbidity (death, hospitalization, fe...
Long lasting control of viral rebound with a new drug ABX464 targeting Rev &#8211; mediated viral RNA biogenesis
Conclusions: ABX464 represents a novel class of anti-HIV molecules with unique properties. ABX464 has a long lasting effect in humanized mice and neutralizes the expression of HIV-1 proviral genome of infected immune cells including reservoirs and it is therefore a promising drug toward a functional cure of HIV. (Source: Retrovirology)
Drug susceptibility to etravirine and darunavir among Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-derived pseudoviruses in treatment-experienced patients with HIV/AIDS in South Korea
Conclusions: Etravirine and darunavir have been used in HAART since 2010 in South Korea. Therefore, these antiretroviral drugs together with other newly introduced antiretroviral drugs are interesting for the optimal treatment of patients with treatment failure. This study may help to find a more effective HAART in the case of HIV-1 infected patients that have difficulty being treated. (Source: Virology Journal)
Health status and health needs of older refugees from Syria in Lebanon
Conclusion: The study concluded older refugees from Syria are a highly vulnerable population needing health surveillance and targeted assistance. Programs assisting vulnerable populations may concentrate services on women and children leaving the elderly overlooked. (Source: Conflict and Health)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Antibody Holds Promise as Weapon Against HIV
Treatment would complement existing medications, researchers say Source: HealthDay Related MedlinePlus Page: HIV/AIDS (Source: MedlinePlus Health News)
In first human study, new antibody therapy shows promise in suppressing HIV infection
In the first results to emerge from HIV patient trials of a new generation of so-called broadly neutralizing antibodies, Rockefeller University researchers have found the experimental therapy can dramatically reduce the amount of virus present in a patient?s blood. The work, reported this week in Nature, brings fresh optimism to the field of HIV immunotherapy and suggests new strategies for fighting or even preventing HIV infection. More &#187; (Source: The Rockefeller University Newswire)
SAARC nations pledge to free region of AIDS by 2030
Nadda said another important aspect of the declaration was that the region decided to become polio free and eradicate it completely. (Source: The Economic Times)
Patients With HIV Retained in Care and Virally SuppressedPatients With HIV Retained in Care and Virally Suppressed
This study estimates the proportion of patients retained in care and virally suppressed in New York. JAIDS: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
Vascular endothelial growth factor-expressing neural stem cell for the treatment of neuropathic pain
In this study, our goal was to verify the therapeutic effect of SV-VEGF-NSCs by transplanting the cells in a sciatic nerve injury model. We compared the amount of VEGF secreted from DsRed-NSCs (control) or SV-VEGF-NSCs and observed that SV-VEGF-NSCs have a much higher expression level of VEGF. We next investigated whether transplantation with SV-VEGF-NSCs aids functional recovery and pain reduction. We confirmed that transplantation with SV-VEGF-NSCs enhances functional recovery, pain reduction, and remyelination as well as the number of blood vessels compared with the control groups. Our results show that VEGF aids functional recovery and pain reduction in a sciatic nerve injury model. (Source: NeuroReport)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Africa: Co-Infections and Co-Morbidities Framework Approved
[GFO] The Board approved a recommendation submitted by the Strategy and Investment for Impact Committee to allow countries to use some of their allocations to fund interventions in response to co-infections that can exacerbate HIV, TB or malaria. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: Global Fund At Eye of Perfect Storm in Financial Markets in 2014
[GFO] Losses due to currency exchange fluctuations hovering around $300 million (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: Maturity and Systems Theme of 33rd Board Meeting
[GFO] Governance reform and eliminating the funding gap remain elusive (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Kenya: Sex Workers Unite to Defy Stigma
[Key Correspondents] The day the military raided Amina Danait's* village in Muguru na Nyori will forever remain etched in her mind. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Zimbabwe: 14 Districts Identified as Potential HIV Hotspots
[New Zimbabwe] THE World Food Programme (WFP) has identified 14 more districts as potential hotspots for new HIV infections in addition to the traditional high prevalence regions of Matabeleland North and South. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Alzheimer's: A Women's Health Issue
Two-thirds of the 5 million Americans living with Alzheimer's disease are female. A woman at age 60 is twice as likely to be diagnosed with Alzheimer's as with breast cancer. Even after factoring in that women on average live longer than men, scientists don't fully understand why this most common form of dementia strikes women more often than men. Congresswoman Speier and Cynthia Guzman who was diagnosed with early-onset Alzheimer's on her 63rd birthday. Perhaps worse is that many don't know they have the disease. The Alzheimer's Association just uncovered that only 45 percent of those with the disease or their caretakers are told by their doctors of the diagnosis. There is no known cure for this cruel, unforgiving disease that kills nerve cells in the brain and robs a person of the abi...
Physical Medicine Interventions to Avoid Acute Respiratory Failure and Invasive Airway Tubes
This article describes the use of physical medicine noninvasive inspiratory and expiratory muscle aids to prevent ventilatory/respiratory failure and to permit the extubation and tracheostomy tube decannulation of patients with little or no autonomous ability to breathe (ie, those who cannot be weaned from ventilator support). Noninvasive airway pressure aids can provide continuous ventilatory support and effective cough flows for patients with severely dysfunctional respiratory muscles. (Source: PMandR)
Macrophage activation syndrome in the course of monogenic autoinflammatory disorders
Abstract An overwhelming activation of cytotoxic T cells and well-differentiated macrophages leading to systemic overload of inflammatory mediators characterizes the so-called macrophage activation syndrome (MAS); this potentially life-threatening clinical entity may derive from several genetic defects involved in granule-mediated cytotoxicity but has been largely observed in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis, many rheumatologic diseases, infections, and malignancies. The occurrence of MAS in the natural history or as the revealing clue of monogenic autoinflammatory disorders (AIDs), rare conditions caused by disrupted innate immunity pathways with overblown release of proinflammatory cytokines, has been only reported in few isolated patients with cryopyrin-associated pe...
Study on new BaCe0.7In0.3O3???Gd0.1Ce0.9O2?? composite electrolytes for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells
Publication date: 5 August 2015 Source:Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 639 Author(s): Fengguang Liu , Junjie Dang , Jie Hou , Jing Qian , Zhiwen Zhu , Zhongtao Wang , Wei Liu New mixed ionic conductors, BaCe0.7In0.3O3? ? ?Gd0.1Ce0.9O2? ? (BCI?GDC, weight ratio, 3:7, 5:5 and 7:3), were synthesized via a one-step citric acid?nitrate gel combustion method as electrolyte materials for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). X-ray diffraction patterns of BCI?GDC indicated that there was no impurity phase formed after sintering at high temperature up to 1400°C. Scanning electron microscopic study of BCI?GDC depicted dense grain morphology. Single fuel cells were prepared and the corresponding electrochemical performances were tested. The sintering temperature of the dense comp...
On the importance of training aids and the definition of an explosive odor signature: Commentary on Kranz et al
The recent article by Kranz et al. (Forensic Science International, 2014, vol. 236, 157-163) presents a misleading interpretation on the use of headspace volatiles from plasticized explosives, specifically 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (2E1H), as a routine training aid material for explosive detection canines. It is the intent of this commentary to highlight several limitations concerning the authors? results related to the setup and execution of the canine field trial used in the study from which the authors? conclusions are based. (Source: Forensic Science International)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Perceived social support affects disease coping among people living with HIV: a study in Tehran, Iran
Conclusions Patients who implement strategies to cope with HIV/AIDS have received more informational and emotional support. This study recommends that the delivery of informational support in a comprehensive package can practically target the current demands of our patients; while thorough investigation of potential effects on disease coping, response to treatment, and compliance can aid us in the design of interventions to target stigma at societal level. (Source: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease)
A Sound Therapy-Based Intervention to Expand the Auditory Dynamic Range for Loudness among Persons with Sensorineural Hearing Losses: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial
Semin Hear 2015; 36: 077-110DOI: 10.1055/s-0035-1546958The primary aim of this research was to evaluate the validity, efficacy, and generalization of principles underlying a sound therapy?based treatment for promoting expansion of the auditory dynamic range (DR) for loudness. The basic sound therapy principles, originally devised for treatment of hyperacusis among patients with tinnitus, were evaluated in this study in a target sample of unsuccessfully fit and/or problematic prospective hearing aid users with diminished DRs (owing to their elevated audiometric thresholds and reduced sound tolerance). Secondary aims included: (1) delineation of the treatment contributions from the counseling and sound therapy components to the full-treatment protocol and, in turn, the isolated treatment e...
Timely Surgical Follow-up for Melanoma Among Medicare Beneficiaries
The incidence of melanoma is increasing worldwide and is rising faster than that of any other cancer in white individuals. Early detection of and treatment aids in identifying less advanced tumors plus prompt surgical treatment could alleviate stress and anxiety. The study by Lott et al in this issue of JAMA Dermatology provides the first population-based look at delay of surgery for melanoma among Medicare beneficiaries. The authors demonstrate that 1 in 5 patients with a new diagnosis of melanoma experience delays in reexcision/definitive excision of longer than 1.5 months, and 8.1% experience delays of longer than 3 months. This delay is minimized when dermatologists perform the biopsy and surgical procedure, suggesting increased efficiency when coordinating care within the same special...
The Complex Interaction Between Methamphetamine Abuse and HIV-1 Pathogenesis
Abstract The global HIV/AIDS pandemic has claimed the lives of an estimated 35 million people. A significant barrier for combating this global pandemic is substance use since it is associated with HIV transmission, delayed diagnosis/initiation of therapy, and poor adherence to therapy. Clinical studies also suggest a link between substance use and HIV-disease progression/AIDS-associated mortality. Methamphetamine (METH) use is one of the fastest-growing substance use problems in the world. METH use enhances high-risk sexual behaviors, therefore increases the likelihood of HIV-1 acquisition. METH use is also associated with higher viral loads, immune dysfunction, and antiretroviral resistance. Moreover, METH use has also been correlated with rapid progression to AIDS. However, dire...
Updated HHS Adult and Adolescent Antiretroviral Treatment Guidelines Released
The HHS Panel on Antiretroviral Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents announces the release of the updated Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in HIV-1-Infected Adults and Adolescents. Key updates to the guidelines include additions and changes to the following guideline sections: What to Start: Significant changes to the list of Recommended, Alternative, and Other regimens for treatment-naive patients prompted by recent findings from clinical trials and cohort studies, as well as experience in clinical practice. Addition of a new table to assist clinicians in selecting an initial ARV regimen based on specific clinical scenarios and ARV-related considerations. Management of the Treatment-Experienced Patient: Expanded information on the management of patients f...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
CDC Leading New Efforts to Fight HIV Among Gay, Bisexual Men and Transgender People
"The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention will lead new programs totaling more than $185 million in HIV prevention funding for men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender people, with a particular focus on addressing the needs of MSM of color. The multi-faceted strategy will respond to the severe burden of HIV among MSM and transgender men and women through three new programs enabling health departments and local HIV prevention partners to deliver the most effective HIV prevention tools." &nbsp; To learn more, view the CDC press release. (Source: AIDSinfo At-a-Glance: Offering Information on HIV/AIDS Treatment, Prevention, and Research, A Service of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS))
Rapidly Progressive Dementia and Myoclonus with Elevated CSF IgG Index in Young Adult Immigrants: Treatable, but Not Always with Immunosuppression (I4-2A)
CONCLUSIONS: Young adults with RPD, myoclonus, and elevated CSF IgG index may have SSPE. Upbringing in areas in which measles eradication had not yet been achieved can be an important diagnostic clue. EEG and measles antibodies in serum and CSF are useful, readily available diagnostic studies. Reports of accelerated disease course associated with steroids, pregnancy, and HIV/AIDS in patients with SSPE support the hypothesis that empiric immunosuppression could have worsened the outcome in these two patients.Disclosure: Dr. Jay has nothing to disclose. Dr. Zimmermann has nothing to disclose. Dr. DaSilva has nothing to disclose. (Source: Neurology)
The Changing Epidemiology of Stroke in Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). (I7-1A)
Conclusions:There is an increased frequency of AIDS among stroke patients, possibly due to the increased detection of AIDS. In the HAART era, the median age of incident stroke in AIDS has increased. Whether HAART can reduce the incidence and improve survival of stroke needs to be explored.Disclosure: Dr. Kucab has received personal compensation for activities with Bayer HealthCare as an advisory board participant. Dr. Bhattacharya has nothing to disclose. (Source: Neurology)
Etiologies of New Onset Seizure in HIV-infected Zambian Adults (I7-3A)
Conclusions: Seizures in HIV-infected adults in Zambia are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Multiple infectious etiologies and/or metabolic abnormalities account for the majority of cases.Disclosure: Dr. Siddiqi has nothing to disclose. Dr. Elafros has nothing to disclose. Dr. Sikazwe has nothing to disclose. Dr. Bositis has nothing to disclose. Dr. Koralnik has received personal compensation for activities with Johnson & Johnson as a scientific advisory board member. Dr. Koralnik has received personal compensation in an editorial capacity for Annals of Neurology. Dr. Koralnik has received royalt Dr. Potchen has received personal compensation for activities as a medical expert witness. Dr. Theodore held stock and/or stock options in General Electric. Dr. Kalungwana ...
The Changing Epidemiology of Stroke in Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). (P1.089)
Conclusions:There is an increased frequency of AIDS among stroke patients, possibly due to the increased detection of AIDS. In the HAART era, the median age of incident stroke in AIDS has increased. Whether HAART can reduce the incidence and improve survival of stroke needs to be explored.Disclosure: Dr. Kucab has received personal compensation for activities with Bayer HealthCare as an advisory board participant. Dr. Bhattacharya has nothing to disclose. (Source: Neurology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Frequency of HIV-associated neurological disorders over four years of follow-up: results from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (P2.315)
Conclusion: HAND is still common in HIV+ individuals in the cART era. However, for the majority of HIV+ individuals on cART with systemic virological suppression, the diagnosis of HAND is not a progressive clinical condition over four years of follow-up. Future studies should evaluate longitudinal changes in HAND over a longer period of time. Study Supported by: AI035042Disclosure: Dr. Sacktor has nothing to disclose. Dr. Reynolds has nothing to disclose. Dr. Skolasky has nothing to disclose. Dr. Munro has nothing to disclose. Dr. Becker has nothing to disclose. Dr. Martin has nothing to disclose. Dr. Ragin has nothing to disclose. Dr. Levine has nothing to disclose. Dr. Miller has nothing to disclose. (Source: Neurology)
CMV Transverse Myelitis Presenting as Partial Brown-Sequard Syndrome (P2.319)
BACKGROUND: CMV infection affecting the CNS is most frequently seen in immunocompromised patients such as those with advanced HIV infection. It can also cause transverse myelitis, which produces symptoms of paraplegia, urinary retention and sensory deficits. However, its presentation as Brown-Sequard syndrome is extremely rare. OBSERVATION: 53-year-old man, newly diagnosed with AIDS (CD4 count 25 cells/mm3) and started on HAART therapy 12 days prior to admission, presented with 1 week history of left leg weakness and right leg numbness. His physical exam was significant for left lower extremity weakness in pyramidal pattern (4/5), left patellar and ankle hyper-reflexia and left Babinski sign. He also displayed decreased sensation to pain and temperature on his right lower extremity extendi...
Rapidly Progressive Dementia and Myoclonus with Elevated CSF IgG Index in Young Adult Immigrants: Treatable, but Not Always with Immunosuppression (P2.322)
CONCLUSIONS: Young adults with RPD, myoclonus, and elevated CSF IgG index may have SSPE. Upbringing in areas in which measles eradication had not yet been achieved can be an important diagnostic clue. EEG and measles antibodies in serum and CSF are useful, readily available diagnostic studies. Reports of accelerated disease course associated with steroids, pregnancy, and HIV/AIDS in patients with SSPE support the hypothesis that empiric immunosuppression could have worsened the outcome in these two patients.Disclosure: Dr. Jay has nothing to disclose. Dr. Zimmermann has nothing to disclose. Dr. DaSilva has nothing to disclose. (Source: Neurology)
Etiologies of New Onset Seizure in HIV-infected Zambian Adults (P5.045)
Conclusions: Seizures in HIV-infected adults in Zambia are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Multiple infectious etiologies and/or metabolic abnormalities account for the majority of cases.Disclosure: Dr. Siddiqi has nothing to disclose. Dr. Elafros has nothing to disclose. Dr. Sikazwe has nothing to disclose. Dr. Bositis has nothing to disclose. Dr. Koralnik has received personal compensation for activities with Johnson & Johnson as a scientific advisory board member. Dr. Koralnik has received personal compensation in an editorial capacity for Annals of Neurology. Dr. Koralnik has received royalt Dr. Potchen has received personal compensation for activities as a medical expert witness. Dr. Theodore held stock and/or stock options in General Electric. Dr. Kalungwana ...
Varicella-Zoster Hemorrhagic Encephalitis in an AIDS patient (P6.013)
CONCLUSIONS: We describe a patient with AIDS and VZV encephalitis in the absence of cutaneous eruptions or trigeminal compromise. HIV is known to cause vasculitis and could coexist with VZV. It is important to recognize that VZV infection is a cause of small or large vessel vasculopathy which may cause focal demyelination at the the gray-white matter junction mimicking JC viral lesions. The case highlights VZV encephalitis as an entity that could lead to devastating complications, including inflammatories vasculopathy with either ischemic or hemorrhagic sequelae.Disclosure: Dr. Vela-Duarte has nothing to disclose. Dr. Pasquale has nothing to disclose. Dr. Flaster has nothing to disclose. (Source: Neurology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Differentiating vertical misalignment using different head positions: a reappraisal (S26.003)
CONCLUSIONS:In contrast to prior studies, the upright supine test in our skew population showed a 25[percnt] sensitivity, and ocular torsion increased in the supine position.Disclosure: Dr. Lemos has nothing to disclose. Dr. Subei has nothing to disclose. Dr. Sousa has nothing to disclose. Dr. Coelho has nothing to disclose. Dr. Cunha has nothing to disclose. Dr. Glisson has received personal compensation for activities with Biogen Idec and Lundbeck. Dr. Eggenberger has received personal compensation for activities with Biogen Idec, Genzyme, Questcor, Novartis, Acorda, Prime Pharma, Allergan, Inc. and Teva. Dr. Eggenberger has received research support from Teva, Allergan, Inc., Serono, and Berlex. (Source: Neurology)
Lucy Montoro Rehabilitation Network mobile unit: an alternative public healthcare policy.
CONCLUSION: Data on patients' profiles were made available through services provided by the MU - including the average index of 1.85 devices delivered to each patient and demand projections - which can be used in the planning of public policies. The MU made rehabilitation services more accessible, trained professionals, raised awareness on the correct delivery and use of assistive devices, and identified and organized people's demand in each region. Implications for Rehabilitation Delivering prostheses, orthoses and other mobility aids fulfills the rights of persons with disabilities to personal mobility with the greatest possible independence, as foreseen by the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, increasing their participation in society on an equal basis with others. ...
Promoting Shared Decision Making in Disorders of Sex Development (DSD): Decision Aids and Support Tools
Horm Metab ResDOI: 10.1055/s-0035-1545302Specific complaints and grievances from adult patients with disorders of sex development (DSD), and their advocates, center around the lack of information or misinformation they were given about their condition and feeling stigmatized and shamed by the secrecy surrounding their condition and its management. Many also attribute poor sexual function to damaging genital surgery and/or repeated, insensitive genital examinations. These reports suggest the need to reconsider the decision-making process for the treatment of children born with DSD. This paper proposes that shared decision making, an important concept in adult health care, be operationalized for the major decisions commonly encountered in DSD care and facilitated through the utilization of d...
Updated Trends in HIV Infection, Stage 3 (AIDS) Slide Set
This slide set presents data on trends (1985-2013) in diagnoses of HIV infection that have been classified as stage 3 (AIDS). (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
MSM Surveillance Slide Set
This slide set presents the latest (2013) HIV surveillance data on males with diagnosed HIV infection attributed to male-to-male sexual contact. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
A Troubling Potential Link Between Sleep Aids And Mental Illness
In today's "always on," high-stress world, it has become commonplace to turn to over-the-counter sleep aids for a little help with drifting off into dreamland at night. However, that habit, if made a consistent one, could lead to potentially serious damage when it comes to ones mental health. A new study zeroing in on anticholinergic drugs -- a category that includes common non-prescription sleeping aids and antihistamines like Benadryl -- found that the long-term use of such medications in higher doses can lead to an increased risk of developing dementia, including Alzheimer's disease, in the future. It's the first study of its kind to prove this dose-response effect, meaning that the higher, cumulative consumption of the drug, the higher the likelihood of a person developing dementia la...
?Mad*Pow designing solutions to health care?s problems
When Mad*Pow heard that medication adherence for patients with HIV was a problem, executives figured the solution lied in design. The Boston design firm ? in partnership with the Center for Disease Control, health consulting firm John Snow Inc. and non-profit AIDS organizations ? subsequently designed and developed an app to help patients take their medication. ?HIV medication can make you feel terrible. (We?re) making a connection between adherence and (positive outcomes),? said Amy? (Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Physician Practices headlines)
Threats to identity: lipodystrophy and identity changes in people with HIV/AIDS (PWA).
CONCLUSIONS: The study highlights how complex, cyclical and dynamic are the effects that HIV status can have on the sick person: they are no longer only clinical, but also psychological and psychosocial. PMID: 25835763 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Acta Bio-Medica : Atenei Parmensis)
The Influence of a Peer-Based HIV Prevention Intervention on Conversation About HIV Prevention Among People Who Inject Drugs in Baltimore, Maryland
Abstract STEP into Action assessed the efficacy of a peer-based HIV prevention intervention in reducing HIV risk behaviors among people who inject drugs (PWIDs) in Baltimore. This analysis examined the effect of the intervention on the change in frequency of conversation about HIV prevention topics over time. 114 participants were randomized into an experimental and 113 into a control group. Data was collected prospectively at 6, 12, and 18 months. The experimental group talked more frequently about HIV prevention topics compared to the control group at 6-month visit. At 18 months relative risk ratios (RRR) remained statistically significant for conversation about the danger of needle sharing (RRR = 3.21) and condom use (RRR = 2.81). The intervention resulted in an increased...
Understanding Consistent Condom Use Among Homeless Men Who Have Sex with Women and Engage in Multiple Sexual Partnerships: A Path Analysis
This study identified 182 homeless men who engaged in multiple sexual partnerships from a representative sample of homeless men, who self-identified as heterosexual, using meal line services in Downtown Los Angeles? Skid Row area. Information such as participants? condom use psychosocial correlates, sexual risk behaviors, and social network characteristics were collected. Results suggested that condom efficacy is a potential intervening mechanism through which condom attitudes (? = ?0.199; p = 0.005) and depression (? = ?0.156; p = 0.029) are associated with an individual?s consistent condom use. Having more network members with whom participants talked about HIV prevention (? = 0.051; p = 0.006) was also found to be associated with an individual?s consistent con...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Relationship Between Family Economic Resources, Psychosocial Well-being, and Educational Preferences of AIDS-Orphaned Children in Southern Uganda: Baseline Findings
This study examines the relationship between economic resources, psychosocial well-being, and educational preferences of AIDS-orphaned children in southern Uganda. We use baseline data from a sample of 1410 AIDS-orphaned children (defined as children who have lost one or both biological parents to AIDS) enrolled in the Bridges to the Future study, a National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) funded study. Analyses from both bivariate and multiple regression analyses indicate the following: 1) despite the well-documented economic and psychosocial challenges AIDS-orphaned children face, many of these children have high educational plans and aspirations; 2) educational aspirations differ by orphanhood status (double orphan vs. single orphan); 3) regardless of orphanhood ...
Transitions in the communication experiences of tracheostomised patients in intensive care: a qualitative descriptive study
ConclusionThe importance of patients experiencing caring and understanding despite their difficult situation constitutes the core finding. The findings suggest that participants went through different transitions. Some reached the end of their transition, experiencing increased stability. Relevance to clinical practiceDespite challenges with communication, participants reported that caring and safety provided by health care professionals were significant experiences. They viewed nonverbal communication as being very important. (Source: Journal of Clinical Nursing)
Hearing Care for Older Adults: Beyond the Audiology Clinic.
Conclusion: Further work is needed to develop new interventions for older people with impaired hearing and to increase collaboration with general practitioners as well as other health-care professionals. PMID: 25856775 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Audiology)
Shared decision-making in epilepsy management.
Authors: Pickrell WO, Elwyn G, Smith PE Abstract Policy makers, clinicians, and patients increasingly recognize the need for greater patient involvement in clinical decision-making. Shared decision-making helps address these concerns by providing a framework for clinicians and patients to make decisions together using the best evidence. Shared decision-making is applicable to situations where several acceptable options exist (clinical equipoise). Such situations occur commonly in epilepsy, for example, in decisions regarding the choice of medication, treatment in pregnancy, and medication withdrawal. A talk model is a way of implementing shared decision-making during consultations, and decision aids are useful tools to assist in the process. Although there is limited evidence avail...
Factors influencing implementation dose and fidelity thereof and related student outcomes of an evidence-based national HIV prevention program
Conclusions: Both implementation dose and implementation fidelity are related to student outcomes. Teachers at risk for limited implementation can be identified pre-intervention, thus opening the possibility for focused pre-intervention training. (Source: Implementation Science)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Liberia: Traditional Leaders Advocate for Inclusion
[NEWS] Heads of female and male traditional leaders in Bong County have called for inclusion of the traditional community into training programs intended to help eradicate HIV and AIDS, TB and Malaria undermining the country's health sector. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Dolutegravir Remains Superior to Boosted Darunavir for HIV-1Dolutegravir Remains Superior to Boosted Darunavir for HIV-1
Once-daily dolutegravir maintains its higher virological response rates over those of ritonavir-boosted darunavir in treatment-naïve adults with HIV-1 infection, according to 96-week results from the FLAMINGO study. Reuters Health Information (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)
Africa: HIV/Aids - Uganda in Africa's Top 3 for New Infections
[Observer] National rates of new HIV cases remain substantially high, keeping Uganda off the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/Aids (UNAIDS) target of having zero new infections by end of 2015. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Liberia: Unprecedented Killers, Health Official Describes HIV, TB
[FrontPageAfrica] Sinoe County -The Sinoe County, Acting County Health Officer (CHO) Mr. Samson Q. Wiah has called for joint efforts from government, civil society, community leaders and international partners to fight HIV and Tuberculosis (TB) in the country. Mr. Wiah said, it is about time that Liberians see HIV and AIDS and TB as unprecedented elements which are seeking to destroy human existence. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
IHS: Office of Direct Service and Contracting Tribes; National Indian Health Outreach and Education II
The Indian Health Services (IHS) is accepting competitive applications for two awards under the National Indian Health Outreach and Education (NIHOE): the Behavioral Health - Methamphetamine and Suicide Prevention Intervention (MSPI) outreach and education award and the Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) outreach and education award. (Source: Federal Register updates via the Rural Assistance Center)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
The doctor who fights public health crises
The Ebola outbreak that has infected thousands of people in western Africa is a top concern of Dr. Anthony Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases at the National Institutes of Health. Contributor Scott Simon of NPR sat down with Dr. Fauci for some questions and answers ? about fighting AIDS, Ebola and other public health crises. (Source: Health News: CBSNews.com)
High performance screen printed Pb(Zr0.46Ti0.54)O3?Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3?Pb(Ni1/3Nb2/3)O3 thick films by one-step co-firing method
Publication date: 1 August 2015 Source:Materials Letters, Volume 152 Author(s): Mingyang Wang , Weibing Ma , Nan Chen , Yaoxian Guo , Jianqiang Ma , Zhihao Zhao High performance screen-printed PNN?PZN?PZT thick films have been successfully prepared using a new one-step co-firing method at relatively low sintering temperature, leaving out preceding binder removal and subsequent electrode-made processes. And the dependence of microstructure, densification and electrical properties on the content of sintering aids has been investigated. The specimens with 1wt% sintering aids sintered at 850°C exhibits markedly enhanced piezoelectric and dielectric properties: d 33=202 pC/N, ? 33 T /? 0=987, tan ?=1.8%, Tc=295°C, and Pr=14.02?C/cm2. Furthermore, there is no obvious Ag diffusion int...
Incarceration and injection drug use in Baltimore, Maryland
ConclusionsIn the United States, incarceration of people who had previously stopped injecting drugs appears to be associated with an increased risk of subsequent injecting. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Addiction)
Fibrinogen as a Biomarker in Vascular Disease and its Prognostic Impact During Venous and Arterial Thrombolysis
Fibrinogen is a large complex glycoprotein that is aids in the formation of blood clots. As an acute phase protein, fibrinogen has clinical application as a biomarker in the management of patient with venous and arterial disease. High levels are associated with inflammation and the risk of cardiovascular disease. During venous and arterial thrombolysis therapy, fibrinogen levels have prognostic significance regarding risk of bleeding. In this review, the application of fibrinogen as a biomarker in care of the vascular surgery patient is detailed. (Source: Seminars in Vascular Surgery)
Direct synthesis of hydrogen peroxide using Au?Pd supported and ion-exchanged heteropolyacids precipitated with various metal ions
We report the preparation and testing of Au?Pd catalysts prepared by ion exchange and impregnation methods with insoluble heteropolyacids as the support. The heteropolyacids contain a range of counter ions including Cs+, Rb+, K+ and Ag+. The catalysts containing Cs and Rb prepared by ion exchange were shown to be extremely active for H2O2 synthesis using reaction conditions that are not particularly conducive to H2O2 synthesis but are reaction conditions that are dictated by potential applications, such as water as a solvent and ambient temperature. Graphical abstract (Source: Catalysis Today)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Mitochondria in autoinflammation: cause, mediator or bystander?
Publication date: Available online 4 April 2015 Source:Trends in Endocrinology &amp; Metabolism Author(s): Robert van der Burgh , Marianne Boes People suffering from autoinflammatory disease (AID) have recurring sterile inflammation due to dysregulated inflammasome activation. Although certain genes have been associated with several AIDs, the molecular underpinnings of seemingly spontaneous inflammation are not well understood. Emerging data now suggest that mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and autophagy might drive key signaling pathways towards activation of the inflammasome. In this review, we discuss recent findings and highlight common features between different AIDs and mitochondrial (dys)function. Although it is still early to identify cl...
UCLA research links HIV to age-accelerating cellular changes
People undergoing treatment for HIV-1 have an increased risk for earlier onset of age-related illnesses such as some cancers, renal and kidney disease, frailty, osteoporosis and neurocognitive disease. But is it because of the virus that causes AIDS or the treatment? To answer that question, researchers at the UCLA AIDS Institute and Center for AIDS Research and the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study investigated whether the virus induces age-associated epigenetic changes ? that is, changes to the DNA that in turn lead to changes in expression of gene levels without changing the inherited genetic code. These changes affect biological processes and can be brought on by environmental factors or by the aging process itself. In a study published online in the peer-reviewed journal PLOS ONE, ...
Exposing the gaps in awareness, knowledge and estimation of risk for anal cancer in men who have sex with men living with HIV: a cross-sectional survey in Australia.
CONCLUSIONS: This survey of MSM living with HIV demonstrated limited awareness, knowledge level and estimation of risk for anal cancer. Further educational and public health initiatives are urgently needed to improve knowledge and understanding of anal cancer risk in MSM living with HIV. PMID: 25828269 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Female Condom Use and Adoption Among Men and Women in a General Low-Income Urban U.S. Population
Abstract HIV prevention is increasingly focused on antiretroviral treatment of infected or uninfected persons. However, barrier methods like male condoms (MC) and female condoms (FC) remain necessary to achieve broad reductions in HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). Evidence grows suggesting that removal of basic obstacles could result in greater FC use and reduced unprotected sex in the general population. We conducted four annual cross-sectional surveys (2009?2012) of urban residents (N = 1614) in low-income neighborhoods of a northeastern U.S. city where prevalence of HIV and other STIs is high. Findings indicate slow FC uptake but also heterosexual men?s willingness to use them. Factors associated with men?s and women?s FC use included positive FC a...
Analysis of nanowire transistor based nitrogen dioxide gas sensor ? A simulation study
Publication date: Available online 30 March 2015 Source:Sensing and Bio-Sensing Research Author(s): Gaurav Saxena , Roy Paily Sensors sensitivity, selectivity and stability has always been a prime design concern for gas sensors designers. Modeling and simulation of gas sensors aids the designers in improving their performance. In this paper, different routes for the modeling and simulation of a semiconducting gas sensor is presented. Subsequently, by employing one of the route, the response of Zinc Oxide nanowire transistor towards nitrogen dioxide ambient is simulated. In addition to the sensing mechanism, simulation study of gas species desorption by applying a recovery voltage is also presented. (Source: Sensing and Bio Sensing Research)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Imaging Infection
Thoracic imaging is widely used to detect lower respiratory tract infections, identify their complications, and aid in differentiating infectious from noninfectious thoracic disease. Less commonly, the combination of imaging findings and a clinical setting can favor infection with a specific organism. This confluence can occur in cases of bronchiectatic nontuberculous mycobacterial infections in immune-competent hosts, invasive fungal disease among neutropenic patients, Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia in patients with AIDS, and in cytomegalovirus infections in patients with recent hematopoietic cell transplantation. These specific diagnoses often depend on computed tomography scanning rather than chest radiography alone. (Source: Clinics in Chest Medicine)
Ras/MEK/MAPK-mediated regulation of heparin sulfate proteoglycans promotes retinal fate in the drosophila eye-antennal disc.
This study identifies a novel mode by which the Ras/MEK/MAPK pathway regulates regional-fate specification via HSPGs during development. PMID: 25848695 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Developmental Biology)
Mitochondria in autoinflammation: cause, mediator or bystander?
Authors: van der Burgh R, Boes M Abstract People suffering from autoinflammatory disease (AID) have recurring sterile inflammation due to dysregulated inflammasome activation. Although certain genes have been associated with several AIDs, the molecular underpinnings of seemingly spontaneous inflammation are not well understood. Emerging data now suggest that mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and autophagy might drive key signaling pathways towards activation of the inflammasome. In this review, we discuss recent findings and highlight common features between different AIDs and mitochondrial (dys)function. Although it is still early to identify clear therapeutic targets, the emerging paradigms in inflammation and mitochondrial biology show that ...
Nanotopography aids transdermal drug delivery
Technique increases skin?s permeability to high molecular weight therapeutics. (Source: Nanotechweb.org News)
Announcements: National Youth HIV and AIDS Awareness Day ? April 10, 2015
(Source: CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
HIV-Infected People Often Do Well After Kidney Transplant
Refuting common wisdom, research shows that these patients fared better than those with hepatitis C Source: HealthDay Related MedlinePlus Pages: HIV/AIDS, Hepatitis C, Kidney Transplantation (Source: MedlinePlus Health News)
HIV among People Aged 50 and Over
described the burden of HIV on this population in the United States and what CDC is doing about it. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
A Clever Trick Aids Memory
To improve recall of words and faces, try associating them with locations -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com (Source: Scientific American - Official RSS Feed)
Only Farage can save our precious bodily fluids from HIV
Nigel Farage is like a host who charges guests for using too much loo roll. Continue reading... (Source: Guardian Unlimited Science)
Africa: OIG Releases First "Annual Opinion" On the Global Fund Secretariat
[GFO] Says organizational maturity has improved, but further enhancements are required (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Africa: Global Fund Board Approves Final Targets to Complete the Corporate KPI Framework
[GFO] Updated performance targets for key performance indicators related to alignment with national reporting systems, human rights protection and the quality of management and leadership approved (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: Global Fund in Three-Pronged Approach to Resource Mobilization
[GFO] Next replenishment will kick off with pre-meeting in Japan in December 2015 (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: Incentive Funding Awards Reduced to Find Money to Cover Gaps in Countries With Shortened Grant Durations, Trp Says
[GFO] Because of the gaps, will the Fund have any resources to finance unfunded quality demand? (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: Code of Ethical Conduct for Governance Officials Adopted
[GFO] "Best interests of the Fund must take priority" (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: OIG Releases Annual Report for 2014 and an Update On Agreed Management Actions
[GFO] Secretariat issues report on recoveries (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Malawi: Miaa for Couple-Counseling and Testing
[Malawi News Agency] Ntchisi -Couple counseling and testing can contribute towards reducing the spread of HIV and AIDS as it encourages couples to discuss risk concerns, hear information and messages together thereby enhancing likelihood of shared understanding of HIV and AIDS prevention strategies, says Malawi Interfaith AIDS Association (MIAA). (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
UCLA research links HIV to age-accelerating cellular changes
(University of California - Los Angeles Health Sciences) People undergoing treatment for HIV-1 have an increased risk for earlier onset of age-related illnesses such as some cancers, renal and kidney disease, frailty, osteoporosis and neurocognitive disease. But is it because of the virus that causes AIDS or the treatment? New research suggests that HIV itself accelerates these aging related changes by more than 14 years. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)
HIV: Low Risk for Drug Resistance From PrEP HIV: Low Risk for Drug Resistance From PrEP
Resistance that arises in individuals who are receiving preexposure prophylaxis is largely the result of an emtricitabine-selected mutation. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)
An Electronic Daily Diary Study of Anal Intercourse in Drug-Using Women
Abstract Women (N = 138) with histories of illicit drug use were recruited into an electronic diary study that used Android smartphones for data collection. The diary was to be completed each day for 12 weeks using an ?app? created in HTML5 and accessed over the Internet via smartphone. Data collection included information on sexual behaviors with up to 10 partners per day and contextual factors surrounding sexual behavior such as drug use before/after, type of sexual behavior (oral, vaginal, anal), and other activities such as using condoms for vaginal and anal intercourse and use of sexual lubricants. The sample was predominantly African American (58 %); 20 % Latina, 20 % White and 2 % reported as Other. Most women reported either less than a high school education (33...
Sexual Behavior, Risk Compensation, and HIV Prevention Strategies Among Participants in the San Francisco PrEP Demonstration Project: A Qualitative Analysis of Counseling Notes
Abstract Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a viable HIV prevention strategy but risk compensation could undermine potential benefits. There are limited data that examine this phenomenon outside of clinical trials. We conducted a qualitative analysis of counseling notes from the San Francisco site of the US PrEP demonstration project to assess how men who have sex with men used PrEP as a prevention strategy and its impact on their sexual practices. Four major themes emerged from our analysis of 130 distinct notes associated with 26 participants. Prevention strategy decision-making was dynamic, often influenced by the context and perceived risk of a sexual encounter. Counselors noted that participants used PrEP in conjunction with other health promotion strategies like condoms, ask...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Behavioral Intervention Improves Treatment Outcomes Among HIV-Infected Individuals Who Have Delayed, Declined, or Discontinued Antiretroviral Therapy: A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Novel Intervention
This study examined a new culturally targeted multi-component intervention to address emotional, attitudinal, and social/structural barriers to ART initiation and HIV care. Participants (N = 95) were African American/Black and Latino adults with CD4 &lt; 500 cells/mm3 not taking ART, randomized 1:1 to intervention or control arms, the latter receiving treatment as usual. Primary endpoints were adherence, evaluated via ART concentrations in hair samples, and HIV viral load suppression. The intervention was feasible and acceptable. Eight months post-baseline, intervention participants tended to be more likely to evidence ?good? (that is, 7 days/week) adherence (60 vs. 26.7 %; p = 0.087; OR = 3.95), and had lower viral load levels than controls (t(22) = 2.29, p = 0.032; OR ...
Perceptions of the effects of armed conflict on maternal and reproductive health services and outcomes in Burundi and Northern Uganda: a qualitative study
Conclusions: The effects of armed conflict on MRH services and outcomes are substantial. The mechanisms through which armed conflict leads to poor access and quality of MRH services vary from one setting to another. All these issues need to be considered in the design and implementation of interventions to improve MRH in these settings. (Source: BMC International Health and Human Rights)
Coagulation of methylated arsenic from drinking water: Influence of methyl substitution
In this study, the removal of monomethylarsenate (MMA) and dimethylarsenate (DMA) from drinking water by coagulation was investigated from the viewpoint of methyl substitution. Results indicated that FeCl3 was more efficient than AlCl3 and polyaluminum chloride (PACl) in methylated As removal. For the initial arsenic concentration of 200?g/L, an FeCl3 dosage of 0.2mmol Fe/L was sufficient to attain about 95% removal of MMA, while a dosage of 0.6mmol Fe/L achieved about 57% removal of DMA. Arsenic removal efficiency was negatively correlated with the degree of methyl substitution. With the increase in methyl group number, the quantity of negatively charged arsenic species decreased and molecular size increased, leading to the decrease of methylated As removal by coagulation. Adsorption on ...
Gastrointestinal cryptococcoma ? Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome or cryptococcal relapse in a patient with AIDS?
We present the case of an HIV-infected patient on ART, with a history of cryptococcal meningitis who presented with subacute, worsening abdominal pain during immune recovery. This evolved into chronic abdominal pain, with thickened bowel, and abdominal lymphadenopathy, while receiving empiric tuberculosis treatment. At 6-months, he developed intestinal perforation due to a histologically confirmed cryptococcoma. (Source: Medical Mycology Case Reports)
Bone density and fractures in HIV-infected postmenopausal women: A systematic review
With the development of effective antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV-infected women are living longer and transitioning through menopause. The purpose of our study was to systematically examine the evidence that menopause is an additional risk predictor for osteoporosis and fractures in HIV-infected women. Electronic databases were searched for studies of low bone density or fractures in HIV-infected postmenopausal women. Studies that met the inclusion criteria (n = 10) were appraised using a validated quality assessment tool. (Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Medical treatment decision making after total avulsion brachial plexus injury: a qualitative study.
CONCLUSIONS Patients with panplexus avulsion injuries are missing opportunities for reconstruction and often not considering the long-term outcomes of surgery. As more Americans gain health insurance coverage, it is very likely that the number of patients able to pursue reconstruction will increase. The authors recommend implementing clinical pathways to help patients meet critical points in care within the ideal timeframe and using a patient- and family-centered care approach combined with patient decision aids to foster shared decision making, increase access to information, and improve patient satisfaction with decisions. These measures could greatly benefit patients with BPI while reducing costs, improving efficiency, and generating better outcomes. PMID: 25839930 [PubMed - as supp...
HIV spreads like internet malware and should be treated earlier
A new model for HIV progression finds that it spreads in a similar way to some computer worms and predicts that early treatment is key to staving off AIDS. HIV specialists and network security experts noticed that the spread of HIV through the body using two methods -- via the bloodstream and directly between cells -- was similar to how some computer worms spread through both the internet and local networks respectively to infect as many computers as possible. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)
Researchers dramatically improve ART adherence for minority persons living with HIV/AIDS
Up to 60% of persons living with HIV (PLHA) in the U.S. are neither taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) nor well engaged in HIV primary care, with racial/ethnic minorities more likely to experience barriers to engagement along this HIV continuum of care than their White counterparts. In fact, only 30% of persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) in the United States have achieved "viral suppression," the ultimate goal of HIV treatment. Indeed, PLHA poorly engaged in HIV primary care and/or who are not on ART are at elevated risk for a host of poor outcomes, including more frequent hospitalizations, lower quality of life, and even earlier mortality, and also run a greater risk of transmitting HIV to their partners. Further, poor engagement in HIV care and lack of ART initiation with good adherenc...
HIV spreads like computer worms, say scientists
New model equates spread of worm across local networks and internet with progress of Aids virus through the body, suggesting early treatment is vital Continue reading... (Source: Guardian Unlimited Science)
Africa: "Finally, the Global Fund Is Focused On Human Beings" - Dybul Delivers Executive Director's Report
[GFO] Travels to six countries in Q1 demonstrate breadth of impact of new funding model, ED says (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Uganda: Women and Girls Bear Burden of HIV Caregiving
[Key Correspondents] Most societies in Uganda rely on women and girls to be voluntary caregivers for relatives when they are sick, as well as occupational caregivers for the community. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: Global Fund Board Selects New Chair and Vice-Chair
[Global Fund] Geneva -The Board of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria selected Norbert Hauser, a former Member of Parliament and international auditor from Germany, as its new Chair and also named Aida Kurtovic of Bosnia and Herzegovina as Vice-Chair. Both began serving a two-year term today. (Source: AllAfrica News: Malaria)
Africa: Hauser and Kurtovic the New 'Dream Team' Leading Global Fund Board
[GFO] The pair will serve two years, presiding over the next financial replenishment and an evolution of the allocations methodology (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
India to add more AIDS, TB drugs to essential medicines list: sources
MUMBAI (Reuters) - India is likely to add more HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis drugs to its list of essential medicines that are subject to price caps, people directly involved in the process said, in a move to improve affordability of drugs to treat the deadly diseases. (Source: Reuters: Health)
India to add more AIDS, TB drugs in essential medicines list: Sources
The AIDS and TB medicines would join a list of nearly 400 essential drugs under price control in India. (Source: The Economic Times Healthcare and Biotech News)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Mozambique: Governor Calls for Improved Messages Against HIV/Aids
[AIM] Maputo -The governor of Maputo province, Raimundo Diomba, on Tuesday urged activists involved in the fight against HIV/AIDS to improve their methods of educating the various segments of the population, and making them aware of the threat. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
HIV spreads like internet malware and should be treated earlier
(University College London) A new model for HIV progression finds that it spreads in a similar way to some computer worms and predicts that early treatment is key to staving off AIDS.HIV specialists and network security experts at UCL noticed that the spread of HIV through the body using two methods -- via the bloodstream and directly between cells -- was similar to how some computer worms spread through both the internet and local networks respectively to infect as many computers as possible. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)
Group support psychotherapy for depression treatment in people with HIV/AIDS in northern Uganda: a single-centre randomised controlled trial
Publication date: Available online 31 March 2015 Source:The Lancet HIV Author(s): Etheldreda Nakimuli-Mpungu , Kizito Wamala , James Okello , Stephen Alderman , Raymond Odokonyero , Ramin Mojtabai , Edward J Mills , Steve Kanters , Jean B Nachega , Seggane Musisi Background Group support psychotherapy (GSP) is a culturally sensitive intervention that aims to treat depression by enhancing social support, teaching coping skills, and income-generating skills. We compared GSP with group HIV education (GHE) for treatment of depression in people with HIV in Uganda. Methods In this open-label randomised controlled trial, we included men and women with HIV, aged 19 years or older, who met the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview criteria for major depression from an urban HIV care cent...
HIV knowledge among male labor migrants in China
Conclusion: Labor migrants are a high risk population for HIV infection. Their lack of HIV knowledge is a serious concern because they are a vulnerable group for infection and their sexual behaviors are spreading HIV to other members of the population and across geographic areas. (Source: BMC Public Health)
Influences of Social Determinants of Health on African Americans Living with HIV in the Rural Southeast: A Qualitative Meta-synthesis
Social determinants of health influence health outcomes and contribute to health disparities in diverse populations. A meta-synthesis was conducted to provide emic perspectives of the experiences of African Americans living with HIV in the rural, southeastern United States. Analysis of qualitative literature revealed patterns among social determinants of health as upstream factors contributing to health care barriers, poor health outcomes, decreased quality of life, and health disparities. The purpose of our meta-synthesis was the illumination and synthesis of themes describing characteristics of social determinants of health in selected qualitative articles. (Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
The effect of relationship characteristics on HIV risk behaviors and prevention strategies in young gay and bisexual men
We examined whether relationship status, relationship ideation, and sexual agreements affected HIV/sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention strategies and high-risk behaviors in young men who have sex with men (MSM). Using an online survey, we found that partnered MSM more commonly used condoms with casual partners and knew the reported HIV status of all their partners compared to single MSM (p < 0.05). Men scoring high in relationship exclusivity reported higher condom use with casual partners compared to men scoring lower (p < 0.05). (Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)
In vivo biochemical analyses reveal distinct roles of {beta}-importins and eEF1A in tRNA subcellular traffic [Research Papers]
Bidirectional tRNA movement between the nucleus and the cytoplasm serves multiple biological functions. To gain a biochemical understanding of the mechanisms for tRNA subcellular dynamics, we developed in vivo &beta;-importin complex coimmunoprecipitation (co-IP) assays using budding yeast. Our studies provide the first in vivo biochemical evidence that two &beta;-importin family members, Los1 (exportin-t) and Msn5 (exportin-5), serve overlapping but distinct roles in tRNA nuclear export. Los1 assembles complexes with RanGTP and tRNA. Both intron-containing pre-tRNAs and spliced tRNAs, regardless of whether they are aminoacylated, assemble into Los1&ndash;RanGTP complexes, documenting that Los1 participates in both primary nuclear export and re-export of tRNAs to the cytoplasm. In contrast...
DNA test colours in BRCA1 gene
Rolling circle amplification aids femtomolar sensitivity for gene linked with breast cancer (Source: Chemistry World | Latest News)
Hybrid Spreading Mechanisms and T Cell Activation Shape the Dynamics of HIV-1 Infection
This study suggests that hybrid spreading is a fundamental feature of HIV infection, and provides the mathematical framework incorporating this feature with which to evaluate future therapeutic strategies. (Source: PLoS Computational Biology)
Comparison of Clinical Features, Virulence, and Relapse among Mycobacterium avium Complex Species.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that specific MAC species have varying degrees of virulence and classifying MAC isolates into distinct species aids in identifying which patients are at a higher risk of clinical relapse. PMID: 25835090 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Normal flora and bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy: an overview.
Authors: Redelinghuys MJ, Ehlers MM, Dreyer AW, Kock MM Abstract The female genital tract is an intricate, yet balanced ecosystem that hosts a variety of different residential microflora. The physiological changes that occur during pregnancy may disrupt this balanced ecosystem and predispose women to a potentially pathogenic microbiota. Bacteria that are associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV) are opportunistic pathogens that frequently form part of this microbiota. The overgrowth of and infections with these bacteria are linked to poor obstetric outcomes and increased transmission of other reproductive tract infections (RTIs). These infections increase women's susceptibility of acquiring HIV, the rates of HIV shedding and the development of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AI...
Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Lipoatrophy in Patients with HIV Infection in Nigeria.
Conclusion. Lipoatrophy is frequently encountered in patients with HIV infection in Nigeria, with HAART use conferring an added factor in its development. There is need for more physician and patient awareness of this condition. PMID: 25821597 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Predictors of Mortality among Adult Antiretroviral Therapy Users in Southeastern Ethiopia: Retrospective Cohort Study.
Conclusion. The overall mortality incidence rate was high and majority of the death had occurred in the first year of ART initiation. Intensifying and strengthening early ART initiation, improving nutritional status, prevention and control of TB, and other opportunistic infections are recommended interventions. PMID: 25821596 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Option B+ and HIV Infection Among Antenatal PatientsOption B+ and HIV Infection Among Antenatal Patients
How useful would Option B+ be for pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Cameroon? Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
HIV among People Aged 50 and Over
described the burden of HIV on this population in the United States and what CDC is doing about it. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
HIV among Asians
describes the burden of HIV on Asians in the United States and what CDC is doing about it. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
Liberia: Free Methodist Church Aids Ebola Orphans, Survivors
[FrontPageAfrica] The outbreak of the deadly Ebola Disease in March 2014 and its devastating effect continues to create hardship in every sector of Liberia. Amid protest before the General Ministry last month by Ebola survivors and orphans of the Taffi Dollar Children Welfare Center, to draw government's attention to their plight, the Free Methodist World Mission Church has come in to identify with the two groups. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
HIV among Asians
describes the burden of HIV on Asians in the United States and what CDC is doing about it. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
Morocco: In Morocco, Inspiring Others With Harm Reduction Work Among Injecting Drug Users
[GFO] The country is a regional role model for an innovative approach to the twin threat of HIV infection and intravenous drug use (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: Athena Network Flags Gender Challenges in Global Fund Concept Notes
[GFO] The Global Fund's efforts to put women and girls at the center of its interventions in HIV, TB and malaria have yet to bear significant fruit at the country level, according to the ATHENA Network. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
North Africa: Aidspan Releases Mena Report
[GFO] Aidspan on Thursday released its first-ever regional report: a snapshot of 10 countries in the Middle East and North Africa region as classified by the Global Fund. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: Progress Reported On Community, Rights and Gender Initiatives
[GFO] Work started on obtaining key population size estimates in 16 countries (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: In Unfunded Quality Demand Register, Some Insight Into Program Gaps for Key Populations
[GFO] The $2 billion register so far includes $44 million in key population-specific programs (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: Aidspan Finds Elements of Improved Participation By Key Populations in CCMS in Southern Africa
[GFO] Communication and technical barriers continue to hamper their participation (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: Training in Eeca to Encourage Better Targeting of Women With Global Fund Interventions
[GFO] The Eurasian Women's Network on AIDS carried out the training for representatives from 11 countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Africa: It's Time to Change the Approach to Capacity-Building On Supply Chain Management
[GFO] Access to essential medicines remains a challenge in most developing countries and is among the Millennium Development Goal targets. Over the past decade, international organizations including the Global Fund, the World Bank, USAID have invested in improving access to essential medicines. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
HIV Therapy-The State of ART.
Authors: Looney D, Ma A, Johns S Abstract HIV Attachment. In this cross section, HIV is shown at the top and a target cell is shown at the bottom in blues. HIV envelope protein (A) has bound to the receptor CD4 (B) and then to coreceptor CCR5 (C), causing a change in conformation that inserts fusion peptides into the cellular membrane Antiretroviral therapy changed the face of HIV/AIDS from that of soon and certain death to that of a chronic disease in the years following introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy in 1995-1996 (initially termed HAART, but now most often abbreviated to ART since not all combinations of regimens are equally active). Since then, many new agents have been developed and introduced in response to problems of resistance, toxicity, and tolerabili...
Kenya: Stop Criminalising Women Who Pass HIV to Baby - Court
[Thomson Reuters Foundation] Nairobi -Human rights groups have welcomed moves to change a Kenyan law passed to curb the spread of HIV/AIDS, which criminalises pregnant women who pass HIV/AIDS to their babies, saying it discouraged people from finding out their status. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Malawi: Prophets in Karonga Disappoint a Network of Religious Leaders Living With HIV/Aids
[Malawi News Agency] Karonga -The Malawi Network of Religious Leaders living with or personally affected by HIV/AIDS (MANERELA) has expressed disappointment over some people calling themselves prophets in Karonga District who ask those living with HIV/AIDS to stop taking the antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) after praying for them. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Uganda: HIV-Related Cardiovascular Diseases Worry Medics
[Observer] There is growing concern among scientists that inflammation caused by HIV and the side effects of some antiretroviral drugs, especially protease inhibitors, are increasing cardiovascular risk among people living with HIV. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Lesbians Receiving Unequal Treatment from Cuban Health Services
Two women hugging at a Day Against Homophobia in Havana organised by the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transsexual (LGBT) community. Credit: Jorge Luis Baños/IPSBy Ivet GonzálezHAVANA, Apr 1 2015 (IPS)In addition to other forms of discrimination, lesbian and bisexual women in Cuba face unequal treatment from public health services. Their specific sexual and reproductive health needs are ignored, and they are invisible in prevention and treatment campaigns for women.Many lesbian and bisexual women are afraid of gynaecological instruments and procedures which they experience as particularly distasteful given their sexual orientation. Many are unaware of their risks of contracting sexually transmitted infections (STI) and postpone attending gynaecology appointments in order to avoid questions ...
Sudan: Three-Year Programme to Combat HIV-Aids in Sudan
[Radio Dabanga] Khartoum -The Sudanese federal Ministry of Health has announced a three-year plan to combat the spread of HIV/AIDS in the country. According to Tareg Mohamed Abdallah, director of the Ministry's HIV/AIDS department, 52,000 HIV/AIDS cases have been recorded. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
MinXray supplies DR unit to Nigeria AIDS program
Portable x-ray equipment developer MinXray has installed its CMDR-2S portable (more) (Source: AuntMinnie.com Headlines)
Cytisine Versus Nicotine for Smoking Cessation
ABSTRACT: Cytisine and varenicline are partial receptor agonists that inhibit the attachment of nicotine to receptors. Both are effective aids to smoking cessation. Varenicline is commonly used for this purpose in the United States and worldwide. Cytisine has been available for smoking cessation for more than 40 years, largely in Eastern Europe, and is not available in the United States. Cytisine is less expensive than varenicline and other nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). Placebo-controlled trials and several systematic reviews indicate that cytisine almost doubles the chances of quitting smoking at 6 months. No trials have compared the effectiveness of cytisine for smoking cessation with NRT. This open-label noninferiority trial was designed to determine whether cytisine was as effect...
Clinical Usefulness of HRCT in Assessing the Severity of Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia: A Cross-sectional Study
Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical relevance of thoracic high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in evaluating the severity and outcome of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) in non-AIDS immunocompromised patients. We measured mean lung attenuation (MLA) and extent of increased attenuation (EIA) of PJP lesions on thoracic HRCT in 40 non-AIDS immunocompromised patients with PJP diagnosed by demonstration of the pathogens in cytological smears of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. The MLA and EIA of PJP lesions on thoracic HRCT were used to investigate the severity of PJP. Clinically, the severity of PJP was determined by arterial oxygen tension/fraction of inspired oxygen concentration (PaO2/FiO2) ratio, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) I...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Reading, Writing, and Spoken Language Assessment Profiles for Students Who Are Deaf and Hard of Hearing Compared With Students With Language Learning Disabilities
Working with students who are deaf or hard of hearing (DHH) can raise questions about whether language and literacy delays and difficulties are related directly to late and limited access to spoken language, to co-occurring language learning disabilities (LLD), or to both. A new Test of Integrated Language and Literacy Skills, which incorporates 15 subtests for profiling oral and written language at sound/word and sentence/discourse levels, was used to assess 3 groups of school-age students (ages 6?18 years; n = 43 each). Students in 2 comparison groups?a typically developing (TD) group and an LLD group?were matched individually for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and parental education to 43 DHH students with moderate-to-profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. The DHH students used...
Health Care and Speech Differences
I found the article ?Hospital to Pay $70,000 to Patient Denied Interpreter? (February 2015) quite compelling. It particularly reminded me of an experience regarding the importance of effective communication for patients in hospitals, while my father was hospitalized in Florida last year. He has hearing loss and wears hearing aids, but did not require a sign language interpreter. My family and I experienced difficulty understanding crucial information regarding my father?s health from a doctor who had noticeable ?speech difference.? (Source: The ASHA Leader Online)
The role of intravitreal chemotherapy for retinoblastoma
Fairooz P Manjandavida, Carol L ShieldsIndian Journal of Ophthalmology 2015 63(2):141-145Targeted therapy in retinoblastoma (RB) is widely accepted as the current management tool with an aim of increasing drug availability at the tumor location. Inevitably the effect is several times higher compared to systemic delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs and carries less systemic toxicity. Despite tremendous advancement in saving life, eye salvage in advanced RB especially with active vitreous seeds remains a challenge. The hypoxic environment of the vitreous and reduced vitreous concentration of the drugs delivered makes these tumor seeds resistant to chemotherapy. Direct delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs into the vitreous cavity aids to overcome these challenges and is progressively being accept...
Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in preventable mortality in urban areas of 33 Spanish cities, 1996&#8211;2007 (MEDEA project)
Conclusions: Preventable mortality decreased between the 1996?2001 and 2002?2007 periods, more markedly in men than in women. There were socioeconomic inequalities in mortality in most cities analysed, associating a higher risk of death with higher levels of deprivation. Inequalities have remained over the two periods analysed. This study makes it possible to identify those areas where excess preventable mortality was associated with more deprived zones. It is in these deprived zones where actions to reduce and monitor health inequalities should be put into place. Primary healthcare may play an important role in this process. (Source: International Journal for Equity in Health)
Use of a Web-Based Survey to Facilitate Shared Decision Making for Patients Eligible for Cancer Screening
Conclusion A web-based questionnaire provides an efficient means to identify patients eligible for cancer screening decisions and to offer them DAs before an appointment. Pre-visit use of DAs along with reports giving feedback to patients and clinicians provides an opportunity for SDM to occur at the visit. (Source: The Patient - Patient-Centered Outcomes Research)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Mp42-19 decision aids for localized prostate cancer treatment choice: systematic review and meta-analysis
Patients diagnosed with localized prostate cancer need to make critical treatment decisions that are sensitive to their values and preferences. The role of decision-aids in facilitating these decisions is unknown. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of decision aids for localized prostate cancer. (Source: The Journal of Urology)
Mp23-17 lack of an experienced bedside assistant may adversely affect outcomes during robotic prostatectomy
Robotic prostatectomy (RALP) has become the most common surgical method to treat prostate cancer in North America. Unlike in open surgery, the operating surgeon is at the robotic console separated from his/her assistant, thereby having less influence on the assistant's actions. The assistant aids the surgeon in a variety of important ways, such as by placing surgical clips for hemostasis, maintaining visibility by clearing the surgical field of blood, retraction of tissues, and passing different instruments and sutures. (Source: The Journal of Urology)
Mp77-16 the use of decisional aids for prostate cancer screening: a meta-analysis
Prostate cancer screening guidelines (PCSG) have recently changed due to similar mortality in screened versus unscreened groups in two large randomized controlled trials. Most PCSG's promote shared decision-making. Decisional aids (DA) are interventions used to improve shared decision making while decreasing decisional conflict/anxiety. The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that examined the effectiveness of using decisional aids in prostate cancer (PC) screening. (Source: The Journal of Urology)
Mp1-04 evaluation of genomic signatures in intermediate to high risk men treated with radical prostatectomy but without additional therapy upon psa rise
Radical prostatectomy (RP) is a primary treatment option for men with intermediate and high risk prostate cancer. Though many will be effectively cured with local therapy alone, these men are by definition at higher risk of adverse pathologic findings and clinical disease recurrence. Several genomic tests are currently on the market for use as risk stratification and prognostic aids. Here we evaluate four previously validated genomic signatures in a natural history cohort of at risk men who received no additional treatment until the time of metastatic progression. (Source: The Journal of Urology)
Effectiveness of eye armor during blast loading.
Authors: Bailoor S, Bhardwaj R, Nguyen TD Abstract Ocular trauma is one of the most common types of combat injuries resulting from the interaction of military personnel with improvised explosive devices. Ocular blast injury mechanisms are complex, and trauma may occur through various injury mechanisms. However, primary blast injuries (PBI) are an important cause of ocular trauma that may go unnoticed and result in significant damage to internal ocular tissues and visual impairment. Further, the effectiveness of commonly employed eye armor, designed for ballistic and laser protection, in lessening the severity of adverse blast overpressures (BOP) is unknown. In this paper, we employed a three-dimensional (3D) fluid-structure interaction computational model for assessing effectivenes...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Assessing implementation fidelity of a community-based infant and young child feeding intervention in Ethiopia identifies delivery challenges that limit reach to communities: a mixed-method process evaluation study
Conclusions: There is evidence of strong fidelity in training and delivery of program tools and messages at higher FLW levels, but gaps in the reach of these to community volunteers and mothers and variability between regions could limit the potential for impact. Strengthening the linkages between HEWs and volunteers further can help to reach the target households and deliver IYCF results at scale. (Source: BMC Public Health)
Nucleic Acids Delivery Systems:A Challenge for Pharmaceutical Technologists.
Authors: Silva AC, Lopes CM, Lobo JM, Amaral MH Abstract Nucleic acids (NA) therapies, including therapy with genes, aptamers or antisense oligonucleotides, have been showing promising results, especially in the treatment of severe diseases (e.g. cancer and AIDS). Nevertheless, the full success of medical treatments requires an efficient reaching of the therapeutic target and also the safety and effectiveness of the pharmaceutical system. NA are not very efficient when administered alone, which means that the use of appropriate methods for in vivo transfection of these molecules into targeted cells is fundamental. Examples of these techniques are the use of viral and non-viral vectors to transfer the NA to the cells nucleus. Despite viral vectors have been demonstrating superior ef...
The protease inhibitor atazanavir blocks hERG K(+) channels expressed in HEK293 cells and obstructs hERG protein transport to cell membrane.
CONCLUSION: ATV directly blocks hERG K(+) channels via binding to the residues Y652 and F656 in the S6 domain, and indirectly obstructs the transport of the hERG protein to the cell membrane. PMID: 25832426 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica)
[Surgical treatment of skeletal metastases].
This article presents the principles of the diagnostics, provides aids for estimation of the prognosis and danger of fractures and discusses the various surgical treatment procedures for skeletal metastases with the accompanying advantages and disadvantages. PMID: 25835208 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Der Unfallchirurg)
Podrid's Real?World ECGs: A Master's Approach to the Art and Practice of Clinical ECG interpretation. Volume 4A, Arrhythmias: Core Cases Philip Podrid, MD; Rajeev Malhotra, MD, MS; Rahul Kakkar, MD; and Peter A. Noseworthy, MD, Cardiotext Publishing, Minneapolis, ISBN: 978?1?935395?02?7, 368 pages, Publisher's list price: $89.00
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved (Source: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology : PACE)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Comparison of Pharmacy-Based Measures of Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy as Predictors of Virological Failure
Abstract We compared multiple pharmacy refill-based adherence indicators for antiretroviral therapy, as well as thresholds for defining non-adherent behavior, based on ability to predict virological failure. A total of 29,937 pharmacy visits with corresponding viral load assessments were contributed by 8,695 patients attending a large clinic in Johannesburg, South Africa. Indicators based on pill coverage and timing of refill pickup performed comparably using the strictest thresholds for adherence [100 % pill coverage: odds ratio (OR) (95 % confidence interval (CI)) : 1.26 (1.15, 1.39); prescription picked up on or before scheduled refill date: 1.27 (1.16,1.38)]. For both types of indicators, the association between non-adherence and virological failure increased as the thresho...
Factors Associated with a Delay in Seeking HIV/AIDS Treatment in São Paulo, Brazil
Abstract This quantitative cross-sectional study of HIV/AIDS patients (N = 1,520) in São Paulo evaluated factors associated with a delay in seeking care. Analysis included Chi square tests and multiple logistic regression. Care was sought at the AIDS stage in 56.7 % (861) of patients, and 48.2 % (732) had a CD4 count ?350 cells/mm3; 9 % (136) delayed seeking care for 6 months or more after a positive HIV test. Women sought medical care earlier after testing (odds ratio (OR) = 1.79; P = 0.0227), but were already symptomatic (OR = 1.90; P = 0.0004). Partners of seropositive patients (OR = 3.92; P = 0.0000) also sought care symptomatic. Reasons for late presentation for care were non-acceptance of HIV diagnosis (OR = 24.56; P = 0.0000), treatment refusal (OR...
Adherence to Antiretroviral Medications Among Persons Who Inject Drugs in Transitional, Low and Middle Income Countries: An International Systematic Review
Abstract Adherence to antiretroviral (ART) medication is vital to reducing morbidity and mortality among HIV positive persons. People who inject drugs (PWID) are at high risk for HIV infection in transitional/low/middle income countries (TLMIC). We conducted a systematic review of studies reporting adherence to ART among persons with active injection drug use and/or histories of injection drug use in TLMIC. Meta-regression was performed to examine relationships between location, adherence measurements, and follow-up period. Fifteen studies were included from seven countries. Adherence levels ranged from 33 to 97 %; mean weighted adherence was 72 %. ART adherence was associated with different methods of measuring adherence and studies conducted in Eastern Europe and East Asia. T...
Previously Undiagnosed HIV Infections Identified Through Cluster Investigation, North Carolina, 2002?2007
Abstract During cluster investigation, index patients name social contacts that are not sex or drug-sharing partners. The likelihood of identifying new HIV infections among social contacts is unknown. We hypothesized greater odds of identifying new infections among social contacts identified by men who report sex with men (MSM). We reviewed North Carolina HIV diagnoses during 2002?2005 and used logistic regression to compare testing results among social contacts of MSM, men who report sex with women only (MSW) and women. HIV was newly diagnosed among 54/601 (9.0 %) social contacts tested named by MSM, 16/522 (3.1 %) named by MSW, and 23/639 (3.6 %) named by women. Compared with those named by MSW, odds of new HIV diagnosis were greater among MSM social contacts (adjusted odd...
Explaining Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence Success Among HIV-Infected Children in Rural Uganda: A Qualitative Study
Abstract High adherence is critical for achieving clinical benefits of HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) and particularly challenging for children. We conducted 35 qualitative interviews with caregivers of HIV-infected Ugandan children who were followed in a longitudinal study of real-time ART adherence monitoring; 18 participants had undetectable HIV RNA, while 17 had detectable virus. Interviews blinded to viral suppression status elicited information on adherence experiences, barriers and facilitators to adherence, and social support. Using an inductive content analytic approach, we identified ?lack of resources,? ?Lazarus effect,? ?caregiver?s sense of obligation and commitment,? and ?child?s personal responsibility? as categories of influence on adherence...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Health Literacy in HIV Treatment: Accurate Understanding of Key Biological Treatment Principles is Not Required for Good ART Adherence
Abstract Findings on the relationship between health literacy and outcomes in HIV have been inconsistent. Health literacy has previously been operationalized as general functional literacy, but has not included content knowledge about HIV disease and treatment. Semi-structured interviews with people living with HIV in 2 U.S. cities, including questions about the etiology, pathophysiology and treatment of HIV. We compared responses to biomedical conceptions. The 32 respondents were demographically diverse. Although most understood that HIV degrades the immune system, none could explain the nature of a virus, or the mechanism of antiretroviral (ARV) drug action. Fewer than half accurately reported that it is desirable to have a high CD4+ cell count and low viral load. A minority un...
Using pictograms to assist caregivers in liquid medication administration: a systematic review
The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of pictorial aids used to assist caregivers in the administration of liquid medications. MethodsMEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ScienceDirect, Scopus and the Cochrane Library were searched for articles published up to February 2015. Studies that used pictorial aids with liquid medications and measured at least one of the following outcomes were included: dosing accuracy, comprehension of medication instructions, recall of information and adherence of caregivers. Two authors independently selected studies, extracted data and assessed methodological quality of studies using the Cochrane Collaboration's tool. Results and discussionFive experimental studies (four hospital based and one community based) with a total of 962 participants w...
Not All RCTs Are Created Equal: Lessons From Early AIDS Trials.
Authors: Dawson L PMID: 25856601 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The American Journal of Bioethics : AJOB)
Examining the ethics of clinical use of unproven interventions outside of clinical trials during the ebola epidemic.
Authors: Shah SK, Wendler D, Danis M Abstract The recent Ebola outbreak in West Africa began in the spring of 2014 and has since caused the deaths of over 6,000 people. Since there are no approved treatments or prevention modalities specifically targeted at Ebola Virus Disease (EVD), debate has focused on whether unproven interventions should be offered to Ebola patients outside of clinical trials. Those engaged in the debate have responded rapidly to a complex and evolving crisis, however, and this debate has not provided much opportunity for in-depth analysis. Additionally, the existing literature on access to unproven therapies has focused on contexts like HIV/AIDS and oncology, which are very different than the Ebola epidemic. In this paper, we examine the ethical issues surrou...
An evaluation of quality of life and its determinants among people living with HIV/AIDS from Southern Brazil.
Authors: Passos SM, Souza LD Abstract This cross-sectional study evaluated the quality of life and its associated factors among people living with HIV/AIDS at a regional reference center for the treatment of HIV/AIDS in southern Brazil. WHOQOL-HIV Bref, ASSIST 2.0, HAD Scale, and a questionnaire were used to assess 625 participants on quality of life, clinical and sociodemographic characteristics, drug use, depression and anxiety. Multivariate analysis was performed through linear regression. The lowest results for quality of life were associated with being female, age (&lt; 47 years), low education levels, low socioeconomic class, unemployment, not having a stable relationship, signs of anxiety and depression, abuse or addiction of psychoactive substances, lack of perceived social...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
[What are the causes of death of patients with tuberculosis: multiple causes of death in a cohort of cases and a research proposal of presumed causes].
This study highlights the importance of record linkage to TB surveillance and improvement of information the SIM and SINAN. PMID: 25945981 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Cadernos de Saude Publica)
The effects of HAART on the expression of MUC1 and P65 in a cervical cancer cell line, HCS-2.
In conclusion, the drugs used, especially the PI showed some anticancer effects by facilitating cell death through decreased gene and protein expression of MUC1 and P65 and present promising agents for cancer treatment. PMID: 25960241 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Biomedicine and pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine and pharmacotherapie)
Asymptomatic stage of human immunodeficiency virus infection is the optimal timing for its management with Traditional Chinese Medicine.
Authors: Xiumin C, Qingting Y, Zhibin L, Jiping Y, Liran X, Huijun G Abstract Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a worldwide public health problem and an incurable disease. The roles of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) on AIDS had been recognized and accepted by more and more people. Being a relatively long period, to initiate combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) for the asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection patient is not consensus. According to TCM theory, not only the imbalance of Yin and Yang but also the disharmony of internal body function and external natural environment had occurred in the body of the patient, the imbalance and the disharmony should be adjusted by the means of the treatment based on the patters identified among the symp...
Enrolment trends in a comprehensive HIV programme in rural north-central Nigeria: improved care indices, but declining quality of clinical data over time.
CONCLUSION: Expanded testing in a comprehensive HIV programme in rural Nigeria brought persons to care at earlier stages of illness. Yet, as clinical services expanded, data collection quality declined. The paradox of successful scaling up HIV services but deteriorating quality of data underscores the importance of data management training and quality improvement efforts. PMID: 25822098 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pathogens and Global Health)
Telaprevir Linked to Temporary Drop in Kidney FunctionTelaprevir Linked to Temporary Drop in Kidney Function
Using the protease inhibitor telaprevir may cause a temporary drop in kidney function in patients co-infected with HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV), according to a small study. Reuters Health Information (Source: Medscape Nephrology Headlines)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Neurological complications of HIV infection in pre-HAART and HAART era: a retrospective study
We describe the outcome of HIV-infected patients followed at a single center for AIDS-related neurological syndromes in the 16 years following the introduction of HAART, and compare the findings with those in patients admitted up to 1996. We have conducted a retrospective study of patients with HIV infection or AIDS (based on WHO criteria and classified according to the 1993 CDC criteria) admitted during 20 years (January 1992 to March 2012) to the Infectious Diseases Unit of the University of Verona for the presence of focal or widespread CNS lesion on neuroimaging. Clinical history, CD4 cell count, HIV-RNA level, neurological examination, imaging, cerebrospinal fluid examination and eventual cerebral biopsy results were reviewed as well as the final neurological diagnosis and the treat...
HIV outbreak spurs needle exchange reprieve in Indiana
Needle exchange programmes are illegal in Indiana, but will be allowed to open for 30 days while the US state tries to tackle a HIV epidemic (Source: New Scientist - HIV and AIDS)
Funding Announcement PS15-1509:
Health Department Demonstration Projects for Comprehensive Prevention, Care, Behavioral Health, and Social Services for Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) of Color at Risk for and Living with HIV Infection (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
Funding Announcement PS15-1510
Training and Technical Assistance for Health Department Demonstration Projects for Comprehensive Prevention, Care, Behavioral Health, and Social Services for Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) of Color At Risk for and Living with HIV (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
Funding Announcement PS15-1509:
Health Department Demonstration Projects for Comprehensive Prevention, Care, Behavioral Health, and Social Services for Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) of Color at Risk for and Living with HIV Infection (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Funding Announcement PS15-1510
Training and Technical Assistance for Health Department Demonstration Projects for Comprehensive Prevention, Care, Behavioral Health, and Social Services for Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) of Color At Risk for and Living with HIV (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
Liberia: LCM, Citizens Dialogue On TB, HIV
[NEWS] The Liberia Coordinating Mechanism (LCM) Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) in the country has concluded a two-day dialogue with citizens in River Cess County on TB and HIV prioritization. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Liberia: Tuberculosis Incident Rate On Increase in Liberia
[FrontPageAfrica] Monrovia -While all attention has been on the outbreak of Ebola in Liberia, there is increase in other diseases especially in rural counties in the country. To identify priorities for Liberia to effectively respond to TB and HIV in the next three years, the people of River Cess County have concluded a two-day dialogue, as part of an ongoing nationwide consultation organized by the Liberia Coordinating Mechanism (LCM) of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) in the country, with support from (Source: AllAfrica News: Tuberculosis)
National Public Heath Week is April 6-12, 2015: National Themes
This report discusses consumption and the change for this particular study over a period of five years (2007 to 2012). Connect with others around public health, virtually, during APHA&#8217;s fifth annual NPHW Twitter Chat on April 8 at 11:00-12:00 pm Pacific. Follow  @NPHW to learn more. Thursday, April 9: Building Broader Connections. A network of partners and connections is needed in their areas to make the U.S. the Healthiest Nation in One Generation. For example, reducing death and injury attributable to motor vehicles has required an all-hands-on-deck approach. Check out the National Highway Safety Traffic Administration&#8217;s campaign to get &#8216;tweens to buckle up, Never Give Up Until They Buckle Up. Friday, April 10: Building on 20 Years of Success. 2015 marks the 20th anniv...
Uganda: AIDS Commission Launches Resource Center
[Independent (Kampala)] Despite all government interventions into averting HIV/AIDS in the country, Uganda is still rated among the top three countries in Africa with the highest prevalence whereby on a daily basis, close to 380 acquire the disease. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Tanzania: How New Initiative Speeds Up HIV/Aids Battle in Two Regions
[Daily News] WAR against HIV/AIDS is waged worldwide with different stakeholders as well as unequal levels of intervention. Ariel Glaser Pediatric AIDS Health Initiative (AGPAHI) is one of players and Staff Writer DEUS NGOWI who was in the Lake Zone recently writes in regard to efforts undertaken by the nongovernmental organisation... (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Kenya court urges change to law criminalizing women who pass HIV to baby
NAIROBI (Thomson Reuters Foundation) - Human rights groups have welcomed moves to change a Kenyan law passed to curb the spread of HIV/AIDS, which criminalizes pregnant women who pass HIV/AIDS to their babies, saying it discouraged people from finding out their status. (Source: Reuters: Health)
Kenya: HIV-Aids Stigma 'High' in the Workplace
[The Star] People living with HIV and Aids are facing increasing hostility in the public and private sectors. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Zambia: Pres. Lungu Pleads for Aids Patients in China
[Zambia Reports] President Edgar Lungu has pleaded the case for Zambians suffering from HIV/AIDS who are being deported back home by the Chinese government. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Liberia: TB, HIV Intervention Dialogue Begins
[NEWS] The Liberia Coordinating Mechanism (LCM), an institution overseeing the implementation of the Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) project in Liberia has begun a two-week nationwide consultation on the interventions of Tuberculosis and HIV. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Nigeria: Strengthening the HIV/Aids Intervention Programmes in Nigeria
[Independent (Lagos)] Nigeria, with an estimated population of 160 million, ranks second to South Africa in the factsheet on countries with people living with HIV and AIDS worldwide, representing nine percent of the global burden of the disease. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Angola: Minister On Negative Impact of HIV/Aids
[ANGOP] Luanda -The President of the National Council for Children, João Baptista Kussumua, Monday in Luanda highlighted the need to work on reducing impact of HIV/AIDS on people's lives and economy of the countries, especially the African region. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Toxoplasma chorioretinitis diagnosed by histopathology in a patient with aids
Conclusion: This case reminds the clinician to consider a broad differential diagnosis for retinal necrosis in immunocompromised hosts and, when serologic and anterior chamber samples are negative, to consider diagnostic vitrectomy for polymerase chain reaction and histopathologic examination. (Source: Retinal Cases and Brief Reports)
Analysis of Nanowire Transistor Based Nitrogen Dioxide Gas Sensor-A Simulation Study
Publication date: Available online 30 March 2015 Source:Sensing and Bio-Sensing Research Author(s): Gaurav Saxena , Roy Paily Sensors sensitivity, selectivity and stability has always been a prime design concern for gas sensors designers. Modeling and simulation of gas sensors aids the designers in improving their performance. In this paper, different routes for the modeling and simulation of a semiconducting gas sensor is presented. Subsequently, by employing one of the route, the response of Zinc Oxide nanowire transistor towards nitrogen dioxide ambient is simulated. In addition to the sensing mechanism, simulation study of gas species desorption by applying a recovery voltage is also presented. (Source: Sensing and Bio Sensing Research)
Gender differences in HIV risk behaviors in individuals recently released from prison: results of a pilot study
Conclusions: Women had higher rates of HIV risk behaviors compared with men post-release. Gender specific interventions may be useful in reducing risky drug-related and sex-related behaviors in the period immediately following release. (Source: Health and Justice)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Facial dystonia ? A rare initial presentation of acquired immune deficiency syndrome
Publication date: Available online 31 March 2015 Source:HIV &amp; AIDS Review Author(s): Arpit Saxena , A.V. Ramesh , Poonam Raj Mehra , Manoj S Movement disorders could be a neurological complication of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and may sometimes represent the initial manifestation of HIV (Human Immune Deficiency Virus) infection. Presented here is an unusual case of facial dystonia ? as a presenting symptom of HIV. In this case no separate aetiology for facial dystonia other than HIV infection could be found. (Source: HIV and AIDS Review)
Ontogenetic variation of essential oil content and constituents in tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.)
In conclusion, ontogenetic stages significantly affect the EO content of tansy, and change the major EO components (trans-thujone, camphor, and trans-chrysanthenyl acetate) depending on the predominant component at the particular plant growth stage. This aids to produce plant material with the promising required oil composition to meet the needs of pharmaceutical industries. Graphical abstract (Source: Journal of Applied Research on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants)
Protocol for a pre-implementation and post-implementation study on shared decision-making in the surgical treatment of women with early-stage breast cancer
We present the protocol of a study to &beta; test a patient decision aid and optimise strategies for the implementation of SDM regarding the treatment of early-stage breast cancer in the actual clinical setting. Methods/design This paper concerns a pre-implementation and post-implementation study, lasting from October 2014 to June 2015. The intervention consists of implementing SDM using a patient decision aid. The intervention will be evaluated using qualitative and quantitative measures, acquired prior to, during and after the implementation of SDM. Outcome measures are knowledge about treatment, perceived SDM and decisional conflict. We will also conduct face-to-face interviews with a sample of these patients and their care providers, to assess their experiences with the implementation...
Association Between Vision Impairment and Health Among a National Cohort of 87 134 Thai Adults
This study analyzes a cohort of 87 134 Thai adults, reporting odds ratios (ORs) and calculating population attributable fractions (PAFs). PAF estimates the proportion of the disease or condition that would not occur if no one in the population had the risk factor. Approximately 28% and 8% reported having refractive errors and vision impairment not correctable by visual aids. Both types of vision impairment were positively associated with poor self-assessed health (adjusted ORs = 1.23 to 2.03) and poor psychological health (adjusted ORs = 1.13 to 1.63). PAFs show that refractive errors explain 6.1% of poor self-assessed health, 3.5% of poor psychological health, and 2.2% of falls in the last year. PAFs for vision impairment not correctable by visual aids explain 7.5%, 4.7%, and 3.1%, respec...
An Assessment of Felt Needs and Expectations of People Living With HIV/AIDS Seeking Treatment at NGOs in Delhi, India
This study included 100 PLHAs admitted at 3 care homes run by nongovernmental organizations in New Delhi. As many as 22% of the patients had been diagnosed with pulmonary Koch&rsquo;s. Unemployment rates were found to increase after disease onset. Majority were satisfied with the medical treatment and overall care provided at these centers. About 25% expressed that they would like the government to provide them with suitable jobs. Less than one third (30%) of the PLHAs expressed satisfaction with their family life whereas the rest yearned for love and acceptance from society. Study findings highlight the important role of nongovernmental organizations and stresses on the need for a holistic approach toward the care of these people. (Source: Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
HIV/AIDS-Related Knowledge and Its Association With Socioeconomic Status Among Women: Results of Lebanese Survey for Family Health (PAPFAM) 2004
This article assesses the association of women&rsquo;s HIV/AIDS knowledge of transmission and prevention with socioeconomic status (SES). Data from the 2004 Lebanese PAPFAM (Pan-Arab Project for Family Health) survey were used. The survey was based on a representative household sample (n = 5532 households; n = 3315 women) of ever-married women aged 15 to 55 years. Adjusted analysis revolved around multivariate logistic regression models. 18% of women were knowledgeable of HIV/AIDS transmission methods and 21% of prevention methods. Income and education were significantly related to women&rsquo;s transmission and prevention knowledge. Significant differences were also found by region and media exposure. Women in the richest income quintile were 4 times (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.43-6...
Knowledge and Perceptions of HIV-Infected Patients Regarding HIV Transmission and Treatment in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Patient education concerning HIV and antiretroviral (ARV) medications is important for optimal outcomes. The authors assessed the knowledge and perceptions of HIV-infected patients in an ARV education program in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Of 185 patients, 64 (35%) receiving ARV medications, nearly 80% correctly answered questions regarding HIV. Correct responses were associated with higher education (P &lt; .05) and longer duration of HIV diagnosis (P &lt; .05). A lack of knowledge was observed in 40% of respondents who believed HIV and AIDS were the same and 70% of respondents who believed ARV medications cured HIV. Greater embarrassment of living with HIV was associated with female gender (P &lt; .05) and lower education (P &lt; .05). Patients were concerned over ARV medication use (27%)...
Trends and Barriers to HIV Testing Among Tuberculosis Patients in Prey Kabas Operational District, Takeo Province, Cambodia
Data for this study were obtained from 2375 tuberculosis (TB) patients registered during 2007-2009 and 43 health providers to examine the trend of TB patient referral for HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) testing and to investigate provider-associated barriers to the referral in Prey Kabas operational district, Takeo province, Cambodia. Referral rate for HIV testing was 4.4% (30/684) in 2007, 15.4% (116/751) in 2008, and 30.1% (283/940) in 2009, with a significant upward trend over the period of time (P = .009). The main barriers perceived by health providers were poor knowledge about TB/HIV, lack of communication skills, absence of any target plan for TB patient referral for HIV testing, and fear associated with informing positive test results to the TB patients and the associated stigma...
Determinants of Public Phobia About Infectious Diseases in South Korea: Effect of Health Communication and Gender Difference
This study investigated the individual and social determinants of the public&rsquo;s phobia of infectious diseases in South Korea, where collective action was recently fueled by the public phobia over mad cow disease (bovine spongiform encephalopathy [BSE]). Gender-specific multivariate regression was used to compare the public perception of BSE and highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). The analysis results differentiated between the determinants of the phobia for the 2 diseases, BSE and HPAI (N = 1002). As with HIV/AIDS and leprosy, the public fear of HPAI was expressed as a disease phobia that seeks to ensure the social exclusion of infection sources, whereas the fear of BSE was influenced by social and communication factors. Therefore, BSE, unlike previous HPAI, can be rapidly ampli...
The Effect of Comprehensive Sexual Education Program on Sexual Health Knowledge and Sexual Attitude Among College Students in Southwest China
The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a comprehensive sexual education program for college students in Southwest China (a) improved sexual health knowledge in reproduction, contraception, condom use, sexually transmitted diseases, and HIV; (b) increased accepting attitudes toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transsexual individuals; and (c) altered participants&rsquo; attitudes toward premarital sex and monogamy. The program used diverse teaching methods, providing 6 sessions over a period of 9 weeks about sexual health knowledge and sexual attitudes to college students (age 18-26 years) in Southwest China. Sexual health knowledge and sexual attitudes of 80 comprehensive sexual education class students (education group) and 92 general mental health education class students (cont...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Safer Sex Negotiation and Its Association With Condom Use Among Clients of Female Sex Workers in Bangladesh
This study examines safer sex negotiation and its association with condom use among clients of female sex workers (FSWs) in Bangladesh. Data were collected from 484 FSWs living in Dhaka city following a convenient sampling procedure. Overall, 47% of the clients were suggested to use condom during last sexual intercourse and 21% did so. Both bivariate and multivariable binary logistic regression analyses yielded significantly increased risk of negotiation for safer sex with clients among FSWs with higher education. The power bargaining significantly (P &lt; .001) increased the risk of condom use by 2.15 times (95% confidence interval = 1.28-3.59). The odds of condom use were significantly higher among the FSWs with higher education, unmarried, hotel-based, and among those with higher level ...
Retention in Care and Factors Affecting It Among People Living With HIV/AIDS in Changsha City, China
In conclusion, the intervention to improve retention in care for PLWHA in Changsha is warranted, especially for those who have lower education level, for those who have higher baseline CD4 count, and for those who have not initiated antiretroviral therapy. (Source: Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health)
Impaired renal function and associated risk factors in newly diagnosed HIV-infected adults in Gulu Hospital, Northern Uganda
Background: Screening for renal diseases should be performed at the time of diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Despite the high prevalence of HIV/AIDS in Northern Uganda, little is known about the status of renal function and its correlates in the newly diagnosed HIV-infected individuals in this resource limited region. We aimed to determine the status of renal function and factors associated with impaired renal function in newly diagnosed HIV-infected adults in Northern Uganda. Methods: This was a seven month cross-sectional hospital-based study, involving newly diagnosed HIV-infected patients, 18 years and older. Patients with history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension and renal disease were excluded. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated usi...
HIV specific responses induced in nonhuman primates with ANRS HIV-Lipo-5 vaccine combined with rMVA-HIV prime or boost immunizations.
Authors: Dereuddre-Bosquet N, Baron ML, Contreras V, Gosse L, Mangeot I, Martinon F, Yousfi R, Clayette P, Levy Y, Le Grand R, Vaccine Research Institute Abstract We evaluated the immunogenicity of a prime/boost vaccine strategy combining 5 lipopeptides (HIV-Lipo-5) and a recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (rMVA-HIV) in cynomolgus macaques. Both of these vaccine components deliver HIV LAI Gag, Pol, and Nef antigens. Systemic and local safety was excellent in all groups. Immunization with HIV-Lipo-5 alone induced significant serum anti-HIV antibody titers which were not modified by rMVA-HIV immunization. However, induction of T-cell responses, as measured by IFN? and IL-2 producing cells upon short-term stimulation with HIV peptide pools, required combined immunization with...
Clinician-Patient Risk Discussion for Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease Prevention Importance to Implementation of the 2013 ACC/AHA Guidelines
Successful implementation of the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association cholesterol guidelines hinges on a clear understanding of the clinician-patient risk discussion (CPRD). This is a dialogue between the clinician and patient about potential for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk reduction benefits, adverse effects, drug-drug interactions, and patient preferences. Designed especially for primary prevention patients, this process of shared decision making establishes the appropriateness of a statin for a specific patient. CPRD respects the autonomy of an individual striving to make an informed choice aligned with personal values and preferences. Dedicating sufficient time to high-quality CPRD offers an opportunity to strengthen clinician-patient relations...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Quantitative immunocytochemistry at the ultrastructural level: a stereology-based approach to molecular nanomorphomics
Abstract Biological systems span multiple levels of structural organisation from the macroscopic, via the microscopic, to the nanoscale. Therefore, comprehensive investigation of systems biology requires application of imaging modalities that reveal structure at multiple resolution scales. Nanomorphomics is the part of morphomics devoted to the systematic study of functional morphology at the nanoscale and an important element of its achievement is the combination of immunolabelling and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The ultimate goal of quantitative immunocytochemistry is to estimate numbers of target molecules (usually peptides, proteins or protein complexes) in biological systems and to map their spatial distributions within them. Immunogold cytochemistry utilises tar...
International Conference on HIV/AIDS, STDs & STIs
November 30 - December 2, 2015, Atlanta, GA. The theme of the conference is "Raising Global Awareness on STD/AIDS and Fighting the Stigma Surrounding the Disease". (Source: PHPartners.org)
Rwanda: New Study Gives Hope to HIV Treatment, Prevention
[New Times] The risk of contracting HIV from a recently infected person may not be as high as previously believed, a new study in the journal PLOS Medicine has revealed. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Kenya: KNUT's Fury Over Aids Report
[The Star] Knut yesterday criticised the national Aids agency over its report that blames sexual immorality for the increase of the number of teachers suffering from HIV-Aids. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)

 

 


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 History of HIV /AIDS: The origin of AIDS and HIV has puzzled scientists ever since the illness first came to light in the early 1980s. Read more...

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