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CD4 Cells
By Afsath Jameela

CD4 Cells
Treatment centers need consulting rooms, offices, waiting rooms and secure storage for valuable drugs. They also require basic facilities to test for anemia, pregnancy, renal function, white blood cell counts and other factors that may affect treatment.
In developed countries, decisions about when to start treatment are based on the results of clinical tests called the CD4 test and the viral load test. Ideally these tests should be used everywhere, but in many parts of the world they are currently unavailable, as they require expensive equipment, electricity and trained technicians. In theory, decisions about when to start treatment may be based on symptoms alone. However in practice some treatment programmers provide medication only to people who have had a CD4 count.
There are two primary types of T-cells.
1. CD4 Cells-These cells have molecules called CD4 on its surface. These "helper" cells initiate the body's response to invading micro-organisms such as viruses.
2.CD8 Cells-These types of T-cells have a molecule called CD8 on their surface. CD8 cells destroy cells that have been infected with foreign invading micro-organisms. CD8 cells also produce antiviral substances (antibodies) that help fight off the foreign invader.
3.Normal values-In a healthy adult, a normal CD4 count can vary a great deal but is typically 600 to 1200 cells per cubic millimeter of blood
Between 600 and 350- In an HIV+ person, this range is considered "very good".
HIV medications are typically not be indicated.
Between 350 and 200-The immune system is weakened and therefore the HIV+ person may be at increased risk for infection and illness.
Function of T helper cells: Antigen presenting cells present antigen on their Class II MHC molecules. Helper T cells recognize these, with the help of their expression of CD4 co-receptor. The activation of a resting helper T cell causes it to release cytokines and other stimulatory signals. The importance of CD4 T cells is demonstrated with infection.
It has been proposed that during the non-symptomatic phase of infection, the virus has a relatively low affinity towards T cells (and has a higher affinity for macrophages), resulting in a slow kill rate of CD4+ T cells by the immune system. This is initially compensated for via the production of new helper T cells from thymus. Once the virus becomes T-tropic, it begins to infect CD4+ T cells far more efficiently, and

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the immune system is overwhelmed.
At this point, functional CD4+ T cell levels begin to decrease, eventually to a point where the CD4+ T cell population is too small to recognize the full range antigens that could potentially be detected. The lack of full antigen cover results in the core symptoms of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).CD4 T cell depletion during AIDS allows various pathogens to escape T cell recognition, thus allowing opportunistic infections that would normally elicit a helper T cell response to bypass the immune system. While these complete bypass situations only occur when the helper T cell response is absolutely necessary for infection clearance, most infections increase in severity and/or duration because the immune system's helper T cells provide a weaker contribution to a less efficient immune response.
Two components of the immune system are particularly affected in AIDS, due to its CD4+ T cell dependency:
CD8+ T cells are not stimulated as effectively during the AIDS period of infection, making AIDS patients very susceptible to most viruses, including itself. This decline in killing of CD4+ T cells results in the virus being produced for a longer period (the infected CD4+ T cells are not killed as quickly), increasing the proliferation of the virus, and accelerating the development of the disease.
Antibody class switching declines significantly once helper T cell function fails. The immune system loses its ability to improve the affinity of their antibodies, and are unable to generate B cells that can produce antibody groups such as IgG and IgA. These effects are primarily due to the loss of any helper T cell that can interact with the B lymphocyte correctly. Another symptom of AIDS is the reduction in antibody levels due to a decrease in Th2 cytokines (and less interactions by helper T cells). All of these complications result in an increased susceptibility to aggressive bacterial infections, especially in areas of the body not accessible by IgM antibodies.
If the patient does not respond to Treatment they will succumb usually to either cancers or infections; the immune system finally reaches a point where it is no longer coordinated or stimulated enough to deal with the disease.

 Keywords:  HIV,AIDS,HIV Cure,HIV Treatment,HIV Infection,HIV Dating,HIV Positive,HIV Symptoms.


Afsath Jameela is a successful lady writer from Kairo. She right now living in UK.

Increased mortality after a first myocardial infarction in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients; a nested cohort study.
CONCLUSIONS: HIV infection was associated with a significantly increased risk of all-cause mortality one year after incident AMI. PMID: 25705241 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Therapy)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Nigeria: More Evidence Back Preventing HIV Infection in High-Risk Persons With Aids Drugs
[Guardian]THE proposed plan by the National Agency for Control of AIDS (NACA) and its global partners to give antiretroviral drugs (ARV) to high-risk persons, especially men having sex with men (MSM), to prevent new Human Immuno-deficiency Virus (HIV) infections has been backed by more evidence. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: HIV/Aids - More Prevention of Mother Child Transmission Centres Established in Gombe
[Independent (Lagos)]Gombe State Agency for the Control of HIV/AIDS (GOMSACA) has said it had increased the number of Prevention of Mother Child Transmission (PMCT) centres from 185 to 225 in the state. Project Managerof the agency, Dr Suraj Abdulkarim, told the News Agency of Nigeria (NAN) in Gombe at the weekend that the centres were sited across the state. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: New Studies 'Significant Breakthrough' in HIV Prevention, Says UN Agency Combating Virus
[UN News]The United Nations programme working to combat HIV/AIDS welcomed yesterday the results of a number of recent clinical studies of the effects of antiretroviral medicines on preventing new HIV infections, which were presented at a conference on viruses held in Seattle. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
A Meta-Analysis of Risky Sexual Behaviour among Male Youth in Developing Countries.
Authors: Berhan Y, Berhan A Abstract The purpose of this meta-analysis was to assess the association between risky sexual behaviour and level of education and economic status in male youth. Previous tests of the association of risky sexual behaviour with levels of education and economic status have yielded inconsistent results. Using data from 26 countries, from both within and outside Africa, we performed a meta-analysis with a specific focus on male youths' risky sexual behaviour. We applied a random effects analytic model and calculated a pooled odds ratio. Out of 19,148 males aged 15-24 years who reported having sexual intercourse in the 12 months preceding the survey, 75% engaged in higher-risk sex. The proportion of higher-risk sex among male youth aged 15-19 years was nearly...
Zimbabwe: Prioritise Employee Well-Being
[The Herald]At the Institute of People Management in Zimbabwe's Labour Briefing held on November 19 2014, the Ministry of Public Service, Labour and Social Welfare announced that it had promulgated a new Statutory Instrument (SI 105 of 2014) to regulate issues on HIV/AIDS at the workplace. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Zimbabwe: Aids Union Launched
[The Herald]HEALTH Advisor in the Office of The President and Cabinet Dr Timothy Stamps has launched the Mashonaland East chapter of the Zimbabwe HIV/ AIDS Activist Union Trust (ZHAAUCT) to help address the needs of people living with HIV in rural areas. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
The end of AIDS?
Publication date: March 2015 Source:The Lancet HIV, Volume 2, Issue 3 Author(s): The Lancet HIV (Source: The Lancet HIV)
How can we end paediatric AIDS?
Publication date: March 2015 Source:The Lancet HIV, Volume 2, Issue 3 Author(s): Francesca Celletti , Jennifer Cohen , Catherine Connor , Marc Lallemant , Janice Soo Fern Lee (Source: The Lancet HIV)
Genome editing strategies: potential tools for eradicating HIV-1/AIDS
Abstract Current therapy for controlling human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection and preventing acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) progression has profoundly decreased viral replication in cells susceptible to HIV-1 infection, but it does not eliminate the low level of viral replication in latently infected cells, which contain integrated copies of HIV-1 proviral DNA. There is an urgent need for the development of HIV-1 genome eradication strategies that will lead to a permanent or ?sterile? cure of HIV-1/AIDS. In the past few years, novel nuclease-initiated genome editing tools have been developing rapidly, including zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and the CRISPR/Cas9 system. These surgical knives, which ca...
Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Halts Real-world HIV TransmissionPre-exposure Prophylaxis Halts Real-world HIV Transmission
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Botswana: NACA Coordinator Mobilises Community Leaders
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Gambia: HIV/Aids Community Treatment Training Is Underway
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Kenya: Parents Oppose Proposal On Children's Condoms
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Malawi: Mangochi Council Chair for Paradigm Shift On HIV/Aids Fight
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Nigeria: HIV/Aids Prevalence Rate in Nigeria Drops to 3.4 Percent - NACA
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South Africa: Vaginal Gel Fails to Protect Against HIV Despite Earlier Trial
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Concurrent partnerships in Cape Town, South Africa: race and sex differences in prevalence and duration of overlap.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that in this population the prevalence of CPs is relatively high and is characterized by overlaps of long duration, implying there may be opportunities for HIV to be transmitted to concurrent partners. PMID: 25697328 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Trials Show HIV Drugs to Be Effective
New findings from clinical trials show how well drugs meant to treat the AIDS virus can protect people, but the trials also show the limits of certain prevention methods. (Source: WSJ.com: Health)
Low-vision Service Provision by Optometrists: A Canadian Nationwide Survey
Conclusions: This is the first comprehensive study of LVS provision by optometrists in Canada. In order for optometrists to become more involved in LVS, there is a need for more LV education, provincial health coverage of optometric LVS, and better collaboration communication between LV providers. (Source: Optometry and Vision Science)
Community perspective on the INSIGHT Strategic Timing of AntiRetroviral Treatment (START) trial
Determining when to start antiretroviral treatment (ART) is vitally important for people living with HIV. Yet the optimal point at which to start to maximize clinical benefit remains unknown. In the absence of randomized studies, current guidelines rely on conflicting observational data and expert opinion, and consequently diverge on this point. In the USA, ART is recommended irrespective of CD4 cell count. The World Health Organization now recommends starting ART at a CD4 cell count of 500?cells/?L, while the threshold for the UK and South Africa remains at 350?cells/?L. The Strategic Timing of AntiRetroviral Treatment (START) study, one of the largest clinical trials on the treatment of HIV infection, will answer this question. START compares two treatment strategies: immediate tre...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Stigma, subsistence, intimacy, face, filial piety, and mental health problems among newly HIV-diagnosed men who have sex with men in China
High rates of mental health problems among people living with HIV (PLWH) have been widely reported in the literature, however an understanding of the socio-ecological contexts of these presentations remains limited, particularly in China. In order to explore potential socio-ecological factors associated with mental health problems among newly diagnosed HIV-infected migrant men who have sex with men (MSM), we employed a life profile approach conducting semi-structured in-depth interviews with 31 newly diagnosed HIV-infected MSM residing in a city in Southern China. (Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)
Cash Payments Fail to Improve H.I.V. Drug Adherence, Researchers Say
Scientists at an AIDS conference in Seattle said paying patients as much as $280 a year to take AIDS-prevention drugs failed to significantly improve adherence or infection rates. (Source: NYT Health)
Study That Paid Patients to Take H.I.V. Drugs Fails
Scientists at an AIDS conference in Seattle said paying patients as much as $280 a year to take AIDS-prevention drugs failed to significantly improve adherence or infection rates. (Source: NYT Health)
Impact of Age on Retention in Care and Viral Suppression
Conclusions: These results have important implications for improving viral control among younger adults, emphasizing the crucial role retention in care plays in supporting viral suppression in this population. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Preventative treatment dramatically reduces HIV risk in gay men
LONDON (Reuters) - Gay men at high risk of HIV who took a daily dose of a Gilead AIDS drug as a preventative measure cut their risk of infection by 86 percent, according to results of a British trial released on Tuesday. (Source: Reuters: Health)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Rwanda: Police Training School Houses New Blood Collection Site
[Focus]The National Center for Blood Transfusion (NCBT) has opened a center for blood collection in the main police training school in Gishari, Rwamagana. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
HIV Care Slammed by Ebola (CME/CE)
(MedPage Today) -- Even when care was available, patients stayed away. (Source: MedPage Today HIV/AIDS)
South Africa: Speech - Gauteng 2015 State of the Province Address
[Health-e]Gauteng Premier David Makhura reveals how Gauteng health facilities stack up in his latest State of the Province Address. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Gambia: Training Under Way On Community Treatment for PlHIV
[The Point]A-six-day training session organised for People Living with HIV by the Gambia Network of AIDS Support Societies and funded by the German Agency for International Cooperation, through the International Treatment Preparedness Coalition, commenced on Monday at the Paradise Suites Hotel. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: Nigeria's HIV/Aids Prevalence Drops to 3.4 Percent
[Independent (Lagos)]Uyo -The National Agency for the Control of AIDS (NACA) has said the HIV/AIDS prevalence rate in Nigeria has dropped from 5.1 per cent to 3.4 per cent. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Nigeria: Govt Backs Anti - HIV/Aids War With N8 Billion
[Vanguard]Umuahia -The Federal Government has provided N8 billion to take ownership and sustain the drive against HIV/AIDS. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: Govt to Spend N8 Billion On HIV/Aids in Taraba, Abia
[Daily Trust]Jalingo -The federal government has released N8 billion for the fight of HIV/AIDS in Taraba and Abia states through the National Agency for Control of HIV/AIDS SURE-P implementation programme. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
South Africa: Know Your Status
[SAnews.gov.za]Pretoria -The Department of Higher Education and Training has launched its First Things First campaign at the Waterberg Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) College at Lebowakgomo campus, Limpopo. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
A Developing Framework for the Development, Implementation and Maintenance of HIV Interventions in the African American Church.
Authors: Stewart JM Abstract The African American church has promoted the health of African Americans through supporting interventions that target a wide variety of diseases, and it is a crucial community partner in the development of HIV prevention interventions. Although research has described the development of church-based HIV interventions, there is a significant lack of frameworks and approaches available to guide the implementation and maintenance of HIV interventions within church-based settings. A developing framework of a comprehensive church-based intervention, derived from an ethnographic study about the development, implementation, and maintenance of an HIV/AIDS Ministry within an African American church is presented. This approach can provide guidance to support the d...
Lapses in Diagnoses, Care Tied to 91% of New HIV InfectionsLapses in Diagnoses, Care Tied to 91% of New HIV Infections
Focusing prevention efforts on diagnosing and keeping patients on antiretrovirals could greatly decrease spread in the United States, but would come with considerable difficulty and cost. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Nigeria: WHO Urges Single-Use Syringes, Action Over Mers Virus
[Guardian]DETERMINED to protect people from infections acquired through unsafe injections such as hepatitis B and C, and Human Immuno-deficiency Virus (HIV), the World Health Organisation (WHO), yesterday, called for all health-care programmes to switch to syringes that cannot be used more than once. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: How Airtel Backing Campaign Against HIV/Aids - Naca DG
[Independent (Lagos)]The Director General of the National Agency for Control of Aids (NACA), Professor John Idoko, has showered encomiums on leading telecommunications services provider, Airtel Nigeria, for its leading role in providing practical, relevant and continuous assistance in the fight against the dreaded HIV/AIDS. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
HBsAg seroprevalence among Senegalese militaries
Conclusions: The high prevalence of HBsAg in the military requires the implementation of an effective prevention and care program to reduce the risk of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma and contribute to reducing the burden of communicable diseases, such as hepatitis and HIV/AIDS, and non-communicable diseases. (Source: Epidemiologic Perspectives and Innovations)
Focusing National Institutes of Health HIV/AIDS Research for Maximum Population Impact
Progress in advancing research on the pathophysiology, prevention, treatment, and impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is threatened by the decaying purchasing power of National Institutes of Health (NIH) dollars. A working group of the NIH Office of AIDS Research Advisory Council was charged by the NIH Director with developing a focused and concise blueprint to guide the use of limited funding over the next few years. Science priorities outlined by the working group and reported here are intended to maximally address individuals, groups, and settings most affected by the epidemic, and to redress shortcomings in realizing population-level HIV prevention, treatment, and eradication goals. Optimizing these priorities requires that traditional silos&mdash;defined by topic focus and by...
End-Stage Renal Disease Among HIV-Infected Adults in North America
Conclusions.&nbsp;The risk of ESRD remains high among HIV-infected individuals in care but is declining with improvements in virologic suppression. HIV-infected black persons continue to comprise the majority of cases, as a result of higher viral loads, comorbidities, and genetic susceptibility. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Comparison of the Prognostic Value of Liver Biopsy and FIB-4 Index in Patients Coinfected With HIV and Hepatitis C Virus
Conclusions.&nbsp;FIB-4 outperformed LB as a predictor of OD and LRE. These findings are of relevance for clinical practice and research and call into question the role of LB as a gold standard for assessing prognosis in HIV/HCV coinfection. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Prevalence, Correlates, and Outcomes of Cryptococcal Antigen Positivity Among Patients With AIDS, United States, 1986-2012
Conclusions.&nbsp;The prevalence of cryptococcal infection among advanced AIDS patients in the United States was high and above the published cost-effectiveness threshold for routine screening. We recommend routine CrAg screening among human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with a CD4 count &le;100 cells/&micro;L to detect and treat early infection. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
ACOG Guideline Aids Transition From Pediatric to Adult CareACOG Guideline Aids Transition From Pediatric to Adult Care
Asking young women about sleep, sex, drugs, exercise, and eating habits can identify preventive care needs. The ACOG's recommendations also address schedules for breast and pelvic exams. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)
Most HIV Infections Come From Undiagnosed or Untreated People: Study
Findings suggest there's a long way to go in containing spread of the disease (Source: Fertility News - Doctors Lounge)
Most HIV Infections Come from Undiagnosed or Untreated People
Findings suggest there's a long way to go in containing spread of the disease Source: HealthDay Related MedlinePlus Page: HIV/AIDS (Source: MedlinePlus Health News)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Pediatric Hearing Aid Use: Parent-Reported Challenges
Conclusions: Parents reported an array of challenges, even after their child had been wearing hearing aids for a prolonged time, revealing critical implications for how to provide audiological care. Audiologists have an important role in partnering with parents to identify and jointly problem-solving challenges related to their child?s hearing aid use. Supporting parents includes not only addressing technical aspects of hearing testing and hearing aid function but also addressing parent thoughts, feelings, and emotions. (Source: Ear and Hearing)
Development of the Adaptive Music Perception Test
Conclusion: The AMP test revealed differences in a wide range of music perceptual abilities between NH and HI listeners. The recognition of meter was more difficult for HI listeners when the listening task was based on frequency discrimination. The HI group was less sensitive to changes in harmony and had more difficulties with distinguishing melodies in a background of music. In addition, the thresholds to discriminate timbre were significantly higher for the HI group in brightness and spectral irregularity dimensions. The AMP test can be used as a research tool to further investigate music perception with hearing aids and compare the benefit of different music processing strategies for the HI listener. Future testing will involve larger samples with the inclusion of hearing aided conditi...
Time when Southwest was wet and Northwest was dry aids efforts to predict future rainfall patterns
The first comprehensive map of the topsy-turvy climate in the western U.S, 21,000 years ago has been developed by researchers. They focus on when the Southwest was wet and the Northwest was dry, testing it to improve the global climate models that have been developed to predict how precipitation patterns will change in the future. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)
Updated Basic Statistics from the 2013 HIV Surveillance Report
The Basic Statistics page has been updated with information from the CDC HIV Surveillance Report: Diagnoses of HIV infection and AIDS in the United States and Dependent Areas, 2013. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
Updated Statistics Overview from the 2013 HIV Surveillance Report
The Statistics Overview page has been updated with information from the CDC HIV Surveillance Report: Diagnoses of HIV infection and AIDS in the United States and Dependent Areas, 2013. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Updated Surveillance Slide Set: HIV Surveillance by Race/Ethnicity (through 2013)
This report, published by the Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention (DHAP), summarizes information about HIV infection by race in the United States and dependent areas. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
Updated Surveillance Slide Set: HIV Surveillance in Women (through 2013)
This report, published by the Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention (DHAP), summarizes information about HIV infection in females in the United States and dependent areas. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
Updated Surveillance Slide Set: HIV Surveillance - Epidemiology of HIV Infection (through 2013)
This report, published by the Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention (DHAP), summarizes information about the epidemiology of HIV infection in the United States and dependent areas. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
New HIV Surveillance Report: Diagnoses of HIV Infection in the United States and Dependent Areas, 2013
The annual surveillance report, published by the Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention (DHAP), summarizes information about diagnosed HIV infection in the United States and dependent areas. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
What's Working: Public Health Progress Since the Haiti 2010 Earthquake
The hardest moment of my 6 years as CDC director was telling the family of Diane Caves, a young professional staff member at CDC, that she had died in the Haiti earthquake. Diane was one of many who lost their lives in this devastating earthquake. The 7.0 magnitude earthquake that hit Haiti in January 2010 killed more than a hundred thousand people and displaced another 1.5 million. It also decimated the country's already fragile health care system, and was followed by a devastating cholera outbreak that affected more than 725,000 people. As a country, Haiti has faced and continues to face enormous difficulties, but it has also proven remarkably resilient. Addressing the public health needs of Haiti and helping them recover has been a daunting task, but it's one that CDC, along with th...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Africa: How the HIV Response Is Failing Teens Across Southern Africa
[Key Correspondents]Also published on healthnewsng.com (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Kenya: New Pregnancy HIV Prevention Tools On the Way
[The Star]Janet is a young woman who is in primary school and already has two children. Janet's mother worries that she has not stopped seeing men despite the many talks they have had and the many counselling sessions she has taken her to. She worries that Janet is not using any protection to avoid pregnancy. Out of desperation, she took Janet to a family planning clinic to be initiated on contraceptives (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Swaziland: Media Back King's False HIV Promise
[Swazi Media]Newspapers in Swaziland lost their critical faculties when they reported that King Mswati 'would personally' eradicate HIV and AIDS in the kingdom by 2022. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
HIV Transmission and the History of HIV/AIDS
(Source: eMedicineHealth.com)
Ineffective Use of Oral Pre-exposure Prophylaxis in WomenIneffective Use of Oral Pre-exposure Prophylaxis in Women
Does ineffective use of oral HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis lead to antiretroviral drug resistance? AIDS (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Single-Class Maintenance Therapy After Standard Triple ARTSingle-Class Maintenance Therapy After Standard Triple ART
HIV patients with dyslipidemia may benefit from a single-class NRTI regimen after successful induction with standard ART. HIV Medicine (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
[Comment] Combination HIV prevention and the battle of the sexes
1·6 million new HIV infections occur every year in sub-Saharan Africa.1 Transmission is predominantly heterosexual, and women (by comparison with men) are disproportionately infected. The international agencies that propose policy guidelines for control of the HIV pandemic, such as WHO and the Joint UN Programme on HIV and AIDS, have recognised the crucial need to reduce the number of new infections in women and girls and mother-to-child transmission of HIV.2 (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Critique and Lessons Learned from using Multiple Methods to Estimate Population Size of Men who have Sex with Men in Ghana
Abstract Population size estimation of key populations at risk of HIV is essential to every national response. We implemented population size estimation of men who have sex with men (MSM) in Ghana using a three-stage approach within the 2011 Ghana Men?s Study: during the study?s formative assessment, the larger integrated bio-behavioral surveillance (IBBS) survey; and during the stakeholder meeting. We used six methods in combination within the three-stage approach (literature review, mapping with census, unique object multiplier, service multiplier, wisdom of the crowd, and modified Delphi) to generate size estimates from 16 locations (4 IBBS survey sites and 12 other locations) and used the estimates from the 16 sites to extrapolate the total MSM population size of Ghana. We...
Rwanda: Week in Health - First Rapid Ebola Test Developed
[New Times]A rapid test that takes 15 minutes should now allow Ebola patients to be identified, isolated and cared for as quickly as possible. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
The Impact of Clinical, Demographic and Risk Factors on Rates of HIV Transmission: A Population-based Phylogenetic Analysis in British Columbia, Canada
Conclusions.&nbsp;Hotspots of ongoing HIV transmission can be characterized in near real time by the secondary analysis of HIV resistance genotypes, providing an important potential resource for targeting public health initiatives for HIV prevention. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Alternative Effector-Function Profiling Identifies Broad HIV-Specific T-Cell Responses in Highly HIV-Exposed Individuals Who Remain Uninfected
The characterization of host immune responses to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in HIV controllers and individuals with high exposure but seronegativity to HIV (HESN) is needed to guide the development of effective preventive and therapeutic vaccine candidates. However, several technical hurdles severely limit the definition of an effective virus-specific T-cell response. By using a toggle-peptide approach, which takes HIV sequence diversity into account, and a novel, boosted cytokine staining/flow cytometry strategy, we here describe new patterns of T-cell responses to HIV that would be missed by standard assays. Importantly, this approach also allows detection of broad and strong virus-specific T-cell responses in HESN individuals that are characterized by a T-helper type 1 cytokine&...
Potent Immune Responses in Rhesus Macaques Induced by Nonviral Delivery of a Self-amplifying RNA Vaccine Expressing HIV Type 1 Envelope With a Cationic Nanoemulsion
Self-amplifying messenger RNA (mRNA) of positive-strand RNA viruses are effective vectors for in situ expression of vaccine antigens and have potential as a new vaccine technology platform well suited for global health applications. The SAM vaccine platform is based on a synthetic, self-amplifying mRNA delivered by a nonviral delivery system. The safety and immunogenicity of an HIV SAM vaccine encoding a clade C envelope glycoprotein formulated with a cationic nanoemulsion (CNE) delivery system was evaluated in rhesus macaques. The HIV SAM vaccine induced potent cellular immune responses that were greater in magnitude than those induced by self-amplifying mRNA packaged in a viral replicon particle (VRP) or by a recombinant HIV envelope protein formulated with MF59 adjuvant, anti-envelope b...
AIDS epidemic began in Cameroon in 1908 says Chimp and River book by David Quammen
David Quammen traces the history of AIDS in his new book, The Chimp and the River. He says AIDS began in Cameroon around 1908 when a hunter in the rainforest was infected by a chimp he killed. (Source: the Mail online | Health)
Malawi: ARV Shortages Hit Hospitals
[Malawi24]The lifelong sustaining drug, Anti Retro Viral (ARV) drugs given to people living with HIV/AIDS in Malawi has become scarce in the country's hospitals putting at risk lives of millions of people. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
The Oswestry Risk Index ? internal validation study
The Oswestry Spinal Risk Index (OSRI) has been shown to predict survival in patients with spinal metastases. It aids with difficult decision making in this complex group of patients. (Source: The Spine Journal)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
The effect of acute exercise on cigarette cravings while using a nicotine lozenge
Conclusion These findings demonstrate that an acute bout of exercise provides additional craving relief to the nicotine lozenge in recently quit smokers. We recommend smokers who attempt to quit employ both cessation aids simultaneously to maximize reductions in cravings. (Source: Psychopharmacology)
Long-Term Consequences of Hepatitis C Viral Clearance on the CD4 (+) T Cell Lymphocyte Course in HIV/HCV Coinfected Patients.
Authors: Dazley J, Sison R, Slim J Abstract The long-term impact of pegylated-interferon plus ribavirin treatment outcome on CD4 T cell course in patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus is largely unclear in the literature. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of HCV-RNA clearance by standard anti-HCV therapy on long-term CD4 cells recovery in HIV/HCV patients on successful combined antiretroviral therapy. We retrospectively enrolled HIV/HCV-coinfected patients on HIV medications and treated for hepatitis C. CD4 + T cell counts were registered at baseline and after hepatitis C therapy. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to identify independent predictors of CD4 + T cell change following the anti-HCV treatment outcome...
Institutional Review of Compliance With NCCN Guidelines for Breast Cancer: Lessons Learned From Real-Time Multidimensional Synoptic Reporting.
CONCLUSIONS: High compliance with NCCN Guidelines was demonstrated. Reasons for noncompliance were identifiable. Compliance and nonadherence can be evaluated quickly with electronic synoptic reporting. This allows real-time action plans to address quality concerns and aids national risk adjustment for comparison and benchmarking. PMID: 25691610 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network : JNCCN)
Chronic lymphocytic lymphoma presenting with recurrent demodicidosis
Demodex folliculorum is a common obligatory human ectoparasite commonly seen in areas of high sebum production that does not commonly present with clinical symptoms in the immunocompetent patient. Demodicidosis presents clinically as a rosacea-like rash when a high density of Demodex mites are present in the pilosebaceous glands. This clinical manifestation of Demodex folliculorum has been associated with primary, acquired, and malignant immunocompromised states. Although most commonly reported in patients with AIDS and pediatric patients with leukemia, it is not often seen in adults with chronic lymphocytic leukemia as the presentation before the initiation of chemotherapy. (Source: Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology)
The impact of sporotrichosis in HIV-infected patients: a systematic review
Abstract Sporotrichosis is a fungal infection of man and animals caused by Sporothrix complex. It usually presents as a lymphocutaneous form, but disseminated disease may occur. Given the paucity of data about HIV/AIDS and sporotrichosis co-infection, a systematic review of reported cases of HIV-associated sporotrichosis found via Pubmed (1984?2013) was done. A total of 39 papers were included, and 58 patients? data analyzed. Thirty-three (56.9 %) cases were from Brazil and 18 (31 %) from the USA. Patients? mean age was 37.8 ± 10.4 years; males predominated (84.5 %). The median CD4+ cell count was 97 cells/mm3. The most common clinical forms were disseminated and disseminated cutaneous with 33 (56.9 %) and 10 (17.5 %) patients, respectively. There was a correlation...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
BiNChE: A web tool and library for chemical enrichment analysis based on the ChEBI ontology
Conclusions: BiNChE aids in the exploration of large sets of small molecules produced within Metabolomics or other Systems Biology research contexts. The open-source tool provides easy and highly interactive web access to enrichment analysis with the ChEBI ontology tool and is additionally available as a standalone library. (Source: BMC Bioinformatics)
This Week in Science: Martian Mystery, Rock-Hard Snail Teeth, and the Big Apple Underwater
Seven days, lots of science in the news. Here's our roundup of some of the week's most notable and quotable items: Illustration by Sarah Peavey Scientists think a mysterious plume seen above Mars might be a large cloud or an aurora--but neither of these explanations squares with what we think we know about the Martian upper atmosphere. Scientists now think sea snail teeth (not spider silk) are the strongest natural material. A red dwarf star passed through the edge of our solar system a mere 70,000 years ago. The tails on the wings of a luna moth may serve as decoys to divert the sonic tracking of predatory bats. Researchers created a protein that is extremely effective at blocking the AIDS virus from attaching to cells, making it an attractive candidate for an HIV vaccine. Cont...
Like Aids, we can turn the tide on dementia
It will be a huge task, but this can be the best country in the world in which to grow old (Source: Telegraph Health)
The Origin Story of the Worldwide AIDS Epidemic [Excerpt]
Author David Quammen traces HIV from a forest in Africa in his new book, investigating how it came to infect more than 60 million people -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com (Source: Scientific American - Official RSS Feed)
Inadequate Monitoring and Attrition Among Patients on ARTInadequate Monitoring and Attrition Among Patients on ART
What are the patient risk factors for failure to follow-up in HIV care? Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Improving Retention in Care and Quality of Life in HIVImproving Retention in Care and Quality of Life in HIV
Dr Benjamin Young discusses the issue of patients lost during follow-up, as well as the long-term disability of aging with HIV. Medscape HIV/AIDS (Source: Medscape Hiv-Aids Headlines)
Active and latent tuberculosis among HIV-positive injecting drug users in Indonesia.
CONCLUSIONS: HIV-positive individuals with a history of IDU in Indonesia have more active tuberculosis, with similar rates of LTBI. Within the HIV clinic, LTBI screening and isoniazid preventive therapy may be prioritized to patients with a history of IDU. PMID: 25690530 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Uganda: How Poverty and Stigma Are Hindering HIV Treatment for Uganda's Adolescents
[Key Correspondents]Also published on ovcsupport.net (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: New Approach to Blocking HIV Raises Hopes for Aids Vaccine
[Guardian]Abuja -A new compound has blocked Human Immuno-deficiency Virus (HIV) infection so well in monkeys that it may be able to function as a vaccine against Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), the scientists who designed it reported midweek. The study was published online by the journal Nature. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
South Africa: ANC Calls for 'Deregistration of TAC'
[GroundUp]The ANC Youth League Free State has called for the Treatment Action Campaign (TAC) to be deregistered. This follows TAC's "Fire Benny" campaign, which calls for the dismissal of the province's Health MEC Benny Malakoane. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Namibia: Criminal Law Not Effective Against HIV
[Namibian]THE CONFESSIONS of the 40-year-old man who went on a "deliberate spree to infect as many other people as possible" in 2002 (The Namibian, 14 January 2015) sparked a series of media reports in the past few weeks, which featured calls from the public for the enactment of an HIV-specific crime of intentional transmission of HIV. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
'Fit' New Recombinant HIV Strain Progresses Rapidly to AIDS'Fit' New Recombinant HIV Strain Progresses Rapidly to AIDS
An aggressive new recombinant HIV-1 strain appears to be more pathogenic than other strains and leads to full-blown AIDS within just 3 years of infection. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)
Hearing the way: Requirements and preferences for technology-supported navigation aids.
Authors: Lewis L, Sharples S, Chandler E, Worsfold J Abstract Many systems have been developed to assist wayfinding for people with sight problems. There is a need for user requirements for such systems to be defined. This paper presents a study which aimed to determine such user requirements. An experiment was also conducted to establish the best way of guiding users between locations. The focus group results indicated that users require systems to provide them with information about their surroundings, to guide them along their route and to provide progress information. They also showed that users with sight conditions interact with systems differently to sighted users, thereby highlighting the importance of designing systems for the needs of these users. Results of the experimen...
Seroprevalence of trichodysplasia spinulosa-associated polyomavirus in Japan
Polyomaviruses are non-enveloped viruses with a circular double-stranded DNA genome of approximately 5-kb. To date, 13 polyomaviruses have been discovered in humans and at least four human polyomaviruses are associated with disease. BK virus (BKV) and JC virus (JCV) are considered to be pathogens that cause nephropathy in renal transplant recipients1 and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in AIDS patients [2], respectively. Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) is integrated in approximately 80% of Merkel cell carcinoma [3,4], an uncommon, aggressive skin cancer. (Source: Journal of Clinical Virology)
Acquired immunodeficiencies and tuberculosis: focus on HIV/AIDS and diabetes mellitus
Summary The spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection within Africa led to marked increases in numbers of cases of tuberculosis (TB), and although the epidemic peaked in 2006, there were still 1.8 million new cases in 2013, with 29.2 million prevalent cases. Half of all TB cases in Africa are in those with HIV co?infection. A brief review of the well?documented main immunological mechanisms of HIV?associated increased susceptibility to TB is presented. However, a new threat is facing TB control, which presents itself in the form of a rapid increase in the number of people living with type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM), particularly in areas that are already hardest hit by the TB epidemic. T2DM increases susceptibility to TB threefold, and the TB burden attributable to T2...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Shared responsibility for ensuring appropriate management of incidental findings: a case study from South Africa
We report the case of an HIV prevention clinical trial participant who was referred to a local hospital for investigation and management of an incidental finding unrelated to her study participation. This case illustrates the complexities in the management of incidental findings within the context of clinical trials and highlights the importance of ethical oversight of trials. Trial registration number Protocol number ISRCTN64716212. (Source: Journal of Medical Ethics)
Are You Sleepy ALL the Time? Don't Panic!
A good night's sleep is one of the most effective tools known to enhance mental and physical stamina. A chronic lack of sleep can be linked to certain symptoms, including poor concentration, dizziness, headaches, weight gain, depression and general fatigue throughout the day.  With maturity comes change, including the amount of time we are able to devote to regular sleep cycles.  Sleep deprivation may seem like a minor inconvenience, but it's much more than a nuisance!  In fact, research tells us that those with ongoing insomnia may be at a higher risk for developing serious chronic illnesses, such as Diabetes and Alzheimer's. According to the National Sleep Foundation, people 50 and over require between 7 to 9 hours of restful sleep each night to maintain good health and mental focu...
Facebook Must Shut Down the Anti-Vaxxers
Mark Zuckerberg has never been famous for his reading choices. No one knows or cares if the founder of Facebook got around to Moby Dick when he was at Harvard. But in January, Zuckerberg launched an online book club, offering reading recommendations to members every two weeks. Earlier suggestions included such important works as Steven Pinker&#8217;s The Better Angels of Our Nature and Sudhir Venkatesh&#8217;s Gang Leader for a Day. But Zuckerberg dropped something of a small bombshell with his most recent&mdash;and most excellent&mdash;choice, On Immunity by Eula Biss. It&#8217;s a thoughtful exploration of what&#8217;s behind the irrational fear and suspicion in the anti-vaccine community, as well as a full-throated call for parents to heed medical wisdom and get their kids vaccinated. &...
Alternative to HIV Vaccine Blocks Infection in Animal ModelsAlternative to HIV Vaccine Blocks Infection in Animal Models
A genetically engineered fusion protein gave vaccine-like protection against an immunodeficiency virus in monkeys, despite repeated viral challenges. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Hiv-Aids Headlines)
Auranofin: Repurposing an Old Drug for a Golden New Age
Abstract Drug discovery, development and registration is an expensive and time-consuming process associated with a high failure rate [Pessetto et al. (Mol Cancer Ther 12:1299?1309, 2013), Woodcock and Woosley (Annu Rev Med 59:1?12, 2008)]. Drug ?repurposing? is the identification of new therapeutic purposes for already approved drugs and is more affordable and achievable than novel drug discovery [Pessetto et al. (Mol Cancer Ther 12:1299?1309, 2013)]. Auranofin is a drug that is approved for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis but is being investigated for potential therapeutic application in a number of other diseases including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, HIV/AIDS, parasitic infections and bacterial infections [Tejman-Yarden et al. (Antimicrob Agents Chemothe...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
DFS70/LEDGFp75: an enigmatic autoantigen at the interface between autoimmunity, AIDS, and cancer
Anamika Basu, Tino Wilson Sanchez and Carlos A Casiano (Source: Frontiers in Immunology)
Aging, Cognitive Load, Dementia and Hearing Loss
Sensorineural systems play a crucial role in the diagnosis, treatment and management of several neurological disorders. The function of the eye and ear represents a unique window for testing various conditions in cognitive decline or dementia. Touch and smell have also been found to be strongly involved in neurodegenerative conditions, and their decline has been significantly associated with the progression of the disease; hence, the idea that restoring sensory function in cognitively impaired adults might enable a significant improvement in their cognitive status, reducing the worldwide incidence and prevalence of dementia. Not all sensorineural ?windows' can benefit equally from the same procedures; however, hearing and vision can certainly gain the most from dependable therapeutic and...
Quality of Life Outcomes for Cochlear Implantation in the Elderly
Conclusions: People >60 years of age suffering from profound, bilateral, sensorineural hearing loss show improved hearing performance following cochlear implantation. Using the implanted system includes some limitations that should be studied and overcome.Audiol Neurotol 2014;19(suppl 1):36-39 (Source: Audiology and Neurotology)
Molecule Shows Ability to Block AIDS Virus
Scientists have engineered a new molecule they say can block infection with the virus that causes AIDS, a discovery that could lead potentially to a new therapy for patients as well as an alternative to a vaccine. (Source: WSJ.com: Health)
Africa: Youth Must Be Central to New Campaign to End Aids
[Key Correspondents]Leaders from around the world met in Nairobi on 17 February, to launch a new global campaign to tackle adolescent AIDS, the second leading cause of death among teens globally. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Nigeria: HIV/Aids - Maximising Local Research for Herbal Solution
[Independent (Lagos)]Abuja -Over the years, there has been consistent effort by scientists all over the world to get a permanent orthodox solution to the dreaded HIV/AIDS scourge. But, all these efforts had ended in vain. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Transmitted drug resistance in recently infected HIV-positive Individuals from four urban locations across Asia (2007-2010) - TASER-S.
CONCLUSIONS: The observed proportion of TDRM in TASER-S patients from Hong Kong, Thailand and the Philippines was low to moderate during the study period. Regular monitoring of TDRM should be encouraged, especially with the scale-up of ART at higher CD4 levels. PMID: 25685169 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Therapy)
Botswana: DMSAC Encourages Couple Testing
[Botswana Daily News]Selebi Phikwe -Couples have been encouraged to test together as a way of reducing the spread of HIV/AIDS. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Effect of using Audio and Visual Aids for Instructing Patients about Middle Eastern Hemodialysis Diet on Knowledge and Understanding
(Source: Journal of Renal Nutrition)
Rwanda: Life Goes On for HIV-Positive Widow Who Endured Gang Rape During Genocide
[New Times]Rather than reveal her tragedy to her children, Marie toyed with the idea of suicide. It was while contemplating suicide that she realised that after surviving such a harrowing ordeal that has left her a Genocide widow, survivor, and a mother of three living with HIV/Aids, she had endured too much to succumb to a 'weak thought' such as taking her own life for fear of 'shame'. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Louisiana soldier fights HIV/AIDS battle in Uganda
Ten years ago, Army Reserve Capt. Frank Musisi went home to Uganda, to the village where he grew up. He was still at the beginning of a career that began when he came to America to go to school. (Source: WDSU.com - Health)
Experimental AIDS vaccine blocks HIV in monkeys
Drug compound protects lab animals against the AIDS virus; will it work in people? (Source: Health News: CBSNews.com)
Insights from a decade of biophysical studies on MutL: Roles in strand discrimination and mismatch removal
Publication date: Available online 18 February 2015 Source:Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology Author(s): Alba Guarné , Jean-Baptiste Charbonnier DNA mismatch repair (MMR) is a conserved pathway that safeguards genome integrity by correcting replication errors. The coordinated actions of two proteins (MutS and MutL) initiate the mismatch repair response and defects in the genes encoding for these proteins have been linked to sporadic and hereditary cancers. The basic steps to repair a mismatch include recognizing the mismatch, discriminating the newly synthesized from the parental strand, removing and re-synthesizing the erroneous strand. Although the DNA mismatch repair pathway has been extensively studied over the last four decades, the strand discrimination mechanism has rem...
The impact of hormonal therapy on sexual quality of life in men receiving intensity modulated radiation therapy for prostate cancer
Conclusions Although ADT adversely affected short-term sexual function, there was no significant difference in global score and most sexual symptoms by 24 months. These data are useful for anticipatory guidance regarding expectations after IMRT. (Source: Practical Radiation Oncology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Sensitization of enteric neurons to morphine by HIV?1 Tat protein
Conclusions & InferencesOverall, these data suggest that the sensitivity of enteric neurons to morphine is enhanced in the presence of Tat. Opiates and HIV?1 may uniquely interact to exacerbate the deleterious effects of HIV?1?infection and opiate exposure on GI function. The present study demonstrates that HIV?1 Tat significantly increases neuronal sensitivity to morphine in enteric neurons by modulating sodium channel availability. Additionally, the effects of morphine on gastrointestinal (GI) motility are significantly enhanced in the presence of Tat in vivo. In the setting of HIV?1 infection, this sensitization needs to be considered for opioid therapy in these patients. (Source: Neurogastroenterology and Motility)
High degree of concordance between flow cytometry and geno2pheno methods for HIV-1 tropism determination in proviral DNA
Publication date: Available online 18 February 2015 Source:The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases Author(s): Alex José Leite Torres , Luis Fernando de Macedo Brígido , Marcos Herculano Nunes Abrahão , Ana Luiza Dias Angelo , Gilcivaldo de Jesus Ferreira , Luana Portes Coelho , João Leandro Ferreira , Célia Regina Mayoral Pedroso Jorge , Eduardo Martins Netto , Carlos Brites Use of CCR5 antagonists requires previous viral tropism determination. The available methods have high cost, are time-consuming, or require highly trained personnel, and sophisticated equipment. We compared a flow cytometry-based tropism assay with geno2pheno method to determine HIV-1 tropism in AIDS patients, in Bahia, Brazil. We tested peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 102 AIDS patients under antiretr...
Predictors of HIV enacted stigma among Chilean women
ConclusionsThe findings reflected the presence of HIV enacted stigma among Chilean women. Identifying the significant predictors of HIV enacted stigma can help the nursing community to design HIV prevention interventions that include the reduction in HIV enacted stigma. HIV evidence?based prevention interventions should incorporate contents related to stigma to contribute to prevent HIV enacted stigma at individual and community levels in accordance with the bioecological model. Relevance to clinical practiceThe results of this study could serve to develop HIV prevention interventions that target the reduction in HIV enacted stigma. (Source: Journal of Clinical Nursing)
Probability of a false-negative HIV antibody test result during the window period: a tool for pre- and post-test counselling
Failure to understand the risk of false-negative HIV test results during the window period results in anxiety. Patients typically want accurate test results as soon as possible while clinicians prefer to wait until the probability of a false-negative is virtually nil. This review summarizes the median window periods for third-generation antibody and fourth-generation HIV tests and provides the probability of a false-negative result for various days post-exposure. Data were extracted from published seroconversion panels. A 10-day eclipse period was used to estimate days from infection to first detection of HIV RNA. Median (interquartile range) days to seroconversion were calculated and probabilities of a false-negative result at various time periods post-exposure are reported. The median (i...
Correlates of prevalent sexually transmitted infections among participants screened for an HIV incidence cohort study in Kisumu, Kenya
We determined the prevalence of four sexually transmitted infections and the demographic and behavioural correlates associated with having one or more sexually transmitted infections among participants in an HIV incidence cohort study in Kisumu, western Kenya. Participants were enrolled from a convenience sample and underwent aetiologic sexually transmitted infection investigation. Demographic and behavioural information were collected and basic clinical evaluation performed. Multiple regression analysis was done to determine variables associated with having one or more sexually transmitted infections. We screened 846, 18- to 34-year-olds. One-third had at least one sexually transmitted infection with specific prevalence being: syphilis, 1.6%; gonorrhoea, 2.4%; herpes simplex virus type-2,...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Douching practices among female sex workers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia
This report provides preliminary data about the prevalence and frequency of douching among female sex workers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Survey data were obtained from 81 female sex workers who were taken into custody due to engagement in commercial sex from March to June 2011. Results showed that 91% of participants douched. The mean numbers of times douched before sex and after sex per 10 sex episodes were 4.43 (SD = 3.87) and 4.63 (SD = 3.94), respectively. Half of the participants thought that douching could help to prevent sexually transmitted infections including HIV; 24% were unsure about this. Usually, douching after sex was associated with ever obtaining an HIV test (p = .012) and was marginally associated (although not statistically significant) with a higher average number of clie...
Persistent HIV-related stigma among an outpatient US clinic population
Despite advancements in the public&rsquo;s understanding of HIV infection, felt stigma towards individuals living with HIV persists. Stigma has been associated with adverse health outcomes, including poor adherence to care, and increased participation in HIV transmission risk behaviours. We evaluated the level of felt stigma and its relationship to other psychosocial and medical factors among a sample of 201 individuals with HIV engaged in care. The overall mean stigma score, as measured by the Reece Stigma Scale, was 21.7 (SD 8.7). In univariate analysis, felt stigma scores were higher among women, African Americans, younger participants, and individuals with less education. Higher felt stigma scores were also found among individuals who reported having fair to poor overall health, modera...
Microscopy outperformed in a comparison of five methods for detecting Trichomonas vaginalis in symptomatic women
In the UK, despite its low sensitivity, wet mount microscopy is often the only method of detecting Trichomonas vaginalis infection. A study was conducted in symptomatic women to compare the performance of five methods for detecting T. vaginalis: an in-house polymerase chain reaction (PCR); Aptima T. vaginalis kit; OSOM &reg;Trichomonas Rapid Test; culture and microscopy. Symptomatic women underwent routine testing; microscopy and further swabs were taken for molecular testing, OSOM and culture. A true positive was defined as a sample that was positive for T. vaginalis by two or more different methods. Two hundred and forty-six women were recruited: 24 patients were positive for T. vaginalis by two or more different methods. Of these 24 patients, 21 patients were detected by real-time PCR (...
Depression and patterns of self-reported adherence to antiretroviral therapy in Rwanda
We determined the prevalence of depression in HIV-infected adults on antiretroviral therapy in rural Rwanda and measured the association of depression with non-adherence. In all, 292 patients on antiretroviral therapy for &ge;6 months were included. Adherence was self-reported by four-day recall, two- and seven-day treatment interruptions, and the CASE Index, which is a composite score accounting for difficulty taking medications on time, the average number of days per week a dose is missed, and the most recent missed dose. A total of 84% and 87% of participants reported good adherence by the four-day recall and CASE Index, respectively; 13% of participants reported two-day treatment interruptions; and 11% were depressed. Depression was significantly associated with two-day treatment inter...
Predictors of glycaemic control among HIV-positive veterans with diabetes
Antiretroviral therapy has decreased HIV-related mortality. However, the incidence of diabetes as a co-morbidity is increasing as HIV-positive patients age. The purpose of this study was to assess the correlation between markers of HIV-infection and diabetes and to determine the proportion of patients achieving an haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) goal &lt;7% according to specific antiretroviral therapy regimens and adherence. In this retrospective study, HIV-positive veterans with diabetes from 2007 to 2012 were identified. Patients were required to be on the same antiretroviral therapy and diabetes regimen for &ge;3 months. In 56 patients, it was identified that for each unit increase in log10 viral load, HbA1c increased 0.67 units (p = 0.0085). Only 38% of patients prescribed a protease inhibitor...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
When can HIV clinical trials detect treatment effects on drug resistance?
Methods of sampling patients for resistance testing, and statistical analyses of HIV drug resistance, have not been standardised in HIV clinical trials. We analysed methods of genotyping and rates of treatment-emergent drug resistance from 27 clinical trials identified from a MEDLINE search. Sample size calculations were conducted using NQUERY software, assuming 5% significance level, 80% power and 1:1 randomisation. The percentage of patients with treatment-emergent IAS&ndash;USA mutations after 96 weeks ranged from 1.8% to 9.1% for first-line 2NRTI/NNRTI treatments, 0.6% to 6.3% for first-line 2NRTI/PI/r treatments and 0.0% to 2.0% in switch trials of boosted PIs. The prevalence of drug resistance was higher in trials with no screening for drug resistance at baseline, where the HIV RNA c...
Soft tissue augmentation with PMMA-microspheres for the treatment of HIV-associated buttock lipodystrophy
Progression of lipodystrophy syndrome is a big challenge in HIV treatment. Nowadays, fat loss at the lower part of buttocks has become another problem as patients have started to complain that it is painful to be seated for a long time and/or on hard surfaces. We developed a method for buttock lipoatrophy treatment with PMMA-microspheres, as silicone prostheses and autologous fat transplant were not completely efficient. The treatment consisted of net-crossed injections, in the subcutaneous layer, of a 30% PMMA-microspheres solution on the atrophic areas of the buttock. One hundred and fifty-four patients were included. The amount of PMMA-microspheres used to treat buttock lipoatrophy depended on the degree of atrophy and size of the area to be treated. Patients were satisfied with this tr...
An interesting case of 'diabetic foot ulcer' in an HIV-positive patient
We present here a 70-year-old white British male patient, who was under the care of the podiatric team for longstanding &lsquo;diabetic foot ulcers&rsquo;. He was later referred to the Dermatology team who took a biopsy; this revealed features of Kaposi sarcoma which prompted an HIV test which was positive. This patient had previously presented to several healthcare professionals with symptoms suggestive of HIV infection. He was started on antiretroviral therapy and the HIV and human herpesvirus-8 viral loads became undetectable in the blood within weeks and he showed significant clinical improvement. This case report is a reminder to clinicians to have a high index of suspicion in patients presenting with symptoms and signs suggestive of HIV infection. (Source: International Journal of ST...
Central nervous system infection due to Mycobacterium haemophilum in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
We report a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome who had central nervous system infection due to M. haemophilum. The diagnosis required brain tissue procurement and molecular identification method while the treatment outcome was unfavourable. (Source: International Journal of STD and AIDS)
Highlights from this issue
After a gap, we are delighted this month to announce the return of Clinical Roundup.1 "Sexually Transmitted Infections" dates back to 1925 as you can see by logging on to our archive at sti.bmj.com. We began as a journal that served a developing profession, in a pre-antibiotic age when the complications of syphilis and gonorrhoea ravaged the military and (more discreetly recorded) their wives and lovers. First the "British Journal of Venereal Diseases", we later became "Genitourinary Medicine" and eventually "Sexually Transmitted Infections". In all of these guises, we have sought to meet the needs of our clinical readers to be well-briefed on contemporary challenges in the care of those afflicted by the wounds of sexual desire. We have also tried to broaden the perspectives of local pract...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
STIF Advanced Competency
was launched in October 2014 and is the second work-based training and assessment module in the STIF portfolio. It builds on the knowledge and skills acquired through completion of STIF Intermediate Competency by further developing the knowledge, skills, experience and competence of healthcare professionals to diagnose and manage sexually transmitted infections (STIs). It is designed for those who wish to lead and deliver a Level 21 standard sexual health service and hence is suitable for senior doctors from non-GUM settings such as sexual and reproductive health or primary care as well as specialist sexual health nurses in Level 3 GUM services training to become advanced nurse practitioners. Registrants for STIF Advanced must first complete STIF Intermediate as well as have a specified a...
Home-based counseling and testing for HIV and syphilis - an evaluation of acceptability and quality control, in remote Amazonas State, Brazil
Conclusions HBCT was acceptable and successful in reaching untested individuals. However, there were concerns with the quality of test performance, highlighting the need for continual evaluation and retraining of community HCW. As Brazil scales up HIV and syphilis testing, our findings highlight how HBCT can maximise coverage in similar remote areas and improve knowledge about prevalence of these infections. (Source: Sexually Transmitted Infections)
Cervical ectopy: associations with sexually transmitted infections and HIV. A cross-sectional study of high school students in rural South Africa
Conclusions In conclusion, cervical ectopy is associated with Chlamydia trachomatis infection and HIV in the youngest women. (Source: Sexually Transmitted Infections)
A network analysis of relationship dynamics in sexual dyads as correlates of HIV risk misperceptions among high-risk MSM
Conclusions Couple-based HIV intervention efforts among MSM should consider that less trust and more commitment are protective factors in sexual partnerships. (Source: Sexually Transmitted Infections)
Syphilis infection, sexual practices and bisexual behaviour among men who have sex with men and transgender women: a cross-sectional study
Conclusions The prevalence of syphilis infection and risk sexual behaviour were high in the two samples, especially among TW. High levels of bisexual behaviours and low rates of consistent condom use indicate potential HIV/STIs transmission into the heterosexual population. This finding indicates the need and urgency for implementing more effective integrated programmes targeting MSM/TW for the prevention of syphilis and other STIs. (Source: Sexually Transmitted Infections)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Clinical update
Since October, clinical research teams around the UK have been busy prescribing Truvada as HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for participants in the PROUD study who were originally randomised to defer at the time of enrolment. At the time of writing, we have a press release reporting that PrEP is highly protective against HIV: protective enough to amend the protocol and offer PrEP immediately to all participants.1 By the time this round-up is published, it is likely that the interim results will be in the public domain. The trial was originally set up as a pilot with the assumption that the sample size of 545 might be too small to see a difference between arms. That the trial is being amended early means one or both of two things: that the participants were at higher risk of HIV than ant...
Telomere-Regulating Genes in Familial Cancers
Telomeres are repetitive sequence structures at the ends of linear chromosomes that consist of double-stranded DNA repeats followed by a short single-stranded DNA protrusion. Telomeres need to be replicated in each cell cycle and protected from DNA-processing enzymes, tasks that cells execute using specialized protein complexes such as telomerase (that includes TERT), which aids in telomere maintenance and replication, and the shelterin complex, which protects chromosome ends. These complexes are also able to interact with a variety of other proteins, referred to as the telomere interactome, to fulfill their biological functions and control signaling cascades originating from telomeres. Given their essential role in genomic maintenance and cell-cycle control, germline mutations in telomere...
Doctors Pinpoint Why Child Who Appeared Free of HIV Suffered Relapse
Virus hid deep within 'memory cells' of immune system, where it couldn't be detected (Source: Fertility News - Doctors Lounge)
Sofosbuvir Plus Ribavirin May Benefit Patients Co-Infected With HIV and HCVSofosbuvir Plus Ribavirin May Benefit Patients Co-Infected With HIV and HCV
Sofosbuvir plus ribavirin may effectively treat patients co-infected with HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes 1-4, a new industry-funded study suggests. Reuters Health Information (Source: Medscape Gastroenterology Headlines)
Doctors Pinpoint Why Child Who Appeared Free of HIV Suffered Relapse
Virus hid deep within 'memory cells' of immune system, where it couldn't be detected Source: HealthDay Related MedlinePlus Pages: HIV/AIDS, HIV/AIDS Medicines, HIV/AIDS and Pregnancy (Source: MedlinePlus Health News)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
L carnitine in patients with HIV AIDS and fatigue
Cruciani RA, Revuelta M, Dvorkin E, Homel P, Lesage P, Esteban-Cruciani N (Source: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management)
Drug proves to be 'astonishingly effective' shield against AIDS in monkeys
Scientists led by the Scripps Research Institute in Florida said that the eCD4-Ig also works on human HIV when tested in a lab dish.They are hoping to start human trials 'soon'. (Source: the Mail online | Health)
New HIV drug prevents infection in monkeys
Brooks HaysJUPITER, Fla., Feb. 18 (UPI) -- Scientists at the Scripps Research Institute say a new drug designed to combat HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, is strong enough to work as a vaccine. (Source: Health News - UPI.com)
New Approach to Blocking H.I.V. Raises Hopes for an AIDS Vaccine
A new compound has blocked H.I.V. infection so well in monkeys that it may be able to function as a vaccine against AIDS, scientists say. (Source: NYT Health)
Zimbabwe: Court Asked to Decreminalise HIV Transmission
[New Zimbabwe]THE Zimbabwe Lawyers for human Rights (ZLHR) has approached the constitutional court seeking an order decriminalising the 'transmission' of HIV as stated in section 79 of the criminal Law codification and reform Act. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Zimbabwe: Court Reserves Judgment On Wilful HIV Transmission
[The Herald]The Constitutional Court today reserved judgment in a case in which two women are challenging the constitutionality of the law that criminalises the transmission of HIV. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: Daily Press Briefing By the Office of the Spokesperson for the Secretary-General
[UN]The following is a near-verbatim transcript of today's noon briefing by Farhan Haq, Deputy Spokesman for the Secretary-General. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Malawi: High Condom Use in Flood Camps, People Demand More
[Malawi News Agency]There is high condom use in many flood victims' camps in Chikwawa, and people there are appealing for more of this protective gear, Malawi News Agency-Mana has established. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Zimbabwe: Midlands Traditional Doctors Request to Give Sick Leave
[New Zimbabwe]TRADITIONAL healers in the Midlands province are seeking authority to give leave off work to HIV positive patients, a provincial National Aids Council (NAC) report has revealed. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Malawi: Nkhata Bay Man Commits Suicide After Testing HIV Positive
[Malawi News Agency]Nkhata Bay -A 35 year old man in Nkhata Bay District recently resorted to end his life by hanging in his house after testing HIV positive. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Malawi: M'mbelwa District Council Fight HIV/Aids Through Sports Bonanza
[Malawi News Agency]Mzimba -M'mbelwa District Council, through District Aids Coordinating Committee (DACC), has taken a different approach to fight HIV/AIDS amongst the youths by introducing football and netball Bonanza to enhance message transmission. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Rwanda: Association of People Living With HIV Seek Support to Revive Failed Honey Project
[New Times]For Tubeho, an association of people living with HIV/Aids, December 2011 will remain a memorable month. That time, the members saw their apiary project proposal receive $13,000 (about Rwf7 million) funding from the American Pepfar (President's Emergency Plan for Aids Relief) to assist them produce honey. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: Africa Must Talk to Teens About Sex to Avert New Aids Crisis
[Thomson Reuters Foundation]Nairobi -The HIV/AIDS epidemic in Africa will explode again unless parents and teachers start talking to teenagers about sex, experts warned on Tuesday. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: UN Launches 'All In' Initiative to End Adolescent Aids
[UN News]In the fight against HIV/AIDS, progress for adolescents has fallen behind, world leaders gathered at a United Nations meeting in Nairobi, Kenya, stressed today, as they launched a global initiative that aims to end the second leading cause of death among young people worldwide. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Uganda: Forty to 70 HIV Infections Seen in Pregnant Women in Wakiso Weekly
[Observer]Forty to 70 HIV-positive statuses are recorded in pregnant women in Wakiso district every week, Musa Bungudu, the UNAIDS country coordinator for Uganda, revealed last week. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Africa: Leaders From Around the World Are All in to End the Aids Epidemic Among Adolescents
[UNAIDS]Nairobi -UNAIDS, UNICEF, UNFPA, WHO, PEPFAR, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, the MTV Staying Alive Foundation and youth movements represented by PACT and Y+ join President Uhuru Kenyatta to launch All In, a new platform for action against the adolescent AIDS epidemic. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Kenya: Uhuru Orders Provision of Drugs to All Kids With HIV
[Capital FM]Nairobi -President Uhuru Kenyatta on Tuesday gave the Ministries of Health and Education a year to ensure all HIV positive children in the country get on Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART). (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emission Data in Perinatally HIV-infected and HIV-exposed but Uninfected Children and Adolescents in the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study
The effect of perinatal HIV infection and exposure on sub-clinical auditory function can be measured with distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs). DPOAEs were obtained at 4 frequency bins (1, 2, 3 and 4 kHz) and categorized by a signal-to-noise ratio. HIV infection was not associated with poorer DPOAEs. Among HIV-infected children, HIV viral load ?400 copies/mL had significantly lower odds of better DPOAEs. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Kenya: President Launches Global Anti-HIV/Aids Campaign
[Kenya Presidency]Nairobi -- President Uhuru Kenyatta today launched the 'Global All In', a campaign aimed at reducing new HIV/AIDS infections among adolescents and young women. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Next-Generation HIV and Hep C Treatment Plans Ahead at CROINext-Generation HIV and Hep C Treatment Plans Ahead at CROI
Researchers spell out what's next for antiretroviral therapy after excitement about the Mississippi infant fades. Hepatitis C experts target genotype 3 as the next population needing therapies. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Hiv-Aids Headlines)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
New, Rapidly Progressing Strain of HIV Identified in Cuba (FREE)
By Amy Orciari Herman Edited by David G. Fairchild, MD, MPH, and Lorenzo Di Francesco, MD, FACP, FHM A new strain of HIV-1 that progresses to AIDS within just 3 years has been identified in Cuba, researchers report in ? (Source: Physician's First Watch current issue)
An Exploratory Study to Find the Perception Towards HIV/AIDS in Pakistan
Publication date: 27 January 2015 Source:Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, Volume 172 Author(s): Fawad Khan The purpose of this exploratory research is to present the perceptions towards HIV/AIDS in Pakistan. Data was collected from 939 respondents. The aim of this analysis was to identify the common patterns related to perception towards HIV based on responses. Five major perception groups were emerging from the analysis, i.e., a) Commoners b) Prescriptive c) Callous d) Seclusion and d) Tribulation. The result suggests people have a sympathetic attitude towards the disease and also people are not willing to get in contact with an HIV infected person. Also, people have the perception that community should be informed about HIV/AIDS patients. (Source: Procedia Social and Behavior...
HIV: Tied down by its own receptor
Nature advance online publication 18 February 2015. doi:10.1038/nature14205 Author: Nancy L. Haigwood An engineered protein that binds to the envelope of HIV viruses protects monkeys against infection with a simian&#8211;human virus that causes AIDS. This gene-therapy approach might provide an alternative to elusive HIV vaccines. (Source: Nature AOP)
High Levels of Concomitant Behavioral Health Disorders Among Patients Presenting for HIV Non-occupational Post-exposure Prophylaxis at a Boston Community Health Center Between 1997 and 2013
Abstract A paucity of information regarding mental health exists for patients presenting for HIV non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis (nPEP). We reviewed electronic medical records of 894 adult nPEP patients seen at a large Boston community health center between 1997 and 2013. Of 821 patients with consensual sexual exposures, 88.3 % were men who have sex with men, and 40.0 % had a mental health diagnosis. Diagnoses included: depression (24.4 %), anxiety (21.9 %), attention deficit disorder (7.8 %), post-traumatic stress disorder (3.3 %), and psychotic disorders (3.3 %). Of 129 patients with substance use disorders, alcohol dependence (65.9 %) and crystal methamphetamine (43.4 %) predominated. Unprotected receptive anal intercourse was associated with psychotic disor...
Improvement of distal symmetrical polyneuropathy in patient with AIDS after switch from protease inhibitor containing antiretroviral treatment to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, emtricitabine and rilpivirine (EVIPLERA®) therapy ? Case report
Publication date: Available online 18 February 2015 Source:HIV &amp; AIDS Review Author(s): Dariusz Bielec , S?awomir Kiciak , Anna Przyby?a , Justyna Stempkowska In this paper we present a 29-year-old male patient with AIDS stage C3 according to CDC (esophageal candidiasis). He received combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) with lopinavir/ritonavir and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine. Almost 2log reduction of viral load was observed after 1 month of cART, but the patient developed distal symmetrical polyneuropathy. Therapy was switched to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine/rilpivirine (EVIPLERA®). During this therapy HIV-RNA became undetectable, CD4 T cell count increased and distal symmetrical polyneuropathy symptoms improved and then disappeared completely...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Neuro-endocrine immune networks leading to HIV-associated cardiovascular abnormalities: Role of leptin
Publication date: Available online 18 February 2015 Source:HIV &amp; AIDS Review Author(s): T.N. Kathyayani , A. Harinatha Reddy , B. Sri Lakshmi , B. Venkatappa Patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus exhibit many risk factors like atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction and hypertension for cardiovascular disease. As the homeostatic mechanisms in body are regulated by the integrated actions of cytokines and hormones, the normal function of a human heart is also governed by the neuro-endocrine immune interactions. Patients suffering from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome manifest alterations in the neural immune networks mediated by human immunodeficiency virus and leptin, which incline them to suffer from congestive heart failure. Networks that disrupt the cardiovascu...
Assessment of long-term safety and effectiveness of atazanavir (ATV) in the first antiretroviral treatment regimen in POLCA cohort
Conclusion In POLCA cohort long term treatment with ATV was safe and effective, and observed drug-induced toxicities were similar or smaller than reported in literature. (Source: HIV and AIDS Review)
Management of severe acute malnutrition in low-income and middle-income countries
Kwashiorkor and marasmus, collectively termed severe acute malnutrition (SAM), account for at least 10% of all deaths among children under 5&nbsp;years of age worldwide, virtually all of them in low-income and middle-income countries. A number of risk factors, including seasonal food insecurity, environmental enteropathy, poor complementary feeding practices, and chronic and acute infections, contribute to the development of SAM. Careful anthropometry is key to making an accurate diagnosis of SAM and can be performed by village health workers or even laypeople in rural areas. The majority of children can be treated at home with ready-to-use therapeutic food under the community-based management of acute malnutrition model with recovery rates of approximately 90% under optimal conditions. A ...
Neurodevelopmental outcomes of preterm singletons, twins and higher-order gestations: a population-based cohort study
Conclusions Premature infants from multiple gestation pregnancies appear to have comparable neurodevelopmental outcomes to singletons. (Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood - Fetal and Neonatal Edition)
Inducible HSP70 Is Critical in Preventing the Aggregation and Enhancing the Processing of PMP22
In this study, we show that activation of the chaperone pathway in fibroblasts from PMP22 duplication-associated Charcot&ndash;Marie&ndash;Tooth disease type 1A patient with an FDA-approved small molecule increases HSP70 expression and attenuates proteasome dysfunction. Using cells from an HSP70.1/3&ndash;/&ndash; (inducible HSP70) mouse model, we demonstrate that under proteotoxic stress, this chaperone is critical in preventing the aggregation of PMP22, and this effect is aided by macroautophagy. When examined at steady-state, HSP70 appears to play a minor role in the trafficking of wild-type-PMP22, while it is crucial for preventing the buildup of the aggregation-prone Trembler-J-PMP22. HSP70 aids the processing of Trembler-J-PMP22 through the Golgi and its delivery to lysosomes via Rab...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Critical Design Elements of E-Health Applications for Users With Severe Mental Illness: Singular Focus, Simple Architecture, Prominent Contents, Explicit Navigation, and Inclusive Hyperlinks
Conclusions: The FEDM provides evidence-based guidelines to design e-health applications for person with SMI, including: minimize an application&rsquo;s layers or hierarchy, use explicit text, employ navigational memory aids, group hyperlinks in 1 area, and minimize the number of disparate subjects an application addresses. (Source: Schizophrenia Bulletin)
Subsidized optimal ART for HIV-positive temporary residents of Australia improves virological outcomes: results from the Australian HIV Observational Database Temporary Residents Access Study.
Conclusions: The immunological and virological improvements highlight the importance of supplying optimal ART to this vulnerable population. The increase in proportion with undetectable HIV viral load shows the potentially significant impact on HIV transmission in addition to the personal health benefit for each individual. PMID: 25680919 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
2077416 Skene's Gland Duct Cysts: the Utility of Vaginal/Transperineal Imaging In Diagnosis And Mapping For Surgery. a Case Series And Review of The Literature
We aim to demonstrate that with the advent of improved high frequency probes pelvic floor imaging is a useful diagnostic tool and aids in preoperative surgical mapping. (Source: Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology)
Kenya: New Platform for Action On Adolescent Aids Must Tackle Disclosure
[Key Correspondents]As leaders from around the world gather in Nairobi to launch 'All In' to end adolescent AIDS, Lucy Maroncha explores the issue of HIV disclosure, a key issue this initiative must tackle. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Africa: Global Fund Supports "All In" to End the Aids Epidemic Among Adolescents
[Global Fund]While major advances have been made in almost every area of the response to HIV, progress for adolescents is falling behind, said leaders in the global response to end the AIDS epidemic. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
JoVE Introduces Powerful Tool Linking Scientific Videos to 4.5 Million...
JoVE Visualize aids reproducibility, adding video dimension to universe of scientific research.(PRWeb February 17, 2015)Read the full story at http://www.prweb.com/releases/2015/02/prweb12520577.htm (Source: PRWeb: Medical Pharmaceuticals)
Cuba fighting highly aggressive strain of HIV
A recent study has found that HIV-infected people in Cuba developed AIDS within three years, much faster than the most common strains of the virus (Source: Health News: CBSNews.com)
Africa: Ending the HIV/Aids Epidemic Requires a Focus On Adolescents
[Daily Maverick]The apparent invincibility of youth has been dealt a devastating blow by HIV/Aids. But all is not lost. We can make a difference to this epidemic, if we know where to target our attempts at beating it. By ANTHONY LAKE, UNICEF Executive Director and MICHEL SIDIBÉ, UNAids Executive Director. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
UN launches ?All In? initiative to end adolescent AIDS
In the fight against HIV/AIDS, progress for adolescents has fallen behind, world leaders gathered at a United Nations meeting in Nairobi, Kenya, stressed today, as they launched a global initiative to end the second leading cause of death among young people worldwide. (Source: UN News Centre - Women, Children, Population)
Trends in the HIV Epidemic Among African American Men Who Have Sex with Men, San Francisco, 2004?2011
Abstract African American men who have sex with men have been disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic in the United States and remain to this day one of the groups with highest HIV prevalence and incidence. Our goal was to clarify the current state of HIV risk, sexual behaviors, and structural/network?network level factors that affect black MSM?s population risk of HIV, enabling the formulation of targeted and up-to-date public health messages/campaigns directed at this vulnerable population. Our approach maximized the use of local data through a process of synthesis and triangulation of multiple independent and overlapping sources of information that are sometimes separately published and often not examined side-by-side. Among African American MSM, we observed stable ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Prevalence of malnutrition and Its associated factors among adult people living with HIV/AIDS receiving anti-retroviral therapy at Butajira Hospital, Southern Ethiopia
The prevalence of malnutrition among HIV/AIDS patients receiving anti-retroviral therapy in Ethiopia is high and intestinal parasite co-infection is found important risk factor associated with malnutrition. (Source: Epidemiologic Perspectives and Innovations)
An analysis of the effectiveness of WASH interventions in relation to diarrhoeal diseases in Chipinge district, Zimbabwe
The objectives of the study were to determine the existing WASH interventions in the ward, to assess the KAP on WASH interventions as a mitigation measure against diarrhoeal disease, to analyse the trend of diarrhoea from 2005 to 2011 and to analyse the behaviour change attributed to WASH interventions. Data was collected using interviews, questionnaires, FGDs and observation checklists. Data was analysed using SPSS version 16.0 and qualitative data was analysed by developing themes related to specific objectives. Results showed that WASH interventions were in place in all the villages of ward 22 though they were inadequate. The interventions among others included borehole rehabilitation, latrine construction and Participatory Health and Hygiene Education (PHHE). The cases of diarrhoea wer...
Contraceptive options for HIV?positive women: making evidence?based, patient?centred decisions
ConclusionsEffective, reliable contraception is important for HIV?positive women. Efficacy, toxicity, drug interactions, and potential impacts on HIV disease progression, transmission, and acquisition must be assessed when making clinical decisions. (Source: HIV Medicine)
Knowing HIV Status Crucial in Cancer Treatment
People living with HIV infection have a high incidence of AIDS-related cancers?Kaposi sarcoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and cervical cancer?and they?re at increased risk for other cancers as well. Yet only 41% of cancer survivors have been tested for HIV, including nearly half of patients with AIDS-related cancers. Clinicians should know a cancer patient?s HIV serostatus to improve cancer outcomes, reduce mortality, and identify secondary cancers that may result from co-infections with hepatitis B and C and Epstein-Barr virus. (Source: JAMA)
Case Report and Review of Immunodeficiency-Associated Burkitt Lymphoma
Human immunodeficiency virus?associated Burkitt lymphoma (HIV-BL) is a highly aggressive lymphoma. Compared with other acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs), its clinical presentation is less predictable and is characterized by rapid clinical changes. The paradigm shift to treat HIV-BL with highly effective intensive chemotherapy regimens and to manage immunosuppression has enabled physicians to offer and achieve remission and long-term survival. The authors present a challenging case of a 33-year- old HIV-positive (HIV+) man with advanced-stage BL. (Source: Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma and Leukemia)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Stimulating High Impact HIV-Related Cardiovascular Research Recommendations From a Multidisciplinary NHLBI Working Group on HIV-Related Heart, Lung, and Blood Disease
The clinical challenges confronting patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have shifted from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related illnesses to chronic diseases, such as coronary artery disease, chronic lung disease, and chronic anemia. With the growing burden of HIV-related heart, lung, and blood (HLB) disease, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) recognizes it must stimulate and support HIV-related HLB research. Because HIV offers a natural, accelerated model of common pathological processes, such as inflammation, HIV-related HLB research may yield important breakthroughs for all patients with HLB disease. This paper summarizes the cardiovascular recommendations of an NHLBI Working Group, Advancing HIV/AIDS Research in Heart, Lung, and Blood Disease...
New, aggressive strain of HIV discovered in Cuba
Health officials are worried about a new form of HIV that progresses to AIDS three times faster (Source: Health News: CBSNews.com)
Many African Americans Still Only Dream of High Quality Health Care
Recently, AARP conducted a study to determine how perceptions of key social issues ranked in importance to African Americans age 50 and over. Ninety-one percent gave the answer "high quality health care." Eighty-nine percent gave the answer, "Access to high quality health care information." We were not surprised at the high percentage of either response. Why wouldn't the foremost issue on the minds of African Americans be the key issue that would prolong, enhance or save lives? Why wouldn't the dominant issue on the minds of Black people age 50 and over be their health; even more so than education, employment and access to technology. The only issue that even rivaled health in the survey was "having a financially secure retirement," which also came in at 91 percent. But, it all connects....
For older adults, a solution to sleepless nights

New aggressive strain of HIV can progress to AIDS in just three years, scientists warn
Experts say the new strain, identified in Cuba, causes patients to progress to AIDS within three years - so rapidly, they may not even realise they have been infected. (Source: the Mail online | Health)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Dolutegravir Efficacy in Treatment-Naive HIV PatientsDolutegravir Efficacy in Treatment-Naive HIV Patients
Is dolutegravir effective as a first-line antiretroviral therapy in HIV-positive individuals? AIDS (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
Malawi: "Why I Am Not Scared of Knowing My HIV Status"
[Key Correspondents]As UNAIDS and UNICEF launch All In! on 17 February, a global initiative to reduce the unnecessary deaths of adolescents living with HIV, James Odongo reports on the realities faced by teens in Uganda. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Kenya: 'All In' Global HIV Campaign Begins Tomorrow
[The Star]Kenya will tomorrow launch a new campaign to fight rising HIV infections and deaths among adolescents. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: Nigeria Will Soon Get Herbal Solution to HIV/Aids - Researchers
[Independent (Lagos)]Abuja -If the current efforts by local scientists and researchers are sustained and encouraged by the Federal Government, very soon Nigeria will get an indigenous herbal remedy that will be accepted internationally for the management of HIV/AIDS. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Rwanda: Week in Health - RBC, Media Heighten Efforts to Halve HIV Cases
[New Times]The Rwanda Biomedical Centre (RBC) and the media fraternity, as part of the year-long campaign against HIV/Aids that began in December, have urged media practitioners to use their respective platforms to heighten the fight against the virus. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Nigeria: Valentine - NACA Advises Youths to Avoid Risky Behaviours
[Guardian]AS Nigerians join the world to mark Valentine's Day Saturday, the Director General, National Agency for the Control of AIDS (NACA), Prof. John Idoko, has urged fun-seekers to avoid risky behaviours. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
[Patients'adherence-related beliefs about medicines prescribed for long-term conditions in HIV patients.]
Conclusion: Higher concerns are associated with higher self-reported adherence to long-term medicines in HIV infected-patients. PMID: 25680432 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Farmacia Hospitalaria)
Rwanda: Play Your Role in Combating HIV Prevalence, Scribes Told
[New Times]Media practitioners have been urged to use their respective platforms and clout within society to heighten the fight against HIV/Aids (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Utility of bone marrow examination for workup of fever of unknown origin in patients with HIV/AIDS
Conclusions This study supports the use of diagnostic BMAB as a rapid decision-making tool in patients with HIV and FUO in the proper clinical setting. BMAB demonstrated infection-related evidence prior to positive bone marrow culture in 75% of cases. Special stains and blood cultures had similar diagnostic yield, but BMAB offers faster results. Thus, this procedure assists in clinical decision making and the refinement of treatment in a more timely manner. (Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology)
US approves internal tissue glue
Urethane-based TissuGlu aids healing after abdominal surgery (Source: Chemistry World | Latest News)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Dose Response for Starting and Stopping HIV Preexposure Prophylaxis for Men Who Have Sex With Men
Conclusions.&nbsp;High PrEP activity for MSM was achieved by approximately 1 week of daily dosing. Although effective intracellular drug concentrations persist for several days after stopping PrEP, a reasonable recommendation is to continue PrEP dosing for 4 weeks after the last potential HIV exposure, similar to recommendations for postexposure prophylaxis. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Differential Body Composition Effects of Protease Inhibitors Recommended for Initial Treatment of HIV Infection: A Randomized Clinical Trial
Conclusions.&nbsp;We found no major differences between atazanavir/ritonavir and darunavir/ritonavir in efficacy, clinically relevant side effects, or plasma cholesterol fractions. However, atazanavir/ritonavir led to higher triglycerides and more total and subcutaneous fat than darunavir/ritonavir. Also, fat gains with atazanavir/ritonavir were associated with insulin resistance. Clinical Trials Registration.&nbsp;NCT01274780. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Seroprevalence of TORCH infections in antenatal and HIV positive patient populations
Conclusions The study showed a high seroprevalence of the infections caused by the TORCH complex amongst pregnant women and HIV/AIDS patients despite improved hygiene conditions and health awareness. Maximum seroprevalence for CMV was observed followed by Rubella and HSV infection. (Source: Medical Journal Armed Forces India)
Complementary and alternative medicine in multiple sclerosis: Payment policy perspectives
This article identifies payment policy perspectives of the American Academy of Neurology's guideline on complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in multiple sclerosis (MS). The guideline is a reliable repository of information for advocating or not recommending certain CAM treatments in MS. It eases the burden of searching for information on each separate CAM treatment. It frequently emphasizes the need for patient counseling. To provide such generally undervalued, but needed, cognitive services, neurologists could use advanced practice providers and patient-friendly visual aids during or between visits. They should also rely on evaluation and management codes that recognize time spent predominantly on counseling or coordination of care. The guideline's categorization of probable effec...
Topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents for diabetic cystoid macular oedema.
CONCLUSIONS: The review did not identify any RCTs investigating the effects of topical NSAIDs in the treatment of diabetic CMO. Most of the studies identified through the electronic searches had been conducted to analyse the effect of topical NSAIDs for pseudophakic CMO.In the absence of high quality evidence, clinicians need to use their clinical judgement and other low level evidence, such as observational non-randomised trials, to decide whether to use topical NSAIDs in cases of diabetic CMO.More research is needed to better understand the cause of this condition and its pathophysiology. This systematic review has identified the need for well designed, adequately powered RCTs to assess possible beneficial and adverse effects of topical NSAIDs in people with diabetic CMO. Future trials s...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Now that you want to take your HIV/AIDS vaccine/biological product research concept into the clinic: What are "cGMP"?
Now that you want to take your HIV/AIDS vaccine/biological product research concept into the clinic: What are "cGMP"? Vaccine. 2015 Feb 16; Authors: Sheets RL, Rangavajhula V, Pullen JK, Butler C, Mehra V, Shapiro S, Pensiero M Abstract The Division of AIDS Vaccine Research Program funds the discovery and development of HIV/AIDS vaccine candidates. Basic researchers, having discovered a potential vaccine in the laboratory, next want to take that candidate into the clinic to test the concept in humans, to see if it translates. Many of them have heard of "cGMP" and know that they are supposed to make a "GMP product" to take into the clinic, but often they are not very familiar with what "cGMP" means and why these good practices are so important. As members of the Vaccine...
Spontaneous intraneural hematoma of the sural nerve
We present a previously healthy 36-year-old female who developed an atraumatic, spontaneous intraneural hematoma of her sural nerve. Sural dysfunction was elicited from the patient?s history and physical examination. The diagnosis was confirmed with magnetic resonance imaging, and surgical decompression provided successful resolution of her preoperative symptoms. To our knowledge, this entity has not been reported previously. Our case highlights the importance of having a high index of suspicion for nerve injury or compression in patients whose complaints follow a typical peripheral nerve distribution. Prior studies have shown that the formation of intraneural hematoma and associated compression of nerve fibers result in axonal degeneration, and surgical decompression decreases axonal de...
Gene expression changes during retinal development and rod specification.
CONCLUSIONS: This study aids in understanding gene expression differences between rod photoreceptor progenitors versus cultured RPCs that have lost photoreceptor potential. The results provide insights into rod photoreceptor development and should expedite the development of cell-based treatments for RP. Furthermore, the data set includes a large number of retinopathy genes; less-well-characterized genes within this data set are a resource for those seeking to identify novel retinopathy genes in patients with RP (GEO accession: GSE59201). PMID: 25678762 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Molecular Vision)
Evaluating the Progression of Osteolysis After Total Knee Arthroplasty.
Authors: Dalling JG, Math K, Scuderi GR Abstract Osteolysis around the knee following total knee arthroplasty continues to be a leading cause for revision total knee arthroplasty. Risk factors for periprosthetic knee osteolysis are associated with excessive polyethylene wear and include, but may not be limited to, malalignment of the mechanical axis, early-generation polyethylene sterilization techniques, excessive backside polyethylene wear, metal-backed patellar components, patient age, and an elevated body mass index. The initial diagnosis of osteolysis is frequently discovered on routine surveillance radiographs. The location, size, progressive nature, and associated symptomatology of the defect guides treatment. Surgical indications and timing are predicated on the risk of fai...
Prevalence and correlates of HIV among men who have sex with men in Tijuana, Mexico.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that MSM are a key sub-population in Tijuana at higher risk for HIV. Tijuana would also appear to have the highest proportion among upper-middle-income countries of HIV-positive MSM who are unknowingly infected. More HIV prevention research on MSM is urgently needed in Tijuana. PMID: 25669423 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Zambia: Govt Targets Zero New HIV Infections
[Times of Zambia]COMMUNITY Development, Mother and Child Health Minister Emerine Kabanshi says the Government will continue fighting HIV and AIDS in order to reach the target of zero new infections. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Aggressive new HIV strain detected in Cuba
Denise Royal Researchers have detected a new strain of HIV in patients in Cuba. The progression to AIDS happens much faster than in other strains of the virus. (Source: Health News - UPI.com)
Sacral Stimulation Aids Bowel Function After Spinal InjurySacral Stimulation Aids Bowel Function After Spinal Injury
Sacral anterior root stimulation (SARS) appears to help bowel emptying in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI), according Danish and German researchers. Reuters Health Information (Source: Medscape General Surgery Headlines)
Proportions of Patients With HIV Retained in Care and Virally Suppressed in New York City and the United States: Higher Than We Thought
Conclusions: Using 2 newly developed methods, we were able to report more accurate estimates of the proportions of patients retained in care and virally suppressed. Other local health jurisdictions should consider using these new methods to measure care outcomes and monitor the National HIV/AIDS Strategy. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Early HIV Infections Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Five Cities in the United States
Abstract We tested blood samples from men who have sex with men (MSM) to detect early HIV infection. Early HIV included both acute (infected past 30 days) and recent (estimated recency past 240 days). Acute infections were defined as screen immunoassay (IA) negative/NAAT-positive or IA-positive/Multispot-negative/NAAT-positive. Recent infections were defined as avidity index cutoff &lt;30 % on an avidity-based IA and, (1) not reporting antiretroviral therapy use or, (2) HIV RNA &gt;150 copies/mL. Of 937 samples, 26 % (244) were HIV-infected and of these 5 % (12) were early. Of early infections, 2 were acute and 10 recent; most (8/12) were among black MSM. Early infection was associated with last partner of black race [adjusted relative risk (ARR) = 4.6, confidence interval...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
An unusual presentation: A case of Multicentric Castleman's disease presenting as bilateral pleural effusions
Publication date: Available online 14 February 2015 Source:HIV &amp; AIDS Review Author(s): Priya K. Simoes , Narender Annapureddy , Vaidehi Avadhani , Gangajal Kasnia , Girish N. Nadkarni A 30-year-old male with AIDS with worsening dyspnea and leg swelling, extensive lymphadenopathy and anasarca. CT revealed new pleural effusions and lymphadenopathy. Lymph node biopsy showed Multicentric Castleman's disease with Kaposi's sarcoma. (Source: HIV and AIDS Review)
Prevalence and risk factors for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in an HIV-positive cohort
Conclusions Even with high MRSA prevalence, the proportion identified through nares surveillance alone was low, indicating the importance of screening multiple anatomic sites. Associations were not found with same-sex coupling or black race. MRSA prevention might be a benefit of ART in PLWH. (Source: American Journal of Infection Control)
Impact evaluation of a community-based intervention to reduce risky sexual behaviour in female sex workers in Shanghai, China
Conclusion: Following a preventive intervention among Shanghai FSWs, our findings demonstrate that a simple, community-based educational intervention improved overall condom use, HIV and STI knowledge, and attitudes in relation to HIV/AIDS. The intervention should be implemented widely after tailoring educational materials regarding condom negotiation with different partner types (e.g., clients and primary partners). (Source: BMC Public Health)
Decisive Criteria Between Stapedotomy and Cochlear Implantation in Patients with Far Advanced Otosclerosis
Conclusion: Although cochlear implantation gives better overall results, stapedotomy with hearing aids can still be very effective in the management of patients with far-advanced otosclerosis. It should therefore be proposed as a first-line treatment. (Source: Otology and Neurotology)
Diagnostic aids in the screening of oral cancer.
The World Health Organization has clearly indentified prevention and early detection as major objectives in the control of the oral cancer burden worldwide. At the present time, screening of oral cancer and its pre-invasive intra-epithelial stages, as well as its early detection, is still largely based on visual examination of the mouth. There is strong available evidence to suggest that visual inspection of the oral mucosa is effective in reducing mortality from oral cancer in individuals exposed to risk factors. Simple visual examination, however, is well known to be limited by subjective interpretation and by the potential, albeit rare, occurrence of dysplasia and early OSCC within areas of normal-looking oral mucosa. As a consequence, adjunctive techniques have been suggested to increa...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Auditory brainstem implant: Hearing experts break sound barrier for children born without hearing nerve
Medical researchers are breaking sound barriers for children born without a hearing nerve. Hearing loss manifests in various forms, most of which can be partially restored through hearing aids and cochlear implants. Those devices cannot help a small population of individuals who do not have a cochlear, or hearing, nerve -- these people are unable to perceive sound, no matter how loud, outside of feeling vibration. The ABI is considered revolutionary because it stimulates neurons directly at the human brainstem, bypassing the inner ear entirely. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)
Pharmacokinetics of Etravirine Combined with Atazanavir/Ritonavir and a Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor in Antiretroviral Treatment-Experienced, HIV-1-Infected Patients.
Conclusions. Etravirine 200?mg?bid can be combined with atazanavir/ritonavir 300/100?mg?qd and an NRTI in HIV-1-infected, treatment-experienced patients without dose adjustment. PMID: 25664185 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Nigeria: Mobile HIV Counselling, Tests Begin in Ondo
[Independent (Lagos)]In its drive to further reduce the spread of HIV among residents in the state, the Ondo State government, through its Agency for the Control of AIDS (ODSACA) in collaboration with the Local Action Committee on AIDS (LACA) on Thursday flagged off a mobile HIV counseling and testing service among rural dwellers in the state. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
South Africa: 2014 SONA Claims Revisited - Zuma On HIV/Aids
This report looks back at the claims he made about service delivery. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Cipla awarded $188.95 million tender by Global Fund for ARV drugs to treat HIV/AIDS
Cipla has been awarded $188.95 million tender for anti-retrovirals drugs by Global Fund which would enable it to supply the medicines to over 140 countries. (Source: The Economic Times Healthcare and Biotech News)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Africa: Cancer's Deadly Grip On Africa, Yet It's Barely Noticed
[IPS]Harare -Hidden by the struggles to defeat Ebola, malaria and drug-resistant tuberculosis, a silent killer has been moving across the African continent, superseding infections of HIV and AIDS. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Nigeria: Fresh Rumble Over Court Judgement On Abalaka's HIV Vaccine Claim
[Guardian]ABOUT 16 years after the Federal Government placed a ban on the use of his controversial HIV vaccine, Dr. Jeremiah Abalaka, appears not ready to give up the fight. He is still insisting that efficacy of his vaccine is not in doubt. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Rwanda: Cricket Without Boundaries to Conduct Training Clinics
[New Times]A group of seven members from UK Charity group Cricket Without Boundaries are in the country to train local coaches and also educate the youth about the dangers of sexually transmitted diseases like HIV/Aids. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Cancer Locks a Deadly Grip on Africa, Yet It?s Barely Noticed
Many specialist doctors and nurses in Africa are migrating to greener pastures, leaving cancer patients with few options. Credit: Jeffrey Moyo/IPSBy Jeffrey MoyoHARARE, Feb 13 2015 (IPS)Hidden by the struggles to defeat Ebola, malaria and drug-resistant tuberculosis, a silent killer has been moving across the African continent, superseding infections of HIV and AIDS.World Cancer Day commemorated on Feb. 4 may have come and gone, but the spread of cancer in Africa has been worrying global health organisations and experts year round. The continent, they fear, is ill-prepared for another health crisis of enormous proportions.By 2020, according to the World Health Organisation (WHO), approximately 16 million new cases of cancer are anticipated worldwide, with 70 percent of them in developing c...
Case Report and Review of Immunodeficiency Associated Burkitt Lymphoma
Publication date: Available online 9 January 2015 Source:Clinical Lymphoma Myeloma and Leukemia Author(s): Daniel H. Johnson , Thomas Reske , Marco Ruiz HIV associated Burkitt lymphoma (HIV-BL) is a highly aggressive lymphoma. Compared to other AIDS related non-Hodgkin lymphomas, its clinical presentation is less predictable and characterized by rapid clinical changes. The paradigm shift to treat HIV-BL with highly effective intensive chemotherapy regimens and manage immunosuppression has enabled physicians to offer and achieve remission and long-term survival. The authors present a challenging case of a 33-year old HIV+ male with advanced stage BL. The patient presented with severe cachexia, clinical symptomatic cord compression, an ECOG performance status of 4 and his care involved pro...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
HIV/AIDS?related stigma and information behaviour: an ethnographic study in the UK
Abstract This feature explores the information behaviour of people infected with or affected by HIV/AIDS. It investigates specifically the difficult issue of stigma and how this shapes the ways in which people interact with vital information. The study adopted an ethnographic whereby the researcher worked as a part?time volunteer at an HIV support centre in the North of England for over a year. This is the first time that such an approach has been reported in this feature and is interesting from this perspective alone. The very rich data which was gathered as a result of the approach is also instructive. The study formed part of a PhD thesis, which Robinah Kalemeera Namuleme completed at the University of Sheffield in March 2013. (Source: Health Information and Libraries Journal)
HIV-Positive Status Disclosure in Patients in Care in Rural South Africa: Implications for Scaling Up Treatment and Prevention Interventions
Abstract A nuanced understanding of HIV-positive status disclosure is urgently needed to inform the implementation of prevention interventions, including TasP and PrEP. To provide such understanding for the high HIV-burden setting of rural KwaZulu-Natal, we conducted a prospective cohort study to characterize determinants and trends in HIV-positive status disclosure. 687 consenting HIV-positive individuals (73.2 % female; 60.3 % ART initiated) were enrolled. Reports of any incidence of disclosure to either a family member or sexual partner at enrollment and follow-up visits (median 4.4 months post-enrolment) were common (91.0 %); however, reports of disclosure specifically to sexual partners were relatively rare (34.1 %), especially in women (29.8 %). Participants not en...
2015 Avant-Garde Awards Offer Extraordinary Ideas in HIV/AIDS Research
"With proposals ranging from innovative therapies to the development of unique organoid models of the brain, five scientists have been selected to receive the 2015 Avant-Garde Award for HIV/AIDS Research from the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), part of the National Institutes of Health. The five scientists will each receive $500,000 per year for five years to support their research. NIDA's annual Avant-Garde Award competition, now in its eighth year, is intended to stimulate high-impact research that may lead to groundbreaking opportunities for the prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS in drug users." &nbsp; View the list of awardees and learn more about their research in this NIH news release. (Source: AIDSinfo At-a-Glance: Offering Information on HIV/AIDS Treatment, Prevention, a...
FDA Approves Dutrebis, Though It Is Not Commercially Marketed in U.S. at This Time
"On February 6, 2015, the FDA approved Dutrebis a fixed dose combination tablet containing 150 mg of lamivudine and 300 mg of raltegravir. Dutrebis tablet is approved for use in combination with other antiretroviral products for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in adults and pediatric patients greater than or equal to 6 years of age weighing at least 30 kg. &hellip;&nbsp; &nbsp; "According to the manufacturer, Merck Pharmaceuticals, Dutrebis, will not be made commercially available in the U.S. at this time." &nbsp; For more information, view the FDA news release. (Source: AIDSinfo At-a-Glance: Offering Information on HIV/AIDS Treatment, Prevention, and Research, A Service of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS))
AIDS incidence and AIDS-related mortality in British Columbia, Canada, between 1981 and 2013: a retrospective study
Publication date: Available online 13 February 2015 Source:The Lancet HIV Author(s): Viviane D Lima , Lillian Lourenço , Benita Yip , Robert S Hogg , Peter Phillips , Julio S G Montaner Background Appropriate use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART) can substantially decrease the risk of progression to AIDS and of premature mortality. We aimed to characterise the trends between 1981 and 2013 in AIDS-defining illnesses (ADIs) and the number AIDS-related deaths in British Columbia, Canada, where ART has been fully subsidised since 1996. Methods We included data on HIV-positive individuals, aged 19 years or older, from four administrative databases in British Columbia: the British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS, St Paul's Hospital, the British Columbia Vital Statistic...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
End of AIDS on the horizon, but innovation needed to end HIV
Publication date: Available online 13 February 2015 Source:The Lancet HIV Author(s): Stefano Vella (Source: The Lancet HIV)
Gene Expression Ratio Test Distinguishes Normal Lung from Lung Tumors in Solid Tissue and FNA Biopsies
This study supports the hypothesis that the gene-ratio approach reliably distinguishes normal lung from cancerous tissues in FNA samples and can be optimized to diagnose benign nodules. (Source: The Journal of Molecular Diagnostics)
Can local communities 'sustain' HIV/AIDS programmes? A South African example
Globally, there is a renewed interest in building the local sustainability of HIV/AIDS programmes to ensure that once funders withdraw, local communities can sustain programmes. While the &lsquo;local sustainability assumption&rsquo; is widespread, little research has assessed this. In this article, we assess the sustainability of the Entabeni Project, a community-based intervention that sought to build women's local leadership and capacity to respond to HIV/AIDS through a group of volunteer carers, 3 years after external support was withdrawn. Overall, the sustainability of the Entabeni Project was limited. The wider social and political context undermined volunteer carers' sense that they could affect change, with little external support for them from government and NGOs, who struggled t...
Barriers to Cervical Cancer Screening in Rural Kenya: Perspectives from a Provider Survey
We examined the barriers to screening through a survey of 106 healthcare staff. The most frequently cited barriers to service delivery included staffing shortages, lack of trained staff, insufficient space, and supply issues. The patient barriers commonly perceived by the staff included inadequate knowledge, wait time, discomfort with male providers, and fear of pain with the speculum exam. Despite multilateral efforts to implement cervical cancer screening, staff face significant challenges to service provision and increased education is needed for both providers and patients. (Source: Journal of Community Health)
IJERPH, Vol. 12, Pages 2120-2134: Exploring the Care Relationship between Grandparents/Older Carers and Children Infected with HIV in South-Western Uganda: Implications for Care for Both the Children and Their Older Carers
The care of children orphaned by HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa is often undertaken by grandparents, yet little is known about the care relationship between grandparent and grandchild. Our aim was to examine this relationship to understand the needs and responsibilities of both the HIV positive child and older carer and the nature of the relationship, and to assess the implications for care for the children and the older carers. A qualitative study was conducted with 40 purposively sampled children (13?17 years) and their older carers (50 years and above). Participants were recruited from two clinics in south-western Uganda. Up to three semi-structured interviews were held with each participant. Data were analysed using a thematic framework approach. We found that the care relationship w...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
HIV-1 diversity in an antiretroviral treatment naïve cohort from Bushbuckridge, Mpumalanga Province, South Africa
Conclusions: The phylogenetic analysis of the HIV sequences revealed that, by 2009, patients in the Bushbuckridge, Mpumalanga were predominantly infected with HIV-1 subtype C. However, the generalized, explosive nature of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in South Africa, in the context of extensive mobility by South Africans who inhabit rural areas, renders the continued molecular monitoring and surveillance of the epidemic imperative. (Source: Virology Journal)
Global stability of an infection-age structured HIV-1 model linking within-host and between-host dynamics.
Authors: Shen M, Xiao Y, Rong L Abstract Although much evidence shows the inseparable interaction between the within-host progression of HIV-1 infection and the transmission of the disease at the population level, few models coupling the within-host and between-host dynamics have been developed. In this paper, we adopt the nested approach, viewing the transmission rate at each stage (primary, chronic, and AIDS stage) of HIV-1 infection as a saturated function of the viral load, to formulate an infection-age structured epidemic model. We explicitly link the individual and the host population scale, and derive the basic reproduction number R0 for the coupled system. To analyze the model and perform a detailed global dynamics analysis, two Lyapunov functionals are constructed to prove...
Aggressive form of HIV uncovered in Cuba: HIV to AIDS in three years
Engaging in unprotected sex with multiple partners increases the risk of contracting multiple strains of HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. Once inside a host, these strains can recombine into a new variant of the virus. One such recombinant variant observed in patients in Cuba appears to be much more aggressive than other known forms of HIV. Patients progress to AIDS within three years of infection -- so rapidly that they may not even realize they were infected. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)
Malawi: Where Do Prayers and Food Stand in HIV Treatment?
[Key Correspondents]I first met Ruth Namadzi on World Aids Day of 2014 and my first impression was that of a nutritionist or still someone who owns a restaurant. She had in front of her various food dishes, which not only gave sweet smell but also had an attractive look. There was nsima made from whole maize grain, fried meat together with a variety of vegetables and milk, among others. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Well: Chains Pull Dietary Aids Off Shelves After Inquiry
The New York attorney general had issued subpoenas to Target, Walgreens, GNC and Walmart over claims made on their packaging of dietary supplements. (Source: NYT)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Nigeria: Smartphone Accessory Diagnoses HIV, Syphilis in 15 Minutes
[Guardian]A NEW smartphone accessory capable of diagnosing Human Immuno-deficiency Virus (HIV) and syphilis has been developed and successfully field-tested in Rwanda. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Tanzania: NGO Introduces Project to Support HIV+ People
[Daily News]WOMEN Creative Solutions Association (WCSA) has introduced a project known as Sauti Yetu, aimed at helping people living with HIV/ Aids in urban and rural areas. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
An aggressive form of HIV uncovered in Cuba
(KU Leuven) Engaging in unprotected sex with multiple partners increases the risk of contracting multiple strains of HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. Once inside a host, these strains can recombine into a new variant of the virus. One such recombinant variant observed in patients in Cuba appears to be much more aggressive than other known forms of HIV. Patients progress to AIDS within three years of infection -- so rapidly that they may not even realize they were infected. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory levan produced from Acetobacter xylinum NCIM2526 and its statistical optimization
In this study, we have demonstrated the microbial production of therapeutically potential levan by batch fermentation process in sucrose rich medium using Acetobacter xylinum NCIM 2526. The produced Levan was characterized using various physicochemical techniques such as FTIR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR spectroscopy, TGA and HPLC. The biomedical potential of the isolated A. xylinum levan for its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities was exploited in vitro. Further the present study also focused on the optimization of levan production using one factor at a time approach followed by a statistical method, central composite design (CCD) with selected variables. The yield of levan was increased significantly from 0.54 to 13.25g/L with the optimized variables. (Source: Carbohydrate Polymers)
Estimation of the Standardized Risk Difference and Ratio in a Competing Risks Framework: Application to Injection Drug Use and Progression to AIDS After Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy
We present an example estimating the effect of injection drug use on 6-year risk of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) after initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy between 1998 and 2012 in an 8-site US cohort study with death before AIDS as a competing risk. We estimate the risk standardized to the total study sample by combining inverse probability weights with the cumulative incidence function; estimates of precision are obtained by bootstrap. In 7,182 patients (83% male, 33% African American, median age of 38 years), we observed 6-year standardized AIDS risks of 16.75% among 1,143 injection drug users and 12.08% among 6,039 nonusers, yielding a standardized risk difference of 4.68 (95% confidence interval: 1.27, 8.08) and a standardized risk ratio of 1.39 (95% confidenc...
Positive Charge: Filling the Gaps in the U.S. HIV Continuum of Care
This study describes three PC programs, the characteristics of their participants, and the continuum of engagement in care for their participants. Eighty-eight percent of participants were engaged in care post PC enrollment. Sixty-nine percent were retained in care, and 46 % were virally suppressed at follow-up. Older participants were more likely to be engaged, retained, and virally suppressed. Differences by race and gender in HIV care and treatment varied across PC programs, reflecting the diverse target populations, locations, and strategies employed by the PC grantees. There is an urgent need for programs that promote HIV care and treatment among vulnerable populations, including young people living with HIV. There is also an urgent need for additional research to test the effectiven...
Macaque species susceptibility to simian immunodeficiency virus: increased incidence of SIV central nervous system disease in pigtailed macaques versus rhesus macaques
Abstract Immune pressure exerted by MHC class I-restricted cytotoxic T cells drives the development of viral escape mutations, thereby regulating HIV disease progression. Nonetheless, the relationship between host immunity and HIV central nervous system (CNS) disease remains poorly understood. The simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) macaque model recapitulates key features of HIV infection including development of AIDS and CNS disease. To investigate cell-mediated immunity regulating SIV CNS disease progression, we compared the incidence of SIV encephalitis and the influence of MHC class I allele expression on the development of CNS disease in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) versus pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina). After inoculation with the immunosuppressive swarm SIV/Delt...
The role of health?related claims and health?related symbols in consumer behaviour: Design and conceptual framework of the CLYMBOL project and initial results
The objective of the European Union?funded project Role of health?related?CLaims?and?sYMBOLs?in consumer behaviour (CLYMBOL) is to determine how health?related information provided through claims and symbols, in their context, can affect consumer understanding, purchase and consumption. To do this, a wide range of qualitative and quantitative consumer research methods are being used, including product sampling, sorting studies (i.e. how consumers categorise claims and symbols according to concepts such as familiarity and relevance), cross?country surveys, eye?tracking (i.e. what consumers look at and for how long), laboratory and in?store experiments, structured interviews, as well as analysis of population panel data. EU Member States differ with regard to their histor...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Novel laboratory diagnostic tests for tuberculosis and their potential role in an integrated and tiered laboratory network
Lack of laboratory capacity in high-burden countries presents a significant barrier in providing diagnosis and treatment to patients infected with HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis (TB), and malaria. Strengthening laboratory services in these settings via implementation of novel diagnostic tests is especially indispensable to battle against TB and MDR/XDR-TB.Novel TB diagnostic assays have to be applicable to field conditions, affordable and accessible to all patients at different levels of the tiered laboratory network. (Source: Tuberculosis)
Advocates of preventative HIV drug discuss use, benefits in New Orleans
Three decades after it launched the biggest health scare in a generation, AIDS remains a disease without a cure. (Source: WDSU.com - Health)
Kidneys from HIV Donors May Be OK for HIV Patients, Study Finds
South African researchers report 'impressive' results in 27 cases Source: HealthDay Related MedlinePlus Pages: HIV/AIDS, Kidney Diseases, Kidney Transplantation (Source: MedlinePlus Health News)
Zimbabwe: Zisco Workers HIV Drugs Locked Inside Homes
[New Zimbabwe]WORKERS at the troubled former Zimbabwe Iron and Steel Company, Ziscosteel now NewZimsteel had their anti-retroviral drugs locked in their houses last year when the Redcliff Council locked out tenants in rental arrears, a report has revealed. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Hearing aids to rationed by crisis-stricken NHS
Another 41 per cent of trusts will only offer patients one hearing aid unless they specifically ask for two, while after-care checks, staff numbers, and access to appointments have also been cut. (Source: the Mail online | Health)
New technology could help patients make better decisions on care
(McMaster University) Traditional decision aids to help patient-doctor discussions have drawbacks, but a new electronic model developed by McMaster University researchers holds promise of revolutionizing shared decision-making in the doctor's office with the touch of an electronic tablet. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Funds for HIV/AIDS healthcare contracts reduced by L.A. County
Los Angeles County officials cut back Tuesday on contracts to provide medical care to AIDS and HIV patients, citing increased numbers of people now insured under the federal government's overhaul of healthcare. (Source: Los Angeles Times - Science)
Poor access to primary care impacts the health of deaf people
Study finds that deaf people have poorer health than hearing population Related items from OnMedicaHearing aids only worn by one in five of middle aged who need themHearing loss linked to cognitive declineHair cells in the cochlea can be regenerated, study showsMental health needs of deaf people neglected, review showsGenetic fault at root of inherited deafness (Source: OnMedica Latest News)
The Nigeria wealth distribution and health seeking behaviour: evidence from the 2012 national HIV/AIDS and reproductive health survey
Conclusion The wealth quintiles showed a great disparity in the standard of living of Nigerian households across geo-political zones, states and rural?urban locations which had greatly influenced household health seeking behavior. (Source: Health Economics Review)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
The role of quantitative ADME proteomics to support construction of physiologically?based pharmacokinetic models for use in small molecule drug development
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved (Source: Proteomics. Clinical Applications)
Sexual Violence Against Men Who Have Sex with Men in Brazil: A Respondent-Driven Sampling Survey
Abstract We estimated the prevalence of sexual violence (SV) experience among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Brazil and identified its associated risk factors. We recruited 3859 MSM through respondent driven sampling. A multivariable hierarchical analysis was performed using an ecological model. The prevalence of having ever experienced SV was 15.9 % (95 % confidence interval [CI] 14.7?17.1). SV experience was independently associated with discrimination due to sexual orientation (odds ratio [OR] 3.05; 95 % CI 2.10?4.42), prior HIV testing (OR 1.81; 95 % CI 1.25?2.63), ?14 years at first sex (OR 1.86; 95 % CI 1.28?2.71), first sex with a man (OR 1.89; 95 % CI 1.28?2.79), presenting STI symptoms (last year) (OR 1.66; 95 % CI 1.12?2.47), and having suicidal...
A Comparison of Referred Sexual Partners to Their Community Recruited Counterparts in The BROTHERS Project (HPTN 061)
Abstract The BROTHERS Project (HPTN 061) was established to determine the feasibility and acceptability of a multi-component intervention among African American MSM to reduce HIV incidence. The goal of this analysis was to determine if the sexual partner referral approach used in HPTN 061 broadened the reach of recruitment with regards to characteristics associated with higher infection rates and barriers to quality health care. Overall, referred sexual partners had notable structural barrier differences in comparison to community-recruited participants: lower income, less education, higher unemployment, HIV positive diagnosis, incarceration history, and no health insurance. The study?s findings pose implications for utilizing the sexual partner referral approach in reaching Afr...
Partner Age-Disparity and HIV Incidence Risk for Older Women in Rural South Africa
Abstract While sexual partner age disparity is frequently considered as a potential risk factor for HIV among young women in Africa, no research has addressed this question among older women. Our aim was thus to determine whether sex partner age disparity was associated with subsequent HIV acquisition in women over 30 years of age. To achieve this aim we conducted a quantitative analysis of a population-based, open cohort of women in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa (n = 1,737) using Cox proportional hazards models. As partner age rose, HIV acquisition risk fell significantly: compared to a same-aged partner, a 5-year older partner was associated with a one-third reduction [hazard ratio (HR) 0.63, 95 % CI 0.52?0.76] and a 10-year older partner with a one-half reduction (HR ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Disclosure of HIV status to perinatally-infected adolescents in urban Uganda: A qualitative study on timing, process, and outcomes
Disclosure of HIV status to children and adolescents living with HIV remains a challenge in pediatric HIV care. Many of the current disclosure guidelines from national and international bodies recommend that perinatally-infected children be informed of their HIV status prior to adolescence, but rates of disclosure in both high- and low-income countries remains low. The applicability of the recommendations to low-income countries remains largely unknown, as few studies have explored the disclosure process in these settings. (Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)
Evaluation of an HPV/Anal Cancer Screening Awareness Program for HIV-infected Men Who Have Sex With Men
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is considered a risk factor for anal cancer. Men who have sex with men (MSM) have been reported to be 20 times more likely to be diagnosed with anal cancer, and HIV-infected MSM have been reported to be 40 times more likely to be diagnosed with anal cancer. Even prior to the HIV epidemic, MSM were reported to have a significantly higher incidence of anal cancer compared with the general population (Klencke & Palefsky, 2003). However, soon after the HIV epidemic began, it was further noted that rates of anal cancer for HIV-infected MSM were significantly higher than anal cancer rates for MSM without HIV infection. (Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)
Kenya: Kenwa Rescues Children's Home From Closure
[The Star]THE Kenya Network of Women With Aids has reinstated its support for a children's home in Murang'a town, Kiharu. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Malawi: Cassper Nyovest Concerts to Spearhead HIV/Aids and Gender Based Violence Awareness
[Malawi News Agency]Cassper Nyovest, a South African hip-hop music superstar who is scheduled to perform in Blantyre on Saturday, 21st March 2015 at College of Medicine Sports Complex and 22nd March 2015 in Lilongwe at Alexander's Pub Courtyard will spearhead HIV/AIDS and Gender Based Violence (GBV) awareness to the audiences. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Malawi: State Confronts Challenges in Prioritising HIV Response
[Key Correspondents]Malawi has appointed new principal recipients to administer the $574 million it was allocated to fight HIV, as it seeks to turn the page on a financial scandal involving the National AIDS Commission. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Nigeria: 14 IDPs Test Positive to HIV in Yobe
[Vanguard]Fourteen out of the 2,109 Internally Displaced Persons, IDPs, screened for HIV in Yobe State, have tested positive to the virus. Following the screening carried out by the National Agency for the Control of AIDS, NACA, among those who tested positive were 10 in Nguru and four in Gashua, have been referred to Anti Retroviral Therapy, ART, at the Federal Medical Center, Nguru. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Zambia: Sondashi Pleads Case for His 'Hiv/Aids Remedy'
[Zambia Reports]Forum for Democratic Alternatives leader Ludwig Sondashi has pleaded his case for his HIV/AIDS remedy the Sondashi Formula 2000 to be accepted as a cure. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Zimbabwe: HIV/Aids Groups Blast Prophets, N'angas Over ARVs
[New Zimbabwe]ORGANISATIONS representing people living with HIV/Aids have accused Pentecostal churches and some apostolic sects of misleading their members into ditching life-prolonging medication for "anointing oils- holy water" and healing prayers. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Malawi: Health Ministry Assures Total Support Towards Flood Victims On ARV Treatment
[Malawi News Agency]The Ministry of Health has assured of total support to all Anti Retrial Viral Treatment (ARV) flood victims. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Development of a new assessment scale for measuring interaction during staff-assisted transfer of residents in dementia special care units
Conclusions: To enable assessment of transfer-related actions in dementia care dyads, our new scale shows potential for bridging the gap in this area. Results from this study could provide health care professionals working in dementia care facilities with a useful tool for assessing transfer-related actions. (Source: BioMed Central)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Finding HIV in Hard to Reach Populations: Mobile HIV Testing and Geospatial Mapping in Umlazi Township, Durban, South Africa
Abstract Mobile, community-based HIV testing may help achieve universal HIV testing in South Africa. We compared the yield, geographic distribution, and demographic characteristics of populations tested by mobile- and clinic-based HIV testing programs deployed by iThembalabantu Clinic in Durban, South Africa. From July to November 2011, 4,701 subjects were tested; HIV prevalence was 35 % among IPHC testers and 10 % among mobile testers (p &lt; 0.001). Mobile testers varied in mean age (22?37 years) and % males (26?67 %). HIV prevalence at mobile sites ranged from 0 to 26 %. Testers traveled further than the clinic closest to their home; mobile testers were more likely to test ?5 km away from home. Mobile HIV testing can improve testing access and identify testing sit...
Risk-Stratified Screening for Detection of Melanoma
Conclusions and Relevance Monitoring patients at extreme risk with TBP and SDDI assisted with early diagnosis of primary melanoma. Hypervigilance for difficult-to-detect thick melanoma subtypes is crucial.JAMA Dermatol. 2014;150(8):819-827. doi:10.1001/jamadermatol.2014.514. (Source: JAMA)
HPV Vaccination Does Not Appear to Boost Risky Teen Sex, Study Shows
After its introduction, increase in STD rates was same in vaccinated, unvaccinated girls (Source: Fertility News - Doctors Lounge)
2015 Avant-Garde Awards offer extraordinary ideas in HIV/AIDS research NIH-funded research lays groundwork for next-generation prosthetics
NIH?s awards showcase potentially transformative research on prevention, immune system, drug development, and ?minibrain? models made of human tissue. (Source: National Institutes of Health (NIH) News Releases)
Pharma exports to reach Rs 1.1 lakh crore by FY'16
The pharmaceutical industry continues to benefit from lower cost of research and production which aids manufacturing for exports. (Source: The Economic Times Healthcare and Biotech News)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Nigeria: 'Nigeria's HIV Prevalence Down to 3.6 Percent'
[Daily Trust]Jos -The Institute of Human Virology, Nigeria (IHVN) says Nigeria has brought the prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) from 4.4 per cent to 3.6 per cent and has succeeded in reducing Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) from what was initially a "death sentence" to a chronic disease. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
HIV-Specific ADCC Antibodies in HIV PreventionHIV-Specific ADCC Antibodies in HIV Prevention
How can antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity antibodies prevent and control HIV infection? AIDS (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
Expression of Gut-homing B7 Receptor on T CellsExpression of Gut-homing B7 Receptor on T Cells
This article analyzes microbial translocation and expression of the gut-homing B7 receptor on peripheral T cells in HIV-1-infected individuals. HIV Medicine (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
Nigeria: Stepping Up HIV/Aids Awareness in Nigeria
[Independent (Lagos)]Lagos -Nigeria has undoubtedly made some progress over the years in containing and creating awareness on the scourge of HIV/ AIDS. Many lives have been saved through the awareness campaigns and provision and access to the antiretroviral (AVR) drugs for people living with HIV/AIDS. However, research shows that only a quarter of children living with HIV have access to antiretroviral therapy, and in some countries coverage for children is half the coverage for adults. Available statistics indicate that up to 50 per (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: CAF President Issa Hayatou Receives UNAIDS Recognition for Commitment to "Protect the Goal" Campaign
[CAF]Bata, Equatorial Guinea, 7 February 2015 - The President of the Confederation of African Football (CAF) Issa Hayatou has been honoured with the prestigious 2015 Certificate of Achievement by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) on the occasion of the 2015 Africa Cup of Nations hosted by Equatorial Guinea. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Tanzania: What Are the Effects of Using Phones to Test for HIV/Aids?
[Daily News]THE title read 'Phones to be used to test for HIV soon' and I sighed and sat upright to read the story hoping to quickly get to the name of the phone application (app). (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
2015 Avant-Garde Awards offer extraordinary ideas in HIV/AIDS research
(NIH/National Institute on Drug Abuse) With proposals ranging from innovative therapies to the development of unique organoid models of the brain, five scientists have been selected to receive the 2015 Avant-Garde Award for HIV/AIDS Research from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, part of the National Institutes of Health. The five scientists will each receive $500,000 per year for five years to support their research. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
CD4/CD8 ratio normalisation and non-AIDS-related events in individuals with HIV who achieve viral load suppression with antiretroviral therapy: an observational cohort study

Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of maxilla ? A clinical rarity lending glimpses into embryonal myogenesis
We present a rare encounter with this entity in a young adult who reported with a rapidly growing swelling in the posterior maxilla, which on histological examination provided intriguing insights into embryonic myogenesis. (Source: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Medicine, and Pathology)
Observations on Chlamydia trachomatis and other microbes in reactive arthritis
There are problems in attributing causality in inflammatory arthritis. So far as C. trachomatis and sexually acquired reactive arthritis are concerned, there is much in favour of a causal relationship, although there are important caveats which need to be explored before it is possible to say unreservedly that C. trachomatis plays a causative role in reactive arthritis. For example, micro-organisms have never been cultured from synovial effusions in early disease, and only once has substantial benefit of antimicrobial treatment been reported. The claim that ocular strains of C. trachomatis are of over-riding importance in pathogenesis needs confirmation before it can be accepted. No conclusion can be made about the possibility of other small intracellular bacteria in joints having a role i...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Factors associated with HIV and syphilis co-infection among men who have sex with men in seven Chinese cities
HIV-syphilis co-infection is often cited as a major reason behind recent resurgence in syphilis prevalence among men who have sex with men in China. Most published literatures explore factors associated with either HIV or syphilis, but not their co-infection. We analysed data from a cross-sectional survey on men who have sex with men in seven Chinese cities. Snowball sampling was used to recruit participants for the survey. Socio-demographic and behavioural predictors for HIV-syphilis mono/co-infection were examined using ordinal logistic regression. Factor scores were used to summarise (1) HIV-related knowledge and (2) access to HIV preventive services. Prevalence of HIV, syphilis, and their co-infection, among 2936 self-identified men who have sex with men, were 7.7%, 14.3%, and 2.6%, re...
Prevalence and predictors of anaemia in patients with HIV infection at the initiation of combined antiretroviral therapy in Xinjiang, China
We retrospectively analysed routinely collected baseline data of 2252 patients with HIV infection registered in the National Free Antiretroviral Treatment Program in Xinjiang province, China, from 2006 to 2011 to estimate the prevalence and predictors of anaemia at the initiation of combined antiretroviral therapy. Anaemia was diagnosed using the criteria set forth by the World Health Organisation, and univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to determine its predictors. The prevalences of mild, moderate, and severe anaemia at the initiation of combined antiretroviral therapy were 19.2%, 17.1%, and 2.6%, respectively. Overall, 38.9% of the patients were anaemic at the initiation of combined antiretroviral therapy. The multivariate logistic regression analysis...
Depression symptoms, social support and overall health among HIV-positive individuals in Kenya
In conclusion, this study suggests that HIV clinics and interventions need to focus more on the psychological and/or mental health status of HIV-infected individuals while providing avenues such as social support groups that can be a buffer against the negative impact of HIV infection and depression on overall health outcomes. (Source: International Journal of STD and AIDS)
Do genitourinary physicians report notifiable diseases? A survey in South East England
Genitourinary medicine work requires public health actions. Notifiable infections may be seen in genitourinary medicine, but concerns over confidentiality could delay public health actions and outbreak management. To assess genitourinary medicine clinicians&rsquo; awareness of notification of infectious disease, reporting practices and liaison with Health Protection Units, we sent postal surveys to 140 genitourinary medicine clinicians (SE HPA region) that explored prior public health training, Health Protection Unit liaison and management of possible clinical scenarios. Fifty-seven respondents reported median genitourinary medicine experience of 12 years; 29% had prior public health training, nine on the British Association for Sexual Health and HIV course. A total of 90% had heard of Hea...
Can an asymptomatic screening pathway for men who have sex with men be introduced safely at a level 3 sexual health service in the UK?
This study aimed to establish whether omitting examination of asymptomatic men who have sex with men would lead to clinically significant diagnoses being missed. The notes of all men who have sex with men who attended a UK level 3 sexual health clinic between 1 July 2011 and 30 June 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Exclusion criteria included HIV-positive patients attending for HIV-related care, attendances for follow-up consultations not requiring a full sexual health screen, symptomatic patients, contacts of sexually transmitted infections and patients requesting an examination or a repeat prescription of a regularly used medication. In all, 920 consultations occurred during 12 months, of which 893 were reviewed; 476 (53.3%) consultations would have been eligible for screening on an a...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
HIV infection and risk factors among the armed forces personnel stationed in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo
Despite recent declines in HIV incidence, sub-Saharan Africa remains the most heavily affected region in the global HIV/AIDS epidemic. Estimates of HIV prevalence in African military personnel are scarce and inconsistent. We conducted a serosurvey between June and September 2007 among 4043 Armed Forces personnel of the Democratic Republic of Congo (FARDC) stationed in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) to determine the prevalence of HIV and syphilis infections and describe associated risk behaviours. Participants provided blood for HIV and syphilis testing and responded to a demographic and risk factor questionnaire. The prevalence of HIV was 3.8% and the prevalence of syphilis was 11.9%. Women were more likely than men to be HIV positive, (7.5% vs. 3.6% respectively, aOR: 1.66, ...
Effects of rapid versus standard HIV voluntary counselling and testing on receipt rate of HIV test results: a meta-analysis
Rapid HIV voluntary counselling and testing (RVCT) is an alternative method of standard HIV voluntary counselling and testing (SVCT). Less is known about whether RVCT improves the receipt rate of HIV test results among clients who seek HIV counselling and testing. We aimed to evaluate effectiveness of RVCT on result receipt rate. We conducted a comprehensive search of databases containing Medline, EBSCO, Web of science, and Cochrane library to identify studies published up to August 2012. Reviewers extracted information independently. Risk of bias was evaluated with Cochrane Collaboration&rsquo;s tool for assessing study quality. Five randomised controlled trials were included and analysed for the result receipt rate using a random-effects model. The pooled receipt rate of HIV test results...
Autonomic neuropathy resulting in recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy in an HIV patient with Hodgkin lymphoma receiving vinblastine and antiretroviral therapy
We report a case of an adult patient with HIV who developed hoarseness of voice due to vocal cord paralysis during vinblastine treatment for Hodgkin lymphoma. Mediastinal and hilar lymph node enlargement in such patients may distract clinicians from considering alternative causes of recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy, with potential ensuing severe or even life-threatening stridor. (Source: International Journal of STD and AIDS)
A case of severe thrombocytopaenia associated with acute HIV-1 infection
A 23-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with severe thrombocytopaenia. He had unprotected sexual contact 6 weeks earlier. He was diagnosed with acute HIV infection by means of HIV RNA viral load testing and HIV-associated thrombocytopaenia. Although his thrombocytopaenia improved immediately with short-term dexamethasone therapy, this effect was not sustained after cessation of therapy. Antiretroviral therapy including raltegravir was initiated, and the patient recovered from severe thrombocytopaenia within several days. The findings from this case suggest that acute HIV infection should be suspected with unexplained thrombocytopaenia, and that antiretroviral therapy is the treatment of choice for severe HIV-associated thrombocytopaenia, even when in the early period following acqui...
Etravirine: a good option for concomitant use with chemotherapy for Hodgkin's lymphoma
We report the successful use of an etravirine-based regimen in a patient treated with BEACOPP chemotherapy for advanced Hodgkin&rsquo;s lymphoma. Etravirine constitutes a valuable option for concomitant use with chemotherapy due to its moderate inducing effect on drug metabolising enzymes. (Source: International Journal of STD and AIDS)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Summary and highlights from the International Union against Sexually Transmitted Infections Congress 2014, Malta
(Source: International Journal of STD and AIDS)
Incidence of Sexually Transmitted Infections After Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Among Adolescent Females
Conclusions and RelevanceHuman papillomavirus vaccination was not associated with increases in STIs in a large cohort of females, suggesting that vaccination is unlikely to promote unsafe sexual activity. (Source: JAMA Internal Medicine)
Utilization of trifurcate arch graft in LVAD implantation via sternal sparing approach
Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) is now a routine therapy for advanced heart failure. Authors demonstrate a novel technique of utilization of trifurcate arch graft to facilitate LVAD implantation through sternal sparing bilateral anterior thoracotomies. The technique avoids cannulation of ascending aorta for cardio-pulmonary bypass, facilitates left ventricular venting and de-airing and aids keeping incisions minimally invasive. (Source: The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery)
Antiretroviral penetration into the CNS and incidence of AIDS-defining neurologic conditions
(Source: Neurology)
Hck inhibitors as potential therapeutic agents in cancer and HIV infection.
This article summarizes Hck biological activities connected with malignancies and HIV infection, many of which have been only recently reported, and presents an overview of the compounds endowed with Hck inhibitory activity, especially focusing on the medicinal chemistry aspect. PMID: 25666803 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Medicinal Chemistry)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Methamphetamine decreases CD4 T cell frequency and alters pro-inflammatory cytokine production in a model of drug abuse.
Authors: Mata MM, Napier TC, Graves SM, Mahmood F, Raeisi S, Baum LL Abstract The reason co-morbid methamphetamine use and HIV infection lead to more rapid progression to AIDS is unclear. We used a model of methamphetamine self-administration to measure the effect of methamphetamine on the systemic immune system to better understand the co-morbidity of methamphetamine and HIV. Catheters were implanted into the jugular veins of male, Sprague Dawley rats so they could self-administer methamphetamine (n=18) or be given saline (control; n=16) for 14 days. One day after the last self-administration session, blood and spleens were collected. We measured serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, intracellular IFN-? and TNF-?, and frequencies of CD4(+), CD8(+), CD200(+) and CD11b/c(+) ...
Role of PD-1 co-inhibitory pathway in HIV infection and potential therapeutic options
Virus-specific CD8+ T cells play an important role in controlling viral infections including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. However, during chronic HIV infection, virus-specific CD8+ T cells undergo functional exhaustion, lose effector functions and fail to control viral infection. HIV-specific CD8 T cells express high levels of co-inhibitory molecule programmed death-1 (PD-1) during the chronic infection that is characterized by lower proliferation, cytokine production, and cytotoxic abilities. Although, antiretroviral therapy has resulted in dramatic decline in HIV replication, there is no effective treatment currently available to eradicate viral reservoirs or restore virus-specific T or B-cell functions that may complement ART in order to eliminate the virus. In recent y...
The effect of increased primary schooling on adult women's HIV status in Malawi and Uganda: Universal Primary Education as a natural experiment
Publication date: February 2015 Source:Social Science &amp; Medicine, Volume 127 Author(s): Julia Andrea Behrman This paper explores the causal relationship between primary schooling and adult HIV status in Malawi and Uganda, two East African countries with some of the highest HIV infection rates in the world. Using data from the 2010 Malawi Demographic Health Survey and the 2011 Uganda AIDS Indicator Survey, the paper takes advantage of a natural experiment, the implementation of Universal Primary Education policies in the mid 1990s. An instrumented regression discontinuity approach is used to model the relationship between increased primary schooling and adult women's HIV status. Results indicate that a one-year increase in schooling decreases the probability of an adult woman test...
An Immunization Update for HIV-infected Adults in the United States: Review of the Literature
Persons living with HIV infection (PLWH) are experiencing near-normal lifespans due to the advances in antiretroviral treatment (ART) that have taken place over the past 30 years. In fact, it is estimated that more than half of PLWH in the United States will be greater than 50 years of age by 2015 (Effros et al., 2008). This transformation from an acute and often fatal disease to a chronic, though complex, illness in the United States offers clinicians the opportunity to direct greater attention to the primary care needs of an aging HIV-infected population. (Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)
Diversity is More Than Demographics
The Association of Nurses in AIDS Care (ANAC) Diversity Committee sponsored a roundtable entitled FACES: Fostering Awareness of Cultural Equity and Solidarity at the ANAC conference on November 7, 2014. The goal of the roundtable was to solicit members' thoughts about the meaning of diversity through interactive exercises. Participants felt it would be valuable to share their roundtable experience with the membership. (Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Living Longer With HIV: What Does It Mean?
As guest editors for this special issue, we weren't quite sure what types of articles we would receive when we circulated a special call for papers about living longer with HIV. Would all of the articles deal with aging issues? Would some of the papers focus on how children born with HIV transition into adulthood? Would some of the studies go beyond medication adherence to examine the broader domains of HIV self-management, including healthy dietary intake, exercise regimens, self-monitoring of health status, and stress reduction? Finally, we were hopeful that there were nurses and researchers out there working on innovative ways to help persons with HIV live long and fulfilling lives. (Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)
Position Statement: HIV Criminalization Laws and Policies Promote Discrimination and Must Be Reformed
The Association of Nurses in AIDS Care (ANAC) advocates for public health policy grounded in evidence, human rights, and the delivery of socially just health care. Current HIV criminalization laws and related policies promote discrimination and hinder HIV prevention, care, and treatment. Consequently, we call for the reform and/or repeal of unjust and harmful HIV criminalization statutes. It is the position of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care to support the following: (Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)
Cover 1
(Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)
Editorial Board
(Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)
Board of Directors
(Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Table of Contents
(Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)
HIV in Blacks: Mortality Rate High but Declining, CDC SaysHIV in Blacks: Mortality Rate High but Declining, CDC Says
The mortality rate among blacks with HIV declined by 28% from 2008 to 2012. In 2013, blacks accounted for 45% of CDC-funded HIV tests and 54.9% of people newly identified as having HIV. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)
Type I Interferon: Understanding Its Role in HIV Pathogenesis and Therapy
Abstract Despite over 30 years of research, the contribution of type I interferons (IFN-Is) to both the control of HIV replication and initiation of immunologic damage remains debated. In acute infection, IFN-Is, likely from plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), activate NK cells and upregulate restriction factors targeting virtually the entire HIV life cycle. In chronic infection, IFN-Is may also contribute to CD4 T cell loss and immune exhaustion. pDCs subsequently infiltrate lymphoid and mucosal tissues, and their circulating populations wane in chronic infection; IFN-I may be produced by other cells. Data from nonhuman primates indicate prompt IFN-I signaling is critical in acute infection. Whereas some studies showed IFN-I administration without combination antiretroviral the...
Risk Factors for HIV Acquisition in High Risk Women in a Generalised Epidemic Setting
Abstract In South Africa young women bear a disproportionate burden of HIV infection however, risk factors for HIV acquisition are not fully understood in this setting. In a cohort of 245 women, we used proportional hazard regression analysis to examine the association of demographic, clinical and behavioural characteristics with HIV acquisition. The overall HIV incidence rate (IR) was 7.20 per 100 women years (wy), 95 % confidence interval (CI) 4.50?9.80. Women 18?24 years had the highest HIV incidence (IR 13.20 per 100 wy, 95 % CI 6.59?23.62) and were almost three times more likely to acquire HIV compared to women 25 years and older [adjusted Hazard Ratio (aHR) 2.61, 95 % CI 1.05?6.47]. Similarly, women in relationships with multiple sex partners had more than t...
A Systematic Review of HIV Risk Behaviors and Trauma Among Forced and Unforced Migrant Populations from Low and Middle-Income Countries: State of the Literature and Future Directions
Abstract The aim of the current systematic review is to examine the relationship between trauma and HIV risk behaviors among both forced and unforced migrant populations from low and middle income countries (LMIC). We conducted a review of studies published from 1995 to 2014. Data were extracted related to (1) the relationship between trauma and HIV risk behaviors, (2) methodological approach, (3) assessment methods, and (4) differences noted between forced and unforced migrants. A total of 340 records were retrieved with 24 studies meeting inclusion criteria. Our review demonstrated an overall relationship between trauma and HIV risk behaviors among migrant populations in LMIC, specifically with sexual violence and sexual risk behavior. However, findings from 10 studies were not ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
CD4 Count is Still a Valid Indicator of Outcome in HIV-Infected Patients Undergoing Major Abdominal Surgery in the Era of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy
Conclusions HIV-infected patients on ART can now safely undergo major abdominal surgery with encouraging results though still relatively poorer than those of HIV-negative subjects. CD4 count remains a significant predictor of outcome and patients with a low CD4 count, however, still require closer pre- and post-operative monitoring. (Source: World Journal of Surgery)
Differential regulation of protein expression in response to polyunsaturated fatty acids in the liver of apoE-knockout mice and in HepG2 cells
Conclusion: This study indicates that PUFAs induced changes in the hepatic protein profile in vivo. Furthermore, n-3 PUFAs exert their anti-inflammatory properties through differential molecular mechanisms in hepatic cells. These results provide novel information regarding the roles of PUFAs in the liver at the tissue and cellular levels. (Source: Journal of Biomedical Science)
Clinical outcomes in breast cancer patients with HIV/AIDS: a retrospective study
Abstract The purpose of the study is to describe what is the presentation of breast cancer in women with HIV, their tolerance to therapy, the most common complications of treatment and their outcomes. Retrospective chart review of patients with HIV diagnosed with breast cancer between January 1, 1989 and December 31, 2013 at the University of Miami/Jackson Memorial Hospital (UM/JMH) 47 females and 1 male were included in the analysis. The median age of diagnosis was 46 years (IQR 41?52) and 64 % of the women were premenopausal. Median CD4+ count was 330 cells/µL (IQR 131?589 cells/µL). 41 % had AIDS at time of diagnosis. 94 % of patients presented with locoregional disease and 6 % with late stage breast cancer. 52 % had ER+ tumors. 6 % had HER-2/neu tumor expression...
Characteristics and trends of selected pollen seasons recorded in Parma (Northern Italy) from 1994 to 2011
This study examines variations in the start date, end date, duration, date of peak, peak value and Seasonal Pollen Index (SPI) of airborne pollen seasons recorded in Parma, Northern Italy, in relation to meteorological data (1994?2011). Pollen data were collected in the city of Parma by volumetric spore trap. The following taxa were analysed: Alnus, Ambrosia, Artemisia, Betula, Amaranthaceae, Corylus, Cupressaceae, Plantago, Platanus, Poaceae and Urticaceae. Spearman?s rank correlation tests were used to establish whether significant relationships existed between the different characteristics of the pollen seasons. Simple linear regression analysis was also carried out in order to investigate trends over time. Only 12 % of the 66 characteristics examined showed significant changes ove...
Sexual experiences of married HIV positive women in Osogbo, southwest Nigeria: role of inappropriate status disclosure
Conclusion: Inappropriate status disclosure due to poor HIV counseling and testing (HCT) practices resulted in sexual deprivation of married HIV positive women. Adequate training and retraining of health care workers on HCT and HIV status disclosure will reduce experience of sexual deprivation among married HIV positive women. (Source: BMC Women's Health)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Information and Decision-Making Needs Among People with Anxiety Disorders: Results of an Online Survey
Conclusion Our results confirm the importance of offering patient decision aids for people with anxiety disorders that encourage patients to participate in decision making by providing information about the pros and cons of evidence-based treatment options. (Source: The Patient - Patient-Centered Outcomes Research)
Implementation of a cystic fibrosis lung transplant referral patient decision aid in routine clinical practice: an observational study
Background: The decision to have lung transplantation as treatment for end-stage lung disease from cystic fibrosis (CF) has benefits and serious risks. Although patient decision aids are effective interventions for helping patients reach a quality decision, little is known about implementing them in clinical practice. Our study evaluated a sustainable approach for implementing a patient decision aid for adults with CF considering referral for lung transplantation. Methods: A prospective pragmatic observational study was guided by the Knowledge-to-Action Framework. Healthcare professionals in all 23 Canadian CF clinics were eligible. We surveyed participants regarding perceived barriers and facilitators to patient decision aid use. Interventions tailored to address modifiable identified bar...
Cytomegalovirus Identification and Quantification from the Saliva of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Seropositive and Seronegative Patients Using Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
In this study we quantified CMV in HIV seropositive patients and correlated it with oral lesions. (Source: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontics)
Human Herpesvirus-8 Oral Shedding in Amerindian Populations in the Brazilian Amazon Region
The oral cavity plays a vital role in the transmission of a large range of viroses including most human herpes viroses. EBV and CMV are common in the oral mucosa with periodontis lesions, but also HSV, HHV-6 and HHV-7 can be shed from a health oral mucosa. HHV-8 is associated with Kaposi's sarcoma, a form of cancer that became known through its diagnosis in patients with AIDS. The vírus is hyperendemic in Amerindian populations, but its modes of transmission are unknow. (Source: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontics)
National Black HIV/AIDS Awareness Day ? February 7, 2015
(Source: CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
The man who ate his hearing aids thinking they were cashews and other vision mishaps
Britain's College of Optometrists released the strangest situations that people found themselves in before seeking help (Source: Telegraph Health)
Socio-Demographic and Behavioral Factors Associated with the Desire to Procreate Among Patients Living with HIV in Gabon.
Authors: Okome-Nkoumou M, Guiyedi V, Dzeing-Ella A, Komba-Boussaga Y, Efire-Emagha N, Menguet-Abessolo MP, Ongali B, Akoume MY, Bissagnene E Abstract The desire to procreate in patients living with HIV (PLHIV) has been seldom investigated in Africa, particularly in Gabon. The aim of this transversal and descriptive study was to analyze the socio-demographic and behavioral factors associated with a desire to have children in a cohort of PLHIV. The study included 442 patients, predominantly females [79.9% (337/422)], and those with a secondary school education [64.2% 271/422)]. The highest prevalence of HIV was found in patients aged 30-39 years old (44.3%), of which 59% (249/422) were unemployed. The desire to have children was noted in 78% (329/422) of patients, of which 82.4% (271...
Nigeria: Five Displaced Persons Test HIV/Aids Positive At Maiduguri IDP Camps
[Guardian]FIVE Internally-Displaced Persons (IDPs) at the Maiduguri resettlement camps in Borno State have been tested positive to the (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Flu jab is not a 'waste of time'
?Flu jab given to millions is 'useless',? and &quot;Flu jab is a waste of time,&quot; are the irresponsible headlines in The Daily Telegraph and the Daily Mail. While recent research shows that the current seasonal flu vaccine only has 3% protection against the main circulating strain ? A(H3N2) ? in adults, it can still protect against other strains. Both papers also ignore the fact that another version of the flu vaccine, in the form of a nasal spray designed for vulnerable children, is also available. Discouraging parents of vulnerable children from getting vaccinated could increase the risk of serious childhood illnesses and possible hospitalisation.   Why is the flu vaccine not working? There are many strains of the influenza virus and each one can mutate. It takes time to ...
Nigeria: Ekiti State and HIV Test Before Marriage
[Guardian]THE move by the Ekiti State Government to ban clerics from demanding HIV status report from prospective couples before marriage is wrong given the fact that the HIV/AIDS pandemic is a deadly disease that poses great danger to human existence. Therefore, whatever could be done to curb the spread and in this case spare unborn babies, in particular, from the disease should be supported. The demand for HIV test has nothing to do with stigmatisation but purely a proactive step designed to save prospective coupl (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Nigeria: 14 IDPs Tested Positive for HIV/Aids in Yobe
[Leadership]The National Agency for the Control of AIDS (NACA) on Thursday confirmed that 14 Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) tested positive out of 2,109 screened for HIV/AIDS in Yobe. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
$34 Smartphone Accessory Detects HIV, Syphilis Antibodies$34 Smartphone Accessory Detects HIV, Syphilis Antibodies
A microfluidic cassette attached to a smartphone mimicked ELISA to detect antibodies to HIV and Treponema in patients in Rwanda. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Hiv-Aids Headlines)
Screen Time is Associated with Depression and Anxiety in Canadian Youth
Conclusion Screen time may represent a risk factor or marker of anxiety and depression in adolescents. Future research is needed to determine if reducing screen time aids the prevention and treatment of these psychiatric disorders in youth. (Source: Preventive Medicine)
Herb?drug interaction between an anti-HIV Chinese herbal SH formula and atazanavir in vitro and in vivo
Conclusions Our study demonstrated for the first time that there is no metabolism-based herb-drug interaction between SH formula and ATV in rats, but this combination enhances the inhibition potentials against HIV protease activity. This observation may support the combinational use of anti-HIV treatment in human. Graphical abstract (Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology)
Response-Guided Boceprevir-based Triple Therapy in HIV/HCV-coinfected Patients: The HIVCOBOC-RGT Study
Conclusions.&nbsp;The majority of HIV/HCV-GT1 were eligible for response-guided shortening of treatment duration to W28 and all of these patients had a SVR12TND. If second-generation direct-acting antivirals are not available, W28 of BOC-based triple therapy may be recommended. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
HIV Status Disclosure to Sexual Partners, among People Living with HIV and AIDS on Antiretroviral Therapy at Sokodé Regional Hospital, Togo
Conclusion This study allowed us to note that the disclosure of HIV status to sexual partners is relatively low and to document the associated factors such as adherence to ART, sexual partner awareness of HIV sero-status and marital status. (Source: PLoS One)
Multiplex PCR in diagnosis of M. tuberculosis and M. avium co-infection from lymph node in an AIDS patient
K Sharma, A Mewara, N Gupta, A Sharma, S VarmaIndian Journal of Medical Microbiology 2015 33(5):151-153A 35-year-old, HIV-seropositive male (CD4 count 41 cells/mm 3 ) on highly active antiretroviral (&#x0026;#8202;HAART) presented with fever and weight loss for 3 months and new skin lesions. He was earlier diagnosed of TB and was on anti-tubercular therapy (ATT). The retroperitoneal lymph node aspirate showed acid-fast bacilli and epithelioid cell granulomas; however, cultures remained sterile. A dual infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium was diagnosed with multiplex polymerase chain reaction (MPCR). Clarithromycin was added to ATT, and on follow-up at 1 and 3 months, the patient responded well. Molecular methods like MPCR should be exploited for routine diagnos...
An Educational Intervention to Reduce Pain and Improve Pain Management for Malawian People Living with HIV/AIDS and Their Family Carers: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Advances being made in improving access to HIV drugs in resource poor countries mean HIV patients are living longer, and, therefore, experiencing pain over a longer period of time. There is a need to provide effective interventions for alleviating and managing pain. (Source: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management)
HIV Testing Among Teens Attending Therapeutic Schools: Having a Personal Source of Information About HIV/AIDS Matters!
Abstract Being informed and using positive coping strategies are associated with engaging in health-promoting behaviors. We assessed whether the type of information source about HIV (personal or impersonal) and coping strategies (optimism, avoidance, or emotion-focused) are associated with HIV testing among adolescents attending therapeutic schools. Participants were 417 adolescents, ages 13?19, who attended one of 20 therapeutic day schools for emotionally/behaviorally disordered youth in two US cities (Providence, RI and Chicago, IL) and completed a baseline assessment for an HIV prevention study. Among adolescents in the study, 29 % reported having been tested for HIV. Adolescents were more likely to have been tested if they were older, female, Hispanic, identified as non-he...
Excess Cancers Among HIV-Infected People in the United States
Conclusions: The excess cancer burden in the US HIV population is substantial, and patterns across groups highlight opportunities for cancer control initiatives targeted to HIV-infected people. (Source: JNCI)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Mortality Among Blacks or African Americans with HIV Infection - United States, 2008-2012.
Authors: Siddiqi AE, Hu X, Hall HI Abstract A primary goal of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy is to reduce HIV-related health disparities, including HIV-related mortality in communities at high risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. As a group, persons who self-identify as blacks or African Americans (referred to as blacks in this report), have been affected by HIV more than any other racial/ethnic population. Forty-seven percent of persons who received an HIV diagnosis in the United States in 2012 and 43% of all persons living with diagnosed HIV infection in 2011 were black. Blacks also experienced a low 3-year survival rate among persons with HIV infection diagnosed during 2003-2008. CDC and its partners have been pursuing a high-impact prevention approach and supp...
Evaluation of herbal Medicines: Value addition to traditional medicines through metabolism, pharmacokinetic and safety studies.
Authors: Thelingwani R, Masimirembwa C Abstract The safety and efficacy of herbal medicines remain major issues of concern especially in the developing world where the use is high. The World Health Organisation estimates up to 80% of the population in Africa relies on herbal medicines for treatment of many diseases. Minimum safety evaluations need to be done for both the herbal and conventional drugs, in particular when there is a high likelihood of co-administration. This is particularly important in Africa where there is increased access to antiretrovirals in the treatment of HIV/AIDS, which are being used in a population background characterized by rampant use of herbal medicines. Many techniques used in the discovery and evaluation of conventional drugs can be adapted to herbal...
Understanding Frailty, Aging, and Inflammation in HIV Infection
This article provides an overview of our current understanding of frailty and its phenotypic characteristics and evidence that they are related to aging and to chronic inflammation that is associated with aging and also with long-term treated HIV infection. The etiology of this chronic inflammation is unknown but we discuss evidence linking it to persistent infection with cytomegalovirus in both geriatric populations and people living with HIV infection. (Source: Current HIV/AIDS Reports)
HIV Testing Updates and Challenges: When Regulatory Caution and Public Health Imperatives Collide
This article summarizes recent developments in HIV diagnostic testing technology, outlines their implications for clinical management and public health, describes current systems of regulatory oversight for HIV testing in the USA, and proposes alternatives that could expedite access to improved tests as they become available. (Source: Current HIV/AIDS Reports)
Response to "Rapid tests for HIV type discrimination in West Africa may perform differently".
Response to "Rapid tests for HIV type discrimination in West Africa may perform differently". J Int AIDS Soc. 2015;18(1):19380 Authors: Tchounga BK, Ekouevi DK, Eholie SP PMID: 25636349 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Blacks Account for More Than Half of New HIV Diagnoses: CDC
They also have highest death rate among those with HIV, despite the rate declining, reports say Source: HealthDay Related MedlinePlus Pages: African American Health, HIV/AIDS, Health Disparities (Source: MedlinePlus Health News)
New Smart Cameras Help People with Vision Disabilities
Standing in the grocery store, you scan the peanut butter jars looking for the one on your list. Your eyes flit from label to label until they land on the familiar red, blue and green jar, and you reach to pick it up and place it in your cart. Then, it?s on to the next item on your list. (Source: Disabled World)
Nigeria: NACA Commends Jonathan for Signing HIV/Aids Anti-Discrimination Law
[Guardian]NATIONAl Agency for Aids Control (NACA) has hailed the recent signing into law of human Immune Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Anti-Discrimination Act 2014 by President Goodluck Jonathan describing it as landmark legislation. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
E-cigarettes may make lungs vulnerable to infection
Conclusion This animal study has shown that the vapour from e-cigarettes contains free radicals, which are toxic to cells and are linked to cancer. Exposure to e-cigarettes caused inflammation in the lungs of mice, with increased numbers of macrophages, which mop up damaged and dead cells. Mice exposed to e-cigarette smoke also had a reduced ability to fight both bacterial and viral infections. Taken together, this is convincing evidence suggesting that e-cigarettes are not harmless. However, the effect of e-cigarettes was not compared to normal cigarettes in this study, so it is not clear how much safer they might be. The study was also not conducted in humans. An animal study such as this can give us a good idea of the effects that a chemical could have in humans. However, mice and human...
Nigeria: Five Test Positive to HIV/Aids in IDP Camps in Maiduguri
[This Day]Five persons were on Wednesday confirmed to have tested positive to the HIV/AIDS virus in some of the internally displaced persons (IDPs) camps in Maiduguri, the Borno State capital. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Nigeria: Five Displaced Persons Test Positive to HIV/Aids in Borno
[Daily Trust]Maiduguri -Five internally displaced persons in Maiduguri, Borno State, have tested positive to HIV/AIDS. Their status was confirmed during screening for Malaria and HIV/AIDS by a non governmental organization. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: U.S. Budget Proposal Supports Global Health
[Global Fund]The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria said that President Barack Obama's budget request for 2016, which includes US$1.1 billion for the Global Fund, provides firm support for strengthening health systems all over the world. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Effect of compressibility of synthetic fibers as conditioning materials on dewatering of activated sludge
In this study, synthetic poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), polypropylene, and viscose rayon (VR) fibers were used as physical conditioners for activated sludge, and the effects of the fiber compressibility on the dewaterability of activated sludge collected from a laboratory-scale reactor were assessed. Based on expression experiments using a laboratory-scale apparatus, it was found that: (1) the rate of consolidation of sludge cakes increased after incorporation of synthetic fibers, particularly at the primary stage. (2) The porosity of the sludge cake was maintained only with fibers that required high pressures for compaction (i.e., PET and VR); thus, high dewaterability of the cakes was achieved with these fibers. It is proposed that the compressibility of the physical conditioner may...
Follow-up Evaluation of First Two Cohorts of Graduates of the Zambian HIV Nurse Practitioner Program
Conclusions Findings are consistent with findings from the limited number of other published studies suggesting that nurses can provide high-quality care for patients with HIV and AIDS. Further research is recommended to assess the impact of such programs on morbidity and mortality indicators, and on staff retention and job satisfaction of nurses and also of the HNPs. (Source: International Journal of Africa Nursing Sciences)
Reflections of affect in studies of information behavior in HIV/AIDS contexts: An exploratory quantitative content analysis
This study used quantitative content analysis to explore the degree to which information behavior studies across a range of disciplines actually include affect or emotion in their analyses. Findings suggest that most studies pay little or no attention to these variables, and that attention has not changed over the past 20years. Those studies that do account for emotion, however, provide excellent examples of information behavior research that can lead the way for future work. (Source: Library and Information Science Research)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Transactional Sex and the HIV Epidemic Among Men Who have Sex with Men (MSM): Results From a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Abstract Engagement in transactional sex has been hypothesized to increase risk of HIV among MSM, however conflicting evidence exists. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis comparing HIV prevalence among MSM who engaged in transactional sex to those who did not (33 studies in 17 countries; n = 78,112 MSM). Overall, transactional sex was associated with a significant elevation in HIV prevalence (OR 1.34, 95 % CI 1.11?1.62). Latin America (OR 2.28, 95 % CI 1.87?2.78) and Sub-Saharan Africa (OR 1.72, 95 % CI 1.02?2.91) were the only regions where this elevation was noted. Further research is needed to understand factors associated with sex work and subsequent HIV risk in Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa. (Source: AIDS and Behavior)
Assessment of Unconscious Decision Aids Applied to Complex Patient-Centered Medical Decisions
Conclusions: This research demonstrates a plausible benefit of unconscious thinking as a decision aid for complex medical decisions, and represents the first use of unconscious thought processes as a patient-centered medical decision aid. Further, the quality of decisions reached unconsciously does not appear to be affected by the amount of cognitive load participants experienced. (Source: Journal of Medical Internet Research)
AIDS virus seeks refuge in B cell follicles
Nature Medicine 21, 111 (2015). doi:10.1038/nm.3795 Author: Hendrik Streeck A study of SIV-infected rhesus macaques suggests that T follicular helper (TFH) cells, a specialized CD4+ T cell subset within the B cell follicles, are a sanctuary for SIV that is largely inaccessible to CD8+ T cells. These findings may open new avenues for research aimed at eradicating HIV. (Source: Nature Medicine)
Female and Male Differences in AIDS Diagnosis Rates among People who Inject Drugs in Large US Metro Areas from 1993-2007
We estimated female and male incident AIDS diagnosis rates (IARs) among people who inject drugs (PWID) in US metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) over time to assess whether declines in IARs varied by sex after combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) dissemination. (Source: Annals of Epidemiology)
Vowel space characteristics of speech directed to children with and without hearing loss.
Conclusions: Given previously demonstrated associations between expanded vowel space in ID compared with AD speech and enhanced speech perception skills, this research supports a focus on vowel pronunciation in developing intervention strategies for improving speech-language skills in children with hearing impairment. PMID: 25658071 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of speech, language, and hearing research : JSLHR)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Assessment of Unconscious Decision Aids Applied to Complex Patient-Centered Medical Decisions
Conclusions: This research demonstrates a plausible benefit of unconscious thinking as a decision aid for complex medical decisions, and represents the first use of unconscious thought processes as a patient-centered medical decision aid. Further, the quality of decisions reached unconsciously does not appear to be affected by the amount of cognitive load participants experienced. (Source: Journal of Medical Internet Research)
Female and male differences in AIDS diagnosis rates among people who inject drugs in large U.S. metro areas from 1993 to 2007
We estimated female and male incident AIDS diagnosis rates (IARs) among people who inject drugs (PWID) in U.S. metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) over time to assess whether declines in IARs varied by sex after combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) dissemination. (Source: Annals of Epidemiology)
Ebola Drug Aids Some in a Study in West Africa
Favipiravir has shown preliminary signs of effectiveness in a study, raising questions about its wider use and the testing of another therapy. (Source: NYT Health)
Smartphone Device Detects HIV, Syphilis
Low-cost accessory replicates laboratory-based blood test, researchers report (Source: Fertility News - Doctors Lounge)
West Africa: Hepatitis C more prevalent than HIV/AIDS or Ebola yet lacks equal attention
In this study, tribal scarring, home birthing and traditional as opposed to hospital based circumcision procedures, were associated with hepatitis C infection in Ghana.' (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)
Zimbabwe: Zimbabwe Launches New Plan for Voluntary Male Circumcision
[Key Correspondents]Zimbabwe has launched a voluntary medical male circumcision accelerated operational plan as part of a bigger process to fight HIV and AIDS in the country over the next four years. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: Jonathan Signs HIV/Aids Anti-Discrimination Law
[Daily Trust]President Goodluck Jonathan has signed the HIV/AIDS anti-discrimination law, reflecting Nigeria's commitment to stopping all forms of stigmatization and discrimination targeted at people living with HIV. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Aging With HIVAging With HIV
What are the consequences of aging with HIV and how does it impact quality of life? Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
Application of gene-editing technologies to HIV-1
Purpose of review: This review will highlight some of the recent advances in genome engineering with applications for both clinical and basic science investigations of HIV-1. Recent findings: Over the last year, the field of HIV cure research has seen major breakthroughs with the success of the first phase I clinical trial involving gene editing of CCR5 in patient-derived CD4+ T cells. This first human use of gene-editing technology was accomplished using zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs). Zinc finger nucleases and the advent of additional tools for genome engineering, including transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENS) and the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9 system, have made gene editing remarkably simple and affordable. Here we will discu...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
HIV-1 RNAs: sense and antisense, large mRNAs and small siRNAs and miRNAs
Purpose of review: This review summarizes recent findings concerning the ever-growing HIV-1 RNA population. Recent findings: The retrovirus HIV-1 has an RNA genome that is converted into DNA and is integrated into the genome of the infected host cell. Transcription from the long terminal repeat-encoded promoter results in the production of a full-length genomic RNA and multiple spliced mRNAs. Recent experiments, mainly based on next-generation sequencing, provided evidence for several additional HIV-encoded RNAs, including antisense RNAs and virus-encoded microRNAs. Summary: We will survey recent findings related to HIV-1 RNA biosynthesis, especially regulatory mechanisms that control initiation of transcription, capping and polyadenylation. We zoom in on the diversity of HIV-1 derived RNA...
Human genetic variation in HIV disease: beyond genome-wide association studies
Purpose of review: Rapid expansion of genomic technologies has resulted in an unprecedented ability to interrogate the impact of human genetic variation on disease. HIV-1 infection is a unique model for studying this impact because host genetic variation influences both clinical outcome and the genetic sequence and evolution of the pathogen itself. Recent findings: Several candidate gene studies have proposed novel associations with HIV acquisition and/or disease progression; however, many of these are not supported by larger genome-wide association studies. Thus, controversy remains as to which host and viral genetic factors truly impact HIV infection. Novel methods for assessing the genetic (viral and host) component of disease progression are becoming important areas of investigation. S...
Perspectives on pharmacogenomics of antiretroviral medications and HIV-associated comorbidities
Purpose of review: To summarize current knowledge and provide perspective on relationships between human genetic variants, antiretroviral medications, and aging-related complications of HIV-1 infection. Recent findings: Human genetic variants have been convincingly associated with interindividual variability in antiretroviral toxicities, drug disposition, and aging-associated complications in HIV-1 infection. Screening for HLA-B*5701 to avoid abacavir hypersensitivity reactions has become a routine part of clinical care, and has markedly improved drug safety. There are well established pharmacogenetic associations with other agents (efavirenz, nevirapine, atazanavir, dolutegravir, and others), but this knowledge has yet to have substantial impact on HIV-1 clinical care. As metabolic compli...
Contribution of recombination to the evolutionary history of HIV
Purpose of review: An improved understanding of how recombination affects the evolutionary history of HIV is crucial to understand its current and future evolution. The present review aims to disentangle the manifold effects of recombination on HIV by discussing its effects on the evolutionary history and the adaptive potential of HIV in the context of concepts from evolutionary genetics and genomics. Recent findings: The increasing occurrence of secondary contacts between divergent subtype populations (during coinfection) results in increased observations of recombinants worldwide. Recombination is heterogeneous along the HIV genome. Consequences of recombination of HIV evolution are, in combination with other demographic processes, expected to either homogenize the genetic composition of...
Dynamic models of viral replication and latency
Purpose of review: HIV targets primary CD4+ T cells. The virus depends on the physiological state of its target cells for efficient replication, and, in turn, viral infection perturbs the cellular state significantly. Identifying the virus?host interactions that drive these dynamic changes is important for a better understanding of viral pathogenesis and persistence. The present review focuses on experimental and computational approaches to study the dynamics of viral replication and latency. Recent findings: It was recently shown that only a fraction of the inducible latently infected reservoirs are successfully induced upon stimulation in ex-vivo models while additional rounds of stimulation make allowance for reactivation of more latently infected cells. This highlights the potential ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Innate immune sensing of HIV-1 infection
Purpose of review: The innate immune system plays a critical role in the control of viral infections. Although the mechanisms involved in sensing and response to viral pathogens has progressed tremendously in the last decade, an understanding of the innate antiviral response to human retroviruses lagged behind. Recent studies now demonstrate that human retroviruses such as human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1) trigger a type I interferon antiviral response through novel cytosolic sensors that detect DNA intermediates of reverse transcription; in addition, these early host?pathogen interactions may trigger cell death pathways depending on the activation state of the target cell. The purpose of this review is to summarize the recent progress ...
Editorial introduction
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS)
Genomics of HIV infection
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS)
Evolutionary genomics and HIV restriction factors
Purpose of review: To provide updated insights into innate antiviral immunity and highlight prototypical evolutionary features of well characterized HIV restriction factors. Recent findings: Recently, a new HIV restriction factor, Myxovirus resistance 2, has been discovered and the region/residue responsible for its activity identified using an evolutionary approach. Furthermore, IFI16, an innate immunity protein known to sense several viruses, has been shown to contribute to the defense to HIV-1 by causing cell death upon sensing HIV-1 DNA. Summary: Restriction factors against HIV show characteristic signatures of positive selection. Different patterns of accelerated sequence evolution can distinguish antiviral strategies ? offense or defence ? as well as the level of specificity of t...
Botswana: Art Critical Form of Communication
[Botswana Daily News]Gaborone -Batswana have been encouraged to spread the HIV/AIDS message and not lose hope as one day the country will attain the set zero transmission and zero tolerance goals. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Evaluation of the integrated disease surveillance and response system for infectious diseases control in northern Ghana
Conclusions: The DHIMS2 has improved the availability of IDSR reports, but the quality of data reported is not sufficient. Particularly the inconsistencies between weekly and monthly data need to be addressed. Moreover, support for and communication within the IDSR system is inadequate and calls for attention. (Source: BioMed Central)
Risk of Sexual Violence: Perspectives and Experiences of Women in a Hospital in the Democratic Republic of Congo
This study was conducted in order to explore the perceptions and experiences of the risk of sexual violence in the Democratic Republic of Congo. The study draws on qualitative, in-depth interviews with women at a hospital in Bukavu. The findings show that women suffered humiliation, torture and beatings during their rape. Most women were raped by a number of men and others were forced to have sex with close family members. The rapist often used extreme brutality against the women which had major long-term consequences for women including unwanted pregnancies and/or HIV/AIDS. Many of the women experienced great uncertainty about their future and that of their children. (Source: Journal of Community Health)
Essay: The Thrill Is Back (With Some Gray Hairs)
Abstract This 2013 Consortium of Universities for Global Health essay examines the challenges, personal cost, and ethical dilemmas of working as a medical officer at a district hospital in South Africa and confronting health issues such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and childhood sexual abuse. (Source: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry)
Still bridging a divide.
Authors: Payne D Abstract I have been out as a gay man all of my career. At first, I experienced blunt homophobia regularly from colleagues; I was a nursing student in 1991 when Freddie Mercury died from AIDS, and I will never forget a colleague telling me that she thought he 'deserved it' because of his 'lifestyle'. PMID: 25649579 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Nursing Standard)
HIV?1 transmitted drug resistance and genetic diversity among patients from Piauí State, Northeast Brazil
HIV?1 transmitted?drug?resistance and genetic diversity are dynamic and may differ in distinct locations/risk groups. In Brazil, increased AIDS incidence and related mortality have been detected in the Northeast region, differently from the epicenter in the Southeast. This cross?sectional study describes transmitted?dru? resistance and HIV?1 subtypes in protease/PR and reverse transcriptase/RT regions among antiretroviral naïve patients from Piauí State, Northeast Brazil. Among 96 patients recruited 89 (92.7%) had HIV?1 PR/RT regions sequenced: 44 females and 45 males, 22 self?declared as men who have sex with men. Transmitted?drug?resistance was investigated by CPR tool (Stanford HIV?1 Drug Resistance/SDRM). HIV?1 subtypes were assigned by REGA and phylogenetic...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Low dose versus high dose stavudine for treating people with HIV infection.
CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review identified only three small trials that evaluated virologic efficacy and safety of high dose versus low dose stavudine. All three trials were conducted in developed countries and none reported from developing countries yet stavudine remains a component of ART combination therapy in many developing countries. It was not possible to perform a meta-analysis on these trails. Individual results from the trials were imprecise and have not identified a clear advantage in virologic efficacy or safety between low and high dose stavudine. Furthermore, enrolled participants were treatment experienced with sustained virologic suppression and so existing data cannot be generalized to settings where stavudine is currently used in ART naive patients with high viral loa...
Kenya: Nakuru Locals to Get Free HIV Tests, Care
[The Star]THE Nakuru government has partnered with a health agency to offer free residents HIV-Aids testing and treatment. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Tanzania: Stakeholders Intensify FGM Fight in Serengeti
[Daily News]Mugumu -A CRUCIAL stakeholders' meeting on gender-based violence (GBV) has been held in Mugumu town, the capital of Serengeti District in Mara Region. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Hepatitis C more prevalent than HIV/AIDS or Ebola yet lacks equal attention
In this study, tribal scarring, home birthing and traditional as opposed to hospital based circumcision procedures, were associated with hepatitis C infection in Ghana.' (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)
Nigeria: Ekiti State and Mandatory HIV Test Ban
[Independent (Lagos)]Everyone has a right to know what he or she is going into. With the medical help available to HIV/AIDS patients, theirs is a better case than that of Sicklers and Albinos who have had to live with stigmatisation with no real visible means of eradication (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
The Effects of Early Multiple-Time PN Counseling on Newly HIV-Diagnosed Men Who Have Sex with Men in Taiwan
Abstract Partner notification (PN) is an important method for controlling the AIDS epidemic worldwide. Here, we looked into the differences between two PN counseling modes for HIV (+) men who have sex with men in Taiwan. Using random assignment, we placed 42 of the 84 subjects into the experimental group where they received two sessions of PN counseling, while the control group (42) received only one session. All 84 subjects were single males with an average age of 28.06. The mean number of successful notified partner was 5.38 (SD = 3.44) in the experimental which was statistically significantly higher than 2.81 (SD = 1.62) in the control group (? = 0.650, p = 0.000). The notification success rate was 77.13 % in the experimental and 74.21 % in the control group (IRR 1.0...
Human Papillomavirus in the HIV-Infected Host: Epidemiology and Pathogenesis in the Antiretroviral Era
Abstract Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is associated with essentially all cervical cancers, 80?90 % of anal cancers, and a high proportion of oropharyngeal, vaginal, penile, and vulvar cancers. Malignancy is preceded by the development of precancerous lesions termed high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL). Men and women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are at high risk of HPV-related malignancies. The incidence of anal cancer in particular has markedly risen during the antiretroviral era due to the increased longevity of patients with HIV and the absence of anal malignancy screening programs. HIV infection may facilitate initial HPV infection by disrupting epithelial cell tight junctions. Once infection is established, HIV may promote HSIL dev...
Immune response to Leishmania antigens in an AIDS patient with mucocutaneous leishmaniasis as a manifestation of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS): a case report
Conclusion: The results suggest that the production of inflammatory cytokines by unstimulated T-lymphocytes could contribute to occurrence of leishmaniasis associated with IRIS. (Source: BMC Infectious Diseases)
HIV research productivity and structural factors associated with HIV research output in European Union countries: a bibliometric analysis
Conclusions HIV research productivity varies noticeably across EU countries, and this variation is associated with recognisable structural factors. (Source: BMJ Open)
A National Tragedy: Increases in Death by Suicide, Decreases in Other Major Causes of Death
The numbers are the most striking evidence of the lack of attention our society affords mental health, and specifically, suicide prevention. According the American Foundation for Suicide Prevention (2015) the national statistics for 2014 indicate that the rate of death by suicide from 2000?2011 increased by 31%. The suicide rate keeps climbing while death from other causes decreases. In this same time period, 2000?2011, the rate of death by heart disease decreased by 16%, and deaths by HIV/AIDs decreased by 42%. (Source: Archives of Psychiatric Nursing)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Modeling the Influence of Acoustic Coupling of Hearing Aids on FM Signal-to-Noise Ratio.
Conclusions: A model was developed to explore how complex variables contribute to SNR at the TM. One variable, HA coupling, is predicted to have only a minimal effect on SNR at the TM when there is HA gain. Further studies will be needed to assess the real-world effectiveness of an FM system coupled to an open- versus closed-fit HA. PMID: 25651525 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Audiology)
Addressing HIV/AIDS in Rural Communities
Thematic issue of the Psychology and AIDS Exchange Newsletter features seven articles focusing on HIV and AIDS in rural communities. Includes an examination of rural HIV prevalence, healthcare service delivery, HIV prevention efforts, barriers to treatment, and opportunities to improve care in rural communities. -- American Psychological Association (Source: Rural publications via the Rural Assistance Center)
Illusion aids understanding of autism
New research could lead to a better understanding of how the brain works in people with autism. Using the 'rubber-hand' illusion, the researchers examined how adults with autism experienced 'ownership' of a fake prosthetic hand. In the 'rubber-hand' illusion, one of the subject's hands is placed out of sight, while a rubber hand sits in front of them. By stroking the fake hand at the same time as the visible real one, the subject can be convinced the fake hand is theirs. The results of this experiment showed differences between those with autism and those without. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)
Grant Announcement for the National Resource Center for HIV/AIDS Prevention among Adolescents
The HHS Office of Adolescent Health (OAH) has issued a Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) with the purpose of funding an organization that will support the maintenance, operation, and re-launch of a national HIV/AIDS resource center. The Resource Center will promote practical strategies to assist in the implementation of evidence-based and evidence-informed interventions and best practices [&#8230;] (Source: NN/LM Middle Atlantic Region Blog)
Evaluation of a Socio-cultural Intervention to Reduce Unprotected Sex for HIV Among African American/Black Women
Abstract African American/Black (Black) women suffer disproportionately to other women from HIV. An HIV prevention intervention combining two previous evidenced-based intervention programs; ?Coping with Work and Family Stress? and ?Hip Hop 2 Prevent Substance Abuse and HIV?, was evaluated in a diverse sample of Black women (n = 205). Study participants at ten recruitment sites were assigned non-randomly to either the intervention or comparison group and then surveyed at baseline, immediate posttest, and 6-month follow-up. General Estimating Equation modeling revealed that participants in the comparison group reported less unprotected sex at immediate post-test and the intervention group less unprotected sex at 6-month follow-up. Despite the initial drop in reported unpro...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Effectiveness of Interventions Promoting HIV Serostatus Disclosure to Sexual Partners: A Systematic Review
Abstract Disclosure of HIV serostatus to sexual partners is mandated within certain states in the United States and other countries. Despite these laws implemented and public health efforts to increase disclosure, rates of disclosure to sexual partners among people living with HIV (PLWH) remain low, suggesting the need for interventions to assist PLWH with the disclosure process. We conducted a systematic review of studies testing whether HIV serostatus disclosure interventions increase disclosure to sexual partners. We searched six electronic databases and screened 484 records. Five studies published between 2005 and 2012 met inclusion criteria and were included in this review. Results showed that three of the HIV serostatus disclosure-related intervention studies were efficaciou...
A Remotely-Delivered CBT and Contingency Management Therapy for Substance Using People with HIV
Abstract Substance using HIV patients are at risk for non-adherence, and most prior interventions in this population have had only modest effects on adherence. Contingency management (CM) is a promising intervention. The Centralized Off-site Adherence Enhancement (CARE) program involved 12 telephone-delivered substance and adherence-targeted cognitive behavior therapy sessions coupled with CM for adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and counseling participation. CM involved 6 weeks of escalating reinforcement for taking prescribed doses followed by 6 weeks of tapering variable rate reinforcement, and separate reinforcement for counseling ($806 possible). Participants? adherence was measured by devices which wirelessly provided real-time notification of device-opening. HIV...
Botswana: Govt Committed to Fighting STIs
[Botswana Daily News]Hunhukwe -Government remains committed to the prevention of HIV/AIDS and other Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) through intervention programmes. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Malawi: First Lady Calls for Increased Political Will in Aids Fight
[Malawi News Agency]Malawi First Lady, Madamme Gertrude Mutharika has said the fight for an HIV free generation in Africa can only be achieved if the AU member state leaders deliberately put the fight against HIV as part of their political agendas. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Zambia: National Strategic Frameworks to Reduce New HIV Infections
[Times of Zambia]IN November 2010, the Government of the Republic of Zambia through the National HIV/AIDS/STI/TB Council (NAC) released the National AIDS Strategic Framework 2011 - 2015 (NASF). (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Rwanda: SFH Rwanda Injects Rwf11.5 Million in Anti-HIV Football Tourney
[New Times]Society for Family Health (SFH) Rwanda has partnered with the Rwanda Football Federation (Ferwafa) to organise a two-day football tournament slated for January 31 - February 1 involving last season's top four clubs. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Uganda: In the News Today - 31st January 2015
[Independent (Kampala)]1. The number of people starting the HIV/Aids anti-retroviral treatment (ART) in Uganda has hit 713,744. In just three months between June and September 2014, a total of 33,744 new people enrolled for HIV/Aids treatment, raising the overall number from the previous 680,000 to 713,744 people. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Combination ART Reduces the Risk of HPV in HIV+ WomenCombination ART Reduces the Risk of HPV in HIV+ Women
Combination ART may protect HIV+ women from cervical HPV infections. AIDS (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
Africa: African First Ladies Commit to Eliminate HIV Infections
[New Times]The First Lady, Mrs Jeannette Kagame, has called for intensified efforts in the fight against HIV/AIDS in order to eliminate new infections. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Rwanda: HIV Strain Reinfection, a Scary Burden
[New Times]Josee Nyiraneza was in her prime, twenty years ago, when she was diagnosed with HIV. Now 42, the then young Nyiranzeza had resigned herself to a life of loneliness. Twenty years ago, stigma was itself a harrowing ordeal, so she had found herself rejected from every side of the society. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Rwanda: APR Win Anti-HIV Football Tournament
[New Times]APR yesterday defeated rivals Police 2-1 to win a two-day anti-HIV football tournament sponsored by Society for Family Health Rwanda (SFH). (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Immune Suppression by Myeloid Cells in HIV Infection: New Targets for Immunotherapy.
Authors: Mehraj V, Jenabian MA, Vyboh K, Routy JP Abstract Over thirty years of extensive research has not yet solved the complexity of HIV pathogenesis leading to a continued need for a successful cure. Recent immunotherapy-based approaches are aimed at controlling the infection by reverting immune dysfunction. Comparatively less appreciated than the role of T cells in the context of HIV infection, the myeloid cells including macrophages monocytes, dendritic cells (DCs) and neutrophils contribute significantly to immune dysfunction. Host restriction factors are cellular proteins expressed in these cells which are circumvented by HIV. Guided by the recent literature, the role of myeloid cells in HIV infection will be discussed highlighting potential targets for immunotherapy. HIV i...
Recruitment of HIV-Positive Women in Research: Discussing Barriers, Facilitators, and Research Personnel's Knowledge.
CONCLUSION: There are differences in the approaches needed for the recruitment of HIV-positive women in research. For successful recruitment of HIV-positive women, a strong rapport between the research personnel and study participants is important. This rapport is facilitated by having study personnel who are respectful, trustworthy, empathetic, and flexible. Population-specific recruitment strategies are important to ensure adequate recruitment of minority groups in research with greater gender consideration for women requiring specific attention. PMID: 25624955 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
HIV and Cancer: A comparative retrospective study of Brazilian and U.S. clinical cohorts
Conclusions: In both cohorts, ADCs have decreased over time, though incidence of KS was higher at INI than VCCC. Rates of NADCs remained constant over time at both sites. (Source: Infectious Agents and Cancer)
Transfer learning with probabilistic mapping selection
When transferring knowledge between reinforcement learning agents with different state representations or actions, past knowledge must be efficiently mapped to novel tasks so that it aids learning. The majority of the existing approaches use pre-defined mappings provided by a domain expert. To overcome this limitation and enable autonomous transfer learning, this paper introduces a method for weighting and using multiple inter-task mappings based on a probabilistic framework. Experimental results show that the use of multiple inter-task mappings, accompanied with a probabilistic selection mechanism, can significantly boost the performance of transfer learning relative to 1) learning without transfer and 2) using a single hand-picked mapping. We especially introduce novel tasks for transfer...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
On the sexual transmission dynamics of hepatitis B virus in China
Publication date: 21 March 2015 Source:Journal of Theoretical Biology, Volume 369 Author(s): Lan Zou , Shigui Ruan , Weinian Zhang In a previous study we noticed that there might be co-infections of HBV and HIV by comparing incidence rates of these two diseases in China. The comparisons between the incidence data of HBV and sexually transmitted diseases (including AIDS, HIV, syphilis and gonorrhea) in China demonstrate that sexual transmission is an important route of spread of HBV in China. On the basis of this fact, in this paper we propose a compartmental model including under-aged children, male adults, and female adults. The effect of sexual transmission on the spread and prevalence of HBV in China is studied. The model is employed to simulate the HBV incidence data reported by the ...
The roles of human values and generalized trust on stated preferences when food is labeled with environmental footprints: Insights from Germany
This study explores influences of human values and trust on stated preferences for food labeled with environmental footprints. We apply survey data to assess the impact of these individual-specific characteristics on German consumers? choices of potatoes, through an attribute-based choice experiment in which product alternatives are described by footprint labels and prices. We find that accounting for consumers? value systems, but not generalized trust beliefs, aids in understanding choices and identifying possible markets for footprint-labeled food products. (Source: Food Policy)
Global HIV Funding And Local Contexts [Letters]
(Source: Health Affairs)
Global HIV Funding: The Author Replies [Letters]
(Source: Health Affairs)
HIV Testing and Preventive Services Accessibility Among Men Who Have Sex With Men at High Risk of HIV Infection in Beijing, China
Abstract: The HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM) has been increasing at an alarming rate in most areas of China in recent years. Many Chinese MSM still lack sufficient access to HIV prevention services, despite ongoing scale-up of comprehensive HIV testing and intervention services. The purpose of this study was to investigate utilization of HIV testing and prevention services, and related factors that influence the MSM people to access HIV test or other services to prevent HIV among MSM in Beijing, China. Three successive cross-sectional surveys of MSM were conducted in Beijing from September 2009 to January 2010, September 2010 to January 2011, and September 2011 to January 2012. Demographic and behavioral data were collected and analyzed. Blood samples were tested for HI...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Follow-up Evaluation of First Two Cohorts of Graduates of the XXX HIV Nurse Practitioner Program
Conclusions Findings are consistent with findings from the limited number of other published studies suggesting that nurses can provide high-quality care for patients with HIV and AIDS. Further research is recommended to assess the impact of such programs on morbidity and mortality indicators, and on staff retention and job satisfaction of nurses and also of the HNPs. (Source: International Journal of Africa Nursing Sciences)
Acceptability and Preliminary Efficacy of a Tailored Online HIV/STI Testing Intervention for Young Men who have Sex with Men: The Get Connected! Program
Abstract Southeast Michigan accounts for over 70 % of all HIV/STI cases in the state, with young men who have sex with men (YMSM) between the ages of 13 and 24 encumbering the largest burden in HIV/STI incidence. Using community-based participatory research principles, we developed and pilot tested a web-based, randomized control trial seeking to promote HIV/STI testing (?Get Connected!?) among YMSM (N = 130; ages 15?24). Randomized participants completed a baseline assessment and shown a test-locator condition (control) or a tailored, personalized site (treatment). At 30-day follow-up, we found high acceptability among YMSM in both conditions, yet higher credibility of intervention content among YMSM in the treatment group (d = .55). Furthermore, 30 participants report...
Development and Pilot Testing of Daily Interactive Voice Response (IVR) Calls to Support Antiretroviral Adherence in India: A Mixed-Methods Pilot Study
Abstract This two-phase pilot study aimed to design, pilot, and refine an automated interactive voice response (IVR) intervention to support antiretroviral adherence for people living with HIV (PLH), in Kolkata, India. Mixed-methods formative research included a community advisory board for IVR message development, 1-month pre-post pilot, post-pilot focus groups, and further message development. Two IVR calls are made daily, timed to patients? dosing schedules, with brief messages (&lt;1-min) on strategies for self-management of three domains: medical (adherence, symptoms, co-infections), mental health (social support, stress, positive cognitions), and nutrition and hygiene (per PLH preferences). Three ART appointment reminders are also sent each month. One-month pilot results (...
When semantics aids phonology: A processing advantage for iconic word forms in aphasia
Publication date: Available online 28 January 2015 Source:Neuropsychologia Author(s): Lotte Meteyard , Emily Stoppard , Dee Snudden , Stefano F. Cappa , Gabriella Vigliocco Iconicity is the non-arbitrary relation between properties of a phonological form and semantic content (e.g. ?moo?, ?splash?). It is a common feature of both spoken and signed languages, and recent evidence shows that iconic forms confer an advantage during word learning. We explored whether iconic forms conferred a processing advantage for 13 individuals with aphasia following left-hemisphere stroke. Iconic and control words were compared in four different tasks: repetition, reading aloud, auditory lexical decision and visual lexical decision. An advantage for iconic words was seen for some individuals in all...
The Comparative Efficacy of 1st vs. 2nd Generation Electronic Cigarettes in Reducing Symptoms of Nicotine Withdrawal
ConclusionsSecond generation e?cigarettes seem to be more effective in reducing symptoms of nicotine withdrawal than 1st generation e?cigarettes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Addiction)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Always follow your nose: The functional significance of social chemosignals in human reproduction and survival.
In conclusion, an outlook, focusing on the involvement of chemosensory communication in human social behavior and illustrating a novel approach to the significance of chemosensory signals in human survival, will be given. PMID: 25637403 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Hormones and Behavior)
Paediatric European Network for Treatment of AIDS (PENTA) guidelines for treatment of paediatric HIV?1 infection 2015: optimizing health in preparation for adult life
The 2015 Paediatric European Network for Treatment of AIDS (PENTA) guidelines provide practical recommendations on the management of HIV?1 infection in children in Europe and are an update to those published in 2009. Aims of treatment have progressed significantly over the last decade, moving far beyond limitation of short?term morbidity and mortality to optimizing health status for adult life and minimizing the impact of chronic HIV infection on immune system development and health in general. Additionally, there is a greater need for increased awareness and minimization of long?term drug toxicity. The main updates to the previous guidelines include: an increase in the number of indications for antiretroviral therapy (ART) at all ages (higher CD4 thresholds for consideration of ART ...
Functional and psychosocial impact of oral disorders and quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS
Conclusion Individuals with functional and psychosocial impact of oral disorders were found to more frequently rate their QOL as poor/very poor, and were more often dissatisfied with health. The correlation between the scores of QOL and functional and psychosocial impact of oral disorders scores was weak, indicating that they represent different constructs. The measures of functional and psychosocial impact of oral disorders should be complemented by general measures of QOL. (Source: Quality of Life Research)
Direct enzyme assay evidence concur aldehyde reductase function of Ydr541cp and Ygl039wp from Saccharomyces cerevisiae
This study presents partially purified proteins of two ORFs, YDR541C and YGL039W, and direct enzyme assay evidence against aldehyde inhibitory compounds commonly encountered during lignocellulosic biomass fermentation processes. Each of the partially purified proteins encoded by these ORFs showed a molecular mass of approximately 38 kDa, similar to Ari1p, a protein encoded by aldehyde reductase gene. Both proteins demonstrated strong aldehyde reduction activities toward 14 aldehyde substrates with high levels of reduction activity for Ydr541cp toward both aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes. While Ydr541cp was observed to have a significantly higher specific enzyme activity at 20 U/mg using co?factor NADPH, Ygl039wp displayed a NADH preference at 25 U/mg in reduction of butylaldehyde. Amino...
A Faith-Based Community Partnership to Address HIV/AIDS in the Southern United States: Implementation, Challenges, and Lessons Learned
This article will describe Project Fostering AIDS Initiatives That Heal (F.A.I.T.H), a faith-based model for successfully developing, implementing, and sustaining locally developed HIV/AIDS prevention interventions in African American churches in South Carolina. This was achieved by engaging the faith community and the provision of technical assistance, grant funding and training for project personnel. Elements of success, challenges, and lessons learned during this process will also be discussed. (Source: Journal of Religion and Health)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Adherence to Anti-Retroviral Therapy in North Central Nigeria.
Conclusion Most participants achieved optimal adherence (?95%) with high virologic suppression. Strategies to sustain optimal adherence, e.g., the use of fixed dose combinations (FDCs) and comprehensive adherence counseling should be maintained. PMID: 25642849 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current HIV Research)
Ebola virus disease epidemic in West Africa: lessons learned and issues arising from West African countries.
Authors: Oleribe OO, Salako BL, Ka MM, Akpalu A, McConnochie M, Foster M, Taylor-Robinson SD Abstract The current Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak ravaging three nations in West Africa has affected more than 14,000 persons and killed over 5,000. It is the longest and most widely spread Ebola epidemic ever seen. At the time of this overview (written November 2014), having affected eight different nations, Nigeria and Senegal were able to control and eliminate the virus within a record time. Ghana has successfully, to date, kept the virus away from the country, despite economic and social relationships with affected nations. What lessons can we learn from Nigeria, Senegal and Ghana in the current epidemic? How can the world improve the health systems in low- and middle-income count...
Internet?based treatment of stress urinary incontinence: 1? and 2 years results of a randomised controlled trial with focus on pelvic floor muscle training
ConclusionNon?face?to?face treatment of SUI with PFMT provides significant and clinically relevant improvements in symptoms and condition?specific quality of life 1 and 2 years after treatment.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: BJU International)
Effect of nurse navigation on patient care satisfaction and distress associated with breast biopsy.
Authors: Harding M Abstract BACKGROUND: Navigation during the biopsy period is a superior approach to delivering care, with those patients receiving services experiencing less distress. Critical nurse navigator roles include providing information and facilitating access to the healthcare system, both of which are influential on distress. The information in this article supports the expansion of navigation programs to include women undergoing biopsy and aids in promoting a higher standard of care. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of navigation on care satisfaction and distress in women undergoing breast biopsy. METHODS: A descriptive, cross-sectional survey design from two outpatient radiology clinics in Appalachia was used. FINDINGS: Navigated women had lower scores o...
Design and Validation of Pictograms in a Pediatric Anaphylaxis Action Plan
ConclusionsWe prospectively designed and validated a set of pictograms to be included in an AAP. The incorporation of validated pictograms into an AAP may potentially increase comprehension of the triggers, signs and symptoms, and management of an anaphylactic reaction.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Extensor Mechanism Disruption After Total Knee Arthroplasty.
Authors: Bates MD, Springer BD Abstract Extensor mechanism disruption is a rare and potentially devastating complication associated with total knee arthroplasty. Disruption can occur at the quadriceps or patellar tendons or, in the setting of a fracture, at the patella. Recognition of the risk factors for disruption and prevention via meticulous surgical technique are critical to avoid this complication. Various management techniques and the challenges associated with treatment have been described. Nonsurgical management consists of the use of walking aids and/or knee braces, which may not be acceptable for the active patient. Surgical options include primary repair and reconstructive techniques using allograft, autograft, synthetic material, and gastrocnemius rotational flaps. How...
Community-academic partnerships in HIV-related research: a systematic literature review of theory and practice.
CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates the increase of participatory approaches in HIV research and underlines the need for clarification of terms and a framework providing orientation to community-academia partnerships. PMID: 25630823 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Placental Hofbauer cells assemble and sequester HIV-1 in tetraspanin-positive compartments that are accessible to broadly neutralizing antibodies.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that placental HCs possess intrinsic adaptations facilitating unique sequestration of HIV-1, and may serve as a protective viral reservoir to permit viral neutralization and/or antiretroviral drug entry in utero. PMID: 25623930 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Effect of ipilimumab on the HIV reservoir in an HIV-infected individual with metastatic melanoma
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Dissemination of nonpandemic Caribbean HIV-1 subtype B clades in Latin America
Conclusion: This study demonstrates that nonpandemic subtype B lineages of Caribbean origin have been disseminated into Latin America shortly after the estimated introduction of subtype B in the continent. Despite their early dissemination, the BCAR strains account for a minor fraction of current HIV-1 subtype B infections in the region that are mainly driven by spreading of the globally disseminated BPANDEMIC clade. (Source: AIDS)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Systematic review of retention of pediatric patients on HIV treatment in low and middle-income countries 2008?2013
Conclusion: Pediatric ART retention was similar to that among adults. There were limited data from Asia, only one study from Latin America and the Caribbean, and no data from Eastern Europe, Central Asia, or the Middle East. (Source: AIDS)
Acute interstitial nephritis caused by lopinavir/ritonavir in a surgeon receiving antiretroviral postexposure prophylaxis
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
The effect of HAART-induced HIV suppression on circulating markers of inflammation and immune activation
Objectives: To investigate the impact of HAART-induced HIV suppression on levels of 24 serological biomarkers of inflammation and immune activation. Design: A prospective cohort study. Methods: Biomarkers were measured with multiplex assays in centralized laboratories using stored serum samples contributed by 1697 men during 8903 person-visits in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) from 1984 to 2009. Using generalized gamma models, we compared biomarker values across three groups, adjusting for possible confounders: HIV-uninfected (NEG); HIV-positive, HAART-naive (NAI); and HAART-exposed with HIV RNA suppressed to less than 50?copies/ml plasma (SUP). We also estimated changes in biomarker levels associated with duration of HIV suppression, using splined generalized gamma regression ...
The epidemiological impact of HIV antiretroviral therapy on malaria in children
Conclusion: The use of HIV protease inhibitor based regimens as first-line antiretroviral therapy for HIV is an effective measure for reducing recurrent malaria among HIV-infected children in areas where HIV and malaria are coendemic, and artemether-lumefantrine is a first-line antimalarial. (Source: AIDS)
Plaque burden in HIV-infected patients is associated with serum intestinal microbiota-generated trimethylamine
Conclusion: A link between TMA and atherosclerosis has not previously been established. The current study suggests that TMA may be a nontraditional risk factor related to the number of plaque segments and severity of calcified plaque burden in HIV. (Source: AIDS)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Passive transfer of neutralizing mAb KD-247 reduces plasma viral load in patients chronically infected with HIV-1
Conclusion: The results indicate that KD-247 reduces viral load in patients with chronic HIV-1 infection and further clinical trials are warranted. (Source: AIDS)
Plasma interleukin-18 levels are a biomarker of innate immune responses that predict and characterize tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome
Background: : Tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) is a substantial problem in HIV/TB coinfected patients commencing antiretroviral therapy (ART). The immunopathogenesis of TB-IRIS includes increased production of proinflammatory chemokines and cytokines, including interleukin-18, which is a signature cytokine of the nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat pyrin containing protein-3 inflammasome. We compared plasma levels of interleukin-18 and other biomarkers of monocyte/macrophage activation in the prediction and characterization of TB-IRIS. Methods: : Biomarkers were assayed pre-ART and during TB-IRIS, or equivalent time-point, in a case?control study of Malaysian HIV patients with paradoxical or unmasking TB-IRIS (n?=?15), TB no ...
Cerebral white matter integrity during primary HIV infection
Objective: Inflammation and infection within the central nervous system is initiated during primary HIV infection (PHI), but the association of these processes with the integrity of brain white matter during PHI is unknown. Design: We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in this prospective cross-sectional neuroimaging study to determine the extent of white matter involvement in early HIV infection. Methods: Antiretroviral-naive PHI (defined as (Source: AIDS)
Adenovirus vectors as HIV-1 vaccines: where are we? What next?
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Delayed liver fibrosis in HTLV-2-infected patients co-infected with HIV-1 and hepatitis C virus with suppressive antiretroviral therapy
Conclusion: Findings strongly support that HTLV-2 co-infection might delay fibrosis development in HCV?HIV-1 co-infected patients. (Source: AIDS)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Select host restriction factors are associated with HIV persistence during antiretroviral therapy
Objective: The eradication of HIV necessitates elimination of the HIV latent reservoir. Identifying host determinants governing latency and reservoir size in the setting of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is an important step in developing strategies to cure HIV infection. We sought to determine the impact of cell-intrinsic immunity on the HIV latent reservoir. Design: We investigated the relevance of a comprehensive panel of established anti-HIV-1 host restriction factors to multiple established virologic and immunologic measures of viral persistence in HIV-1-infected, ART-suppressed individuals. Methods: We measured the mRNA expression of 42 anti-HIV-1 host restriction factors, levels of cell-associated HIV-1 RNA, levels of total pol and 2-long terminal repeat (2-LTR) circle HIV-1 DNA and i...
?In the Fell Clutch of Circumstance?: HIV and Men Who Have Sex With Men in Sub-Saharan Africa
Abstract Men who have sex with men (MSM) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) have been repeatedly found to have high risk of HIV infection, and in spite of the differing nature of the HIV epidemic in the general population between East and Southern Africa, and West and Central Africa, MSM are disproportionately affected by HIV across the entire region. Recent research has examined the drivers of HIV risk, and the dynamics of the MSM HIV epidemic in greater detail. However, this growing knowledge has generally not been translated into effective HIV prevention interventions. In part, this is due to the highly stigmatised and frequently criminalised nature of same-sex sexualities in much of the region. Without human-rights-based advocacy targeting governments and interventions aiming to decr...
Sensitivity analysis of geometric errors in additive manufacturing medical models
For many years additive manufacturing (AM) models have been used in medical applications such as surgical planning, teaching aids and simulations, customized surgical implants, prosthetics and orthotics [1?4], with many benefits for patients and healthcare professionals [5,6]. (Source: Medical Engineering and Physics)
?Is Your Man Stepping Out?? An online pilot study to evaluate acceptability of a guide-enhanced HIV prevention soap opera video series and feasibility of recruitment by Facebook© advertising
Love, Sex, and Choices (LSC) is a 12-episode soap opera video series developed to reduce HIV risk among at-risk Black urban women. We added a video guide commentator to offer insights at critical dramatic moments. An online pilot study evaluated acceptability of the Guide Enhanced LSC (GELSC) and feasibility of Facebook© advertising, streaming to smartphones, and retention. Facebook© ads targeted high HIV-prevalence areas. In 30 days, Facebook© ads generated 230 screening interviews; 84 were high risk, 40 watched GELSC, and 39 followed up at 30 days. (Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)
Duodenal cryptococcus infection in an AIDS patient: retrospective clinical analysis
Cryptococcal infection primarily affects the lung or the central nervous system and rare cases have been reported involving the gastrointestinal tract. However, among patients with HIV/AIDS, the gastrointestinal involvement is increasing. According to the PubMed search results, there were seven cases reported involving duodenal cryptococcosis combined with AIDS in five reports. Here, we report the case of a patient found to have AIDS combined with duodenal, pulmonary, and subsequent neurological cryptococcal infection simultaneously. The duodenal cryptococcosis was diagnosed on the basis of PET/computed tomography, which showed intense captation of glucose metabolism in duodenum (maximum standardized uptake value 16.53); a positive serum cryptococcal latex agglutination test; and upper gas...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Darunavir/Cobicistat (Prezcobix) Combo Pill Clears FDADarunavir/Cobicistat (Prezcobix) Combo Pill Clears FDA
The fixed-dose combination of the antiretroviral drug darunavir (800 mg) and the pharmacokinetic enhancer cobicistat (150 mg) is for adults with HIV-1 infection and no darunavir resistance mutations. FDA Approvals (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)
Gates Foundation awards $50 million to Stanford vaccine discovery
SEATTLE (Reuters) - The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation said on Friday it had awarded Stanford University a $50 million grant to accelerate vaccine development efforts for the world's most deadly diseases, including AIDS and malaria. (Source: Reuters: Health)
Internet Connected Pacemakers Coming Soon
The ageing of society needs new, more cost-effective solutions to improve the life quality of patients and cut the burden that is placed on the social welfare system. (Source: Disabled World)
Projected Treatment Capacity Needs in Sierra Leone
Conclusion The largest outbreak of EVD in history is ongoing in Sierra Leone, with no indications as of 2014-12-04 that incidence is decreasing. Although concerted effort is being made by local authorities and the international community to stop transmission, current treatment and isolation facilities are insufficient. If the outbreak continues to spread, the response will be further complicated as the number of cases will overwhelm planned interventions. ETCs may not be flexible enough to accommodate the changing epidemiology of the outbreak and the number of international staff required to run sufficient facilities will be difficult to recruit. If the urgent need for isolation and treatment is not met, other control measures must be available, including community-based approaches to trea...
Africa: Closing the Gap on Children
[Global Fund]Tremendous progress has been made over the last decade in expanding access to antiretroviral therapy for adults, but efforts to reach children and adolescents living with HIV have not moved as fast. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Zimbabwe: HIV-Related Mental Illness Saves Man From Gallows
[New Zimbabwe]A 34 year old Mberengwa man who stabbed to death a fellow beer drinker after he had splashed beer on him has been found not guilty of murder on grounds of insanity. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Innovaacom to Offer Courses on Grantsmanship for International...
New Innovaacom Grant Writing Continuing Education Course Aids Physicians and Scientists Applying for Medical Science Grants in Improving Submission Success Rates(PRWeb January 29, 2015)Read the full story at http://www.prweb.com/releases/2015/01/prweb12478303.htm (Source: PRWeb: Medical Pharmaceuticals)
Evotaz Combo Pill Approved for HIV-1 in AdultsEvotaz Combo Pill Approved for HIV-1 in Adults
The FDA has approved atazanavir and cobicistat (Evotaz) for treatment of adults with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection. FDA Approvals (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)
Active Bone Conduction System: Outcomes with the Bonebridge Transcutaneous Device
Conclusions: The BB device is a safe and effective solution for individuals with pathologies such as chronic otitis media, atresia auris and otosclerosis with inadequate benefit from conventional surgery or bone conduction hearing aids.ORL 2015;77:17-26 (Source: ORL)
Disseminated Emmonsia in an HIV-HBV co-infected man
We describe a patient with several co-morbidities and an unusual disseminated fungal infection. (Source: IDCases)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
FDA Approves Two Medications to Treat HIV Infection: Evotaz and Prezcobix
On January 29, 2015, FDA sent e-mails noting the approval of two HIV medications to treat HIV infection: &nbsp; "On January 29, 2015, FDA approved Evotaz, a fixed dose combination tablet containing 300 mg of atazanavir and 150 mg of cobicistat. Evotaz is indicated in combination with other antiretroviral agents for the treatment of &hellip; human immunodeficiency virus (HIV 1) infection in adults." &nbsp; "On January 29, 2015, FDA approved Prezcobix a fixed dose combination tablet containing 800 mg of darunavir and 150 mg of cobicistat. &nbsp; "Prezcobix is indicated in combination with other antiretroviral agents for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV 1) infection in treatment-na&iuml;ve and treatment-experienced adults with no darunavir resistance-associated substitutions...
FDA Approves Changes to Kaletra Label
"On January 28, [2015] FDA approved changes to the Kaletra (lopinavir/ritonavir) label to include dosing recommendations in pregnant women." &nbsp; More information is available: FDA:&nbsp;Press release AIDSinfo:&nbsp;Patient fact sheet on Kaletra (Source: AIDSinfo At-a-Glance: Offering Information on HIV/AIDS Treatment, Prevention, and Research, A Service of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS))
Slideshow of Selected NIAID Research Advances of 2014
A&nbsp;new slideshow&nbsp;from NIAID highlights notable scientific accomplishments made by NIAID laboratories and NIAID-funded researchers during fiscal year 2014. The following are examples of HIV research advances included in the slideshow: Promising research on pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) A new bioinformatics approach to identify HIV-neutralizing antibodies A new technique to test the effectiveness of latency-reversing agents (LRAs) (Source: AIDSinfo At-a-Glance: Offering Information on HIV/AIDS Treatment, Prevention, and Research, A Service of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS))
New Commentary From NIAID Director and Colleague
In a new commentary in the&nbsp;Journal of the American Medical Association, Anthony S. Fauci, M.D., NIAID director, and colleague Hilary D. Marston, M.D., M.P.H., urged that more specific and focused approaches are needed to achieve a world without AIDS.&nbsp; To learn more, read the NIAID press release:&nbsp; Achieving a World Without AIDS: Scale Must Give Way to Focus, Details &nbsp; (Source: AIDSinfo At-a-Glance: Offering Information on HIV/AIDS Treatment, Prevention, and Research, A Service of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS))
February 7 is National Black HIV/AIDS Awareness Day
National Black HIV/AIDS Awareness Day serves to raise awareness of the disproportionate burden of HIV/AIDS among African Americans. According to the&nbsp;Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), African Americans represent approximately 12% of the U.S. population, but accounted for an estimated 44% of all new HIV infections among adults and adolescents in 2010. &nbsp; Explore our&nbsp;National Black HIV/AIDS Awareness Day webpage&nbsp;[en espa&ntilde;ol] to learn more about the annual observance and to find HIV-related information specific to African Americans. &nbsp; (Source: AIDSinfo At-a-Glance: Offering Information on HIV/AIDS Treatment, Prevention, and Research, A Service of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS))<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Exercise therapy for human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS patients: Guidelines for clinical exercise therapists
Publication date: Available online 29 January 2015 Source:Journal of Exercise Science &amp; Fitness Author(s): Jeanne M. Grace , Stuart J. Semple , Susan Combrink Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has infected &gt; 60 million people since its discovery and 30 million people have died since the pandemic began. Antiretroviral therapy has transformed HIV infection from an acute to a chronic disease, increasing life expectancy but also adding to the potential side effects associated with drug therapy and the comorbidity accompanying longevity. Exercise can play a valuable role in the management of HIV/AIDS patients by addressing various symptoms and improving their quality of life, but the optimum mode, intensity, frequency, and duration of exercise that take the different clinical ...
Visualization of LC?MS/MS proteomics data in MaxQuant
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved (Source: Proteomics)
Vapers? perspectives on electronic cigarette regulation in Australia
Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use has increased rapidly since their invention in 2003 with an estimated US$3 billion in sales worldwide in 2013 (World Health Organisation [WHO], 2014, p. 2). This uptake has led to suggestions that e-cigarettes could be a game-changing addition to tobacco control. Evidence from some surveys of experienced users have suggested their usefulness as cessation aids (e.g., Dawkins, Turner, Roberts, & Soar, 2013; Etter, 2010; Etter & Bullen, 2011; Farsalinos, Romagna, Tsiapras, Kyrzopoulos, & Voudris, 2014; Goniewicz, Lingas, & Hajek, 2013), as have a cross-sectional study in the United Kingdom (UK; Brown et al., 2014) and a longitudinal study in the United States (US; Biener & Hargraves, 2014). (Source: International Journal of Drug Policy)
Initial Validation of the HIV Treatment Regimen Fatigue Scale for Adults Prescribed Antiretroviral Therapy
Clinical observations have linked antiretroviral non-adherence to treatment regimen fatigue in persons living with HIV (PLWH). Although non-adherence appears to be a consequence of treatment regimen fatigue, little is known about the onset, course, and duration of this construct. Our study developed and evaluated psychometric properties of a measure of treatment regimen fatigue for PLWH. Based on a recent review, the concept was hypothesized to reflect decreased motivation, treatment cynicism, and low self-efficacy to adhere to treatment. (Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)
Attitudes and Perceptions of Biomedical HIV Prevention Methods: Voices from Young Men Who Have Sex with Men.
Authors: Kubicek K, Arauz-Cuadra C, Kipke MD Abstract In the third decade of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the United States, the prevalence rates of new HIV infections among young men who have sex with men (YMSM) continue to increase. As new and emerging HIV prevention methods are developed, it is important to understand the perceptions of this vulnerable population-as they may be an ideal target for these intervention methods. This pilot study provides an overview of YMSM of color's awareness and perceptions of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and rectal microbicides (RM). A total of 6 focus groups were convened with 53 YMSM (23 Latino/Hispanic and 30 Black/African American). Findings indicate a lack of knowledge of biomedical interventions and high perceived acceptability. Concerns re...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Adolescent decision making about participation in a hypothetical HIV vaccine trial.
CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that most adolescents at high risk for HIV demonstrate the key abilities needed to make meaningful decisions about HIV vaccine clinical trial participation. PMID: 25645175 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Vaccine)
Walking on ice takes more than brains: 'Mini-brain' in spinal cord aids in balance
Scientists have discovered how a "mini-brain" in the spinal cord aids in balance. Much of the balancing act that our bodies perform when faced with a task such as walking on an icy surface happens unconsciously, thanks to a cluster of neurons in our spinal cord that function as a "mini-brain" to integrate sensory information and make the necessary adjustments to our muscles so that we don't slip and fall, researchers report. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)
Questionnaire ABEL - Auditory Behavior in Everyday Life: a study of reliability - internal consistency of the brazilian version and reproducibility for test-retest
CONCLUSIONS: the Portuguese version of ABEL showed reliability - reproducibility and internal consistency. There is an association between the degree of hearing loss and scores on specific items and in Auditory Awareness Factor. There is an association between interviewee's schooling and the score in item "Asks for help in situations where it is needed". (Source: Revista CEFAC)
The use of self-assessment questionnaires for validation of the results in hearing aid selection and fitting process
CONCLUSION: by applying the questionnaire, it was found that the hearing aid use has benefic effects for their users and that they were satisfied with it. (Source: Revista CEFAC)
HIV Transmission Risk Behaviors Among People Living With HIV/AIDS: The Need to Integrate HIV Prevention Interventions and Public Health Strategies Into HIV Care
Conclusions: High-risk sexual behaviors are commonly reported by PLWHA, and these behaviors may be influenced by their partners' characteristics. HIV prevention interventions and public health strategies need to be incorporated into HIV care. (Source: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Aqua-Chem Aids Department of Defense in Containing Ebola Virus...
Aqua-Chem, Inc., a worldwide leader in manufacturing water purification systems, is supporting the Department of Defense&#39;s efforts to contain the Ebola virus in western Africa.(PRWeb January 28, 2015)Read the full story at http://www.prweb.com/releases/2015/01/prweb12470814.htm (Source: PRWeb: Medical Pharmaceuticals)
Botswana: HIV, Aids Remains Ministry's Priority
[Botswana Daily News]Gaborone -Permanent secretary in the Ministry of Health, Dr Kolaatamo Malefho has called on Batswana to behave well and practice safe sex in order to stop the spread of HIV/ AIDS. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: NACA, SURE-P to Embark on HIV Counselling in IDPs in Three States
[Guardian]Abuja -THE National Agency for the Control of AIDS (NACA) and the Subsidy Re-investment and Empowerment Programme (SURE-P) have covered seven states as part of their national HIV counselling and testing campaign. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Kenya: Dairy Goats for the Vulnerable
[The Star]KAKAMEGA The Livestock Production department in Lugari subcounty has donated dairy goats to people living with HIV-Aids, the disabled, orphans and vulnerable children. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
As smokers spark up e-cigs to quit, traditional aids suffer
NEW YORK (Reuters) - When Marty Weinstein decided to quit smoking, he took a friend's advice and tried electronic cigarettes rather than government-approved nicotine replacement products. (Source: Reuters: Health)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
FDA Voice Blog: Listening to Patients? Views on New Treatments for Obesity
Patients are more empowered today. Driven in part by a need to address emerging or neglected illnesses, such as HIV/AIDS and rare disorders, patients over the past three decades have increasingly banded together, creating organizations that advocated... (Source: Food and Drug Adminstration (FDA): CDRHNew)
Walking on ice takes more than brains
(Salk Institute) Salk scientists discover how a 'mini-brain' in the spinal cord aids in balance. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
FDA Voice Blog: Listening to Patients? Views on New Treatments for Obesity
Patients are more empowered today. Driven in part by a need to address emerging or neglected illnesses, such as HIV/AIDS and rare disorders, patients over the past three decades have increasingly banded together, creating organizations that advocated... (Source: Food and Drug Adminstration (FDA): CDRHNew)
Nigeria: Appeal Judgement On Abalaka's HIV Vaccine, NEPWHAN Tells AGF
[Independent (Lagos)]Following what it described as 'misleading' court pronouncement to the Jeremiah Abalaka's HIV vaccine, the Network of People Living With HIV/AIDS (NEPWHAN) has called on Attorney General of Federation and Minister of Justice, and other Co-defendants in the suite to appeal the judgment. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Discovery of new lead as 2,4-dihydropyrano[2,3-c]pyrazole through pharmacophore modeling, atom-based 3D-QSAR, virtual screening and docking strategies for improved anti-HIV-1 chemotherapy
Publication date: Available online 28 January 2015 Source:Journal of Taibah University for Science Author(s): Kamlendra Singh Bhadoriya , Mukesh C. Sharma , Shailesh V. Jain Due to the AIDS crisis, development of new, selective and safe non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) still remains a high priority for medical research. The discovery of potential lead compounds by analogue based design studies was done using 3D-QSAR and pharmacophore modelling of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. A series 24 compounds of diarylaniline analogues as NNRTIs was used to develop atom based pharmacophore model. A five-point pharmacophore with two hydrogen bond acceptors (A), one donor (D) and two aromatic rings (R) as pharmacophore features was selected which show the sta...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Nasalance and nasality in children with cochlear implants and children with hearing aids
This study aimed to investigate nasality and nasalance in two groups of prelingually hearing impaired children, namely deaf children with a cochlear implant (CI) and moderate-to-severely hearing impaired hearing aid (HA) users. The results of both groups are compared with the results of normal hearing children. Besides, the impact of the degree of hearing loss was determined. Methodology: 36 CI children (mean age: 9;0y), 25 HA children (mean age: 9;1y) and 26 NH children (mean age: 9;3y) were assessed using objective assessment techniques and perceptual evaluations in order to investigate the nasal resonance of the three groups. (Source: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology)
Hearing Aid?Related Standards and Test Systems
This article explains, and focuses on, relevant acoustic and electromagnetic compatibility parameters and describes several test systems available.[...]Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Article in Thieme eJournals:Table of contents  |  Abstract  |  Full text (Source: Seminars in Hearing)
HIV/AIDS: International Behavioral Research.
Authors: Zucker KJ PMID: 25631576 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Archives of Sexual Behavior)
Some Obamacare insurers discriminate against AIDS patients: study
NEW YORK (Reuters) - Some insurers selling policies under Obamacare may be structuring drug coverage in a way that dissuades people with HIV-AIDS from becoming their customers, according to a study published on Wednesday in the New England Journal of Medicine. (Source: Reuters: Health)
Sexual Behaviors of US Women at Risk of HIV Acquisition: A Longitudinal Analysis of Findings from HPTN 064
We describe the sexual behaviors of women at elevated risk of HIV acquisition who reside in areas of high HIV prevalence and poverty in the US. Participants in HPTN 064, a prospective HIV incidence study, provided information about individual sexual behaviors and male sexual partners in the past 6 months at baseline, 6- and 12-months. Independent predictors of consistent or increased temporal patterns for three high-risk sexual behaviors were assessed separately: exchange sex, unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) and concurrent partnerships. The baseline prevalence of each behavior was &gt;30 % among the 2,099 participants, 88 % reported partner(s) with &gt;1 HIV risk characteristic and both individual and partner risk characteristics decreased over time. Less than high school education a...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Effect of HIV Housing Services on Engagement in Care and Treatment, New York City, 2011
Abstract The federal Housing Opportunities for Persons with AIDS (HOPWA) program addresses housing needs of low-income persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). The New York City (NYC) Department of Health and Mental Hygiene oversees 22 HOPWA contracts for over 2,400 clients, and manages the NYC HIV Registry. HOPWA clients (N = 1,357) were matched to a random 20 % sample of other PLWHA (N = 13,489). Groups were compared on HIV care retention, viral suppression, and rebound. HOPWA clients were, on average, 3 years younger and more likely to be concurrently diagnosed with HIV and AIDS. While HOPWA clients were more likely to be retained in care (94 vs. 82 %; mOR = 2.97, 95 % CI 2.35?3.74), they were no more likely to achieve suppression (84 vs. 86 %; mOR = 0.85, 95 % 0.7...
Botswana: Balosang Preaches DMSAC Message
[Botswana Daily News]Hukuntsi -Insufficient knowledge about roles and responsibilities of District Multi-Sectoral AIDS Committee (DMSAC) among relevant stakeholders is a stumbling block to execution of its mandate, says Ms Matsae Balosang, a country manager of National Alliance of State & Territorial AIDS Directors (NASTAD). (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Asia needs more cash, campaigns, law changes to end HIV epidemic: U.N.
BANGKOK (Thomson Reuters Foundation) - The Asia-Pacific region will not meet the goal of ending the HIV epidemic in 15 years unless it changes laws and attitudes hostile to people living with HIV, the head of the United Nations agency on AIDS said on Wednesday.  (Source: Reuters: Health)
Nigeria: Court Pronouncement On Abalaka's HIV Vaccine Misleading - Nepwhan
[Vanguard]ABUJA: Following what it described as the 'misleading' court pronouncement in regards to the Dr. Jeremiah Abalaka's HIV vaccine, the Network of People Living With HIV/AIDS (NEPWHAN) has called on Attorney General of Federation and Minister of Justice and other co-defendants in the suite to appeal the judgment and to stay action on the execution of the pronouncement. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: Abalaka - Court Ruling Spells Doom for Persons With HIV - Nepwhan
[Daily Trust]The Network of People living with HIV/AIDS in Nigeria (NEPWHAN) and several civil societies organisations have raised the alarm over the recent court ruling in Makurdi, Benue State which lifted the ban on Dr Jeremiah Abalaka to proceed in his production of vaccines against HIV/AIDS. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Tanzania: Number of Isles Men Testing for HIV 'Still Small'
[Daily News]Zanzibar -THE number of men visiting heath centres for HIV/AIDS testing is still small, indicating that most of them are scared of undergoing voluntary medical checkup. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Zimbabwe: Making HIV an 'Undetectable' Virus
[MSF]The latest generation of HIV medical technology is making breakthroughs in care for HIV-positive patients, and in containing the epidemic in many African countries. The latest blood test, known as the viral load test, offers patients hope for a future free from the possible complications triggered by the virus. During 2013 Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) performed the test on around 30,000 patients in Zimbabwe. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Swaziland: New Programming Guide Highlights Food and Nutrition in Fight Against HIV/Aids
[WFP]At the dawn of the 2015 development agenda, the global health community is rallying around the "ending of AIDS by 2030", a goal that now appears within reach. With the power of antiretroviral therapy (ART) to both extend the lives of people living with HIV and prevent new infections, treatment has rightly been placed at the core of the strategy for moving forward. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: HIV/Aids People Seek Presidential Assent to Equality Legislation
[Guardian]Abuja -THE Network of People Living with HIV/AIDS in Nigeria (NEPWHAN) has called on President Goodluck Jonathan to sign the anti-HIV/AIDS discrimination bill into law. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Prevalence of opportunistic infections in HIV-positive patients in Bahrain: a four-year review (2009-2013).
CONCLUSIONS: Studying the pattern of OIs in HIV-infected patients in Bahrain is of paramount importance due to the scarcity of data in the Arab world. This will help to improve physicians' awareness to improve care of HIV-infected patients. PMID: 25596573 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Herpes)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Uganda: Breastfeeding in HIV-Positive Mothers
[Observer]Paris'* baby boy was a happy addition to her family. Paris' grandmother would no longer have to worry about who would extend her lineage into future generations. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
HIV Encephalopathy: pediatric case series description and insights from the clinic coalface.
CONCLUSIONS: Amongst the cohort of children referred to this clinic, the diagnosis of HIVE was unrecognized in the general medical services, even in its most severe form. Developmental delay and school failure were major presenting problems. Co-morbidities are a frequent finding and should be sought actively in order to optimize management and promote best possible outcomes for this vulnerable group of children. PMID: 25598835 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Therapy)
Pharmacokinetics of chewed vs. swallowed raltegravir in a patient with AIDS and MAI infection: some new conflicting data.
CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence that chewed 400 mg semi-daily raltegravir in rifampicin co-medication leads to optimized pharmacokinetics. There is need for more data from randomized trials for further recommendations. PMID: 25598834 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Therapy)
Ethnopharmacological surveys and pharmacological studies of plants used in traditional medicine in the treatment of HIV/AIDS opportunistic diseases in Gabon
Conclusion It is concluded that some of these plants might be submitted to further scientific studies, including the identification and isolation of bioactive principles, that could be developed to drugs for the treatment of HIV/AIDS opportunistic diseases. Graphical abstract (Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology)
Estimation of mortality among HIV-infected people on antiretroviral treatment in east Africa: a sampling based approach in an observational, multisite, cohort study
Publication date: Available online 28 January 2015 Source:The Lancet HIV Author(s): Elvin H Geng , Thomas A Odeny , Rita E Lyamuya , Alice Nakiwogga-Muwanga , Lameck Diero , Mwebesa Bwana , Winnie Muyindike , Paula Braitstein , Geoffrey R Somi , Andrew Kambugu , Elizabeth A Bukusi , Megan Wenger , Kara K Wools-Kaloustian , David V Glidden , Constantin T Yiannoutsos , Jeffrey N Martin Background Mortality in HIV-infected people after initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART) in resource-limited settings is an important measure of the effectiveness and comparative effectiveness of the global public health response. Substantial loss to follow-up precludes accurate accounting of deaths and limits our understanding of effectiveness. We aimed to provide a better understanding of mortality a...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Cultural adaptation of a shared decision making tool with Aboriginal women: a qualitative study
Conclusions: Adaptations resulted in a culturally adapted version of the OPDG that better met the needs of Aboriginal women participants and was more accessible with respect to health literacy assumptions. Decision coaching was identified as required to enhance engagement in the decision making process and using the adapted OPDG as a talking guide. (Source: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making)
Immunoactivation at the Crossroads of Human Diseases
It is becoming increasingly clear that immunoactivation, which evolved as a system of host defense against pathogens, can become dysregulated and promote the pathogenesis of diverse diseases with both known and unknown etiologies (e.g., AIDS, age-related macular degeneration, cancer) as well as aging. Immunoactivation seems to be a ?common denominator? or general mechanism of pathogenesis, and may explain the association and similarities in pathology among otherwise unrelated human diseases. Identification of general mechanisms of immunoactivation may lead to the development of new therapeutic strategies applicable to many diseases even before detailed knowledge of specific etiology and pathogenesis may be available. (Source: The American Journal of Medicine)
A Blizzard Couldn't Stop These People From Helping Those In Need
For some New Yorkers, Monday's blizzard conditions meant braving the cold for the sake of others who needed some help. Although the winter storm fell short of historic expectations when it blew through New York City on Monday night, it did blanket the five boroughs with 7 to 9 inches of snow and created plenty of dangerous winds. While many New Yorkers were curled up under blankets waiting for the storm to pass, several organizations were hard at work, helping bring food, warmth and shelter to those who could use it most. Here are four groups that were helping vulnerable residents get through Monday night safely: Coalition for the Homeless Volunteers pass out food and winter clothing items to the needy on Monday night. Photo: Juan De La Cruz Coalition for the Homeless helps those in...
The Dynamics, Dilemmas and Complexities of AIDS: The Cultural Context of Botswana
Issues in Mental Health Nursing, Volume 36, Issue 2, Page 118-126, February 2015. (Source: Issues in Mental Health Nursing)
HIV Surveillance Special Report: Behavioral and Clinical Characteristics of Persons Receiving Medical Care for HIV Infection, Medical Monitoring Project, United States, 2011
This report summarizes findings from the Medical Monitoring Project (MMP) 2011 data collection cycle. MMP is a cross-sectional, nationally representative, complex sample survey that assesses the clinical and behavioral characteristics of HIV-infected adults who are receiving outpatient medical care in the United States and Puerto Rico. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
A Systematic Review of Recent Smartphone, Internet and Web 2.0 Interventions to Address the HIV Continuum of Care
Abstract eHealth, mHealth and ?Web 2.0? social media strategies can effectively reach and engage key populations in HIV prevention across the testing, treatment, and care continuum. To assess how these tools are currently being used within the field of HIV prevention and care, we systematically reviewed recent (2013?2014) published literature, conference abstracts, and funded research. Our searches identified 23 published intervention studies and 32 funded projects underway. In this synthesis we describe the technology modes applied and the stages of the HIV care cascade addressed, including both primary and secondary prevention activities. Overall trends include use of new tools including social networking sites, provision of real-time assessment and feedback, gamification ...
Female lung cancer deaths 'may outstrip breast cancer' in 2015
Conclusion This ecological study used historical information on deaths from cancer for the EU region (1970 to 2009) to predict the numbers of deaths in 2015. The overall news was positive: cancer death rates for the EU have been declining in most cancers and are likely to continue declining in 2015. However, this masked other less positive trends in specific cancer types, specific countries, and differences between men and women. The predictions that hit the headlines were that lung cancer deaths in women are going to rise. Moreover, that the rates (number of deaths per 100,000 women) would be the highest of all cancer types for women, knocking breast cancer off the top spot for the first time. The study did not investigate the potential causes for the lung cancer death increases directl...
Kenya: Condom Advert - HIV Prevention or Infidelity Promotion?
[Key Correspondents]Controversy over an advert on condom use to prevent HIV among married couples led by a cross section of Kenyan religious leaders has left many HIV activists astonished at the 'denial of reality'. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Media dementia scare over hay fever and sleep drugs
Conclusion This large US prospective cohort study suggests a link between those taking high levels of anticholinergic medicines for more than three years and developing dementia in adults over 65. The main statistically significant finding was in a group taking the equivalent of any of the following medications daily for more than three years: xybutynin chloride, 5mg chlorpheniramine maleate, 4mg olanzapine, 2.5mg meclizine hydrochloride, 25mg doxepin hydrochloride, 10mg These are not unrealistic doses of medicine, so the results may be applicable to a significant proportion of older adults. The main limitations of the research were recognised and openly discussed by the study authors. Although we don't expect them to have significantly biased the results, we cannot rule...
Cameroon: CAPEC Alleviates Impact of HIV/Aids
[Cameroon Tribune]The Cameroon Association for the Protection and Education of the Child, CAPEC, has been carrying out voluntary HIV screening with her "Mobile Clinic" team in Kumba and Konye Sub-divisions in Meme Division of the South West Region. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Rice-size implant that boosts hearing and cuts ear infections 
A new implant could help the many people who struggle with standard hearing aids. Peter Kay, 70, a business consultant from Bramhall in Greater Manchester, had one fitted. (Source: the Mail online | Health)
Angola: Polio Eradication Considered As Health Sector Gain
[ANGOP]Luanda -The polio eradication and the development of services in health facilities for monitoring and treatment of people with HIV/AIDS and the expansion of the Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission Program (PMTCT) were identified as the sector's gains, according to the incumbent minister, José Van -Dunem. (Source: AllAfrica News: Polio)
Determinants of Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence among Women in Southern Malawi: Healthcare Providers' Perspectives.
Conclusions. There is a need for collaborative efforts between healthcare providers, patients, and faith-based organizations to identify and address hindrances and facilitators to patients' adherence. Further research is needed to develop strategies addressing religion, staff, and drug shortages. PMID: 25610641 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Doctors Call On DEA To Reschedule Marijuana For Medical Research Purposes
The American Academy of Pediatrics is requesting that the Drug Enforcement Administration reclassify marijuana as a less harmful substance in order to facilitate research of the substance for medical use, according to a policy statement released Monday. "The AAP strongly supports research and development of pharmaceutical cannabinoids and supports a review of policies promoting research on the medical use of these compounds," the AAP statement reads. To that end, the group recommends that the DEA reschedule marijuana from a Schedule I controlled substance to Schedule II. Under the Controlled Substances Act, the U.S. has five "schedules" for drugs and chemicals that can be used to make drugs. Schedule I is reserved for drugs that the DEA considers to have the highest potential for abuse ...
Adherence to HIV Care After Pregnancy Among Women in Sub-Saharan Africa: Falling Off the Cliff of the Treatment Cascade
Abstract Increased access to testing and treatment means HIV can be managed as a chronic illness, though successful management requires continued engagement with the health care system. Most of the global HIV burden is in sub-Saharan Africa where rates of new infections are consistently higher in women versus men. Pregnancy is often the point at which an HIV diagnosis is made. While preventing mother to child transmission (PMTCT) interventions significantly reduce the rate of vertical transmission of HIV, women must administer ARVs to their infants, adhere to breastfeeding recommendations, and test their infants for HIV after childbirth. Some women will be expected to remain on the ARVs initiated during pregnancy, while others are expected to engage in routine testing so treatment...
Use of Nondrug, Nonoperative Interventions by Community?Dwelling People With Hip and Knee Osteoarthritis
ConclusionUse of nondrug, nonoperative interventions was low among people with hip and knee OA. Our findings show evidence?practice gaps, particularly with respect to the interventions most strongly recommended in clinical guidelines for hip and knee OA (weight loss and exercise). (Source: Arthritis Care and Research)
Focusing to Achieve a World Without AIDS
This Viewpoint discusses essential steps to attaining a world without AIDS. (Source: JAMA)
Direct and Indirect Effects of Caregiver Social Support on Adolescent Psychological Outcomes in Two South African AIDS-Affected Communities.
Authors: Casale M, Cluver L, Crankshaw T, Kuo C, Lachman JM, Wild LG Abstract Caregiver social support has been shown to be protective for caregiver mental health, parenting and child psychosocial outcomes. This is the first known analysis to quantitatively investigate the relationship between caregiver social support and adolescent psychosocial outcomes in HIV-endemic, resource-scarce Southern African communities. A cross-sectional household survey was conducted over 2009-2010 with 2,477 South African adolescents aged 10-17 and their adult caregivers (18 years or older) in one urban and one rural community in South Africa's KwaZulu-Natal province. Adolescent adjustment was assessed using adult caregiver reports of the Strengths and Difficulties questionnaire (SDQ), which measures...
Children's Perception of Conversational and Clear American-English Vowels in Noise.
Conclusions: The findings support the use of clear speech for enhancing adult-to-child communication in AE in noisy environments. PMID: 25629690 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of speech, language, and hearing research : JSLHR)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Dementia: Improved decision tree aids differentiation of atypical Alzheimer disease from Creutzfeld?Jakob disease
Nature Reviews Neurology 11, 67 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrneurol.2015.4 Atypical phenotypes of Alzheimer disease (AD) can sometimes be difficult to distinguish from Creutzfeld&#8211;Jakob disease (CJD). Dorey and colleagues report that the level of total prion protein (t-PrP) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is lower in patients with CJD than in patients with atypical AD. (Source: Nature Reviews Neurology)
Assessing the discriminant ability, reliability, and comparability of multiple short forms of the Boston naming test in an Alzheimer's disease center cohort.
CONCLUSIONS: With the notable exception of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) 15-item BNT, short forms were internally consistent and highly correlated with the full version; these measures varied by diagnosis and generally improved from normal to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to dementia. All short forms retained the ability to discriminate between normal subjects and those with dementia. The ability to discriminate between normal and MCI subjects was less strong for the short forms than the full BNT, but they exhibited similar patterns. These results have important implications for researchers designing longitudinal studies, who must consider that the statistical properties of even closely related test forms may be quite different. © 2015 S. Karger ...
Study suggests link between long-term use of anticholinergics and dementia risk
The long-term use of certain medications with anticholinergic effects, such as sleep aids and hayfever treatments, could be linked to an increased risk of dementia. (Source: Alzheimers Society)
National Resource Center for HIV/AIDS Prevention among Adolescents FOA
Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) to fund an organization that will support the maintenance, operation, and re-launch of a national HIV/AIDS resource center. The Resource Center will promote practical strategies to assist in the implementation of evidence-based and evidence-informed interventions and best practices targeted to adolescent youth, in particular adolescents at high risk and African American and Hispanic/Latino adolescents. Applications are due April 10, 2015. (Source: PHPartners.org)
Malawi: Adolescents At High HIV/Aids Risk in Nsanje
[Malawi News Agency]Nsanje -Lack of access to information on sexual and reproductive health in Nsanje is said to be putting teenagers at a high risk of contracting HIV and AIDS. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Africa: Global Fund Welcomes Appointment of Eric Goosby
[Global Fund]The Global Fund applauded the appointment of Eric Goosby as the United Nations Special Envoy on Tuberculosis. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Ethiopia: Former City Road, Transport Official to Head Anti-HIV/Aids Office
[Reporter]As the Addis Ababa City Administration is taking new measures to split the city's Road and Transport Bureau, Mayor Diriba Kuma has recently appointed the bureau's long-serving deputy head, Tiblets Asgedom, to head its other key office, the HIV/AIDS Prevention and Control Office (HAPCO). (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: Jennifer Goosen Appointed As Head of Donor Relations
[Global Fund]The Global Fund named Jennifer Goosen as Head of Donor Relations, where she will help lead efforts to replenish funding that supports programs fighting AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Malawi: Man Convicted for Defiling and Infecting Child With HIV
[Malawi24]The First Grade Magistrate Court in Malawi's lake district of Mangochi has convicted and sentenced 24 year old Fyson Malembo to 13 years imprisonment with hard labour for defiling and infecting with HIV a 13 year old child. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: Sokoto State Govt. Disburses N80 Million to 16 NGOs in 2014 to Curb HIV/Aids Pandemic - Official.
[Independent (Lagos)]The Sokoto State Government on Sunday said it had disbursed over N80 million to 16 Non Governmental Organisations (NGOs) in 2014 toward curbing the HIV/AIDS pandemic. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Are medications' adverse cognitive effects reversible?
(Indiana University) In a commentary in JAMA Internal Medicine, Noll Campbell, Pharm.D., and Malaz Boustani, M.D., M.P.H., of the Regenstrief Institute and the Indiana University Center for Aging Research, probe the possibility of reversing the adverse cognitive effects of medications frequently prescribed to older adults for chronic conditions including depression, anxiety and incontinence and sold over the counter as allergy and sleep aids. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Cutaneous Epstein?Barr virus?associated lymphoproliferative polymorphic disease ? AIDS presenting manifestation
(Source: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology)
Effects of Stroke Education of Junior High School Students on Stroke Knowledge of Their Parents: Tochigi Project [Brief Reports]
Conclusions&mdash; Improvement of stroke knowledge immediately after the stroke lesson was observed in parents as well as their children, which indicated that our teaching materials using the Manga was effective in delivering the stroke knowledge to parents through their children. (Source: Stroke)
User-centered design and the development of patient decision aids: protocol for a systematic review
Discussion This systematic review will provide evidence of current practices to inform approaches for involving patients and other stakeholders in the development of patient decision aids. We anticipate that the results will help move towards the establishment of best practices for the development of patient-centered tools and, in turn, help improve the experiences of people who face difficult health decisions. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD42014013241 (Source: Systematic Reviews)
Highlights of the 2014 International AIDS Conference: update from down under.
This article summarizes an IAS-USA continuing education webinar presented by Paul A. Volberding, MD, in August 2014, in which he focused on a few select highlights from the Conference. PMID: 25612178 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Topics in antiviral medicine)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Rapid tests for HIV type discrimination in West Africa may perform differently.
Authors: Hønge BL, Jespersen S, Olesen JS, Erikstrup C, Wejse C PMID: 25609215 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Amphetamine-type stimulants and HIV infection among men who have sex with men: implications on HIV research and prevention from a systematic review and meta-analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: While meth/amphetamine use was significantly associated with HIV infection among MSM in high-income countries in all study designs, evidence of the role of ecstasy in HIV infection was lacking in cross-sectional studies. Cross-sectional study design, measurement approaches and source populations may also be important modifiers of the strength and the direction of associations. Event-specific measure of individual drug is required to establish temporal relationship between ATS use and HIV infection. HIV prevention programmes targeting MSM should consider including interventions designed to address meth/amphetamine use. PMID: 25609214 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
HIV/AIDS and lipodystrophy: Implications for clinical management in resource-limited settings.
CONCLUSIONS: Lipodystrophy is common in resource-limited settings, and has considerable implications for risk of metabolic diseases, quality of life and adherence. Comprehensive evidence-based interventions are urgently needed to reduce the burden of HIV and lipodystrophy, and inform clinical management in resource-limited settings. PMID: 25598476 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Cannabinoids: Now and in the Future (FR431)
Cannabinoids target orphan receptors GPR-55 and GPR-18, ion channels, monoamine receptors, and mu receptors. Cannabinoids have labeled indications for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting but are reported to improve appetite in patients with AIDS, central pain from multiple sclerosis, and neuropathic pain. The benefits of cannabinoids for cancer pain are mixed. Commercially available cannabinoids are subject to psychotomimetic and addiction (cannabinomimetic) adverse effects largely through activation of the cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1r). (Source: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management)
Frequency of Infectious Diseases in Immigrants in a Western European Country: A Population-Based Study
Abstract The aim of this population-based study was to assess the incidence rates of infectious diseases in native- (Italian) and foreign-born (immigrants) populations in a North Italy area, in 2006?2010. Crude, age-specific incidence rates (IRs) and age-standardised rate ratios (SRRs) between foreign- and native-born subjects and their 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) were estimated. A total of 32,554 cases of infectious diseases were found (9.9 % in foreign-born subjects). The highest SRRs between foreign- and nativeborn subjects were found for tuberculosis (SRR = 27.1; 95 % CI 21.3?34.3), malaria (SRR = 21.1; 14.6?30.4), scabies (SRR = 8.5; 7.6?9.4), AIDS (SRR = 2.5; 1.8?3.4) and viral hepatitis B (SRR = 3.3; 2.1?5.2). The highest IR was found for ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Qualitative Assessment of HIV Prevention Challenges and Opportunities Among Latino Immigrant Men in a New Receiving City
Abstract Changing demographics in new receiving communities contributes to a lag time between the arrival of new immigrants and the development of appropriate services. This scarcity of services can exacerbate existing disparities in health conditions such as HIV, which disproportionately affects Latinos. Focus groups were conducted in Baltimore with 59 Latino men who had immigrated to the U.S. within the past 10 years to explore the challenges and opportunities to accessing HIV testing and preventative services. Transcripts were analyzed through a modified thematic constant comparison approach. Four thematic categories emerged: information about HIV, HIV fear and stigma, barriers to accessing healthcare, and opportunities for intervention approaches. Information and communicati...
Feasibility of Recruiting Peer Educators to Promote HIV Testing Using Facebook Among Men Who have Sex with Men in Peru
The objective was to explore the feasibility of recruiting and training leaders to deliver a peer intervention via Facebook to promote HIV testing. Training consisted of three sessions focused on HIV epidemiology, consequences of stigma associated with HIV, and ways to use Facebook. We performed pre- and post-training evaluations to assess HIV knowledge and comfort using Facebook. We trained 34 peer leaders. At baseline, the majority of peer leaders were already qualified and knowledgeable about HIV prevention and use of social media. We found a significant increase in proportion of peer leaders who were comfortable using social media to discuss about sexual partners and about STIs. It is feasible to recruit peer leaders who are qualified to conduct a social media based HIV prevention inte...
Prevalence and Frequency of Heterosexual Anal Intercourse Among Young People: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Abstract We aim to assess if heterosexual anal intercourse (AI) is commonly practiced and how frequently it is practiced by young people. We searched PubMed for articles published 1975 to July 2014 reporting data on the proportion of young people (mean age &lt;25) practicing heterosexual AI (AI prevalence) and on number of AI acts (AI frequency). Stratified random-effects meta-analysis and meta-regression were used to produce summary estimates and assess the influence of participant and study characteristics on AI prevalence. Eighty-three and thirteen of the 136 included articles reported data on lifetime AI prevalence and monthly AI frequency, respectively. Estimates were heterogenous. Overall summary estimates of lifetime AI prevalence were 22 % (95 % confidence interval 20?...
Within-Prison Drug Injection among HIV-infected Male Prisoners in Indonesia: A Highly Constrained Choice
Indonesia's HIV epidemic is expanding rapidly. Annual new infections rose 48% from 51,300 to 76,000 between 2008 and 2013, a period when HIV incidence decreased or stabilized in most other Asia-Pacific countries (Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, 2013; Ministry of Health, 2008). Despite recent evidence of a transitioning epidemic (National AIDS Commission, 2012), people who inject drugs (PWID) comprise the largest proportion of people living with HIV (PLWH) in Indonesia (Ministry of Health, 2009) and provide a bridge to other high risk groups and the general population (National AIDS Commission, 2012). (Source: Drug and Alcohol Dependence)
Bill Gates predicts HIV vaccine by 2030
Microsoft founder tells Davos that vaccine and new intense drug treatments could end most new cases of deadly virus Continue reading... (Source: Guardian Unlimited Science)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Gates sees 'miracle' tools for AIDS by 2030 in vaccine and drugs
DAVOS, Switzerland (Reuters) - Two new tools to fight AIDS should be available by 2030 in the form of a vaccine and new intense drug treatments, ending most cases of a disease that has killed millions in the past 30 years, Bill Gates said. (Source: Reuters: Health)
Nigeria: Stop HIV Test Before Marriage, Religious Leaders Warned
[Independent (Lagos)]Ado-Ekiti -The Project Manager of Ekiti State Action Committee on AIDS, Doherty Charles Olusegun, has said it's illegal for priests or other religious leaders to mandate prospective couples to go for HIV/AIDs test before marriage. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
A Randomized Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy of a Web-Based HIV Behavioral Intervention for High-Risk African American Women
Abstract The aim of this study was to develop and test a cost-effective, scalable HIV behavioral intervention for African American women. Eighty-three African American women were recruited from a community health center and randomly assigned to either the web-based Safe Sistah program or to a delayed HIV education control condition. The primary outcome was self-reported condom use. Secondary measures assessed other aspects of the gender-focused training included in Safe Sistah. Participants completed self-report assessments prior to randomization, 1- and 4-months after their program experience. Across the entire study period, women in the experimental condition significantly increased their condom use relative to controls (F = 5.126, p = 0.027). Significant effects were also f...
Knowledge is Power! Increased Provider Knowledge Scores Regarding Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) are Associated with Higher Rates of PrEP Prescription and Future Intent to Prescribe PrEP
Abstract The FDA approval of emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in 2012 has raised questions about the delivery of PrEP in a real-world setting. iPad-based questionnaires were given to providers at conferences in California and New York to assess knowledge, experience and attitudes regarding PrEP in HIV and non-HIV providers. HIV provider status was defined either by self-identification or by having greater than 5 years of HIV care experience. Knowledge scores were the sum of correct answers from five PrEP knowledge questions. Univariate analyses used t-test to compare knowledge scores and Fisher?s exact test for past or future PrEP prescription between HIV and non-HIV providers. Multivariable linear or logistic regression models wer...
Infant HIV Type 1 gp120 Vaccination Elicits Robust and Durable Anti-V1V2 Immunoglobulin G Responses and Only Rare Envelope-Specific Immunoglobulin A Responses
Conclusion As exemplified by the Chiron vaccine regimen, vaccination of infants against HIV-1 can induce robust, durable Env-specific IgG responses, including anti-V1V2 IgG. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Induction of HIV-1-Specific Mucosal Immune Responses Following Intramuscular Recombinant Adenovirus Serotype 26 HIV-1 Vaccination of Humans
Conclusions These data demonstrate that a single intramuscular administration of this Ad26-vectored HIV-1 Env vaccine elicited both systemic and mucosal immune responses in humans. Induction of antigen-specific humoral and cellular mucosal immunity was not accompanied by a detectable increase in mucosal inflammation. Clinical Trials Registration NCT01103687. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Antibody-Dependent Effector Functions Against HIV Decline in Subjects Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy
Conclusions This longitudinal study showed that cART resulted in significant reductions of HIV-specific effector antibody responses, including ADCC and ADP. Therapeutic vaccines or other immunomodulatory approaches may be required to improve antibody-mediated control of HIV during cART. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Low Bone Mineral Density in Patients With Well-Suppressed HIV Infection: Association With Body Weight, Smoking, and Prior Advanced HIV Disease
Conclusions The observed lower BMD in treated HIV-positive individuals was largely explained by both lower body weight and more smoking. Having experienced symptomatic HIV disease, often associated with weight loss, was another risk factor. The low BMD observed in younger MSM remains unexplained and needs further study. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Modelling Elderly Cardiac Patients Decision Making Using Cognitive Work Analysis: Identifying Requirements for Patient Decision Aids
There is a pressing need for individualized healthcare systems as chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetics will be responsible for three-quarters of the world's deaths by 2020 [1,2,28]. Most hospital readmission rates are due to a definable set of problems that patients face: poor health, inadequate preparation on discharge, problems with caregivers, non-adherence to instructions regarding diet, medication or fluids, knowledge deficiencies etc., [3?5]. Taken together, the majority of these problems imply a socially important question: ?how can patients be helped to make appropriate decisions on their health and care?? (Source: International Journal of Medical Informatics)
Phenotypic and functional profiles of NK cells exhibiting MMP?mediated CD16 cleavage after anti?HIV antibody?dependent activation
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Clinical and Experimental Immunology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Social support as a protective factor for depression among women caring for children in HIV-endemic South Africa
Abstract Social support has been shown to be a protective resource for mental health among chronically ill adults and caregiver populations. However, to date no known studies have quantitatively explored the relationship between social support and depression among women caring for children in HIV-endemic Southern Africa, although they represent a high risk population for mental health conditions. Using data from a household survey with 2,199 adult female caregivers of children, living in two resource-deprived high HIV-prevalence South African communities, we conducted hierarchical logistic regression analysis with interaction terms to assess whether social support had a main effect or stress-buffering effect on depression. Findings provide evidence of stress-buffering of non-HIV-...
Combination Antiviral Recommended in EU for HIV Treatment Combination Antiviral Recommended in EU for HIV Treatment
A lamivudine/raltegravir combination is expected to ease the daily pill burden for patients with HIV, with efficacy comparable to that of the individual agents. International Approvals (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)
Thyroid carcinoma showing thymus-like elements: a clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and molecular analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: GLUT-1 can be used as a novel biomarker for CASTLE, and combined detection of GLUT-1 with CD5 and CD117 aids in the diagnosis of this tumor. Aberrant expression of Bcl-2, p53, p16, E-cadherin, EGFR, C-KIT, and HER-2 may play important roles in the development of CASTLE. PMID: 25596248 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Journal of Clinical Pathology)
Clinical Significance of First-Trimester Screening of the Retronasal Triangle for Identification of Primary Cleft Palate
Conclusion: The RNT is an important sonographic landmark that has a high sensitivity and specificity for the detection of OC in the first trimester. 3D ultrasound is an important tool that aids in confirming diagnosis of OC in the first and second trimesters.Fetal Diagn Ther (Source: Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy)
Sonar Technology Aids People with Vision Disabilities
When a biologist who studies bats and a computer scientist cross paths, amazingly cool things can happen. Cool things such as a sonar device to assist people with vision disabilities. (Source: Disabled World)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Africa: Ahead of the African Union Summit, New Champions Join Efforts for an Aids-Free Generation in Africa
[UNAIDS]Gaborone -Today, the Champions for an AIDS-Free Generation (Champions) announced that four leaders are joining their distinguished ranks. The new Champions are: Kgalema Motlanthe, former President of South Africa; Joyce Banda, former President of Malawi; Alpha Oumar Konaré, former President of Mali; and Olusegun Obasanjo, former President of Nigeria. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Effects of Anti-Inflammatory Drugs on Intravenous Immunoglobulin Therapy in the Acute Phase of Kawasaki Disease
Abstract This retrospective study aimed to investigate the effects of anti-inflammatory drugs (ADs) on intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy in the acute phase of Kawasaki disease. In total, 182 pediatric patients who received IVIG therapy for Kawasaki disease between 1999 and 2013 at the Department of Pediatrics, Aomori Prefectural Central Hospital were enrolled. Patients were divided into 2 groups: an S group, including 111 patients who received single IVIG therapy with delayed administration of ADs, and a T group, including 71 patients who received concomitant AIDs with IVIG. During the study, the only ADs administered were aspirin (A: 30 mg/kg/day) or flurbiprofen (F: 3?5 mg/kg/day). Steroids were not administered to any patient. The regimen of the S group was partial...
Nigeria: UNAIDS - Nigeria to Commence Production of Anti-Retroviral Drugs
[This Day]The UNAIDS Country Director, Dr. Bilali Camara, on Thursday said four companies will commence production of anti-retroviral drugs in Nigeria. Camara, who is also the UNAIDS Focal Point for ECOWAS, disclosed this in an interview with newsmen in Abuja. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Namibia: One Person Cannot Easily Spread HIV Wilfully
[Namibian]RECENT media reports concerning the alleged wilful transmission of HIV in Namibia need to be contested and shot down before they are considered credible. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: Nigeria to Commence Production of Anti-Retroviral Drugs - UNAIDS
[Vanguard]Dr Bilali Camara, UNAIDS Country Director, said on Thursday that four companies will commence production of anti-retroviral drugs in Nigeria. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Participation in research as a means of improving quality of care: the role of a principal investigator in multicentre clinical trials
Key content A doctor?s duty to reduce uncertainty in the provision of care requires their participation in well?developed and ethically approved clinical trials. Compared to non?participation, collaboration in a clinical trial improves the quality of care of women. Successful recruitment into multicentre trials is achieved through enthusiastic involvement of several principal investigators (PIs). Allocation of NHS patient care costs for clinical research supports those engaged in recruiting women into studies. Consultants need to acquire basic mandatory research training for the role as a PI leading research. An awareness of support mechanisms locally, regionally and nationally, such as NIHR Clinical Research Network, aids in the execution of PI duties. PI contribution to re...
Pott's Disease? AIDS-Associated Mycobacterium heckeshornense Spinal Osteomyelitis and Diskitis [Case Reports]
We present a case of aggressive spinal osteomyelitis caused by Mycobacterium heckeshornense in an AIDS patient; a review of the literature is also included. (Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology)
Citrinin detection using phage-displayed anti-idiotypic single-domain antibody for antigen mimicry
In conclusion, the proposed P-ELISA demonstrates the potential use of phage-displayed anti-idiotypic VHH as surrogate for small molecules and signal-amplification carrier to improve assay performance for more sensitive analyte detection in food safety monitoring. (Source: Food Chemistry)
Differential Regulation of NF-?B-Mediated Proviral and Antiviral Host Gene Expression by Primate Lentiviral Nef and Vpu Proteins
Publication date: Available online 22 January 2015 Source:Cell Reports Author(s): Daniel Sauter , Dominik Hotter , Benoît Van Driessche , Christina M. Stürzel , Silvia F. Kluge , Steffen Wildum , Hangxing Yu , Bernd Baumann , Thomas Wirth , Jean-Christophe Plantier , Marie Leoz , Beatrice H. Hahn , Carine Van Lint , Frank Kirchhoff NF-?B is essential for effective transcription of primate lentiviral genomes and also activates antiviral host genes. Here, we show that the early protein Nef of most primate lentiviruses enhances NF-?B activation. In contrast, the late protein Vpu of HIV-1 and its simian precursors inhibits activation of NF-?B, even in the presence of Nef. Although this effect of Vpu did not correlate with its ability to interact with ?-TrCP, it involved the stabi...
Temporal Trends in Age at HIV Diagnosis in Cohorts in the United States, the Caribbean, and Central and South America
Abstract In the United States (USA), the age of those newly diagnosed with HIV is changing, particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM). A retrospective analysis included HIV-infected adults from seven sites in the Caribbean, Central and South America network (CCASAnet) and the Vanderbilt Comprehensive Care Clinic (VCCC-Nashville, Tennessee, USA). We estimated the proportion of patients &lt;25 years at HIV diagnosis by calendar year among the general population and MSM. 19,466 (CCASAnet) and 3,746 (VCCC) patients were included. The proportion &lt;25 years at diagnosis in VCCC increased over time for both the general population and MSM (p &lt; 0.001). Only in the Chilean site for the general population and the Brazilian site for MSM were similar trends seen. Subjects &lt...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Place of Residence Moderates the Relationship Between Emotional Closeness and Syringe Sharing Among Injection Drug Using Clients of Sex Workers in the US-Mexico Border Region
Abstract Injection drug-using men from the US and Mexico who purchase sex in Tijuana, Mexico are at risk for transmitting HIV to their contacts in both countries via syringe sharing. We used social network methods to understand whether place of residence (US vs. Mexico) moderated the effect of emotional closeness on syringe sharing. We interviewed 199 drug-using men who reported paying/trading for sex in Tijuana, Mexico using an epidemiological and social network survey and collected samples for HIV/STI testing. Seventy-two men reported using injection drugs with 272 network contacts. Emotional closeness was strongly associated with syringe sharing in relationship where the partner lives in the US, while the relationship between emotional closeness and syringe sharing was cons...
Comprehensive Evaluation of Caregiver-Reported Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence for HIV-Infected Children
Abstract For HIV-infected children, adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is often assessed by caregiver report but there are few data on their validity. We conducted prospective evaluations with 191 children ages 0?14 years and their caregivers over 6 months in western Kenya to identify questionnaire items that best predicted adherence to ART. Medication Event Monitoring Systems® (MEMS, MWV/AARDEX Ltd., Switzerland) electronic dose monitors were used as external criterion for adherence. We employed a novel variable selection tool using the LASSO technique with logistic regression to identify items best correlated with dichotomized MEMS adherence (?90 or &lt;90 % doses taken). Nine of 48 adherence items were identified as the best predictors of adherence, including mis...
The Interaction Between Sickle Cell Disease and HIV Infection: A Systematic Review
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sickle cell disease (SCD) are regarded as endemic in overlapping geographic areas; however, for most countries only scarce data on the interaction between HIV and SCD and disease burden exist. HIV prevalence in SCD patients varies between 0% and 11.5% in published studies. SCD has been suggested to reduce disease progression of HIV into AIDS. Various interactions of antiretroviral therapy with SCD exist. Both SCD and HIV act as common risk factors for stroke, avascular necrosis, severe splenic dysfunction, pulmonary arterial hypertension, and sepsis, which may result in synergistic increase in risk of developing these diseases. No treatment guidelines regarding SCD with HIV coinfection were identified. Available evidence is mainly based on small clini...
Comparison of Risk and Age at Diagnosis of Myocardial Infarction, End-Stage Renal Disease, and Non-AIDS-Defining Cancer in HIV-Infected Versus Uninfected Adults
Conclusions.&nbsp;HIV-infected adults had a higher risk of these age-associated events, but they occurred at similar ages than those without HIV. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Long-term Protection From Isoniazid Preventive Therapy for Tuberculosis in HIV-Infected Patients in a Medium-Burden Tuberculosis Setting: The TB/HIV in Rio (THRio) Study
Conclusions.&nbsp;Isoniazid preventive therapy significantly reduced tuberculosis risk among HIV-infected patients with a positive TST. In a medium-prevalence setting, 6 months of isoniazid in HIV-infected patients with positive TST reduces tuberculosis risk over 7 years of follow-up, in contrast to results of studies in higher-burden settings in Africa. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
The Association Between APOL1 Risk Alleles and Longitudinal Kidney Function Differs by HIV Viral Suppression Status
Conclusions.&nbsp;Unsuppressed HIV-infected African Americans with the APOL1 high-risk genotype experience an accelerated rate of kidney function decline; HIV suppression with antiretroviral therapy may reduce these deleterious renal effects. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
A Single Dose of Benzathine Penicillin G Is as Effective as Multiple Doses of Benzathine Penicillin G for the Treatment of HIV-Infected Persons With Early Syphilis
Conclusions.&nbsp;In this cohort, additional BPG doses did not affect treatment response. Our data support the current recommendations for the use of a single dose of BPG to treat HIV-infected persons with early syphilis. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Editorial Commentary: The Optimal Dose of Penicillin When Treating Syphilis in HIV-Infected Persons: Enough, Already?
(Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Gastrointestinal surgery and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome
This article questions whether gastrointestinal surgical procedures can be safe and effective therapeutic measures in HIV/AIDS patients and if surgical outcome is worthy of the surgeon?s ethical responsibility to treat. As HIV/AIDS patients are not a homogenous group, with careful patient selection, emergency laparotomy for peritonitis confers worthwhile palliation. However, aggressive surgical intervention must be undertaken with caution and adequate peri-operative care is required. Symptomatic improvement of anorectal pathology may make delayed wound healing an acceptable complication. Alternatives to surgery can be contemplated for diagnosis, prophylaxis or palliation. (Source: Annals of Medicine and Surgery)
Children seeking refuge: A review of the escalating humanitarian crisis of child sexual abuse and HIV/AIDS in Latin America
Early identification and intervention for victims of child sexual abuse (CSA) is essential to halting the spread of HIV in Latino populations because children who are sexually abused are at an increased risk of contracting HIV. The recent influx of unaccompanied children into the Unites States exposed histories of victimization, vulnerability to CSA, and suggested an epidemic of CSA in Latin America. CSA has been identified as a contributory event to HIV infection. The aim of our research was to identify factors associated with CSA and Latin Americans. (Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Coping with stress strategies in HIV-infected Iranian patients
Stress has significant adverse impacts on health outcomes of HIV-infected patients. Our study explored coping with stress strategies by HIV-infected Iranian patients. A qualitative content analysis study was conducted at the Consultation Clinic of HIV at the Imam Khomeini Hospital in Tehran, Iran, in 2012. Twenty-six semi-structured in-depth interviews were done. Participants were asked about coping strategies for stress. After the first interview, continuous analysis of data was started and continued up to data saturation. (Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)
Evaluation of the Wii Balance Board for Walking Aids Prediction: Proof-of-Concept Study in Total Knee Arthroplasty
Conclusions The WBB was able to provide quantitative measures of standing balance which could assist healthcare professionals in prescribing the appropriate type of walking aids for patients. Further investigation is needed to assess whether using the WBB could lead to meaningful changes in clinical outcomes such as falls. (Source: PLoS One)
Funding Announcement PS15-1505: Enhancing HIV Prevention Communication and Mobilization Efforts Through Strategic Partnerships
The purpose of this FOA is (1) to support the dissemination of Act Against AIDS (AAA) campaign materials, messaging and other CDC resources that support HIV prevention and (2) to implement national engagement efforts focusing on HIV prevention and awareness. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
NLM HIV/AIDS Portal Now Offers Multilingual Content Search
NLM?s HIV/AIDS Portal now offers the ability to search for multilingual content. The new Multilingual Search interface searches specifically for HIV/AIDS related topics from the multilingual and multicultural content of HealthReach (formerly RHIN). HealthReach offers easy access to quality health information to individuals for whom English is not the primary language. It is also an [&#8230;] (Source: NN/LM Middle Atlantic Region Blog)
Africa: Child Deaths Will Go Down, and More Diseases Will be Wiped Out
[Gates Foundation]Until recently, the world was split in two. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Ethiopia: Coffee Ceremony Used to Educate On HIV
[Key Correspondents]Coffee ceremony is a tradition in Ethiopia, where the world's most famous coffee Coffea Arabica grows. The ceremony takes about an hour and helps strengthen bonds within the community. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Zimbabwe: Buying 'Airtime' With Antiretroviral Pills
[Waza]Many Zimbabwean HIV-positive youngsters face discrimination and stigmatisation on a daily basis. Evelyn Honde (16) is one of them. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Zimbabwe: Government Warns Churches Over HIV Cure Claims
[New Zimbabwe]THE government has warned churches led by so-called prophets against deceiving people on antiretroviral therapy that they can cure HIV/AIDS saying this could result in unnecessary loss of life when they stop taking their medication. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Stigma against HIV/AIDS among female sex workers and general migrant women in eastern China
Conclusions: The present study suggests that there is an urgent need for the development of appropriate education strategies to reduce HIV related stigma among FSW and GMW in Shanghai, China. In particular, older women, less educated women, and women that have lived in Shanghai a relatively long time should be targeted in future stigma reduction programs. (Source: BMC Women's Health)
Be SMART: examining the experience of implementing the NHS Health Check in UK primary care
Conclusions: HCPs? training needs to include the use and evidence of the effectiveness of SMART goals in changing health behaviours. The significance of fidelity to protocol needs to be communicated to HCPs and commissioners to ensure consistency. Monitoring and measurement of follow-up, e.g., tracking of referrals, need to be resourced to provide evidence of the success of the NHS Health Check in terms of healthier lifestyles and reduced CVD risk. (Source: BMC Family Practice)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
A robust real-time gait event detection using wireless gyroscope and its application on normal and altered gaits
Gait events detection allows clinicians and biomechanics researchers to determine timing of gait events, to estimate duration of stance phase and swing phase and to segment gait data. It also aids biomedical engineers to improve the design of orthoses and FES (functional electrical stimulation) systems. In recent years, researchers have resorted to using gyroscopes to determine heel-strike (HS) and toe-off (TO) events in gait cycles. However, these methods are subjected to significant delays when implemented in real-time gait monitoring devices, orthoses, and FES systems. (Source: Medical Engineering and Physics)
Using the Pathogenic and Nonpathogenic Nonhuman Primate Model for Studying Non-AIDS Comorbidities
Abstract With the advent of antiretroviral therapy that can control virus replication below the detection levels of conventional assays, a new clinical landscape of AIDS emerged, in which non-AIDS complications prevail over AIDS-defining conditions. These comorbidities are diverse and affect multiple organs, thus resulting in cardiovascular, kidney, neurocognitive and liver disease, osteopenia/osteoporosis, and cancers. A common feature of these conditions is that they are generally associated with accelerated aging. The mechanism behind these comorbidities is chronic excessive inflammation induced by HIV infection, which persists under antiretroviral therapy. Progressive simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of nonhuman primates (NHPs) closely reproduces these comorbiditi...
Neuropathogenesis of HIV: From Initial Neuroinvasion to HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder (HAND)
Abstract Early in the HIV epidemic, the central nervous system (CNS) was recognized as a target of infection and injury in the advanced stages of disease. Though the most severe forms of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) related to severe immunosuppression are rare in the current era of widespread combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), evidence now supports pathological involvement of the CNS throughout the course of infection. Recent work suggests that the stage for HIV neuropathogenesis may be set with initial viral entry into the CNS, followed by initiation of pathogenetic processes including neuroinflammation and neurotoxicity, and establishment of local, compartmentalized HIV replication that may reflect a tissue reservoir for HIV. Key questions still exist as...
Cellulose-based filter aids increase the capacity of depth filters during the downstream processing of plant-derived biopharmaceutical proteins.
Authors: Buyel JF, Opdensteinen P, Fischer R Abstract Downstream processing (DSP) is a major cost factor during the production of biopharmaceutical proteins. Clarification can account for ?40% of these costs, especially when a large amount of dispersed particulate material is generated, such as during the extraction of intracellular proteins from plants. Filter capacity can be increased (and DSP costs reduced) by using flocculants. Here we show that cellulose-based filter aids can enhance the positive effect of flocculants by improving depth filter capacity even further. A design-of-experiments (DoE) approach was used to identify the optimal size and concentration of filter aids, at different values of pH and conductivity, for the clarification of tobacco leaf extracts during the...
Longitudinal and cross sectional assessments of health utility in adults with HIV/AIDS: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Conclusion: The study provides an accumulation of evidence on measurement properties of health utility estimates that can help inform the selection of instruments for future studies. The pooled estimates of health utilities and their trends are useful in economic evaluation and policy modelling of HIV/AIDS treatment strategies. (Source: BMC Health Services Research)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Prioritization of New Oral Hepatitis C Therapies for HIV Patients.
Authors: Barreiro P, Fernández-Montero JV, Soriano V Abstract Access to antiretroviral therapy prevents progression of immunodeficiency and development of opportunistic cancers and infections in HIV-infected persons. However, the virus cannot be eliminated and lifelong HIV treatment is needed. For this reason, tolerance and side effects have become an important consideration when choosing HIV drugs. Integrase inhibitors (i.e. dolutegravir) and nonnucleoside analogues (i.e. rilpivirine) are the preferred third agents to be used along with a nucleos(t)ide analogue backbone, either abacavir/lamivudine or tenofovir/emtricitabine. Single-tablet regimens with three agents are currently available and significantly improve HIV treatment adherence. In contrast, HIV protease inhibitors are ...
HIV Tropism Shift: New Paradigm on Cell Therapy Strategies for HIV Cure.
Authors: Poveda E Abstract CCR5 and CXCR4 are the main cellular coreceptors involved in the entry of HIV-1 into the host cells. Certain individuals possess a 32 base pair deletion in the CCR5 allele (CCR5 delta32), which produces a truncated form of this coreceptor associated with a natural resistance to HIV infection when this appears in homozygosis. These findings have inspired the design of anti-HIV drugs, such as the CCR5 antagonists (i.e. maraviroc), which block the interaction between the virus and the CCR5 coreceptor inhibiting viral entry. PMID: 25608470 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: AIDS Reviews)
Non-healing genital herpes mimicking donovanosis in an immunocompetent man.
We report a case of genital herpes manifesting as painless chronic non-healing genital ulcers with exuberant granulation tissue in an immunocompetent man. Owing to this morphology, the ulcers were initially mistaken for donovanosis. To the best of our knowledge, such a presentation of genital herpes in an immunocompetent individual has not been described previously. PMID: 25614521 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Herpes)
Clean intermittent self-catheterisation: working with patients.
Authors: Wilson M Abstract Clean intermittent self-catheterisation is carried out when the bladder cannot be emptied adequately by voiding. Because learning how to self-catheterise can be daunting, it is essential that the nurse has the time, knowledge and skills necessary support the patient during the learning phase, so that he or she can develop confidence and master the technique. Causes for urinary retention are considered and step-by-step instructions are given for both female and male patients, including problems that may be encountered and how these can be overcome. Examples of catheters and other aids available are suggested, with reference to particular features they may have, to overcome difficulties or to assist patients with particular needs. Issues including infection...
Demedicalizing AIDS Prevention and Treatment in Africa
New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 372, Issue 4, Page 303-305, January 2015. (Source: New England Journal of Medicine)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Comprehensiveness and programmatic vulnerability to stds/hiv/aids in primary care
This study aimed to identify programmatic vulnerability to STDs/HIV/AIDS in primary health centers (PHCs). This is a descrip - tive and quantitative study carried out in the city of São Paulo. An online survey was applied (FormSUS platform), involving administrators from 442 PHCs in the city, with responses received from 328 of them (74.2%), of which 53.6% were nurses. At - tention was raised in relation to program - matic vulnerability in the PHCs regarding certain items of infrastructure, prevention, treatment, prenatal care and integration among services on STDs/HIV/AIDS care. It was concluded that in order to reach comprehensiveness of actions for HIV/ AIDS in primary health care, it is necessary to consider programmatic vulnerability, in a...
Malawi: When Hours Turn to Days - a Ridiculed HIV Woman Stands Strong
[Key Correspondents]To her, the decision to test for HIV was a forced one. Forced by the fact her husband left her because she was growing thin, always feeling tired and occasionally falling sick. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Zimbabwe: 126 Million Additional Funding Announced to Fight HIV in Zimbabwe
[UNDP]New York City - A new agreement reached in Zimbabwe by the UN Development Programme (UNDP) and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria is set to provide a major boost in the fight against HIV and AIDs in the country, which is among the hardest hit by the virus in sub-Saharan Africa. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
The Western Africa Ebola Virus Disease Epidemic Exhibits Both Global Exponential and Local Polynomial Growth Rates
Discussion We have shown that the cumulative number of EVD cases in a number of administrative areas of Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia is best approximated by polynomial rather than exponential growth over several generations of EVD. This pattern is also true of the initial diffusion of the West African EVD epidemic, particularly in Gueckedou district, Guinea, where a super-spreading event linked to burial rituals facilitated onward transmission in December 2013. Transmission progressed unchecked for several generations in Gueckedou, as the World Health Organization did not receive notification of the outbreak until March 23rd, 201418. In contrast, when data are aggregated nationally, or across the broader West Africa region, total case counts show periods of approximate exponential grow...
WHO welcomes appointment of UN Special Envoy on Tuberculosis Dr Eric P. Goosby
WHO welcomes the appointment of the new United Nations Secretary-General?s Special Envoy on Tuberculosis (TB), Dr Eric P. Goosby, M.D. Dr Goosby?s extensive and high-level experience in global health and diplomacy give him the perfect background for this critical role. Despite recent gains, tuberculosis remains a serious public health issue - fueled in part by the HIV/AIDS epidemic, with antimicrobial resistance posing an ever-present threat to its control. WHO looks forward to working closely with Dr Goosby in our shared effort to raise the profile of the fight against TB and to attain the ambitious new targets agreed at last year?s World Health Assembly. (Source: WHO news)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Nigeria: People Living With HIV Caution Members On Abalaka's Vaccine
[Independent (Lagos)]The Network of People Living With HIV/AIDS in Nigeria (NEPWHAN) has warn its members not to be lured into patronising Dr Jeremiah Abalaka's vaccine, saying currently, there is no known cure for the virus. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Uganda: High Hopes Ahead of Microbicide Trial Results
[Observer]HIV/Aids researchers are anticipating positive results from a large-scale trial assessing the efficacy of a vaginal microbicide gel in preventing HIV infection in women. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
New Considerations in HIV Care DiagnosticsNew Considerations in HIV Care Diagnostics
Dr Benjamin Young highlights the recently announced UNAIDS Fast-track Cities program and reviews two new studies on HIV diagnostics. Medscape HIV/AIDS (Source: Medscape Hiv-Aids Headlines)
Political factors behind US global AIDS programmes slow-down
Publication date: Available online 21 January 2015 Source:The Lancet Author(s): Matthew M Kavanagh , Jamila Headley , Asia Russell (Source: The Lancet)
Estimation of changes in maternal mortality in a rural district of northern Tanzania during the last 50 years
ConclusionsDuring the last 50 years we have witnessed a reduction of maternal mortality and improvements in maternal health. Progress has been made towards improving Millennium Development Goals 5 although only a prospective population?based survey will provide the ultimate answer.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Program synergies and social relations: implications of integrating HIV testing and counselling into maternal health care on care seeking
Conclusion: While providers and pregnant women view program synergies from integrating HIV services into antenatal care positively, lack of supportive provider-patient relationships, lack of trust resulting from harsh treatment or breaches in confidentiality, and stigma still inhibit women?s care seeking. As countries continue rollout of Option B+, social relations between patients and providers must be understood and addressed to ensure that integrated delivery of HIV counselling and services encourages women?s care seeking in order to improve maternal and child health. (Source: BMC Public Health)
Delaying initiation of ART for 5 weeks improves survival in patients with HIV infection with cyrptococcal meningitis
Commentary on: Boulware DR, Meya DB, Muzoora C, et al.. Timing of antiretroviral therapy after diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis. N Engl J Med 2014;370:2487&ndash;98. Context Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is a major cause of mortality for individuals with HIV infection in Africa. Early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been shown to decrease mortality in a number of opportunistic infections such as tuberculosis (TB) and Pneumocystis jirovicii pneumonia, but may increase mortality in central nervous system-related opportunistic infections such as TB meningitis.1 The timing of ART however remains controversial for CM.2 3 Methods The study by Bouleware and colleagues is a randomised trial that assigned 177 HIV-infected ART-na&iuml;ve patients from Uganda and South Africa who we...
A study of the clinical and radiological features in a cohort of 93 patients with a COL2A1 mutation causing spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita or a related phenotype
Type 2 collagen disorders encompass a diverse group of skeletal dysplasias that are commonly associated with orthopedic, ocular, and hearing problems. However, the frequency of many clinical features has never been determined. We retrospectively investigated the clinical, radiological, and genotypic data in a group of 93 patients with molecularly confirmed SEDC or a related disorder. The majority of the patients (80/93) had short stature, with radiological features of SEDC (n?=?64), others having SEMD (n?=?5), Kniest dysplasia (n?=?7), spondyloperipheral dysplasia (n?=?2), or Torrance?like dysplasia (n?=?2). The remaining 13 patients had normal stature with mild SED, Stickler?like syndrome or multiple epiphyseal dysplasia. Over 50% of the patients had undergone orth...
Highlights from this issue
As memories of the festive season fade, many clinicians will recall recent patients who regret alcohol related sexual encounters. Alcohol has a complicated role in sexual cultures of the West, and perhaps an even more complicated place in settings where it is banned or hard to access. As a student visiting friends working in Norway, I was astonished to visit a home that had its own still, producing a potato liqueur behind locked cellar doors. Alcohol in the UK is relatively cheap, and home production of spirits (with the attendant risk of methanol poisoning) almost unheard of. The role of alcohol in sexual risk is complex and disputed. On the one hand, alcohol has been used through the ages to facilitate and ease planned and low risk sexual encounters. On the other, it may increase the lik...
The BASHH HIV Special Interest Group (SIG)
As the previous and current chair of the British Association for Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH) HIV Special Interest Group (SIG), we will summarise the activities of this busy, diverse SIG. We have about 20 members who communicate regularly by email and include trainee, community, nursing and pharmacy representation. The &lsquo;HIV SIG&rsquo; is also involved in activities related to hepatitis B and C, working closely with the British HIV Association (BHIVA) hepatitis subgroup and other relevant organisations. Our main role is to provide HIV and hepatitis-related Continuing Professional Development (CPD) for BASHH members, an activity fulfilled primarily by the annual BASHH HIV Masterclass. This non-London meeting is held over 2&nbsp;days and attracts a broad spectrum of care professionals,...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Comparison of risk factors in HIV-infected men who have sex with men, coinfected or not with hepatitis C virus (ANRS VESPA2 French cross-sectional national survey)
Conclusions HIV-MSM reporting several sexual risk factors should be sensitised to risk-reduction behaviours to avoid HCV transmission to sexual partners, and infection or reinfection with HCV. (Source: Sexually Transmitted Infections)
Internet-based cohort study of HIV testing over 1 year among men who have sex with men living in England and exposed to a social marketing intervention promoting testing
Conclusions This social marketing intervention was not associated with increased rates of HIV testing. More effective promotion of HIV testing is needed among MSM in England to reduce the average duration of undiagnosed infection. (Source: Sexually Transmitted Infections)
Drug use, sexual risk behaviour and sexually transmitted infections among swingers: a cross-sectional study in The Netherlands
Conclusions High rates of multiple drug use, as well as risky sexual behaviour and STIs among swingers, warrant paying more attention to this key population in prevention and care, as they are a risk group that is generally under-recognised and underserved in care. (Source: Sexually Transmitted Infections)
A cross-sectional survey exploring attitudes towards provincial electronic health record implementation among clients attending the Provincial Sexually Transmitted Infections Clinic in British Columbia
Discussion While most participants thought an EHR was acceptable, a large minority expressed that they might avoid testing if their records were made part of a provincial EHR. The introduction of a provincial EHR should be considered with caution in STI healthcare settings to ensure that screening, case detection and treatment are not negatively impacted. (Source: Sexually Transmitted Infections)
Self-reported STIs and sexual health checks in a cross-sectional study of gay and bisexual men in New Zealand
Conclusions STIs are commonly reported in this community sample of MSM but will underestimate the true incidence due to asymptomatic infection. Screening for STIs outside sexual health clinics should be normalised for MSM and made accessible, safe and relevant. (Source: Sexually Transmitted Infections)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
After Venus, mercury: syphilis treatment in the UK before Salvarsan
At the beginning of the twentieth century, the treatment of syphilis varied substantially in the UK. Two of the commonly used treatments&mdash;mercury and bismuth&mdash;were often used for long durations, which prompted the public health warning, &lsquo;two minutes with Venus, two years with mercury&rsquo;.1 Beyond this variation in treatment, venereology itself was a topic taught to generalists rather than specialists.2 Moral condemnation attached to those with syphilis, whose illness was often considered self-inflicted. Patients themselves, fearful of public scrutiny and stigma, often turned to quacks rather than face public clinics. Because UK hospitals refused to treat diseases considered to be self-inflicted, venereal diseases such as syphilis were excluded from the National Health In...
Magic bullet: Paul Ehrlich, Salvarsan and the birth of venereology
In the years following its discovery, Salvarsan would have impacts far beyond that of syphilis treatment alone. Salvarsan's expansion would eventually reshape the broader landscape of venereal disease service delivery in the UK. In August 1913, Paul Ehrlich presented at the International Medical Congress in London,1 where he dazzled the medical community with his new cure.2 Prompted by the novelty of Ehrlich's magic bullet, Parliament passed a resolution enacting a new Royal Commission on Venereal Diseases charged with directing venereal disease (VD) policy in the UK. The new commissioners stated that &lsquo;there are good grounds for concluding that eradication of the spirochaete with complete cure, or a total absence of subsequent signs or symptoms of the disease in the majority of cases...
The magic bullet hits many targets: Salvarsan's impact on UK health systems, 1909-1943
The development of Salvarsan had a profound impact on venereal disease (VD) care in the UK. Administratively distinct from the general health system, the new system of VD care created by the Royal Commission provided diagnosis and treatment to all regardless of means. The government supplied three-quarters of the centres&rsquo; costs and provided Salvarsan free to general practitioners.1 Beyond shaping health systems, the growing importance of Salvarsan also prompted the creation of a new medical subspecialty: venereology, which emerged with its own specialist training track focused on diagnosing, treating and eventually preventing syphilis infection. By the end of 1917, 118 new VD clinics had opened and 204&nbsp;000 patients were evaluated.2 Syphilis screening increased after the developm...
A cure at last? Penicillin's unintended consequences on syphilis control, 1944-1964
In 1928, Alexander Fleming discovered the mould Penicillum notatum,1 setting the stage for the development of an entirely new syphilis cure. Initial problems with cultivation and isolation waylaid the research until it was taken on by the Oxford team of Howard Florey and Ernst Boris Chain.2 The first patient was treated in 1943 and within 12&nbsp;months over 10&nbsp;000 early syphilis patients had been treated.3 Several features of penicillin made its development significant. Unlike Salvarsan's, penicillin's organic effects were clear-cut and dramatic. As Salvarsan had shaped venereal disease control in the UK, the rollout of penicillin also transformed healthcare systems. The widespread use of penicillin was a major force behind historic decreases in reported syphilis cases. There was a 9...
The impact of penicillin on sexual healthcare delivery systems in mid-20th century Britain
Penicillin's introduction in 1943 as a simple, inexpensive cure for syphilis had notable influences on venereology and broader sexual healthcare systems. Foremost among these was the perception that venereal disease (VD) no longer posed a threat and therefore merited fewer resources for control. As the chairman of a regional hospital board replied, when asked about reconstructing a VD clinic in 1958: "We don't want to spend money on these dying diseases".1 While venereology had developed as a specialty in part because of Salvarsan, general practitioners could easily provide penicillin to patients. Thus, penicillin's success left some venereologists reflecting that they had worked themselves out of a profession. One noted:The British venereologist... may perhaps be compared with the fighter...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Cigarette Users' Interest in Using or Switching to Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems for Smokeless Tobacco for Harm Reduction, Cessation, or Novelty: A Cross-Sectional Survey of US Adults
Conclusions: This study highlights higher interest in ENDS versus smokeless tobacco and greater interest in both for harm reduction and cessation than due to novelty or smoking restrictions. Developing educational campaigns and informing practitioners about caveats around ENDS as cessation or harm reduction aids are critical. (Source: Nicotine and Tobacco Research)
Treatment initiation factors and cognitive outcome in youth with perinatally acquired HIV infection
ConclusionsEarlier age at HAART initiation and higher CPE score of a regimen did not improve cognitive outcomes. However, initiating HAART prior to AIDS protected against AIDS and was associated with a significantly higher FSIQ. (Source: HIV Medicine)
[Ecthyma gangrenosum associated with infection involving a methicillin-sensitive, Panton-Valentine-negative strain of Staphylococcus aureus.]
In this report, we present an extremely rare case of an EG caused by methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) infection. This case, highly characteristic of EG both clinically and histologically, calls into question the physiopathological mechanisms of the disease and provides a reminder that it may be caused by a variety of organisms. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A 62-year-old woman, followed for HIV seropositivity at the AIDS stage, developed a painful purpuric skin rash evolving towards necrotic nodules characteristic of ecthyma gangrenosum. Skin biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of EG due to methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) infection without toxins or bacteraemia. DISCUSSION: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case in the literature in which MSSA is reported...
[Correspondence] Political factors behind US global AIDS programmes slow-down
In 2011, following scientific evidence that confirmed antiretroviral therapy (ART) is among the most effective methods of preventing HIV transmission,1 US President Barack Obama announced a major policy shift to accelerate the end of the AIDS epidemic by substantially increasing support for HIV treatment in Africa. Between 2011, and 2013, the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) supported rapid treatment scale-up to get ahead of the epidemic, contributing to recent declines in new HIV infections. (Source: LANCET)
OHSU's Louis Picker homes in on HIV's hidden sanctuary
Dr. Louis Picker, the Oregon Health & Science University scientist who is working on an HIV vaccine, has reached a breakthrough an another front in the battle against AIDS. While Picker's previous research centered on preventive vaccines that could be given to healthy people, this latest research takes aim at finding a cure for those already infected. It's a much tougher challenge, he said. "What we've identified is a barrier to a cure that needs to be overcome," said Picker, associate director? (Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Biotechnology headlines)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Understanding the relationship between walking aids and falls in older adults: a prospective cohort study - Roman de Mettelinge T, Cambier D.
BACKGROUND:: A substantial proportion of older adults living in residential aged care facilities are use wheelchairs or walk with aids. The relationship between using walking aids and falling is somewhat inconsistent and poorly understood. PURPOSE:... (Source: SafetyLit: All (Unduplicated))
Ghana: UNAIDS and Partners Use Afcon 2015 to Promote the 'Protect the Goal' Campaign
[Ghana Govt.]According to the 2013 Global AIDS Program (GAP) Report of the United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), sub-Saharan Africa alone hosts 24.7 million of the world's 35 million people living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) including 2.1 million new infections, the youth being the most-affected. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Social Factors Tied To Risk for Detectable HIV in PregnancySocial Factors Tied To Risk for Detectable HIV in Pregnancy
Even with HAART, socially disadvantaged women are at higher risk for detectable HIV at delivery during a first pregnancy, a new study suggests. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Hiv-Aids Headlines)
Assessing the Discriminant Ability, Reliability, and Comparability of Multiple Short Forms of the Boston Naming Test in an Alzheimer's Disease Center Cohort
Conclusions: With the notable exception of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) 15-item BNT, short forms were internally consistent and highly correlated with the full version; these measures varied by diagnosis and generally improved from normal to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to dementia. All short forms retained the ability to discriminate between normal subjects and those with dementia. The ability to discriminate between normal and MCI subjects was less strong for the short forms than the full BNT, but they exhibited similar patterns. These results have important implications for researchers designing longitudinal studies, who must consider that the statistical properties of even closely related test forms may be quite different.Dement Geriatr Cogn...
Review of Otorrhea Microbiology: Is There a Pathogenic Role of Corynebacter?
Conclusion: Corynebacterium spp. may be underestimated in their potential to cause clinically significant otologic infections. Our results indicate a potential need for expanding surveillance for Corynebacterium spp. (Source: Otology and Neurotology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Cameroon: CAPEC Fighting to Alleviate the Impact of HIV/Aids
[Cameroon Tribune]Kumba (Meme Division) The Cameroon Association for the Protection and Education of the Child, CAPEC, has been carrying out voluntary HIV screening with her "Mobile Clinic" team in Kumba and Konye sub division. CAPEC has as objective to mobilize and empower 5000 families (about 25000 people) in Meme Division to lead the elimination of HIV/AIDS in their lives, that of their families and in their communities. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
HRSA: Statement of Organization, Functions and Delegations of Authority
This notice outlines changes in authority of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), including a naming change from the Division of Contract Services for HIV/AIDS, Health Professions, Rural Health and Grants Management to the Division of Population-Based Support. (Source: Federal Register updates via the Rural Assistance Center)
Hearing-aid intervention helps individuals gradually adjust to devices
(University of Missouri-Columbia) When individuals wear their hearing aids for the first time, they are flooded with sounds they have not heard in months or years. Ambient noises can be painful, irritating and difficult to ignore, causing some individuals to stop using their hearing aids right away. A University of Missouri researcher has developed an intervention that helps older adults gradually increase their hearing-aid use and satisfaction with the devices. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Fluorescent Cancer-Selective Alkylphosphocholine Analogs for Intraoperative Glioma Detection
CONCLUSION: CLR1501 (green) and CLR1502 (near infrared) are novel tumor-selective fluorescent agents for discriminating tumor from normal brain. CLR1501 exhibits a tumor-to-brain fluorescence ratio similar to that of 5-ALA, whereas CLR1502 has a superior tumor-to-brain fluorescence ratio. This study demonstrates the potential use of CLR1501 and CLR1502 in fluorescence-guided tumor surgery. ABBREVIATIONS: APC, alkylphosphocholine 5-ALA, 5-aminolevulinic acid GBM, glioblastoma multiforme GSC, glioblastoma stem cell GTR, gross total resection HGG, high-grade glioma PBS, phosphate-buffered solution PpIX, protoporphyrin IX T:N, tumor to normal brain (Source: Neurosurgery)
"The sky is the limit": adhering to antiretroviral therapy and HIV self-management from the perspectives of adolescents living with HIV and their adult caregivers.
CONCLUSIONS: These data highlight the importance of families and home environments in supporting adherence to ART among ALHIV. Skill-building and family-based interventions to prepare ALHIV and their adult caregivers for HIV self-management and HIV status disclosure by youth are of paramount importance. Future research and programmes also need to address the fears adolescents and families have regarding HIV-related stigma that shape young peoples' adherence behaviours. PMID: 25591915 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Paediatric HIV grows up: recent advances in perinatally acquired HIV
This review is an update focusing on the current status of paediatric HIV in the UK and Ireland. Successes in prevention of mother to child transmission are highlighted. The changing epidemiology of the UK cohort is summarised and the shift in emphasis of treatment guidelines beyond limiting short-term morbidity and mortality to ensuring optimal health status in adult life is discussed. Current and future challenges relating to an aging cohort, successful transition to adult services and the prospect of a lifetime on antiretroviral therapy (ART), as well as the possibility of ART-free survival are also considered. While numbers of HIV-infected children in the UK are now decreasing, lessons we have learned in the last 30&nbsp;years from this relatively small cohort are increasingly applicab...
Adherence in paediatric renal failure and dialysis: an ethical analysis of nurses' attitudes and reported practice
Minors have difficulty adhering to the strict management regimen required whilst on renal dialysis for chronic renal failure. This leads to ethical tensions as healthcare professionals (HCPs) and parents try, in the minor's best interests, to ensure s/he adheres. All 11 dialysis nurses working in a large, regional paediatric dialysis unit were interviewed about their perceptions and management of non-adherence and the ethical issues this raised for them. Participants reported negative attitudes to non-adherence alongside sympathy and feelings of frustration. They discussed the competing responsibilities between nurses, parents and minors, and how responsibility ought to be transferred to the minor as s/he matures; the need for minors to take responsibility ahead of transferring to adult se...
Baseline HIV-1 resistance, virological outcomes, and emergent resistance in the SECOND-LINE trial: an exploratory analysis
We report the relation of baseline virological resistance with virological failure and emergent resistance on study. Methods As part of the randomised open-label SECOND-LINE trial, second-line ART NtRTI selection was made by either genotype (local laboratory) or algorithm. Genotypic resistance for the entire cohort at baseline was assessed on stored samples at a central laboratory. Virological failure was defined as plasma viral load greater than 200 copies per mL. Baseline viral isolates were assigned genotypic sensitivity scores (GSSs) by use of the Stanford HIV Database version 6.3.1: a global GSS (gGSS), defined as the combined GSS for lamivudine or emtricitabine, abacavir, zidovudine, stavudine, didanosine, and tenofovir and a specific GSS (sGSS) defined as the GSS for the ART regime...
A Crusted Rash in a Patient With AIDS
(Source: JAMA)
Serum free light chains in patients with HIV infection: their association with markers of disease severity and antiretroviral use
Conclusions This study demonstrated that free light chain concentrations were significantly correlated with markers of HIV disease severity, suggesting ongoing B cell dysfunction despite ART use. Free light chain ratio was not significantly affected. (Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
EU Country Specific Recommendations for health systems in the European Semester process: Trends, Discourse and Predictors
The role of the European Union in relation to health systems and policies has been described in terms of three ?faces? [1]. First Article 168 of the Treaty [2] gives a basis for the EU to promote public health policies which is the longest established strand of health policy activity [3] and can be traced back to the initial vertical programmes on AIDs [4] and cancer [5] as well as activity in the realm of health information [6]. The second face refers to the role of the internal market in European health care policy. (Source: Health Policy)
?I Created Something New with Something that Had Died?: Photo-Narratives of Positive Transformation Among Women with HIV
Abstract A dearth of research describes the strengths of women living with HIV (WLH), yet understanding these strengths can promote women?s well-being and healthy behavior. This analysis explores positive life transformations among WLH through photo-stories. WLH (N = 30) from three U.S. cities participated in a pilot photovoice project to tell their story of HIV. The project included three group meetings, an individual interview, and a public exhibit. Using qualitative strategies of theme and narrative analysis we identified positive transformations in women?s photo-stories. Participants were African American (83 %) and low income (83 %). Women described four major positive transitions in their lives including transformations related to healthfulness, spirituality, self-ac...
Antiretrovirals for Primary HIV Prevention: the Current Status of Pre- and Post-exposure Prophylaxis
Abstract In light of the 2 million HIV infections that occur globally each year, there is a need to optimize strategies that integrate biomedical and behavioral approaches to HIV prevention. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) immediately after acute high-risk exposures and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for those who engage in recurrent high-risk behaviors are promising bio-behavioral approaches to decreasing HIV transmission. Guidelines have recommended PEP for occupational and non-occupational exposures for over 15 years, but uptake of PEP has been limited, partly as a result of insufficient awareness of this intervention among persons at highest risk for acquiring HIV. However, since the publication of large randomized clinical trials demonstrating the efficacy of PrEP, and the ...
Factors Associated With Lack of Viral Suppression at Delivery Among Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy-Naive Women With HIV: A Cohort Study.
CONCLUSION: A total of 13.1% of women who initiated HAART during pregnancy had detectable VL at delivery. The timing of HAART initiation and prenatal care, along with medication adherence during pregnancy, were associated with detectable VL at delivery. Social factors, including ethnicity and education, may help identify women who could benefit from focused efforts to promote early HAART initiation and adherence. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. PMID: 25599347 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Annals of Internal Medicine)
Local perturbation analysis: a computational tool for biophysical reaction-diffusion models.
Authors: Holmes WR, Mata MA, Edelstein-Keshet L Abstract Diffusion and interaction of molecular regulators in cells is often modeled using reaction-diffusion partial differential equations. Analysis of such models and exploration of their parameter space is challenging, particularly for systems of high dimensionality. Here, we present a relatively simple and straightforward analysis, the local perturbation analysis, that reveals how parameter variations affect model behavior. This computational tool, which greatly aids exploration of the behavior of a model, exploits a structural feature common to many cellular regulatory systems: regulators are typically either bound to a membrane or freely diffusing in the interior of the cell. Using well-documented, readily available bifurcatio...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
HIV-1 Proteins Tat and gp120 Target the Developing Dopaminergic System.
Authors: Fitting S, Booze RM, Mactutus CF Abstract The current global estimate of children (&lt; 15 years of age) living with HIV and AIDS is 3.2 million, with the 240,000 newly infected children in the past year, i.e., another child infected approximately every two minutes [1]. The primary mode of HIV infection is through mother-to-child transmission (MTCT), occurring either in utero, intrapartum, or during breastfeeding. The effects of HIV-1 on the brain are thought to be mediated, in part, through the viral proteins Tat and gp120. This review focuses on the targets of HIV-1 proteins in the developing DAergic system, which appears to be specifically susceptible in HIV-1 infected children. Collectively, the data suggest that the DA system is a clinically relevant target in chronic...
South, including N.C., has a lower HIV/AIDS survival rate than U.S.
Southern states ? including North Carolina ? have the lowest five-year survival rate among those diagnosed with HIV or AIDS in 2003-2004, according to new research conducted by Duke University and UNC-Chapel Hill. North Carolina has the third highest survival rate of the targeted states in the South, but still lower than the Unites States as a whole. In North Carolina, 15 percent of those diagnose with HIV and 26 percent of those diagnosed with AIDS do not survive. Both figures are higher than? (Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Biotechnology headlines)
Immune Reconstitution Syndrome in HIV InfectionImmune Reconstitution Syndrome in HIV Infection
This HIV+ patient undergoing HAART presented to the emergency room with weakness, headache, neck stiffness and fever. What was the diagnosis? Applied Radiology (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
Preconception Antiretroviral Therapy and Birth DefectsPreconception Antiretroviral Therapy and Birth Defects
Is HIV antiretroviral therapy taken before conception harmful to the fetus? AIDS (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
[Correspondence] Ebola: lessons learned from HIV and tuberculosis epidemics
Amidst concerns of Ebola virus disease becoming a pandemic, the global medical community has mounted a crucial response. As the director of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has said, ?we have to work now so this is not the world's next AIDS.?1 Although different from HIV/AIDS, we could apply lessons learned from the HIV and tuberculosis epidemics to address the Ebola crisis. This experience suggests four near-term objectives. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Kenya: HIV, TB in Adolescents Needs a Different Approach
[The Star]Do you remember that time when you had just passed thirteen years of age but were still below eighteen? You weren't technically an adult but neither were you a child. Your parents and relatives probably told you how 'now' you have become an adult and if you were a boy, that came with a certain sense of pride "You are now a man" but if you were a girl, the message was laced with caution, "You are now a woman, you have to be more careful." (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: Abalaka Offers Condition for HIV Vaccine After Court Stops Ban
[Daily Trust]Dr Jeremiah Abalaka, the man behind a controversial vaccine for HIV between 1999 and 2000, will only divulge recipe for his vaccine under a negotiated agreement, after a court ruled that federal government was wrong to ban it. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Malawi: Malawi Aids Commission Board Did Not Sanction Beam and Mulhakho Funding
[Malawi24]The National Aids Commission (NAC) board did not sanction the disbursement of funds to First Lady Gertrude Mutharika's Beautify Malawi Trust (Beam) and Mulhakho wa Alhomwe, Malawi24 has learnt. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: In a Converging World, Keep Talking
[Global Fund]The events in Paris last week captured the attention of the world, sparking sharp debate about freedom of expression, violence, the role of world religions, and what sometimes looks like a clash of cultures. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Nigeria: Court Legalises Abalaka's HIV Vaccine, 16 Years After
[This Day]Abuja -In a landmark judgement, 16 years after the federal government officially banned the use of HIV vaccines discovered by Dr Jeremiah Abalaka, a Federal High Court sitting in Makurdi, Benue State, has declared the ban illegal and inconsequential. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Southern Africa: SADC Welcomes Zim Single-Dose HIV Strategy
[Namibian]THE secretary general of the SADC Parliamentary Forum Dr Esau Chiviya has hailed the decision by Zimbabwe to adopt the single-tablet HIV dose, saying the country had shown leadership in the fight against the epidemic. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
South Africa: Strategy - Draft National Strategic Plan for HIV Prevention, Care and Treatment for Sex Workers
[Health-e]Released by the South African National AIDS Council (SANAC) on 12 January, this 49-page preliminary document outlines plans to, for instance, increase HIV and tuberculosis (TB) prevention, care and treatment among sex workers and families. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: I Will Release My HIV 'Vaccine' to Nigerian Government If ... - Abalaka
[Premium Times]Jeremiah Abalaka, a surgeon turned immunologist, who claimed to have developed a vaccine for the Human Immunodeficiency Virus, HIV, said he would only release his vaccine recipe to the Nigerian government under negotiated agreement. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: 16 Years After, Court Declares FG's Ban on Abalaka's HIV Vaccine Illegal
[This Day]In a landmark judgement, 16 years after the federal government officially banned the use of the HIV vaccines discovered by Dr. Jeremiah Abalaka, a Federal High Court sitting in Makurdi, Benue State, has declared the ban illegal and inconsequential. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Nigeria: Achieving Zero New HIV Infection Via Pmtct Strategy
[Independent (Lagos)]Nigeria, with an estimated population of 160 million, ranks second to South Africa in the factsheet on countries with people living with HIV and AIDS worldwide, representing nine percent of the global burden of the disease. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Incidence of primary hypertension in a population-based cohort of HIV-infected compared to non-HIV-infected persons and the effect of combined antiretroviral therapy
Literature remains scarce on the impact of antiretroviral medications on hypertension in the HIV population. We used South Carolina Medicaid database linked with the enhanced HIV/AIDS system surveillance database for 1994-2011 to evaluate incident hypertension and the impact of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in HIV/AIDS population compared a propensity matched non-HIV control group. Multivariable, time-dependent survival analysis suggested no significant difference in incidence of hypertension between HIV and non-HIV control group. (Source: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension)
Of the China Root: A Case Study of the Early Modern Circulation of Materia Medica
The early modern rise of syphilis provoked similar anxieties to those that more recently accompanied the global spread of HIV/AIDS. It also stimulated global demand for remedies. I discuss one of the most popular, known as &lsquo;China root&rsquo; and usually identified with various species of Smilax. The drug and instructions for its use were spread westward from China by traders of all nationalities from 1535 onwards. Demand became global before being largely replaced in Europe by supplies of various American Smilax species, known collectively as &lsquo;Sarsaparilla&rsquo;. I examine the economic, political and cultural dynamics of this process and draw from them some conclusions about the early modern drugs trade and its effects on medical thought. (Source: Social History of Medicine)
Perry N. Halkitis, The AIDS Generation: Stories of Survival and Resilience
(Source: Social History of Medicine)
Cognitive function in women with HIV: Findings from the Women's Interagency HIV Study
Conclusions: The effect of HIV on cognition in women is very small except among women with low reading level or HIV-related comorbidities. Direct comparisons of rates of impairment in well-matched groups of HIV-infected men and women are needed to evaluate possible sex differences in cognition. (Source: Neurology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cells transplantation and genetic modification of CCR5 m303/m303 mutant patient for HIV/AIDS
HIV and AIDS is one of the biggest challenges all over the world. There are an approximately 34 million people living with the virus, and a large number of them become infected each year. Although there are some antiviral drugs for HIV viral load reduction, they are not sufficient. There is no cure for AIDS. Nowadays natural resistance or immunity has absorbed attentions. Because in some HIV positive patients progression trend is slow or even they indicate resistance to AIDS. One of the most interesting approaches in this category is CCR5 gene. (Source: Medical Hypotheses)
Zimbabwe: Aids Treatment Paralysed Us, Patients
[New Zimbabwe]HUNDREDS of people who were taking the first line of AIDS treatment have suffered irreversible side effects which have left some paralysed, an AIDS activist organisation has said. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Zimbabwe: Zimbabwe's Children Are the Battlefield in War to Contain HIV/Aids
[IPS]Harare -Fifty-one-year-old Mateline Msipa is living with HIV. Her 17-year-old daughter, born after Msipa was diagnosed with the virus, may also have it, but she has never been tested. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Zimbabwe: Children Are the Battlefield in War to Contain HIV/Aids
[IPS]Harare -Fifty-one-year-old Mateline Msipa is living with HIV. Her 17-year-old daughter, born after Msipa was diagnosed with the virus, may also have it, but she has never been tested. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) practitioners? readiness for tobacco intervention training: Development and psychometric properties of a new measure
Conclusions CAM RTTI assessed three factors that can be critical to implementing effective tobacco intervention trainings for a CAM practitioner: (1) current tobacco intervention activity, (2) motivation/confidence and (3) comfort with non-CAM interventions. Moreover, it assessed these factors using language appropriate to CAM practitioners, providing the first measure, to our knowledge, specific to the development of tobacco intervention training for this group. (Source: Advances in Integrative Medicine)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
The Association of the Rapid Assessment of Supervision Scale Score and Unintentional Childhood Injury.
This study was a secondary analysis of data from a case-crossover study, which examined the association of parental supervision and unintentional injury in children. Data on supervision characteristics for 3 time periods for each child were available, that is, one injury scenario and two "control" time periods when no injury occurred. Blinded to injury status, four raters independently evaluated adequacy of supervision in 132 supervision scenarios using the RASS. The individual RASS scores of the four raters and the group (mean) RASS score of the four raters were evaluated for associations with injury status. Individual scores from three of the four raters demonstrated significant associations of increasing RASS scores with injury. Increasing group RASS scores (odds ratio = 2.8; 95% confid...
Giant molluscum contagiosum: An unusual presenting complaint of paediatric HIV disease.
We report a widely disseminated, disfiguring facial molluscum contagiosum (MC) as a presenting complaint in an 11-year-old girl secondary to human immune-deficiency virus infection. A biopsy specimen demonstrated lobulated epidermal growth consisting of keratinocytes with large intracytoplasmic eosinophilic inclusion bodies. The patient was treated with highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). The extent of MC in our patient was remarkable and subsequently improved dramatically after starting HAART. Normally MC does not similarly respond in patients with AIDS. PMID: 25601890 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Tropical Doctor)
Incidence of Herpes Zoster in HIV-Infected Adults in the Combined Antiretroviral Therapy Era: Results From the FHDH-ANRS CO4 Cohort.
CONCLUSIONS: ?The risk of HZ has declined markedly among HIV-infected patients in the cART era, but remains 3 times higher than in the general population. The risk increases moderately during the first 6 months of cART. PMID: 25601456 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Herpes)
Jason Patrick Set To Host The 'Big Love Weekend' To Benefit God's Love We Deliver
In 2013, Jason Patrick, who is affectionately known by many as Bearded Yogi, held a birthday party that doubled as a fundraiser for God's Love We Deliver, an organization that cooks and delivers meals to over 5,000 people each year in the New York City metropolitan area who are too sick to shop or cook for themselves. A year later, Patrick's birthday party morphed into a full-on celebrity-studded event called Big Love Weekend dedicated to help raise awareness and funds for God's Love We Deliver. For 2015, the yoga teacher, who was diagnosed with HIV in 2011 and, according to a press release, "became involved with God?s Love We Deliver after becoming a witness to those that were homebound and too sick to feed themselves," is aiming even higher. (Photo above: Jason Patrick with Parker P...
Long-term Safety and Efficacy of Atazanavir-based Therapy in HIV-infected Infants, Children and Adolescents: The Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 1020A
Conclusions: Use of once-daily ATV, with/without RTV, was safe and well tolerated in children, with acceptable levels of viral suppression and CD4 count increase. The primary AE, as expected, was an increase in bilirubin levels. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Elder Women as Agents of Change
When you picture a traditional African grandmother, you probably see a woman who is caring but feeble, ever-present to provide her guidance and unconditional love. But it is not often that elder women are viewed as vital agents of social change. In 2010, while on a study abroad in South Africa, I met a group of grannies who transformed how I viewed advocacy and social change. Founded in 2001 by a group of ten South African elder women in Khayelitsha township, Grandmothers Against Poverty and AIDS (GAPA) is a grassroots organization aimed at decreasing poverty and AIDS in the surrounding communities, where some estimates suggest that over 27 percent of adults are HIV positive.[1] The organization now boasts over 300 grandmother members. These elder activist women have shaped me both p...
Qualitative study on the socio-cultural determinants of care of children orphaned by AIDS in the Ashanti and Eastern regions of Ghana
Conclusion: It is recommended that though some cultural and traditional practices are deeply rooted in communities and cannot be done away completely, orphan care policies on interventions should take into account these factors to mitigate their effects on the care of orphans. (Source: BioMed Central)
Battle Heats Up Over Legalisation of Sex Work in India
The view from a red-light district in India, where some three million sex workers are caught in the middle of a debate on legalisation. Credit: bengarrison/CC-BY-SA-2.0By Neeta LalNEW DELHI, Jan 16 2015 (IPS)Thirty-six-year-old Chameli Devi, a sex worker operating out of New Delhi&#8217;s G.B. Road &#8211; Asia&#8217;s largest red-light district, housing an estimated 12,000 of India?s three million sex workers ? is an unhappy woman these days.A contentious debate over the sex trade in India, following a call for legalisation by the National Commission for Women (NCW) ? a state-run body that advises the government on women-related policy matters ? has Devi worried.?In wealthier countries, many women genuinely choose this trade due to better income prospects and opportunities. But ...
Illustration of a Measure to Combine Viral Suppression and Viral Rebound in Studies of HIV Therapy
Abstract: Viral load is an important tool for assessing antiretroviral treatment efficacy. However, the most common viral load end point, virologic failure, may be flawed. We illustrate an alternative end point that estimates the average time patients spent suppressed before rebound in the AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5095 trial. Patients averaged 644 days suppressed in the 3-drug arm and 686 days suppressed in the 4-drug arm, for a difference of 42 days in favor of the 4-drug regimen (95% confidence interval: ?11 to 96). These results agree with results using virologic failure as the end point but better emphasize the separate suppression and rebound processes. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Monitoring Outcomes for Newly Diagnosed and Prevalent HIV Cases Using a Care Continuum Created With New York City Surveillance Data
Conclusions: A minority of persons newly diagnosed with HIV and a narrow majority of PWHA achieved viral suppression and all intermediate care-related steps. Outcomes measured independently of previous care-related steps were higher, particularly for newly diagnosed persons. To improve outcomes among persons with HIV and reduce transmissibility, clinical and public health efforts should focus on linkage to care among newly diagnosed persons and viral suppression among PWHA. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Efficacy of Second-Line Antiretroviral Therapy Among People Living With HIV/AIDS in Asia: Results From the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database
Conclusions: Increased access to viral load monitoring to facilitate early detection of first-line ART failure and subsequent treatment switch is important for maximizing the durability of second-line therapy in Asia. Although second-line ART is highly effective in the region, the reported rate of failure emphasizes the need for third-line ART in a small portion of patients. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Rates and Correlates of Antiretroviral Therapy Use and Virologic Suppression Among Perinatally and Behaviorally HIV-Infected Youth Linked to Care in the United States
Conclusions: There are continued challenges with successfully treating youth even once diagnosed and linked to HIV care. Strategies targeting barriers to ART access, use, and virologic suppression are needed to optimize the impact of the ?Treatment as Prevention? paradigm among PIY and BIY. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Pharmacological Interactions Between Rifampicin and Antiretroviral Drugs: Challenges and Research Priorities for Resource-Limited Settings
Abstract: Coadministration of antituberculosis and antiretroviral therapy is often inevitable in high-burden countries where tuberculosis (TB) is the most common opportunistic infection associated with HIV/AIDS. Concurrent use of rifampicin and many antiretroviral drugs is complicated by pharmacokinetic drug?drug interactions. Rifampicin is a very potent enzyme inducer, which can result in subtherapeutic antiretroviral drug concentrations. In addition, TB drugs and antiretroviral drugs have additive (pharmacodynamic) interactions as reflected in overlapping adverse effect profiles. This review provides an overview of the pharmacological interactions between rifampicin-based TB treatment and antiretroviral drugs in adults living in resource-limited settings. Major progress has been made t...
Mucocutaneous Manifestations of HIV and the Correlation with WHO Clinical Staging in a Tertiary Hospital in Nigeria.
Authors: Oninla OA Abstract Skin diseases are indicators of HIV/AIDS which correlates with WHO clinical stages. In resource limited environment where CD4 count is not readily available, they can be used in assessing HIV patients. The study aims to determine the mucocutaneous manifestations in HIV positive patients and their correlation with WHO clinical stages. A prospective cross-sectional study of mucocutaneous conditions was done among 215 newly diagnosed HIV patients from June 2008 to May 2012 at adult ART clinic, Wesley Guild Hospital Unit, OAU Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ilesha, Osun State, Nigeria. There were 156 dermatoses with oral/oesophageal/vaginal candidiasis (41.1%), PPE (24.4%), dermatophytic infections (8.9%), and herpes zoster (3.8%) as the most common dermatoses. ...
HBV and HCV Coinfection among HIV/AIDS Patients in the National Hospital of Tropical Diseases, Vietnam.
Conclusion. Coinfection with viral hepatitis is common in HIV patients; further study of the impact and evolution of coinfection is necessary to find effective treatment algorithms. PMID: 25580287 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Closing eyes 'aids memory recall'
Closing your eyes when trying to recall events increases the chances of accuracy, researchers at the University of Surrey suggest. (Source: BBC News | Health | UK Edition)
Medication supply for people evacuated during disasters
This article is based on a systematic literature review on medication loss, the objectives of which were to identify the extent and implications of medication loss, to identify the burden of prescription refill, and to make recommendations on effective preparedness. The review revealed that medication loss, prescription loss and refills, and the loss of medical aids are a significant burden on the medical relief teams. The medical aids are not limited to drugs, but include routine medications, medical/allergy records, devices for specific care and daily life, and emergency medications. One possible solution is to make a personal emergency pack and for people to carry this with them at all times. To ensure that patients are adequately prepared, stakeholders, especially health professionals,...
Crystallographic studies of pharmacological sites in pentameric ligand-gated ion channels
Conclusions This review illustrates the wealth of structural insight gained by comparing all available structures of members of the pLGIC family to rationalize the pharmacology of structurally diverse drugs acting at topographically distinct sites. It will be highlighted how sites that had been described earlier using biochemical techniques can be rationalized using structural data. Surprisingly, the use of icosahedral symmetry allows to link together several modulation sites, in a way that was totally unanticipated. General Significance Overall, understanding the interplay between the different modulation sites at the structural level should help the design of future drugs targeting pLGICs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled structural biochemistry and biophysics of membran...
NIH Grantees Overcome Hurdle to Kill HIV-Infected Cells Brought Out of Hiding
"A major obstacle to curing people of HIV infection is the way the virus hides in a reservoir primarily of dormant immune cells called resting memory CD4+ T cells. One potential approach to curing HIV infection is to awaken these latent CD4+ T cells so they start making HIV proteins. This would alert the immune system that the cells are infected, and, in theory, generate an immune response that kills them. It has been unclear, however, whether typical immune mechanisms for killing virally infected cells would eliminate HIV-infected CD4+ T cells awakened from the HIV reservoir." &nbsp; To learn more about this study, view the NIAID news release.&nbsp; (Source: AIDSinfo At-a-Glance: Offering Information on HIV/AIDS Treatment, Prevention, and Research, A Service of the U.S. Department of Heal...
New CDC Fact Sheet and Slide Set on HIV Care Continuum Available
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recently published a new "Understanding the HIV Care Continuum" fact sheet and "HIV Care Continuum for the United States and Puerto Rico" slide set. The HIV care continuum is the series of steps from the time a person is diagnosed with HIV through the successful treatment of their infection with HIV medications. The fact sheet and slide set provide information and statistics on the continuum, including how CDC monitors the continuum. (Source: AIDSinfo At-a-Glance: Offering Information on HIV/AIDS Treatment, Prevention, and Research, A Service of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS))<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Incidence and Long-term Outcomes of the Human Immunodef?ciency Virus Neuroretinal Disorder in Patients with AIDS
The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence, incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of HIV neuroretinal disorder. (Source: Ophthalmology)
A clinicopathological cohort study of liver pathology in 301 patients with HIV/AIDS
Conclusion: In a high HIV burden area, drug induced liver injury due to antiretroviral therapy and cotrimoxazole, was a frequent clinicopathological finding. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was the leading opportunistic infection with more than half of patients fulfilling criteria for tuberculosis immune reconstitution syndrome. Liver biopsy remains a useful diagnostic procedure in this setting. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Hepatology)
Highly cold?active pectinases under wine?like conditions from non?Saccharomyces yeasts for enzymatic production during winemaking
This study demonstrates that cold?active pectinases from some A. pullulans strains were able to remain active at glucose, ethanol and SO2 concentrations usually found in vinification, and suggests their potential use as processing aids for low?temperature winemaking. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Letters in Applied Microbiology)
Long-acting drug effectively prevents HIV-like infection in monkeys
Because cabotegravir would require only one injection every three months, researchers hope this new drug, which has begun clinical testing, could improve some patients? ability to take HIV prevention medication properly. More &#187; (Source: The Rockefeller University Newswire)
South Africa: Sex and HIV in a Time of Criminalisation
[Daily Maverick]A plan on HIV in the sex work industry is due for release, and as stakeholders met this week to discuss issues affecting workers, the issue of legalisation was brought back on the agenda. For one Johannesburg sex worker, it's a crucial discussion, "because it's work, because we support families." (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Southern Africa: The Impact of Stigma On Healthcare Workers Living With HIV
[Key Correspondents]Owen Nyaka -As she settles in her chair, Nomsa quickly scans the unfamiliar faces in the group and asks who her interpreter will be. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: The Final Push for HIV in New Global Development Agenda
[Key Correspondents]With the mega-issues of poverty, hunger, health, education and global warming challenging the global community, HIV activists often struggle to be heard. But 2015, is not the year to take a back seat. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Review of Otorrhea Microbiology: Is There a Pathogenic Role of Corynebacter?
ConclusionCorynebacterium spp. may be underestimated in their potential to cause clinically significant otologic infections. Our results indicate a potential need for expanding surveillance for Corynebacterium spp. (Source: Otology and Neurotology)
Prevalence of opportunistic infections in HIV-positive patients in Bahrain: a four-year review (2009-2013)
Conclusions: Studying the pattern of OIs in HIV-infected patients in Bahrain is of paramount importance due to the scarcity of data in the Arab world. This will help to improve physicians? awareness to improve care of HIV-infected patients. (Source: The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries)
Mental health issues may increase HIV risk among gay, bisexual men
(Reuters Health) - Gay and bisexual men are at increased risk of acquiring the virus that leads to AIDS if they have mental health problems, according to a new study. (Source: Reuters: Health)
Novel Interventions to Prevent HIV and HCV Among Persons Who Inject Drugs
Abstract Persons who inject drugs (PWID) are at high risk for infection with and poor outcomes from HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV). Well-established interventions for HIV/HCV prevention among PWID include syringe access, opioid agonist maintenance treatment, and supervised injection facilities, yet these interventions remain unavailable or inadequately resourced in much of the world. We review recent literature on biomedical and behavioral interventions to reduce the burden of HIV/HCV among PWID, with an emphasis on randomized controlled trials and quasi-experimental studies. Since 2013, there have been significant advancements in utilizing antiviral therapy and behavioral interventions for prevention among PWID, including approaches that address the unique needs of couples and s...
HIV?associated disseminated histoplasmosis in western French Guiana, 2002?2012
We describe the clinical and paraclinical presentation of DH, diagnostic tools, evolution and factors associated with 1?year mortality in HIV?infected patients from western French Guiana. Microbiologically proven AIDS?related DH in Saint Laurent du Maroni's hospital between May 2002 and May 2012 were retrospectively included. Among the 82 patients included, 58 (71%) were male, 44 (53%) presented concurrent histoplasmosis and HIV diagnosis and 63 (80%) had a CD4 cell count under 50 cells ?L?1. Almost all patients had weight loss (97%) and fever (95%), while 84% had digestive symptoms (63% diarrhoea), 55% lymphadenopathy, and 49% respiratory symptoms. Documented and presumed locations of H. capsulatum var capsulatum (Hcc) concerned almost all organs, with a particular affinity for ...
Informed consent for HIV cure research in South Africa: issues to consider
DiscussionNews that the "Berlin patient" and the "Mississippi baby" have both been "cured" of HIV brought hope to people living with HIV/AIDS in South Africa that a cure for HIV/AIDS is within reach. Despite the recent setbacks announced in the "Mississippi Baby" case, protocols aimed at curing HIV/AIDS are being developed in South Africa. However with evidence to suggest that participants in clinical trials do not understand the basic concepts in the informed consent process, there is concern that future participants in HIV/AIDS cure research will lack comprehension of the basic elements of future clinical trials that aims to cure HIV/AIDS and confuse research with clinical care.SummaryResearch ethics committees have an important role to play in ensuring that participants understand the b...
Understanding the Relationship Between Walking Aids and Falls in Older Adults: A Prospective Cohort Study.
CONCLUSIONS:: Using walking aids is a risk factor for future falls among the older population living in residential settings. A substantial proportion of the relationship between walking aids and future falls could be explained by an altered spatiotemporal gait pattern, increased age, and psychotropic drug intake. This finding supports the aim of extensive training periods and appropriate instructions on the proper use of walking aids in terms of adequate and safe gait patterns. PMID: 25594520 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Physical Therapy)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Know your foe: lessons from the analysis of tsetse fly behaviour.
Authors: Torr SJ, Vale GA Abstract The emergence of new vector-borne diseases requires new methods of vector control. These diseases are often zoonoses associated with wilderness areas, and established methods of vector control used in domestic settings (e.g., indoor-residual spraying, insecticide-treated bednets) are therefore inappropriate. Similar difficulties are also emerging with the control of 'old' vector-borne diseases such as malaria. Understanding the host-finding behaviour of vectors assists the development and application of control methods and aids the understanding of epidemiology. Some general lessons are illustrated by reference to a century of research on the host-finding behaviour of tsetse flies which transmit trypanosomes causing human and animal trypanosomiase...
Swaziland: Swaziland Aims for Malaria Elimination
[Global Fund]Mbabane -The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria and the Kingdom of Swaziland have strengthened their partnership by signing a new grant to support the elimination of malaria in the country by the end of 2015 with World Health Organisation certification by 2020. (Source: AllAfrica News: Malaria)
Namibia: Wilful Transmission of HIV Remains a Concern
[Namibian]IN the wake of the collective fight against the HIV-AIDS pandemic, wilful transmission of the virus continues to be a growing problem. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Kenya: HIV+ Mothers Enlisted As Mentors in Campaign
[Capital FM]Nairobi -Emily* was diagnosed with the HIV virus in 2001. She was seven months pregnant with her second child at the time and discovered her status during mandatory testing on a routine visit to the clinic. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Reclaiming fertility awareness methods to inform timed intercourse for HIV serodiscordant couples attempting to conceive.
CONCLUSIONS: FAMs provide effective, economical and accessible options for HIV serodiscordant couples to conceive while minimizing unnecessary viral exposure. It is important for health care providers to initiate conversations about fertility desires in HIV-positive couples and to educate identified couples on safer conception strategies. PMID: 25579801 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Improved identification and enrolment into care of HIV-exposed and -infected infants and children following a community health worker intervention in Lilongwe, Malawi.
CONCLUSIONS: A multipronged approach utilizing CHWs to conduct HIV testing, link HIC into care and provide support to PMTCT mothers can dramatically improve the identification and enrolment into care of HIV-exposed and -infected children. PMID: 25571857 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Participation in debate: a qualitative assessment of the andalusian plan for HIV/AIDS
This paper aims to analyze the perspectives and meanings of social participation for the participants in a health program. A qualitative evaluation was conducted on the Andalusian Program against HIV/Aids and other sexually transmitted infections. The participants were selected through a theoretic sample: 20 HIV carriers, 19 representatives and volunteers from anti HIV associations and six administrative representatives. The information was obtained through semi-structured interviews and triangle groups; content analysis was performed. Participation has different meanings to the participant groups. HIV carriers consider it should be accomplished by communication mechanisms, support and prevention; association members consider it a right and a tool to change health policies, while two conce...
Diverse HIV epidemics among People Who Inject Drugs in Thailand: Evidence from respondent-driven sampling surveys in Bangkok and Chiang Mai
Since the late 1980s, people who inject drugs (PWID) have been tracked as a key population in annual national HIV sentinel surveillance prevalence surveys conducted by the Thailand Ministry of Public Health (MOPH). These surveys have shown that HIV seroprevalence remained high at 30-50% over the last two decades (Brown et al., 1994; Thai National AIDS Committee, 2014). However, participants in these surveys have been recruited exclusively from drug treatment centers where the main service is methadone treatment for opiate users. (Source: Drug and Alcohol Dependence)
Performance of the QuantiFERON-TB Gold Interferon Gamma Release Assay among HIV-Infected Children in Botswana
Interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs) are poorly studied in HIV-infected children. The authors prospectively evaluated QuantiFERON-TB Gold results and family-described tuberculosis (TB) risk factors in 100 HIV-infected children in Botswana. Median age was 10.2 years; 58 were girls, 92 had received the Bacillus Calmette&ndash;Gu&eacute;rin (BCG) vaccine, 98 were receiving antiretroviral therapy, and the median body mass index was 15.8 kg/m2. Eighty-nine children had undetectable viral loads and the median CD4 count was 962 cells/mm3. Eighteen children had been treated for TB in the last 3 years. In the last 3 years, 36 (including 9 with TB) had contact with persons with TB (26 within/15 outside the home and 5 had &gt;1 contact). In all, 96 children had negative IGRAs, 3 were indeterminate...
Parks as a Tool for HIV Management
Access to parks improves overall health outcomes in the general population. Given that HIV infection has become a chronic disease to manage, among populations engaged in medical care, parks may be promoted as physical activity opportunities in order to manage chronic comorbid conditions. We conducted a cross-sectional examination of the relationships between sociodemographic and biomedical characteristics to park proximity among 635 individuals receiving outpatient HIV care. The data collected included HIV-related biomarkers, depression, and diagnoses of other chronic diseases. The total acres of parks an individual is exposed within one-quarter mile from their home were assessed. The cohort included 635 individuals (67% men, 73% black, and 21% white, mean age 42 years). Unemployment was n...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Rate of and Predicting Factors for Virologic Failure in HIV-Infected Patients with Persistent Low-Level Viremia under Antiretroviral Therapy
To determine the rate of and predicting factors for virologic failure among HIV-infected patients with persistent low-level viremia (PLV) under antiretroviral therapy (ART), a retrospective cohort study was conducted among HIV-infected patients who experienced PLV under ART. Persistent low-level viremia was defined as HIV RNA level at 50 to 1000 copies/mL for at least 2 consecutive visits. Of 68 patients, mean &plusmn; standard deviation age was 35.2 &plusmn; 9.0 years and 64.7% were males. Median (interquartile range [IQR]) CD4 count was 94 (26-264) cells/mm3 and baseline HIV RNA was 112 000 (1 090-461 500) copies/mL. During the median (IQR) follow-up period of 5.7 (3.4-10.3) years of ART, the rate of virologic failure was 38.2%. In multivariate analyses, only maximum amplitude of HIV RNA...
Plasmoblastic Lymphoma as Cause of Perianal Fistula: A Case Report and Literature Review
We report the case of a 33-year-old HIV-infected man who presented with a recurrent, nonhealing perianal fistula. After multiple benign biopsies, the diagnosis of plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) eventually was made. The patient underwent chemotherapy and radiation with a complete response. Perianal fistulas are frequent in HIV-positive patients, but PBL as a cause is extremely rare. This often delays the diagnosis and treatment of this highly aggressive disease. We review the literature and discuss the pitfalls in the diagnosis and management of the disease. (Source: Journal of the International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care (JIAPAC))
Bacillary Angiomatosis Masquerading as Kaposi's Sarcoma in East Africa
Conclusions: These 3 cases, to our knowledge, are the first reports of BA in East Africa in the biomedical literature. Each had been originally incorrectly diagnosed as KS. We speculate BA is underdiagnosed and underreported in resource-poor regions, such as sub-Saharan Africa, that have high endemic rates of HIV infection. (Source: Journal of the International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care (JIAPAC))
Racial Differences in the Accuracy of Perceived Partner HIV Status among Men who have Sex with Men (MSM) in Atlanta, Georgia
We compared perceptions of partner HIV status to HIV test results in a cross-sectional study of sexual networks of men who have sex with men (MSM) in Atlanta. We then examined differences between black and white MSM in the predictive value of perceived partner status. We recruited men ("seeds") using time-space venue sampling. These seeds then referred up to three partners, who could also refer partners. All participants reported sexual behavior and HIV status for recent partners and received HIV tests. For partners who enrolled, we compared laboratory diagnoses to their partner&rsquo;s perception of their status. Black MSM who perceived themselves to be HIV negative were more likely than perceived-negative white MSM to have a positive partner among those they perceived to be HIV negative ...
Medical Risks and Benefits of Newborn Male Circumcision in the United States: Physician Perspectives
Conclusions: In 2008, only about one-third of the physicians surveyed thought that the benefits of male circumcision outweighed the risks and recommended it to parents of newborn sons. These attitudes may be relevant to the declining circumcision rates in the United States. Repeat surveys may be useful, given the new AAP and ACOG recommendations. (Source: Journal of the International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care (JIAPAC))<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Characteristics and Follow-up of Newly Managed HIV-Infected Patients in the National Referral Center in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
Conclusion: Laboratory tests and highly active antiretroviral therapy make the management of patients easier, but a majority of them still presented late and were still lost to follow-up. Nevertheless, we have excellent treatment success. (Source: Journal of the International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care (JIAPAC))
Identifying Subgroups of Care Providers Participating in a Telehealth Educational Intervention: Hierarchical Cluster Analysis of Evaluation Data
Conclusion: Methodological contributions of the study are discussed. (Source: Journal of the International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care (JIAPAC))
The Acute Care Physical Therapy HIV/AIDS Patient Population: A Descriptive Study
This study was based on an analysis of an existing database compiled from 475 medical records of people living with HIV/AIDS admitted to an acute-care hospital in New York City in 2004. The characteristics of patients with HIV infection that received physical therapy were determined. Differences between patients with HIV infection that did and did not receive physical therapy, as well as predictors of receipt of physical therapy, were identified. The physical therapy subgroup (n = 69) had a mean age of 48.3 years, consisted of more men than women, and was predominately black, with public health insurance. Admissions were commonly due to non-AIDS-defining illness as the primary diagnoses, accompanied by several comorbidities. Admissions often presented with functional deficits, incurred a p...
Adherence among Rural HIV-Infected Patients in the Deep South: A Comparison between Single-Tablet and Multi-Tablet Once-Daily Regimens
Conclusion: Treatment-experienced patients enrolled in ADAP are less likely to be adherent. A QD PI-based MTR may result in comparable adherence to an STR in a rural HIV-infected population. (Source: Journal of the International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care (JIAPAC))
Lack of Knowledge about Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission Prevention in Pregnant Women at Tijuana General Hospital, Baja California, Mexico
The objective of this study was to identify determinants of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) knowledge regarding mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) among pregnant women at Tijuana General Hospital, Baja California, Mexico. Between March and November 2003, patients from the prenatal care (n = 1294) and labor and delivery (L&D) units (n = 495) participated in a cross-sectional study to measure HIV knowledge. Less than one-third (30%) knew that HIV could be transmitted to a child during delivery, and 36% knew that HIV could be transmitted by breast-feeding. Only 27% knew that an MTCT could be prevented. Prenatal patients were more likely to know that MTCT was preventable (prenatal: 31% versus L&D 25%; P = .02). Logistic regression indicated that prenatal patients (odds ratio = 1.49...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Time for Option B+? Prevalence and Characteristics of HIV Infection among Attendees of 2 Antenatal Clinics in Buea, Cameroon
As countries consider a wider use of triple antiretroviral therapy (ART) in pregnancy, which in recent World Health Organization guidelines is called Option B+, this study sought to explore the potential implications of adopting Option B+ by characterizing HIV infection in pregnant women attending 2 semiurban antenatal clinics in Cameroon. In a descriptive cross-sectional study, consenting women were screened for HIV; positive samples were confirmed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test, and CD4 levels and HIV viral loads were determined using flow cytometry and reverse transcription&ndash;polymerase chain reaction, respectively. The seroprevalence of HIV in the 407 pregnant women screened was 8.4% (95% confidence interval: 5.9%-11.5%). The majority (82.4%) of HIV-positive women ...
HIV Treatment as Prevention in Jamaica and Barbados: Magic Bullet or Sustainable Response?
This discursive article introduces HIV treatment as prevention (TasP) and identifies various models for its extrapolation to wider population levels. Drawing on HIV surveillance data for Jamaica and Barbados, the article identifies significant gaps in HIV response programming in relation to testing, antiretroviral treatment coverage, and treatment adherence, thereby highlighting the disparity between assumptions and prerequisites for TasP success. These gaps are attributable, in large part, to sociocultural impediments and structural barriers, severe resource constraints, declining political will, and the redefinition of HIV as a manageable, chronic health issue. Antiretroviral treatment and TasP can realize success only within a combination prevention frame that addresses structural facto...
Revitalizing Condom-Centered HIV Prevention Strategies
Abstract HIV infection rates remain steady in the USA despite the numerous prevention programs and tools available. Condoms play a central role in HIV prevention because they are highly effective, readily available, and affordable. Unfortunately, condom promotion efforts often incite fear as a motive force, while also taking the common ?one-size-fits-all? approach. Reframing condom promotion through a sexual health framework, focusing on pleasure and highlighting condom fit issues, improves intervention efficacy. Condom distribution policies may further perpetuate condom users? difficulty, by withholding particular condom styles, brands, and information highlighting the nuances in shape, size, and material. Condom education and distribution practices focused on pleasure, pro...
Bioinformatics and HIV Latency
Abstract Despite effective treatment, HIV is not completely eliminated from the infected organism because of the existence of viral reservoirs. A major reservoir consists of infected resting CD4+ T cells, mostly of memory type, that persist over time due to the stable proviral insertion and a long cellular lifespan. Resting cells do not produce viral particles and are protected from viral-induced cytotoxicity or immune killing. However, these latently infected cells can be reactivated by stochastic events or by external stimuli. The present review focuses on novel genome-wide technologies applied to the study of integration, transcriptome, and proteome characteristics and their recent contribution to the understanding of HIV latency. (Source: Current HIV/AIDS Reports)
The financial and service implications of splitting fixed-dose antiretroviral drugs - a case study
In 2010/2011, regional commissioners withdrew payment for the fixed-dose combination Combivir, forcing a switch to component drugs. This was deemed clinically acceptable and annual savings of &pound;44 k expected. We estimated the true costs of switching and examined patient outcomes. Information for 46 patients using Combivir was extracted from case notes for each clinical contact in the 12 months pre- and post-switch (clinician seen, tests, antiretrovirals). Post-switch care costs &pound;93/patient more annually versus pre-switch (95% CI &pound;424 to &pound;609), yielding &pound;4278/year more post-switch for all patients. Drug and pathology costs were more expensive post-switch and extra clinical visits required. None of these results were statistically significant. Forty-two per cent ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Prevalence of antibodies against Treponema pallidum among HIV-positive patients in a tertiary care hospital in Mexico
Our objective was to determine the seroprevalence of syphilis among HIV-infected patients in a tertiary care hospital in Mexico City. A cross-sectional study was developed, and 318 HIV-positive patients were evaluated from January to February 2013 at Hospital de Infectolog&iacute;a, National Medical Center &lsquo;La Raza&rsquo; (a tertiary care hospital specialising in infectious diseases in Mexico City). Laboratory data were screened for the detection of antibodies against Treponema pallidum. Patients completed a questionnaire relating to socio-demographic data and factors associated with syphilis. Of the 318 patients, 83% were men. The mean age &plusmn; SD was 36 &plusmn; 11 years; 52% were men who have sex with men and 47% had undertaken higher education. The overall seroprevalence of s...
Medical care following multiple perpetrator sexual assault: A retrospective review
This paper describes the healthcare needs of victims of multiple perpetrator sexual assault (MPSA) and single perpetrator sexual assault (SPSA) presenting to the Haven sexual assault referral centre in south-east London, and aims to identify any characteristics that might be related to attendance at follow-up appointments. We reviewed standardised casenotes of 136 MPSA victims and 139 SPSA victims attending for forensic medical examination (FME) between 1 July 2005 and 31 July 2009. MPSA victims reported a higher rate of stranger assaults, higher rates of vaginal, anal and oral rapes, more rapes at multiple anatomical sites or multiple rapes and were more likely to sustain injuries, all of which put MPSA victims at higher risk of subsequent health problems. Rates of attendance at follow-up...
Determination of the influence of home delivery of HIV therapy on virological outcomes and adherence
This study suggests that expanding home delivery as a model of care in London HIV clinics is safe and does not affect adherence and patient outcomes as indicated by HIV viral load and CD4%. (Source: International Journal of STD and AIDS)
The effectiveness of an education intervention to prevent chlamydia infection among Greenlandic youth
The purpose of this study was to implement a sexual health behavioural intervention in Greenland in order to reduce sexually transmitted infection rates among a population of Greenland youth. This behavioural intervention was called Inuulluataarneq (Having the Good Life). Inuulluataarneq&rsquo;s objects included: (1) increase Greenlandic youth&rsquo;s overall knowledge about sexually transmitted infections and sexual health; (2) increase parent/guardian-youth communication about topics related to sexually transmitted infections and sex; and (3) increase consistent condom use among Greenlandic youth. We hypothesised that increased awareness of sexually transmitted infections and sexual health as well as increased communication between parents/guardians and their adolescent children would in...
Clinical research should be a priority in the NHS - but what do genito-urinary medicine clinic staff think?
Clinical research improves patient care and is a government priority. We sought the opinions of genito-urinary medicine clinic staff regarding undertaking research, any barriers they perceived, and methods to optimise study recruitment. Questionnaires were offered to everyone working in the genito-urinary medicine clinic over a one-week period. In addition, four focus groups were held with genito-urinary medicine clinic staff. Forty-three questionnaires were completed. All respondents stated that research was important; however, 14.0% worried that it affected patient care and 16.3% would rather see patients without having to consider research. Doctors were more likely to enjoy discussing studies than other healthcare staff (p = 0.029) and were less likely to think that too many studies wer...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Risk for HIV following a diagnosis of syphilis, gonorrhoea or chlamydia: 328,456 women in Florida, 2000-2011
Several effective interventions are available for preventing HIV in women. Targeting interventions requires understanding their risk of acquiring HIV. We used surveillance data to estimate risks of HIV acquisition for 13&ndash;59-year-old women following a diagnosis of syphilis, gonorrhoea or chlamydia in Florida during 2000&ndash;2009. We excluded women reported with HIV before their STI, and measured HIV reported subsequent to STI (through 2011). Rates were compared to women with no reported STI. A total of 328,456 women had: syphilis (3325), gonorrhoea (67,784) or chlamydia (257,347). During 2,221,944 person-years of follow-up, 2118 of them were diagnosed with HIV. For women with no STI reported, during 64,763,832 person-years, 19,531 were reported with HIV. The crude rate of subsequent...
Prevalence and risk factors associated with HIV infection, hepatitis and syphilis in a state prison of Sao Paulo
Given the importance of the control of sexually transmitted infections in the general population and specifically in the prison system, we rolled out this cross-sectional study in 2007. Standard questionnaires and blood samples were accessed among 680 prisoners. The protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee. We determined the following seroprevalences: HIV, 1.8% (95%CI = 0.1&ndash;3.3); HBV, 21.0% (95%CI = 17.8&ndash;25.1); HBV, 5.3% (95%CI = 3.5&ndash;7.6) and syphilis 5.3% (95%CI = 3.5&ndash;7.6). Logistic regression identified significant associations with (p &lt; 0.05): HIV: injectable drug use (OR = 15.4), age over 30 years (OR = 13.3), cocaine use (OR = 5.4) and crack-cocaine use (OR = 5.2); HBV: injectable drug use (OR = 3.4), history of previous sexually transmitted infection (...
Assessing the role of peripheral CD8 T cells in neurocognitive impairment in HIV-infected men who have sex with men: data from the MSM Neurocog Study
Studies have suggested CD8 lymphocytes may be a possible marker for inflammation, which is believed to be a contributing factor to neurocognitive impairment. Individuals enrolled in the MSM Neurocog Study were analysed. Those with depression, anxiety or mood disorders were excluded. Individuals with neurocognitive impairment were identified using the Brief NeuroCognitive Screen and compared to those with normal scores. CD4 and CD8 T cell values and CD4:CD8 ratios were compared between groups. In all, 144 men, aged 18&ndash;50 years, were included in the analysis. Twenty were diagnosed with neurocognitive impairment. We were unable to identify any significant difference between current, nadir or peak CD4 and CD8 counts. CD4:CD8 ratios and CD4:CD8 ratio inversion (&lt;1) were also found to b...
The relationship between body composition and knee structure in patients with human immunodeficiency virus
This study aimed to examine relationships between body composition and knee cartilage volume, as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging in HIV infection. 35 ART-treated HIV-infected men aged 51.7 years (mean) 7.9 (SD) and 18 healthy men aged 49.5 years (mean) 6.4 (SD) participated. Cartilage volume was measured on magnetic resonance imaging of the dominant knee using validated methods. Body composition was measured using dual x-ray absorptiometry. HIV-infected participants had less total body and gynoid fat (kg) (p = 0.04 and p = 0.007, respectively) and more percent android fat mass and percent trunk fat mass (p = 0.001 and p &lt; 0.001, respectively) than controls. In HIV-infected participants there was an inverse association between total body fat mass and average tibial cartilage volum...
Performance of a Mathematical Model to Forecast Lives Saved from HIV Treatment Expansion in Resource-Limited Settings
Conclusions. Validation and calibration resulted in a good-fitting model appropriate for health policy decision making. Using local data in a policy model-building process is feasible in resource-limited settings. (Source: Medical Decision Making)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Pharmacokinetic Enhancement in HIV Antiretroviral Therapy: A Comparison of Ritonavir and Cobicistat.
Authors: Renjifo B, van Wyk J, Salem AH, Bow D, Ng J, Norton M Abstract Inhibition of the cytochrome p450 3A4 enzyme system leads to increases in plasma concentrations of coadministered antiretroviral agents - a concept known as pharmacokinetic boosting. Ritonavir and cobicistat are potent inhibitors of cytochrome p450 3A4. Ritonavir was initially developed as an HIV protease inhibitor, but is currently used primarily as a pharmacokinetic boosting agent for other HIV and hepatitis C protease inhibitors. Cobicistat is a boosting agent for the integrase inhibitor elvitegravir and the protease inhibitors atazanavir and darunavir. Phase III data showed that atazanavir + cobicistat + tenofovir/emtricitabine had non-inferior efficacy and resulted in similar CD4 T-cell count increases to ...
Acute pancreatitis associated with dolutegravir and lamivudine/abacavir administration
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Changes in kidney function in patients with suppressed HIV RNA who substitute their protease inhibitor with atazanavir/ritonavir
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Heroin use in Indonesia is associated with higher expression of CCR5 on CD4+ cells and lower ex-vivo production of CCR5 ligands
Opioid use may affect HIV infection through altered expression of HIV co-receptors. This was examined in Indonesia among antiretroviral therapy-naive HIV patients, many of whom use drugs. C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) expression on CD4+ cells was higher in heroin (P?=?0.007), methadone (P?=?0.024) and former opioid users (P?=?0.003) compared to nonusers, whereas production of RANTES and other CCR5 ligands was similar or lower. This suggests that opioids can affect HIV susceptibility through up-regulation of CCR5 or down-regulation of its ligands. (Source: AIDS)
Seven years of chronic hepatitis C virus infection in an HIV-infected man without detectable antibodies
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Impact of low-level viremia on clinical and virological outcomes in treated HIV-1-infected patients
Conclusion: LLV200?499 was strongly associated with virological failure, but not with AIDS event/death. Our results support the US guidelines, which define virological failure as a confirmed viral load above 200?copies/ml. (Source: AIDS)
Drug resistance and plasma viral RNA level after ineffective use of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis in women
Conclusions: Drug resistance detected during ineffective PrEP use had characteristics suggesting transmitted infection or incubating infection prior to starting PrEP. (Source: AIDS)
Modelling the HIV epidemic among MSM in the United Kingdom: quantifying the contributions to HIV transmission to better inform prevention initiatives
Conclusion: The majority of the new HIV infections among MSM in the United Kingdom during 2001?2020 is expected to be accounted for by a small group of younger and highly sexually active individuals, living with undiagnosed HIV in the asymptomatic stage. Bringing this group into HIV/AIDS care by improving testing uptake is a vital step for preventing onward transmission and will determine the success of using ART as prevention. (Source: AIDS)
Tuberculosis incidence after 36 months? isoniazid prophylaxis in HIV-infected adults in Botswana: a posttrial observational analysis
Conclusion: The benefit of 36IPT for TB prevention declined posttrial in this cohort. Adjunctive measures are warranted to prevent TB among HIV-infected persons receiving long-term ART in TB-endemic settings. (Source: AIDS)
Incomplete adherence among treatment-experienced adults on antiretroviral therapy in Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia
Conclusion: Results support more in-depth investigations of the role of traditional healers, and the development of interventions to address alcohol abuse and internalized stigma among treatment-experienced adult ART patients. (Source: AIDS)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
HAART slows progression to anal cancer in HIV-infected MSM
The objective is to investigate the impact of antiretrovirals in the time to the development of anal cancer in HIV-positive MSM. Design: A retrospective analysis of cases of anal cancer in a cohort of HIV-positive MSM receiving antiretrovirals between 1988 and 2008. Methods: Time from first CD4+ cell count or HIV RNA viral load test to anal cancer diagnosis was analysed using Cox regression and Kaplan?Meier curves. Anal cancer cases treated in the era prior to HAART ( (Source: AIDS)
Statin therapy decreases N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide in HIV: randomized placebo-controlled trial
Conclusion: Rosuvastatin reduces plasma NT-proBNP in HIV-infected participants on antiretroviral therapy. NT-proBNP correlated with several measures of CVD risk, independent of inflammation markers. (Source: AIDS)
Antiretroviral therapy reduces neurodegeneration in HIV infection
Conclusion: We conclude that virally suppressive ART protects against cortical neurodegeneration. Further, we find evidence supporting the causal chain from treatment-mediated peripheral and central nervous system viral load suppression to reduced neurodegeneration and improved neurocognitive outcomes. (Source: AIDS)
Early viral suppression improves neurocognitive outcomes in HIV-infected children
Conclusion: Virologic suppression during infancy or early childhood is associated with improved neurocognitive outcomes in school-aged PHIV+ children. In contrast, CPE scores showed no association with neurocognitive outcomes. (Source: AIDS)
HIV-1 viral infectivity factor interacts with microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 and inhibits autophagy
Conclusion: Our study unveils that Vif inhibits autophagy independently of its action on APOBEC3G and, therefore, suggest a new function of this viral protein in restricting innate antiviral mechanisms. (Source: AIDS)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Increased carotid intima?media thickness is not associated with T-cell activation nor with cytomegalovirus in HIV-infected never-smoker patients
Conclusion: In HIV-infected individuals at low cardiovascular disease risk, our data show that the increased risk of carotid atherosclerosis is not associated with immunological markers described to be associated with HIV disease progression. (Source: AIDS)
TB-IRIS, T-cell activation, and remodeling of the T-cell compartment in highly immunosuppressed HIV-infected patients with TB
Conclusions: A distinct pattern of pre-ART T-cell and cytokine markers appear to poise the immune response of certain patients to develop TB-IRIS. Experience of TB-IRIS is then associated with long-term remodeling of the CD4+ T-cell memory compartment towards an effector memory-dominated phenotype. We speculate that these pre and post-ART TB-IRIS-associated immune parameters may contribute to superior immune control of TB/HIV co-infection and better clinical outcome. (Source: AIDS)
Could antiretroviral neurotoxicity play a role in the pathogenesis of cognitive impairment in treated HIV disease?
Whilst effective antiretroviral therapy is protective against the more severe forms of HIV-associated brain disease, there remains a large burden of clinically symptomatic cognitive impairment in the modern era. Although several potential pathogenic mechanisms have been proposed, the underlying pathology remains elusive. In this review, we summarize the evidence describing neuronal toxicity of antiretroviral agents themselves in both preclinical and clinical situations, as well as the potential pathological mechanisms underlying this toxicity. We also consider the implications for future practice and clinical research in which case determining optimal antiretroviral combinations that effectively suppress HIV replication whilst minimizing neurotoxic effects on the central nervous system may...
Transmission of HIV drug resistance: lessons from sensitive screening assays
Purpose of review: The review discusses new technologies for the sensitive detection of HIV drug resistance, with a focus on applications in antiretroviral treatment (ART)-naïve populations. Recent findings: Conventional sequencing is well established for detecting HIV drug resistance in routine care and guides optimal treatment selection in patients starting ART. Access to conventional sequencing is nearly universal in Western countries, but remains limited in Asia, Latin America, and Africa. Technological advances now allow detection of resistance with greatly improved sensitivity compared with conventional sequencing, variably increasing the yield of resistance testing in ART-naïve populations. There is strong cumulative evidence from retrospective studies that sensitive detection of ...
Advancing the HIV cure agenda: the next 5 years
Purpose of review: To explore how ethical considerations, improved diagnostics and data from clinical trials might see the lowering of some of the barriers blocking a cure for HIV infection over the next 5 years. Recent findings: Despite the recent well publicized but eventually disappointing case reports, there remains only one successful HIV cure, the ?Berlin patient?. We will review the data suggesting that more potent agents might achieve in-vivo viral activation and explore the tantalizing phenomenon of ?posttreatment control? following treatment in primary HIV infection. We will also explore how new assays and novel interventions might move the field forward. Summary: There is a need for new agents that can be safely tested to impact the viral reservoir, a more meaningful und...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Malawi: High Default Rate Compromising HIV Aids Fight in Nkhata Bay
[Malawi News Agency]Nkhata Bay -High default rate among people on Anti Retroviral Therapy (ART) has been singled out as a major challenge compromising HIV and AIDS fight in Nkhata Bay District. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
The Religious?Spiritual Self-Image and Behaviours Among Adolescent Street Children in Harare, Zimbabwe
Abstract The present study sought to explore the relationship between street childhood and adolescent religious?spiritual self-image. In Zimbabwe, there has been a rise in street children population in the urban centres. The current study investigated whether adolescent street children live and work in an eco-developmentally risky context for the development of positive religious?spiritual self-image. This rise in street children population has been in the context of a socio-politico-economic crisis, which was marked by record inflation rates and the HIV and AIDS pandemic. The research objectives were to investigate the nature of religious?spiritual self-image for street-living adolescent children, and to determine the effects of self-image on the behaviour of street-living...
Kenya: Muslims Told to Do HIV Tests Before Marriage
[The Star]RELIGIOUS leaders in Kilifi county now want the Chief Kadhi to make it compulsory for newly weds to know their HIV-Aids status before they get married. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Nigeria: Targeting HIV Treatment Goals Through Decentralisation, Increased Funding
[Vanguard]Information on number of children receiving peadiatric ARV is crucial in appraising Nigeria's performance with regards to Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission of HIV, PMTCT, strategy. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Progress toward an HIV cure highlighted in special issue of AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
(Mary Ann Liebert, Inc./Genetic Engineering News) A cure for HIV/AIDS is the ultimate goal of rapidly advancing research involving diverse and innovative approaches. A comprehensive collection of articles describing the broad scope and current status of this global effort is published in a special issue of AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Teriparatide treatment of osteoporosis in an HIV-infected man: a case report and literature review
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Hepatitis B reverse seroconversion in a patient with well controlled HIV infection: a case report and a review of the literature
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Estimating the Number of Sex Workers in South Africa: Rapid Population Size Estimation
Abstract Although recognized as a vulnerable population, there is no national population size estimate for sex workers in South Africa. A rapid sex worker enumeration exercise was undertaken in twelve locations across the country based on principles of participatory mapping and Wisdom of the Crowd. Sites with a range of characteristics were selected, focusing on level of urbanisation, trucking, mining and borders. At each site, sex worker focus groups mapped local hotspots. Interviews with sex workers at identified hotspots were used to estimate the numbers and genders of sex workers working in each. Estimates provided in the literature were combined with enumeration exercise results to define assumptions that could be applied to a national extrapolation. A working estimate was re...
Stem Cell Gene Therapy for HIV: Strategies to Inhibit Viral Entry and Replication
Abstract Since the demonstration of a cure of an HIV+ patient with an allogeneic stem cell transplant using naturally HIV-resistant cells, significant interest in creating similar autologous products has fueled the development of a variety of ?cell engineering? approaches to stem cell therapy for HIV. Among the more well-studied strategies is the inhibition of viral entry through disruption of expression of viral co-receptors or through competitive inhibitors of viral fusion with the cell membrane. Preclinical evaluation of these approaches often starts in vitro but ultimately is tested in animal models prior to clinical implementation. In this review, we trace the development of several key approaches (meganucleases, short hairpin RNA (shRNA), and fusion inhibitors) to modifi...
T Memory Stem Cells and HIV: a Long-Term Relationship
This article summarizes recent studies investigating the role of TSCM in HIV/SIV infection. (Source: Current HIV/AIDS Reports)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
The Impact of Married Individuals Learning HIV Status in Malawi: Divorce, Number of Sexual Partners, and Condom Use With Spouses
This study improves upon previous studies on this topic because the randomized incentives affecting the propensity to be tested for HIV permit control for selective testing. Instrumental variable probit and linear models are estimated, using a randomized experiment administered as part of the Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health (MLSFH). The results indicate that knowledge of HIV status (1) does not affect chances of divorce for either HIV-negative or HIV-positive respondents; (2) reduces the number of reported sexual partners among HIV-positive respondents; and (3) increases reported condom use with spouses for both HIV-negative and HIV-positive respondents. These results imply that individuals actively respond to information about their HIV status that they learn during HTC, ...
Phase composition and microwave dielectric properties of SrTiO3 modified Mg2Al4Si5O18 cordierite ceramics
Publication date: 15 April 2015 Source:Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 628 Author(s): Kaixin Song , Song Wu , Peng Liu , Huixing Lin , Zhihua Ying , Peng Zheng , Weitao Su , Jiangxia Deng , Liang Zheng , Huibin Qin The effects of SrTiO3 addition on phase composition and microwave dielectric properties of cordierite (Mg2Al4Si5O18) ceramics had been investigated in this paper. X-ray diffraction data showed that (1? x)Mg2Al4Si5O18?xSrTiO3|(1? x)MAS? xST (0? x ?0.35)| ceramics presented ?-cordierite solid solution within 0&lt; x ?0.10. In the range of 0.15? x ?0.35, the perovskite-structured SrTiO3 and monoclinic phase of SrAl2Si2O8 feldspar were detected. Rietveld refinement of XRD data showed the shapes of [(Si4Al2)O18] hexagonal rings in (1? x)MAS?xST (0...
The Anatomy of Medical Research US and International Comparisons
Conclusions and RelevanceNew investment is required if the clinical value of past scientific discoveries and opportunities to improve care are to be fully realized. Sources could include repatriation of foreign capital, new innovation bonds, administrative savings, patent pools, and public-private risk sharing collaborations. Given international trends, the United States will relinquish its historical international lead in the next decade unless such measures are undertaken. (Source: JAMA)
Sleep aids: Could antihistamines help me sleep?
(Source: MayoClinic.com - Ask a Specialist)
Treating AIDS: Politics of Difference, Paradox of Prevention. Thurka Sangaramoorthy, New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 2014, 198 pp.
(Source: Medical Anthropology Quarterly)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Estimating the size of populations at high risk for HIV using respondent?driven sampling data
This article presents a case?study of the estimation of the size of the hard?to?reach population based on data collected through RDS. We study two populations of female sex workers and men?who?have?sex?with?men in El Salvador. The approach is Bayesian and we consider different forms of prior information, including using the UNAIDS population size guidelines for this region. We show that the method is able to quantify the amount of information on population size available in RDS samples. As separate validation, we compare our results to those estimated by extrapolating from a capture?recapture study of El Salvadorian cities. The results of our case?study are largely comparable to those of the capture?recapture study when they differ from the UNAIDS guidelines. Our meth...
Diagnosing and Managing Diabetes in HIV-Infected Patients: Current Concepts
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common condition with significant associated morbidity and mortality. DM diagnosis and management among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients is a particularly relevant topic as the HIV-infected population ages and more HIV-infected individuals live with chronic medical comorbidities. Although there is mixed evidence regarding HIV as an independent risk factor for DM, multiple factors related to HIV and its treatment are associated with DM. This review covers the epidemiology of DM in HIV-infected patients, and diagnosis, management, and treatment goals for DM in HIV-infected patients. We highlight the most recent DM treatment guidelines from the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes, emphasizing indi...
Significant Reduction in HIV Virologic Failure During a 15-Year Period in a Setting With Free Healthcare Access
Conclusions.&nbsp;The proportion of HIV-infected patients experiencing VF during routine care fell markedly between 1997 and 2009&ndash;2011, to only 9.7%. This was attributed to the advent of fully active and better-tolerated antiretroviral drugs, and to national guidelines recommending rapid management of VF after mid-2000. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Editorial Commentary: Should Longitudinal Multisite Studies Become the New Standard for Investigating Neurocognitive Functions in HIV Infection?
(Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Mucosal CD4+ T cells and SIV transmission [Immunology and Inflammation]
An effective T-cell?based AIDS vaccine should induce strong HIV-specific CD8+ T cells in mucosal tissues without increasing the availability of target cells for the virus. Here, we evaluated five immunization strategies that include Human adenovirus-5 (AdHu5), Chimpanzee adenovirus-6 (AdC6) or -7 (AdC7), Vaccinia virus (VV), and DNA given by electroporation... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Pediatric Cochlear Implantation in Residual Hearing Candidates.
CONCLUSIONS: CIs provide better results compared with hearing aids in children with residual hearing. Factors that may impact the benefits of CIs in patients with residual hearing are age, delay in performing the CI procedure, which ear is implanted, and initial underestimation of the patient's hearing difficulties. PMID: 25586946 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology)
"Bend a Fish When the Fish Is Not Yet Dry": Adolescent Boys' Perceptions of Sexual Risk in Tanzania.
"Bend a Fish When the Fish Is Not Yet Dry": Adolescent Boys' Perceptions of Sexual Risk in Tanzania. Arch Sex Behav. 2015 Jan 13; Authors: Sommer M, Likindikoki S, Kaaya S Abstract Despite decades of effort, the spread of HIV/AIDS continues among many African young people. A key contributor is unsafe sexual behavior that is desired, persuaded, or coerced. We explored the masculinity norms shaping pubescent boys' perceptions of and engagement in (unsafe) sexual behaviors in Tanzania. Through a comparative case study in rural and urban Tanzania, qualitative and participatory methods were used with 160 adolescent boys in and out of school to better understand the social and contextual factors promoting unsafe sexual behaviors. Adolescent boys in both the rural and urban s...
Disneyland: The Latest Victim of the Anti-Vaxxers
Somewhere in Orange County, Mary Poppins may be running a fever. The same could be true for her coworkers&mdash;an unsuspecting Ariel, say; a suddenly swoony Goofy or Pluto or any of the other 23,000 people (OK, or characters) who punch in for work at Disneyland every day. And the same could be true too for any one of the estimated 16 million people who will pour into the theme park this year. The reason? Measles. The cause? This may not come entirely as a surprise: the anti-vaccine crowd. Just when you think they&#8217;ve been run to ground, shamed into silence, and just when you can watch a whole evening of Jenny McCarthy co-hosting the New Year&#8217;s Eve celebration in Times Square and not hear her utter a word of unscientific nonsense, the anti-vaxxers come roaring back. Less than tw...
HIV Care Saves LivesHIV Care Saves Lives
CDC Director Tom Frieden shares the nation's most important strategy to help people with HIV live longer and to end the HIV epidemic. CDC Expert Commentary (Source: Medscape Cardiology Headlines)
NLM HIV/AIDS Portal Offers Multilingual Content Search
NLM's HIV/AIDS Portal now offers users the ability to search for multilingual content. The new Multilingual Search interface searches specifically for HIV/AIDS related topics from the multilingual and multicultural content of HealthReach (formerly RHIN). (Source: PHPartners.org)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
South Africa: South African HIV Program On Rights of Sex Workers
[Global Fund]The South African National AIDS Council said that a long-awaited HIV program catering specifically to the needs of sex workers - 60 percent of whom are estimated to be living with HIV - became firmly established during the course of 2014. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Brain protein aids influenza recovery, scientists find
A brain protein that boosts the healing power of sleep and speeds an animal's recovery from the flu has been discovered by researchers who say that the discovery could lead to alternative treatments for influenza and other infectious diseases, possibly by using intranasal sprays to stimulate the production of the brain protein, called AcPb. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)
Occupationally Acquired HIV: Healthcare Workers' Risk LowOccupationally Acquired HIV: Healthcare Workers' Risk Low
Occupational-related HIV transmission has been confirmed in only 58 healthcare workers since 1985. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Hiv-Aids Headlines)
Zambia: Japan Gives K3.8 Million for HIV-Aids Fight
[Times of Zambia]JAPAN has signed a grant contract with Association for Aid and Relief (AAR) to facilitate the implementation of an HIV/AIDS project in Kafue and Chilanga districts. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
South Africa: Study Links Birth Control to Increased Risk of HIV Infection
[Health-e]Women using the birth control shot known by the brand name Depo-Provera may have about a 30 percent higher risk of contracting HIV, according to new research. However, the link between hormonal contraception and HIV remains uncertain. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Nigeria: As National HIV Counselling and Testing Campaign Commences
[Leadership]Winifred Ogbebo writes on the current HIV counselling and testing being conducted nationwide to enable Nigerians know their status (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: Pepfar Pumps U.S $ 210 Million in Africa
[Times of Zambia]THE United States through its President's Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) has set aside US $210 million for the Accelerated Children's HIV/AIDS Treatment (ACT) for children living with HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
WSU scientists find brain protein aids influenza recovery
(Washington State University) Washington State University Spokane scientists have found a brain protein that boosts the healing power of sleep and speeds an animal's recovery from the flu.Krueger said the discovery could lead to alternative treatments for influenza and other infectious diseases, possibly by using intranasal sprays to stimulate the production of the brain protein, called AcPb. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Findings from the Women of Color HIV Initiative published in AIDS Patient Care and STDs journal
(Mary Ann Liebert, Inc./Genetic Engineering News) African Americans currently account for nearly half of all new HIV diagnoses, and among females, 64 percent of new HIV diagnoses affect Black/African American women. A series of articles reporting results from the Women of Color HIV Initiative, including topics such as linkage and barriers to care, treatment adherence, viral suppression, substance abuse, and violence, are published in a special issue of AIDS Patient Care and STDs. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Effectiveness of low vision services in improving patient quality of life at Aravind Eye Hospital
Conclusion: Low vision services and visual aids can improve the quality of life in South Indian rural population regardless of age, gender, and education level. Thus, all low vision patients who meet the criteria should be referred for evaluation. (Source: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Pharmacokinetics and safety of rifabutin in young HIV-infected children receiving rifabutin and lopinavir/ritonavir
Conclusions Rifabutin dosed at 5 mg/kg three times per week resulted in lower AUC0&ndash;48, AUC0&ndash;24 and Cmax values for rifabutin and 25-O-desacetyl rifabutin compared with adults receiving 150 mg of rifabutin daily, the current recommended dose. We observed high rates of severe transient neutropenia, possibly due to immaturity of CYP3A4 in young children. It remains unclear whether a safe and effective rifabutin dose exists for treatment of TB in children receiving lopinavir/ritonavir. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
?Don?t step on Tony!? The importance of symptoms when working with psychosis.
This article claims that the attention to a patient?s symptoms is critical when working with psychotic states. It asserts that viewing symptoms as a crucial inroad into the understanding of the patient?s issues is often disregarded in today?s mental health environment, which focuses almost exclusively on the elimination of symptoms with medication. The authors regard symptoms as presenting a vital inroad into the working relationship with persons suffering psychosis. A detailed case illustration is presented to demonstrate the way working with symptoms gives credibility to the patient?s reality and aids in creating a working alliance and in moving the treatment forward. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved) (Source: Psychoanalytic Psychology)
AIDS, activism and access.
Authors: McSorley T PMID: 25583672 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: cmaj)
Frequency modulation systems in hearing impaired children: outcome evaluation
CONCLUSION: The use of subjective measures, such as the questionnaire, it is essential to determine the indication of the effectiveness of assistive devices for the hearing impaired. The effectiveness of the system could be observed by FM "FM advantage," which is the average difference of 10 dB minimum found in the evaluations of speech perception with and without FM noise in different situations. The benefits found in this study using the FM system in the improvement of speech perception can be extrapolated not only to the classroom and to laws of inclusive education, but also for social and recreational activities. (Source: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Fonoaudiologia)
Auditory and language abilities in children with cochlear implants who live in bilingual homes: a cases report
O implante coclear (IC) tem sido indicado para crianças deficientes auditivas de grau severo e/ou profundo que não tem benefício com o aparelho de amplificação sonora individual (AASI), e que apresentem família adequada e motivada para o uso do dispositivo, bem como condições adequadas de reabilitação na cidade de origem. Atualmente, a procura pelo IC também ocorre por pais surdos, fluentes na Língua Brasileira de Sinais (LIBRAS), que recorrem a este tratamento para oferecer outra realidade para seus filhos. O ambiente destas crianças é bilíngue, dado pela LIBRAS dos pais e pela linguagem oral dos familiares próximos, do fonoaudiólogo e da escola. Neste sentido, o presente estudo visou acompanhar quatro crianças deficientes auditivas implantadas, sendo duas crianças filh...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Development of a Psychosocial Distress Measure for Ugandan Adolescents Living with HIV

Policies directed towards STD/AIDS and their political-care integration in the context of the SUS: a study of the city of Florianópolis, SC, Brazil
This qualitative study, with a socio-historical perspective, aimed to examine how the process of decentralization of STD/AIDS actions took place in Florianópolis, SC, Brazil, and its effects on the level of care and administration. The data collection was based on documentary and oral sources. A total of 11 health professionals were interviewed, who performed care and/or management activities linked to STD/AIDS, during the study period (2006-2010). The results were analyzed using content analysis, resulting in two categories: The administrative decentralization of the Municipal STD/AIDS Program; The decentralization of STD/AIDS care. The restructuring of the STD/AIDS Program was part of the reorganization process of the municipal health system and the progressive incorporation of the conc...
Blue light aids in coping with the post-lunch dip: an EEG study - Baek H, Min B.
The 'post-lunch dip' is a commonly experienced period of drowsiness in the afternoon hours. If this inevitable period can be disrupted by an environmental cue, the result will be enhanced workplace performance. Because blue light is known to be a critical ... (Source: SafetyLit: All (Unduplicated))
Zambia: Zambia and Global Fund Sign U.S.$234 Million in New Grants
[Global Fund]Lusaka -The Government of the Republic of Zambia, the Churches Health Association of Zambia, and the Global Fund today reaffirmed their partnership, signing four new grants worth US$234 million to fight HIV, TB and malaria in Zambia. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
HIV-1 Nef: A Master Manipulator of the Membrane Trafficking Machinery Mediating Immune Evasion
Conclusion : The extensive interaction network formed between Nef and numerous membrane trafficking regulators suggests that Nef?s role in evading the immune surveillance system intersects multiple host membrane trafficking pathways. Significance : Nef?s ability to evade the immune surveillance system is linked to AIDS pathogenesis. Thus, a complete understanding of the molecular pathways that are subverted by Nef in order to downregulate MHC-I will enhance our understanding of HIV-1?s progression to AIDS. (Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) General Subjects)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
HIV/AIDS and rheumatoid arthritis
The objective of this review was to identify possible interferences of HIV infection in the diagnosis and management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A review of the available evidence was conducted using the GRADE approach. Overall, the quality of evidence was low. Our main conclusions were: (1) the occurrence of rheumatoid-like arthritis in patients with HIV/AIDS is quite rare; therefore, it is not recommended that HIV infection be considered routinely as a differential diagnosis in this condition (C2); (2) HIV infection may lead to rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibody positivity, but usually at low titers (C1); (3) RA might cause false-positive HIV serology and ELISA seems to be a more specific test for HIV in patients with RA (C2); (4) RA and AI...
HIV-1 Nef: A Master Manipulator of the Membrane Trafficking Machinery Mediating Immune Evasion.
CONCLUSION:: The extensive interaction network formed between Nef and numerous membrane trafficking regulators suggests that Nef's role in evading the immune surveillance system intersects multiple host membrane trafficking pathways. SIGNIFICANCE:: Nef's ability to evade the immune surveillance system is linked to AIDS pathogenesis. Thus, a complete understanding of the molecular pathways that are subverted by Nef in order to downregulate MHC-I will enhance our understanding of HIV-1's progression to AIDS. PMID: 25585010 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta)
Argos HIV Drug Misses Main Goal in Mid-Stage StudyArgos HIV Drug Misses Main Goal in Mid-Stage Study
Argos Therapeutics Inc said its experimental immunotherapy was unsuccessful in treating HIV-infected patients, raising doubts about its technology platform and sending its stock plunging as much as 31% on Friday. Reuters Health Information (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)
From Vertigo to Tinnitus, Ear Ailments Are New Focus for Drugs
In search of an alternative to hearing aids or implants, some report success in early trials for drugs to improve hearing or silence tinnitus. (Source: NYT Health)
Depo-Provera Linked to Higher HIV Risk, Researchers Find
Whether 'birth control shot' increases risk or if risk is from less condom use isn't clear, expert says Source: HealthDay Related MedlinePlus Pages: Birth Control, HIV/AIDS in Women, International Health (Source: MedlinePlus Health News)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
South Sudan: Aids-Related Deaths Rise Among People Affected By Conflict
[PR Newswire]Juba, South Sudan -As the world commemorated World AIDS Day on December 1, South Sudan health partners reported an increase in AIDS-related deaths among displaced people, mainly due to complications related to disrupted treatment or limited access to treatment. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
South Sudan: South Sudan Humanitarian Bulletin - Highlights
[PR Newswire]Juba, South Sudan -AIDS-related deaths are on the rise among conflict affected people. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Macrothrombocytopenia in North India: Role of Automated Platelet Data in the Detection of an Under Diagnosed Entity
Abstract Congenital macrothrombocytopenia is being increasingly recognised because of the increasing availability of automated platelet counts during routine complete blood count. If not recognised, these patients may be unnecessarily investigated or treated. The study was done to assess the occurrence of macrothrombocytopenia in the North Indian population and the role of automated platelet parameters in its detection. This prospective study was done on patients whose blood samples were sent for CBC to the hematology laboratory of a tertiary care hospital. Samples were run on Advia-120, a 5-part differential automated analyzer. Routine blood parameters including platelet count, mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet cytogram pattern and platelet flagging was studied along with per...
Depo-Provera Linked to Increased HIV Risk in AfricaDepo-Provera Linked to Increased HIV Risk in Africa
A meta-analysis showed a link between depot medroxyprogesterone acetate use and increased relative risk for HIV infection among women in sub-Saharan Africa. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)
Nigeria: Association Blames Discrimination for Death of HIV Victims
[Independent (Lagos)]The Association of Women Living with HIV/AIDS in Nigeria (ASWHAN) has blamed the large number of death recorded among AIDS victims to discrimination. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
OXYGEN, REFRIGERATED (Oxygen) Gas [Patient Aids, Inc. Dba Home Respiratory Service]
Updated Date: Jan 9, 2015 EST (Source: DailyMed Drug Label Updates for the last seven days (since May 20, 2007 EST))
Risk factors for HIV infection among circumcised men in Uganda: a case-control study.
CONCLUSIONS: Being circumcised at adulthood, resumption of sexual intercourse before wound healing, inconsistent condom use and having sex under the influence of peers were significant risk factors for HIV infection. Risk reduction messages should address these risk factors, especially among traditionally circumcised men. PMID: 25556374 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Socioeconomic Gradients in Internalized Stigma Among 4,314 Persons with HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa
In this study, I apply a novel method to data from the Demographic and Health Surveys to identify persons with HIV who were aware of their seropositivity at the time of the survey. The pooled dataset includes 4,314 persons with HIV in Cameroon, Ethiopia, Gabon, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Rwanda, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. My findings indicate that nearly one-fifth of study participants provided survey responses consistent with internalization of stigmatizing beliefs. Furthermore, in multivariable regression models, striking socioeconomic gradients in internalized stigma were observed. A clear implication of my findings is that the adverse health and psychosocial impacts of HIV stigma are likely concentrated among those with the fewest socioeconomic resources for man...
Tissue expression of TGF-?1 in uterine cervical samples from HIV/AIDS patients
Publication date: July 2012 Source:Microbial Pathogenesis, Volume 53, Issue 1 Author(s): Thiago X. Carneiro , Juliana T. Pacheco , Marilia B. Xavier , Juarez A.S. Quaresma Case-control study based on the immunohistochemistry for TGF-?1 evaluation of cervical samples obtained from two groups of women: CIN/HIV? and CIN/HIV+. Eleven women infected with HIV and with a histopathological diagnosis of CIN were included. The control group consisted of 12 patients with CIN. Cervical tissue samples obtained from all patients were submitted to histopathology and semiquantitative analysis of immunostaining for TGF-?1 protein. In addition, the peripheral CD4+ cell count and viral load were evaluated in HIV + patients. Tissue expression of the cytokine was higher in the CIN/HIV+ group compared t...
HIV-1 nucleocapsid and ESCRT-component Tsg101 interplay prevents HIV from turning into a DNA-containing virus
HIV-1, the agent of the AIDS pandemic, is an RNA virus that reverse transcribes its RNA genome (gRNA) into DNA, shortly after its entry into cells. Within cells, retroviral assembly requires thousands of structural Gag proteins and two copies of gRNA as well as cellular factors, which converge to the plasma membrane in a finely regulated timeline. In this process, the nucleocapsid domain of Gag (GagNC) ensures gRNA selection and packaging into virions. Subsequent budding and virus release require the recruitment of the cellular ESCRT machinery. Interestingly, mutating GagNC results into the release of DNA-containing viruses, by promo-ting reverse transcription (RTion) prior to virus release, through an unknown mechanism. Therefore, we explored the biogenesis of these DNA-containing particl...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
High-resolution genetic analysis of the requirements for horizontal transmission of the ESBL plasmid from Escherichia coli O104:H4
Horizontal dissemination of the genes encoding extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) via conjugative plasmids is facilitating the increasingly widespread resistance of pathogens to beta-lactam antibiotics. However, there is relatively little known about the regulatory factors and mechanisms that govern the spread of these plasmids. Here, we carried out a high-throughput, transposon insertion site sequencing analysis (TnSeq) to identify genes that enable the maintenance and transmission of pESBL, an R64 (IncI1)-related resistance plasmid that was isolated from Escherichia coli O104:H4 linked to a recent large outbreak of gastroenteritis. With a few exceptions, the majority of the genes identified as required for maintenance and transmission of pESBL matched those of their previously def...
Depo-Provera Linked to Higher HIV Risk, Researchers Find
Whether 'birth control shot' increases risk or if risk is from less condom use isn't clear, expert says (Source: Fertility News - Doctors Lounge)
The value of the systematic inflammation-based Glasgow Prognostic Score in patients with gastric cancer: A literature review
Yongyin Gao, Dingzhi HuangJournal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics 2014 10(4):799-804The presence of a systemic inflammatory response (SIR) is recognized to occur in the presence of malignancy. And the SIR-Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS)/modified GPS (mGPS) composed of the C-reactive protein (CRP) and albumin is a tumor stage- and treatment-independent, routinely available and well-standardized prognostic factor, reflects both an ongoing SIR (CRP) and a progressive nutritional decline (albumin) in patients with advanced cancer. Previous studies showed that GPS/mGPS appear to be a superior prognostic factor compared with other cellular components of the SIR and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status in some aspects. Besides, GPS/mGPS aids at deciding active or palliation tr...
Malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase and melatonin levels in GCF of aggressive and chronic periodontitis patients
ConclusionMDA, melatonin and SOD could be considered as biomarkers for oxidative stress in periodontal diseases and might be useful diagnostic aids in distinguishing CP and GAgP patients.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Australian Dental Journal)
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-1 Integration Sites in Viral Latency
Abstract The persistence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in latent reservoirs is a major barrier to HIV cure. Reservoir establishment depends on low viral expression that may be related to provirus integration sites (IS). In vitro, in cell lines and primary T cells, latency is associated with specific IS through reduced viral expression mediated by transcriptional interference by host cellular promoters, reverse orientation, and the presence of specific epigenetic modifiers. In primary T cell models of latency, specific IS are associated with intracellular viral antigen expression that is not directly related to cell activation. In contrast, in patient CD4+ T cells, there is enrichment for IS in genes controlling cell cycle and survival and in some clonally expanded...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Network Influences on the Sexual Risk Behaviors of Gay, Bisexual and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men Using Geosocial Networking Applications

mHealth Technology as a Persuasive Tool for Treatment, Care and Management of Persons Living with HIV
Abstract Mobile health (mHealth) technology can be a valuable tool in the management of chronic illnesses, including HIV. Qualitative research methods were used to identify the desired content and features of a mobile app for meeting and improving the healthcare needs of persons living with HIV (PLWH). We conducted six focus group sessions with 50 English-or Spanish-speaking PLWH in New York City. To inform data analysis and to illustrate how mHealth technology can be used as a persuasive strategy for improving the health of PLWH, we integrated Fogg?s functional role triad for computing technology model with the self-determination theory to illustrate how mHealth technology can be used as a persuasive strategy for improving the health of PLWH. Participants suggested several tool...
The Relationship Between Online Social Network Use, Sexual Risk Behaviors, and HIV Sero-Status Among a Sample of Predominately African American and Latino Men Who have Sex with Men (MSM) Social Media Users
This study sought to compare use of online social networking sites (SNSs) and sexual risk behaviors between HIV(+) and HIV(?) individuals among a sample of predominately African American and Latino SNS-using MSM. A total of 112 MSM Facebook users were recruited online and offline and completed an online survey. We performed regression models to assess the association between HIV status, SNS use, and sexual risk behaviors. After adjusting for age, race, and employment status, being HIV positive was significantly associated with a greater number of sexual partners (ARR = 2.84, p = 0.0017) and lower comfort levels of discussing HIV/STI status on SNSs (AOR: 0.23, p = 0.011). Findings suggest that HIV status is associated with sexual risk behaviors and SNS use among SNS-using MSM. We di...
Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence and Use of an Electronic Shared Medical Record Among People Living with HIV
Abstract Electronic shared medical records (SMR) are emerging healthcare technologies that allow patients to engage in their healthcare by communicating with providers, refilling prescriptions, scheduling appointments, and viewing portions of medical records. We conducted a pre-post cohort study of HIV-positive adults who used and did not use SMR in two integrated healthcare systems. We compared the difference in antiretroviral refill adherence between SMR users and age- and sex-frequency matched non-users from the 12-month period prior to SMR useto the 12-month period starting 6 months after initiation of SMR use. High adherence was maintained among SMR users (change = ?0.11 %) but declined among non-users (change = ?2.05 %; p = 0.003). Among SMR users, there was a s...
Gay Apps for Seeking Sex Partners in China: Implications for MSM Sexual Health
Abstract Anti-gay stigma and harsh local environments in many low and middle-income countries (LMIC) encourage men who have sex with men (MSM) partner-seeking mobile application (gay app) use. To investigate the sexual risk profiles of gay app users and guide future HIV prevention programs, we conducted a cross-sectional online survey among 1,342 MSM in China examining associations between gay app use and sexual behaviors, including HIV and sexually transmitted disease testing. Compared to non-app users, app users were more likely to be younger, better educated, ?out? about their sexual orientation, and single. They were also more likely to report multiple recent sex partners and HIV testing, but there was no difference in condomless sex between the two groups. Future research...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
The Relationship Between ART Adherence and Smoking Status Among HIV+ Individuals
We examined smoking and ART adherence among 203 HIV+ individuals enrolled in a randomized trial of interventions to increase ART adherence. Prior analyses indicated there were no overall treatment group effects. Smoking status and motivation to quit was assessed at baseline and ART adherence was assessed at week 12, 24, 36, and 48. Longitudinal generalized estimating equation analysis that controlled for treatment group revealed that smoking status was not significantly related to adherence over time. Motivation to quit was high with 58 % intending to quit in the next 6 months and 25 % intending to quit in the next 30 days. Findings suggest that smoking is not associated with adherence among those with adherence difficulties. However it does not diminish importance of addressing both b...
Cote d'Ivoire: Addressing Inequality Is Major Health Challenge of Our Time
[Key Correspondents]Prisca, 36, was diagnosed with HIV three years ago, but as an unemployed mother of two, she is more concerned about feeding her children than getting HIV treatment. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Impact of Prophylactic Mastectomy in BRCA1/2 Mutation Carriers
Unlike the general decrease in invasive oncologic care, the trend for prophylactic bilateral mastectomy in healthy women and prophylactic contralateral mastectomy in women with unilateral breast cancer is steadily rising. This is even more surprising when considering that for e.g. prophylactic contralateral mastectomy no clear survival benefit has been demonstrated so far. The decision-making process around risk-reducing surgery may be influenced by several conflicting parameters such as the patient's fears and desire to achieve a survival advantage, the surgeon's financial motivations, or the oncologist's paternalistic approach to the above trend. Physicians should support their patients throughout the decision-making process, guide them through the dense fog of information, and encourage...
Nigeria: Govt Adopts New Funding Model of Global Funds
[Guardian]Abuja -NIGERIA has adopted the new funding model of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria that allows the international organization to invest more strategically, achieve greater impact, and engage implementers and partners more effectively. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: In 2015, Accelerating Progress Toward an AIDS-Free Generation
[State Department]This blog post by U.S. Global AIDS Coordinator Deborah L. Birx originally appeared on the State Department website on January 6. Ambassador Birx oversees the implementation of the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Nigeria: Nigeria to Record More HIV Deaths, Infections in 2015-Expert
[Independent (Lagos)]Abuja -Nigeria will experience a sharp increase HIV related deaths, more infections will show up and even as the number of those in need of HIV related services and treatment will increase in 2015, if the federal government fails to fill the gap left by the foreign donors who have since withdrawn their services. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Botswana: Testing Together Reduces Risks
[Botswana Daily News]Tsabong -Couples who test for HIV/AIDS together develop a joint risk reduction plan to positively support each other throughout, says an official of Tebelopele Voluntary Counselling and Testing Centre in Tsabong. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Polls of Future Past: A History of Public Expectations for the Future of Science
Science fiction sometimes barely beats out science fact as technological advancements rapidly transform the world. But the changes that are anticipated aren't always the ones that arrive. Here's a look back at what the polls tell us the public has expected from scientific progress -- and how often they've been disappointed. From the Roper Center for Public Opinion Research archives: Reality Outpacing Expectations: The Moon Landing When Gallup first asked Americans in 1949 whether they expected man to reach the Moon in the next 50 years, only 15 percent said yes. Despite the shocking power of new wartime technologies like the atom bomb, the public remained skeptical about the idea of space travel. Just six years later the proportion saying man would be on the Moon in 50 years more than do...
Zimbabwe: Nurse Escapes Jail for Faking HIV Results
[New Zimbabwe]A GOKWE nurse who connived with a health NGO worker employed by Global Fund to fake results of an HIV test in favour of the nurse's husband on Tuesday was lucky to escape jail after she was handed a non-custodial sentence. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
The availability of alternative devices for the management of the difficult airway in public emergency centres in the Western Cape
Discussion The study demonstrated that Western Cape public emergency centres are currently inadequately stocked with regard to alternative airway devices. A guideline regarding the procurement and implementation of these devices is needed. (Source: African Journal of Emergency Medicine)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Retention in HIV Care Among Female Sex Workers in the Dominican Republic: Implications for Research, Policy and Programming
This study described factors from Andersen?s behavioral model that were associated with retention in HIV care among 268 female sex workers (FSWs) living with HIV in the Dominican Republic using two measures of retention: a 6-month measure of HIV clinic attendance and a measure that combined clinic attendance and missed visits. FSWs who ever attended HIV care reported high rates (92 %) of 6-month attendance, but 37 % reported missed visits. Using the combined retention measure, the odds of being retained in HIV care were higher among FSWs with more positive perceptions of HIV service providers [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.17; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 01.09, 1.25] and lower among women who reported recent alcohol consumption (AOR 0.50; 95 % CI 0.28, 0.92) and self-stigmatizing bel...
Social Media Use and High-Risk Sexual Behavior Among Black Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Three-City Study
Abstract Black men who have sex with men (MSM) bear a disproportionate burden of human immunodeficiency (HIV) incidence in the United States. Little research has focused on the associations between social media use and sexual behavior among Black MSM. 205 Black MSM completed measures assessing social media use and sexual behaviors. Men spent an average of 34 h per week on social media sites. 53 % arranged sexual hookups online in the previous 3 months, and did so a mean of 10 times. Overall, users of social media and men who arranged sexual hookups online engaged in more risky behaviors than non-users and men who did not arrange sexual hookups online. However, partner-level data indicated that men engaged in fewer risky behaviors with partners met online compared to partners me...
Enhancing Lay Counselor Capacity to Improve Patient Outcomes with Multimedia Technology
Abstract Multimedia technologies offer powerful tools to increase capacity of health workers to deliver standardized, effective, and engaging antiretroviral medication adherence counseling. Masivukeni?is an innovative multimedia-based, computer-driven, lay counselor-delivered intervention designed to help people living with HIV in resource-limited settings achieve optimal adherence. This pilot study examined medication adherence and key psychosocial outcomes among 55 non-adherent South African HIV+ patients, on antiretroviral therapy (ART) for at least 6 months, who were randomized to receive either Masivukeni or standard of care (SOC) counseling for ART non-adherence. At baseline, there were no significant differences between the SOC and Masivukeni groups on any outcome va...
An Aggressive Plasmablastic Lymphoma of the Oral Cavity as Primary Manifestation of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: Case Report and Literature Review
Conclusion?The HIV serologic status should be evaluated in all patients with plasmablastic lymphoma of the oral cavity or extraoral sites.[...]Thieme Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, BrazilArticle in Thieme eJournals:Table of contents  |  Abstract  |  open access Full text (Source: International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology)
HIV/AIDS policy-making in Kyrgyzstan: a stakeholder analysis
This article explores the main actors in HIV/AIDS policy-making, their interests, support and involvement and their current ability to set the agenda and influence the policy-making process. Fifty-four semi-structured interviews were conducted in the autumn of 2011, complemented by a review of policy documents and secondary sources on HIV/AIDS in Kyrgyzstan. We found that most stakeholders were supportive of progressive HIV/AIDS policies, but that their influence levels varied considerably. Worryingly, several major state agencies exhibited some resistance or lack of initiative towards HIV/AIDS policies, often prompting international agencies and local NGOs to conceptualize and drive appropriate policies. We conclude that, without clear vision and leadership by the state, the sustainabilit...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Challenges with the implementation of an Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) system: systematic review of the lessons learned
Conclusions The challenges identified with IDSR implementation are largely &lsquo;systemic&rsquo;. IDSR will best benefit from skill-based training of personnel and strengthening of the support surveillance functions alongside health care infrastructures at the district level. (Source: Health Policy and Planning)
Russian nursing students¿ knowledge level and attitudes in the context of human immunodeficiency virus ( HIV ) ¿ a descriptive study
Conclusions: Given that the HIV epidemic in Russia is both substantial and increasing, it is essential to improve HIV nursing education to provide sufficient and up-to-date information about HIV and also to prepare nursing students for caring for PLWHA. In doing so, this may help to address both the deficits in student knowledge, and also modify their attitude towards PLWHA. (Source: BMC Nursing)
Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems: A Policy Statement from the American Association for Cancer Research and the American Society of Clinical Oncology.
Authors: Brandon TH, Goniewicz ML, Hanna NH, Hatsukami DK, Herbst RS, Hobin JA, Ostroff JS, Shields PG, Toll BA, Tyne CA, Viswanath K, Warren GW Abstract Combustible tobacco use remains the number one preventable cause of disease, disability, and death in the United States. Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), which include e-cigarettes, are devices capable of delivering nicotine in an aerosolized form. ENDS use by both adults and youth has increased rapidly, and some have advocated these products could serve as harm-reduction devices and smoking cessation aids. ENDS may be beneficial if they reduce smoking rates or prevent or reduce the known adverse health effects of smoking. However, ENDS may also be harmful, particularly to youth, if they increase the likelihood that no...
Africa: Promise of the Future - Life After HIV/Aids Pandemic, Other Issues
[Guardian]AMONG the pandemics that afflicted mankind in recent memory HIV/AIDS is perhaps the one with the longest and lasting span of life. While campaigns against it may appear muted for now, it does not mean the pandemic is over. It just means that there are new ways of looking at it. While HIV/AIDS may not be the overnight killer it was a few years ago, knowledge through accurate information about it is still key to beating it. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Smart Hearing Aids from Siemens Use easyTek App Control
At the 2015 International CES, Siemens is unveiling smart hearing aids - their latest in wearable hearing technology. (Source: Disabled World)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
South Africa: Drinking, Smoking and TB
[Health-e]Grace Shabangu has been drinking and smoking more than half her life, will developing tuberculosis (TB) give her the will to change? (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
[Editors' Choice] Senescent Cells Promote Tissue Repair
Release of the growth factor PDGF-AA from senescent cells at skin wounds aids in healing. (Source: Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment)
Genome-wide association study of virologic response with efavirenz-containing or abacavir-containing regimens in AIDS clinical trials group protocols
BackgroundEfavirenz and abacavir are components of recommended first-line regimens for HIV-1 infection. We used genome-wide genotyping and clinical data to explore genetic associations with virologic failure among patients randomized to efavirenz-containing or abacavir-containing regimens in AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) protocols. Participants and methodsVirologic response and genome-wide genotype data were available from treatment-naive patients randomized to efavirenz-containing (n=1596) or abacavir-containing (n=786) regimens in ACTG protocols 384, A5142, A5095, and A5202. ResultsMeta-analysis of association results across race/ethnic groups showed no genome-wide significant associations (P (Source: Pharmacogenetics and Genomics)
Broad immune response may be needed to destroy latent HIV
(Yale University) A major barrier to finding a cure for HIV/AIDS is the presence of latent HIV in the cells of chronically infected individuals. But a team of Yale and Johns Hopkins researchers may have pinpointed a strategy for eliminating the residual virus. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)
The impact of orphanhood on education attendance: evidence from Zimbabwe
Publication date: January 2015 Source:International Journal of Educational Development, Volume 40 Author(s): Wei Ha , Peter Salama , Stanley Gwavuya The development community has started to question the exclusive focus of social protection programmes on orphans and vulnerable children affected by AIDS in the context of widespread poverty and vulnerability in Africa. This paper, using 2009 Zimbabwe Multiple Indicator Monitoring Survey data and multivariate regression analysis and simulations, shows that the impact of orphan-hood on children's access to education should be not underestimated. Specifically, the probability differential of dropping out of school, when comparing double-orphans and children with both their parents, is almost as large as the gap between a child from the fourth ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
One?Step Synthesis of Single?Layer MnO2 Nanosheets with Multi?Role Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate for High?Performance Pseudocapacitors
A template?free, one?step and one?phase synthesis of single?layer MnO2 nanosheets has been developed via a redox reaction between KMnO4 and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The successful formation of single?layer MnO2 nanosheets has been confirmed by the characteristic absorption around 374 nm and the typical thickness of ~0.95 nm. The slow redox reaction controlled by the gradual hydrolysis of SDS is found to be the key factor for the successful formation of single?layer nanosheets. SDS not only serves as the precursor of dodecanol to reduce KMnO4, but also aids the formation of single?layer MnO2 nanosheets as a structure?inducing agent. The resultant single?layer MnO2 nanosheets possess superior specific capacitance, which can be attributed to the extended surface and hig...
Knowledge, self-efficacy, and self-perceived risk for cardiovascular disease among Asians living with HIV: The influence of HIV stigma and acculturation
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) have become major health concerns for people living with HIV (PLWH) as life expectancy has increased with antiretroviral therapy. Studies suggest motivation to seek health care is associated with knowledge, self-efficacy to engage in the health care system, and self-perceived risks for CVD and ACS. Using cross sectional data collected from 67 un-/under-insured Asian PLWH in California, we explored the levels of knowledge about CVD, self-efficacy for recognizing ACS symptoms and seeking health care, and self-perceived risk for CVD and ACS, and how HIV stigmatization and acculturation predict these three constructs. (Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)
3D Surgical Planning in Patients affected by Lipodystrophy
HIV or AIDS is a disease that has spread in recent years. Thanks to advances in medication control, it is now considered a chronic illness rather than a fatal disease. The introduction of antiretroviral therapies (ART) has significantly reduced mortality and infection rates in patients affected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Anti-retroviral drugs have reduced the viral load to undetectable levels, allowing patients to lead normal lives. However, one of the side effects of AIDS treatment is the marked lipodystrophy [1,2] it can cause in several parts of the body. (Source: Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics)
Lessons learnt from coordinating emergency health response during humanitarian crises: a case study of implementation of the health cluster in northern Uganda
Conclusions: The implementation of the health cluster approach in the northern Uganda and other humanitarian crises in Africa highlights a few issues which are important for strengthening health coordination in similar settings. While health clusters are often welcome during humanitarian crises because they have the possibility to improve health coordination, their potential to create an additional layer of bureaucracy into already complex and bureaucratic humanitarian response architecture is a real concern. Although anecdotal evidence has showed that implementation of the humanitarian reforms and the roll out of the cluster approach did improve humanitarian response in northern Uganda; it is critical to establish a mechanism for measuring the direct impact of health clusters on improving...
Noncommunicable Diseases
Semin Reprod Med 2015; 33: 035-040DOI: 10.1055/s-0034-1395277Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), long considered diseases of little significance to global health, represent the greatest threat to economic development and human health. The main NCDs?diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and chronic respiratory disease?are the world's number one killer and bear the greatest burden on the poor. On September 19?20, 2011, the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) convened a high-level meeting (HLM) on the Prevention and Control of Non-Communicable Diseases. The only other HLM held on a health issue in the past had been in 2001 for HIV/AIDS and resulted in ambitious targets, global surveillance, and billions of dollars in aid. The 2011 HLM for NCDs did not measure up to the previous meet...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Please continue to support our work in Africa to combat HIV/AIDS.
Authors: Landsberg-Lewis I Abstract The Stephen Lewis Foundation ( www.stephenlewisfoundation.org ) works with community-level organisations to turn the tide of HIV/AIDS in Africa by providing care and support to women, orphaned children, grandmothers and people living with HIV/AIDS. Since 2003, we have funded more than 1,100 initiatives, partnering with 300 organisations in the 15 African countries hardest hit by the pandemic. PMID: 25563119 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Nursing Standard)
Exposure to Theory-Driven Text Messages is Associated with HIV Risk Reduction Among Methamphetamine-Using Men Who have Sex with Men
Abstract Fifty-two non-treatment-seeking methamphetamine-using men who have sex with men were enrolled in Project Tech Support, an open-label pilot study to evaluate whether exposure to theory-based [social support theory (SST), social cognitive theory (SCT), and health belief model (HBM)] text messages could promote reductions in HIV sexual risk behaviors and/or methamphetamine use. Multivariable analyses revealed that increased relative exposure to HBM or SCT (vs. SST) text messages was associated with significant reductions in the number of HIV serodiscordant unprotected (i.e., without a condom) anal sex partners, engagement in sex for money and/or drugs, and frequency of recent methamphetamine use; additionally, increased relative exposure to HBM (vs. SCT or SST) messages was ...
IknowUshould2: Feasibility of a Youth-Driven Social Media Campaign to Promote STI and HIV Testing Among Adolescents in Philadelphia
Abstract A youth-driven, social media-based campaign aimed at improving knowledge about and increasing testing for sexually transmitted infections (STIs)/HIV among youth 13?17 years old was assessed by: tracking website/social media use throughout the campaign; online survey of knowledge of and attitudes towards STI testing 9 months after campaign launch; and comparing rates of STI testing at affiliated family planning clinics during the 1 year period immediately prior versus 1 year immediately after campaign launch. Over 1,500 youth were reached via social media. Survey results showed 46 % of youth had never been tested, but 70 % intended to test in the next 6 months. While the total number of GC/CT tests conducted and positive results were not significantly different p...
Protect (All) Your Boys from Early Trauma
It sounds like a conspiracy. The government is about to officially sanction intentional harming of infants. They want medical personnel to pressure parents to accept infant, child, even teen circumcision. Not only is the move based on faulty data and reasoning, it is unethical.read more (Source: Psychology Today Parenting Center)
Gambia: NBR RAC Observes World Aids Day On Importance of VCT
[The Point]Stakeholders from the HIV and AIDS sector in the North Bank Region, NBR, held a massive public awareness campaign to enhance community understanding on the importance of Voluntary Counseling and Testing, VCT, as a pre-requisite in the fight against HIV and AIDS. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Nigeria: Understanding the Law Protecting Persons Living With HIV, Aids
[Guardian]IT is ignorance that fuels stigmatization of People Living With HIV, Aids (PLWHA), exposing them to ridicule, disgrace, verbal, physical and other forms of abuse in private and public settings. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Zimbabwe: NGO Worker and Nurse Fake HIV Results
[New Zimbabwe]A Health NGO worker employed by Global Fund and a nurse will know their fate this Tuesday after they allegedly faked results of an HIV test in favour of the nurse's husband. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
The 'Berlin patient,' first and only person cured of HIV, speaks out
(Mary Ann Liebert, Inc./Genetic Engineering News) Timothy Ray Brown, long known only as the 'Berlin Patient' had HIV for 12 years before he became the first person in the world to be cured of the infection following a stem cell transplant in 2007. He recalls his many years of illness, a series of difficult decisions, and his long road to recovery in the first-person account, 'I Am the Berlin Patient: A Personal Reflection,' published in AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Self?transfer and mortality amongst adults lost to follow?up in ART programmes in low? and middle?income countries: systematic review and meta?analysis
ConclusionsSubstantial unaccounted for transfers and deaths amongst patients LTFU confirms that retention and mortality is underestimated where the true outcomes of LTFU patients are not ascertained. (Source: Tropical Medicine and International Health)
Decision Aids and Shared Decision-Making in Neurocritical Care: An Unmet Need in Our NeuroICUs
Abstract Improved resuscitation methods and advances in critical care have significantly increased the survival of patients presenting with devastating brain injuries compared to prior decades. After the patient?s stabilization phase, families and patients are faced with ?goals-of-care? decisions about continuation of aggressive intensive care unit care or comfort care only (CMO). Highly varying rates of CMO between centers raise the question of ?self-fulfilling prophecies.? Disease severity, the physician?s communication and the family?s understanding of projected outcomes, their uncertainties, complication risks with continued care, physician bias, and the patient?s and surrogate?s wishes and values all influence a CMO decision. Disease-specific decision suppor...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Emergent burr-hole drainage of traumatic acute subdural haematoma with drain placement in pre-existing coagulopathy showing rapid neurological deterioration: A novel technique
Conclusion Emergency burr hole drainage should be considered in rapidly deteriorating patients with significant thicker ASDH with persistent thrombocytopenia and coagulopathy showing rapid neurological deterioration. (Source: The Indian Journal of Neurotrauma)
Scurvy in pediatric age group ? A disease often forgotten?
Publication date: Available online 5 January 2015 Source:Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma Author(s): Anil Agarwal , Abbas Shaharyar , Anubrat Kumar , Mohd Shafi Bhat , Madhusudan Mishra Scurvy is caused by prolonged severe dietary deficiency of vitamin C. Being rare as compared to other nutritional deficiencies, it is seldom suspected and this frequently leads to delayed recognition of this disorder. Children with abnormal dietary habits, mental illness or physical disabilities are prone to develop this disease. The disease spectrum of scurvy is quite varied and includes dermatological, dental, bone and systemic manifestations. Subperiosteal hematoma, ring epiphysis, metaphyseal white line and rarefaction zone along with epiphyseal slips are common radiological findings. High ...
Delaying BCG Vaccination Until 8 Weeks of Age Results in Robust BCG-Specific T-Cell Responses in HIV-Exposed Infants
Conclusions.&nbsp;The immunogenicity of BCG vaccination in HIV-exposed, uninfected infants is not compromised when delayed until 8 weeks of age and results in robust BCG-specific T-cell responses at 14 weeks of age. These findings support further evaluation of this modified BCG vaccination strategy for HIV-exposed infants. Clinical Trials Registration.&nbsp;NCT02062580. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Advanced Immune Suppression is Associated With Increased Prevalence of Mixed-Strain Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infections Among Persons at High Risk for Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Botswana
We examined factors associated with mixed-strain Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections among patients at high risk for drug-resistant tuberculosis in Botswana. Thirty-seven (10.0%) of 370 patients with tuberculosis had mixed M. tuberculosis infections, based on 24-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit&ndash;variable number of tandem repeats genotyping. In log-binomial regression analysis, age &lt;37 years (adjusted prevalence ratio [PR], 1.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01&ndash;3.57) and prior tuberculosis treatment (adjusted PR, 2.31; 95% CI, 1.09&ndash;4.89) were associated with mixed M. tuberculosis infections. Among human immunodeficiency virus&ndash;infected patients, prior tuberculosis treatment (adjusted PR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.04&ndash;4.31) and CD4+ T-cell count of &l...
Psychosocial Predictors and HIV-Related Behaviors of Old Adults Versus Late Middle-Aged and Younger Adults
Discussion: Old adults should be included in prevention efforts targeting knowledge, perceptions, and intentions toward condom use. Future studies should be cautious when overgeneralizing the results to all individuals aged 50 and older. (Source: Journal of Aging and Health)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Amphiphilic Cationic Nanogels as Brain-Targeted Carriers for Activated Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
Abstract Progress in AIDS treatment shifted emphasis towards limiting adverse effects of antiviral drugs while improving the treatment of hard-to-reach viral reservoirs. Many therapeutic nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) have a limited access to the central nervous system (CNS). Increased NRTI levels induced various complications during the therapy, including neurotoxicity, due to the NRTI toxicity to mitochondria. Here, we describe an innovative design of biodegradable cationic cholesterol-?-polylysine nanogel carriers for delivery of triphosphorylated NRTIs that demonstrated high anti-HIV activity along with low neurotoxicity, warranting minimal side effects following systemic administration. Efficient CNS targeting was achieved by nanogel modification with bra...
Kenya: WHO's to Blame for Misuse of HIV Drugs in Kenya?
[Key Correspondents]Reports of Kenyan sex workers misusing HIV prevention drugs have left HIV activists wondering if the government invested enough in HIV prevention and education before purchasing medicine, worth four billion Kenyan shillings. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Global Health: African Nations Can Help More on AIDS, Study Says
The 12 African countries that receive most of the American taxpayer dollars spent fighting AIDS could do much more to pay their own way, according to a study published in The Lancet. (Source: NYT Health)
Pharmacogenomics and the Biology of Race
The numerous and impassioned responses to Nicholas Wade's recently published Troublesome Inheritance: Genes, Race and Human History have once again reminded us of the complexity, ambiguity and perils of writing about the biology of race. In the US one is reminded of the collective sins of our past, including the eugenics movement of the early twentieth century, whereby a disproportionate percentage of people of color and those from lower socio-economic classes were sterilized, and the Tuskegee Study conducted between 1932 and 1972 in which 600 African-American sharecroppers in rural Alabama were purposely not treated for syphilis in order to ascertain information on the long-term effects of the disease. More recently, debates about the biology of race have raged among certain academic circ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Recommendations for HIV Prevention with Adults and Adolescents with HIV in the United States, 2014
Recommendations to advance the primary goals of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy for the United States: to prevent new HIV infections, increase the proportion of persons with HIV who are aware of their infection, prevent HIV-related illness and death, and reduce HIV-related health disparities. (Source: PHPartners.org)
Malawi: Global Fund Slaps CSOs in the Face Over Demos
[Malawi24]Global Fund has hinted that it is satisfied with explanations given by the National Aids Commission (NAC) and that the Beautify Malawi Trust (BEAM) should not refund the MK5 Million it allegedly got from the HIV/AIDS fighting body. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Current scenario of Opportunistic and co-infections in HIV-infected individuals at a tertiary care hospital in Mumbai, India
Conclusion: Nearly half of HIV-infected individuals were with OIs/CIs. Initiation of free ART programme since 2004 possibly associated with the type and rate of OIs/CIs. Tuberculosis and multiple OIs/CIs were associated with low CD4 counts. Infection was high in 31-40 years age group. Most of the spouses of individuals without OIs/CIs were HIV positive, indirectly indicates lack of condom use or lack of awareness of condom use. (Source: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology)
A facile method for synthesizing water-soluble and superior sustained release anti-HIV prodrug SCs?d4T
In this study, a sulphonated chitosan?stavudine conjugate (SCs?d4T) was synthesized with a mild SO3·Py complex sulphonation strategy. Chemical characteristics and morphology of Cs?d4T and SCs?d4T were performed by NMR, XRD, FTIR, ICP-AES and SEM. SCs?d4T demonstrated satisfactory solubility (106-bold of Cs?d4T solubility), good anti-HIV activity (6-fold of d4T anti-HIV activity), and well sustained release ability. The major release product O-isopropyl-5?-H-phosphonate of d4T (d4T-P-H) showed higher anti-HIV activity than d4T. For further evaluating the influence of linker and sulphonation strategy on anti-HIV activity, chitosan grafted with d4T by succinyl linker (Cs?sd4T) and SCs?d4T sulphonated by oleum were also prepared. The result showed that the O-isopropyl monoph...
Dolutegravir for the Treatment of HIV-2 infection
Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) was first isolated in 1986. Being originated in West Africa following inter-species transmission from natural wildlife monkey reservoirs, the virus currently infects 1?2 million humans worldwide. Former Portuguese colonies abroad such as Mozambique, Goa (India) and Brazil are amongst the regions with a larger number of HIV-2 cases outside West Africa [1]. Although HIV-2 infection typically evolves with a prolonged asymptomatic period, a significant proportion of patients may eventually develop AIDS, and therefore may benefit from earlier antiretroviral treatment [2]. (Source: Journal of Clinical Virology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Monitoring the Hearing Handicap and the Recognition Threshold of Sentences of a Patient with Unilateral Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder with Use of a Hearing Aid
Conclusion?There was a reduction of the auditory handicap, although speech perception continued to be severely limited. There was a significant improvement of the recognition threshold of sentences in silence and in noise and of the signal-to-noise ratio after 3 months of HA use.[...]Thieme Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, BrazilArticle in Thieme eJournals:Table of contents  |  Abstract  |  open access Full text (Source: International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology)
Plaque burden in HIV-infected patients is associated with serum intestinal microbiota-generated trimethylamine.
CONCLUSION:: A link between TMA and atherosclerosis has not previously been established. The current study suggests that TMA may be a nontraditional risk factor related to the number of plaque segments and severity of calcified plaque burden in HIV. PMID: 25565500 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Atherosclerosis)
Relationship Agreements and Willingness to Participate in Couples HIV Testing and Counseling Among Heterosexuals in the U.S.
Authors: Jones JS, Stephenson R, Wall KM, Sullivan PS Abstract Couples HIV testing and counseling (CHTC) has been used for more than 20 years in African settings and more recently among men who have sex with men in the United States, but little is known about willingness of heterosexuals in the U.S. to use CHTC. We conducted an online survey of heterosexuals in sexual relationships to assess willingness to use CHTC and willingness to discuss relationship agreements within a couples counseling session. We found moderate levels of willingness to use CHTC and somewhat higher levels of willingness to discuss relationship agreements in a couples counseling session. The most frequently cited reason people were not willing was that they did not perceive themselves or their partners to be ...
Adapting and Implementing a Community Program to Improve Retention in Care among Patients with HIV in Southern Haiti: "Group of 6".
Conclusions. We report successful adaptation and implementation of a validated community HIV-care model in Southern Haiti. Group of 6 can reduce barriers to ART adherence, and will be integrated as a routine care option. PMID: 25548659 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Updates and trends in the treatment of major depressive disorder.
Authors: Papakostas GI, Ionescu DF Abstract Mental illness accounts for 7.4% of the total disease burden worldwide-more than HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, or diabetes-making it the leading cause of years lost to disability. Depressive disorders make up 40.5% of that disability, the most of all mental illnesses. Despite the devastating global effects of depression, a report on approval trends by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) found that new molecular entities (NMEs) approved for targeting psychiatric illness peaked in the 1960s and have been declining since. PMID: 25551237 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Facing up to the ongoing challenge of Kaposi's sarcoma
Purpose of reviewKaposi's sarcoma is a mesenchymal tumour caused by infection with human herpesvirus 8, usually in the context of immunodeficiency. The global incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma rose dramatically with the outbreak of HIV and AIDS. Although the introduction of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) has seen a dramatic decline in Kaposi's sarcoma incidence, it remains a significant burden of morbidity and mortality, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. This review considers the most recent evidence regarding the prevalence, current treatment strategies and future therapies for Kaposi's sarcoma. Recent findingsIn the post-cART era, the epidemiology of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related Karposi sarcoma (AIDS-KS) is changing, with a rising incidence in the context of immune reco...
Transmission of HIV drug resistance: lessons from sensitive screening assays
Purpose of reviewThe review discusses new technologies for the sensitive detection of HIV drug resistance, with a focus on applications in antiretroviral treatment (ART)-naïve populations. Recent findingsConventional sequencing is well established for detecting HIV drug resistance in routine care and guides optimal treatment selection in patients starting ART. Access to conventional sequencing is nearly universal in Western countries, but remains limited in Asia, Latin America, and Africa. Technological advances now allow detection of resistance with greatly improved sensitivity compared with conventional sequencing, variably increasing the yield of resistance testing in ART-naïve populations. There is strong cumulative evidence from retrospective studies that sensitive detection of resi...
Emerging concepts on the use of antiretroviral therapy in older adults living with HIV infection
Purpose of reviewWith the overwhelming success of combination antiretroviral therapy, HIV infection is now a chronic, but manageable, medical condition. Consequently, HIV-infected cohorts are ageing leading to new challenges in the life-long management of this condition. Here, we review recent data concerning the modern treatment of older HIV-infected adults. Recent findingsHIV-infected cohorts are ageing with the majority of those infected predicted to be more than 50 years old within the next 2 decades. There is emerging evidence of increased antiretroviral drug exposure in older individuals, but the evidence this leads to increased toxicity is less clear-cut. In addition, the choice of antiretroviral agents is more challenging in older HIV-infected patients because of the presence of co...
Challenges in managing HIV in people who use drugs
Purpose of reviewHIV management in people who use drugs (PWUD) is typically complex and challenging due to the presence of multiple medical and psychiatric comorbidities as well as social, physical, economic and legal factors that often disrupt the HIV continuum of care. In this review, we describe the individual, health systems and societal barriers to HIV treatment access and care retention for PWUD. In addition, the clinical management of HIV-infected PWUD is often complicated by the presence of multiple infectious and noninfectious comorbidities. Recent findingsImproved HIV treatment outcomes can be enhanced through improved testing and linkage strategies along with better treatment retention and antiretroviral (ART) adherence. Improved ART adherence can be achieved through the provisi...
Advancing the HIV cure agenda: the next 5 years
Purpose of reviewTo explore how ethical considerations, improved diagnostics and data from clinical trials might see the lowering of some of the barriers blocking a cure for HIV infection over the next 5 years. Recent findingsDespite the recent well publicized but eventually disappointing case reports, there remains only one successful HIV cure, the ?Berlin patient?. We will review the data suggesting that more potent agents might achieve in-vivo viral activation and explore the tantalizing phenomenon of ?posttreatment control? following treatment in primary HIV infection. We will also explore how new assays and novel interventions might move the field forward. SummaryThere is a need for new agents that can be safely tested to impact the viral reservoir, a more meaningful understan...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Bone and Joint Infections in Children.
Authors: Pendleton A, Kocher MS Abstract Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus has been a clinically significant pathogen in orthopaedics for more than a decade. Research shows that these infections are more virulent and that treatment requires greater use of hospital resources. A multidisciplinary approach involving emergency department physicians, radiologists, interventional radiologists, MRI technicians, pediatricians, infectious disease specialists, anesthesiologists, and orthopaedic surgeons is necessary to optimize outcomes and minimize costs. Early use of MRI helps delineate the extent of infection, aids in the consideration of surgery, and provides valuable information for surgical planning. Healthcare providers need to stay vigilant during the course of the disease ...
Correlates of psychological functioning of homeless youth in Accra, Ghana: a cross-sectional study
Conclusion: There is a need for holistic interventions to help improve the psychological and social functioning of homeless youth. Such programmes should strengthen socio-emotional coping strategies in street youth as well as address contextual risk factors such as stigma and discrimination by the public. (Source: International Journal of Mental Health Systems)
Explaining the effects of electronic cigarettes on craving for tobacco in recent quitters
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are increasingly popular (Hajek et al., 2014). There is increasing evidence from randomized trials that e-cigarettes are effective smoking cessation aids (Adriaens et al., 2014; Hajek et al., 2014), and observational studies also suggest that e-cigarettes help smokers quit smoking and former smokers avoid relapse (Biener and Hargraves, 2014; Brown et al., 2014; Hajek et al., 2014). One possible cause of this effect is that e-cigarettes attenuate craving for tobacco and other tobacco withdrawal symptoms. (Source: Drug and Alcohol Dependence)
Experiences and expectations of participants completing an HIV cure focused clinical trial
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Minor viral population with drug-resistant mutation and risk of persistent low-level viremia or ?blips? in HIV-1 subtype C: Erratum
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Neighbourhood socio-economic position, late presentation and outcomes in people living with HIV in Switzerland
We examined the influence of neighbourhood SEP on presentation and outcomes in HIV-positive individuals in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Methods:The neighbourhood SEP of patients followed in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS) 2000?2013 was obtained on the basis of 2000 census data on the 50 nearest households (education and occupation of household head, rent, mean number of persons per room). We used Cox and logistic regression models to examine the probability of late presentation, virologic response to cART, loss to follow-up and death across quintiles of neighbourhood SEP. Results:A total of 4489 SHCS participants were included. Presentation with advanced disease [CD4+ cell count (Source: AIDS)
Show me your neighbours and I will tell you how you are
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
High prevalence of measles seronegativity in adults with HIV infection born in the era of measles vaccination in Northern France
We investigated measles humoral immunity levels in a cohort of HIV-infected adult patients in France and attempted to identify risk factors for antimeasles antibodies seronegativity. Being born after 1983 [odds ratio (OR) 4.40; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.26?14.09; P?=?0.0013] and a nadir CD4+ cell count below 100?cells/?l (OR 4.79; 95% CI 1.61?14.82; P?=?0.0048) were the two factors independently associated with measles seronegativity. Systematic measles antibody screening should be performed in HIV-infected individuals born in the era of measles vaccination (after 1983 in France). (Source: AIDS)
Teriparatide treatment of osteoporosis in an HIV-infected man: a case report and literature review
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Hepatitis B reverse seroconversion in a patient with well controlled HIV infection: a case report and a review of the literature
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Smoking and life expectancy among HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy in Europe and North America
Conclusion:Well treated HIV-infected individuals may lose more life years through smoking than through HIV. Excess mortality associated with smoking increases markedly with age. Therefore, increases in smoking-related mortality can be expected as the treated HIV-infected population ages. Interventions for smoking cessation should be prioritized. (Source: AIDS)
Trends in HIV acquisition, risk factors and prevention policies among youth in Uganda, 1999?2011
Conclusion:Dramatic decreases in HIV incidence occurred among adolescent women in Rakai. Changes in school enrolment and sexual experience were primarily responsible for declining HIV acquisition over time among adolescent women. Given limited improvement among young men and young adult women, the need for effective HIV prevention for young people remains critical. (Source: AIDS)
Dolutegravir efficacy at 48 weeks in key subgroups of treatment-naive HIV-infected individuals in three randomized trials
Conclusions:DTG is a once-daily, unboosted integrase inhibitor that is effective in combination with either ABC/3TC or TDF/FTC for first-line antiretroviral therapy in HIV-positive individuals with a variety of baseline characteristics. (Source: AIDS)
Effects of randomized rosuvastatin compared with placebo on bone and body composition among HIV-infected adults
Background:Statins have a beneficial effect on bone mineral density (BMD) and lean mass in some studies of HIV-uninfected adults; however, this has never been investigated in the setting of HIV infection. Design:HIV-infected individuals on stable antiretroviral therapy with a low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level of 130?mg/dl or less and evidence of heightened immune activation or inflammation were randomized to rosuvastatin 10?mg daily or placebo for 96 weeks. Methods:This was a prespecified interim analysis at 48 weeks. Between-group and within-group differences were compared; multivariable regression models were constructed. Results:Seventy-two individuals were randomized to statin therapy and 75 to placebo. Modest 48-week relative increases in trochanter BMD [0.9%; 95% confiden...
Efficacy and safety of lopinavir/ritonavir versus efavirenz-based antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected pregnant Ugandan women
Objective:Combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) is now the global standard for HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding women at all CD4+ cell counts. We compared the efficacy and safety of an efavirenz versus lopinavir/ritonavir regimen for HIV-infected pregnant women initiating ART in rural Uganda. Design:Randomized clinical trial. Methods:We performed a planned secondary analysis comparing viral load suppression (HIV-1 RNA ?400?copies/ml), safety, and HIV transmission to infants in a trial designed to test the hypothesis that lopinavir/ritonavir versus efavirenz-based ART would reduce placental malaria (PROMOTE, ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00993031). HIV-infected, ART-naive pregnant women at 12?28 weeks gestation and any CD4+ cell count were randomized. ART was provided and participa...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Impact of body weight on virological and immunological responses to efavirenz-containing regimens in HIV-infected, treatment-naive adults
Conclusion:Virological and immunological responses to initial EFV-containing regimens were not impaired in heavy individuals, suggesting that the standard 600?mg EFV dosage is appropriate across a wide weight range. (Source: AIDS)
Opportunities for improving the efficiency of paediatric HIV treatment programmes
Conclusion:Clinically driven monitoring of ART is cost-effective in most circumstances. Routine laboratory monitoring is generally not cost-effective at current prices, except possibly CD4+ testing amongst adolescents initiating ART. Committing resources to ensure continued provision of cotrimoxazole in health facilities is more likely to represent an efficient use of resources. (Source: AIDS)
The role of HIV-specific antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity in HIV prevention and the influence of the HIV-1 Vpu protein
There is growing interest in the role of anti-HIV antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) antibodies in the prevention and control of HIV infection. Passive transfer studies in macaques support a role for the Fc region of antibodies in assisting in the prevention of simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) infection. The Thai RV144 HIV-1 vaccine trial induced anti-HIV ADCC antibodies that may have played a role in the partial protection observed. Several observational studies support a role for ADCC antibodies in slowing HIV disease progression. However, HIV evolves to escape ADCC antibodies and chronic HIV infections causes dysfunction of effector cells such as natural killer (NK) cells that mediate the ADCC functions. Further, four recent studies show that the HIV-1 Vpu protein...
Cytomegalovirus, and possibly Epstein?Barr virus, shedding in breast milk is associated with HIV-1 transmission by breastfeeding
Objective:Postnatal HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) occurs in spite of antiretroviral therapy. Co-infections in breast milk with cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein?Barr virus (EBV) are associated with increased HIV-1 shedding in this compartment. We investigated CMV levels and EBV detection in breast milk as potential risk factors for MTCT of HIV-1 via breastfeeding. Methods:Cell-free HIV-1 RNA, cell-associated HIV-1 DNA, CMV and EBV DNA were quantified in breast milk from 62 HIV-infected mothers and proven postnatal MTCT of HIV-1 via breastfeeding. Controls were 62 HIV-positive mothers with HIV-uninfected infants. Results:Median (interquartile range) CMV DNA viral load was significantly higher in cases [88?044 (18?586?233?904)] than in controls [11?167 (3221?31?15...
The impact of HIV exposure and maternal Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection on infant immune responses to bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccination
Conclusion:Effects of maternal HIV and Mtb infection on infant immune profiles at birth are transient only, and HIV-exposed, noninfected infants have the same potential to respond to and be protected by BCG vaccination as HIV-unexposed infants. (Source: AIDS)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Nigeria: HIV/Aids in Nigeria - How Far, So Far?
[Independent (Lagos)]Abuja -Recently, stakeholders in the fight against HIV/AIDS from the 36 states of the federation and the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) including partners such United Nations Children Fund (UNICEF) and World Health Organisation (WHO) under the leadership of the HIV Division of the Federal Ministry of Health converged in Abuja to review activities being implemented in the fight against the scourge in Nigeria. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Updated Fact Sheets Available From CDC
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recently updated the following four fact sheets: &nbsp; HIV Among African Americans HIV Among African American Gay and Bisexual Men HIV Among Gay and Bisexual Men HIV Among Latinos The fact sheets include information and statistics on diagnoses of HIV infection and AIDS in each population. Prevention challenges and information about CDC programs and campaigns are also included. (Source: AIDSinfo At-a-Glance: Offering Information on HIV/AIDS Treatment, Prevention, and Research, A Service of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS))
Premarital sexual activity among unmarried adolescents in northern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study
Conclusions The study of this finding clearly demonstrated that rural adolescents initiate sexual activity early with limited protection from infections and unintended pregnancies. Community and school based sexual health education is recommended. (Source: Sexual and Reproductive Healthcare)
Alcohol consumption and reproductive health risks in rural Central Kenya
Conclusions Results indicate a need to address alcoholism in rural Kenya as a public health problem focusing on education and understanding of the long-term health consequences. Addressing the impact on male reproductive health is crucial because it impacts the wider community. Given the complex relationship between alcohol abuse and HIV/AIDS, it is also important for prevention interventions to target married women and non-alcohol consumers. Furthermore, engaging communities will ensure development of culture- and gender-specific interventions. Such engagement requires facilitation of health practitioners for development of meaningful community-based initiatives. (Source: Sexual and Reproductive Healthcare)
In vitro photodynamic inactivation of by phenothiazine dye (New methylene blue) and Indocyanine green (EmunDo)
Oral candidiasis is the most common opportunistic infection that influences the oral mucosa. The most predominant etiological agent in oral candidiasis is C. Albicans, which corresponds to 70-80% of all microorganisms isolated from oral lesions[1,2]. Oral candidiasis is a common manifestation of fungal infections, especially in immuno-compromised patients, such as HIV/AIDS patients and cancer patients receiving radiotherapy and chemotherapy [3]. This microorganism does not cause systemic or local problems in healthy patients. (Source: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
photodynamic inactivation of by phenothiazine dye (new methylene blue) and Indocyanine green (EmunDo)
Oral candidiasis is the most common opportunistic infection that influences the oral mucosa. The most predominant etiological agent in oral candidiasis is Candida albicans, which corresponds to 70?80% of all microorganisms isolated from oral lesions [1,2]. Oral candidiasis is a common manifestation of fungal infections, especially in immuno-compromised patients, such as HIV/AIDS patients and cancer patients receiving radiotherapy and chemotherapy [3]. This microorganism does not cause systemic or local problems in healthy patients. (Source: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy)
HIV-associated osteoporosis
AIDS is a disease, caused by the HIV belonging to the retroviral family, transmitted through blood, body fluids and unprotected sexual contact that may involve a number of complications of immune, cardiovascular and pulmonary systems. Antiretroviral drugs are usually used in treatment. Mild bone loss occurs with the start of antiretroviral treatment. Bone mass seems to be constant and improved in prolonged use of antiretrovirals. Oral and parenteral bisphosphonates are useful in patients, and they are referred to first-line treatment to prevent frailty and bone rupture. (Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology)
Bilateral Cochlear Implantation for Hearing-Impaired Children: Criterion of Candidacy Derived from an Observational Study
Conclusions:Children with an unaided four-frequency PTA of 80 dB HL or poorer in both ears should be considered candidates for bilateral cochlear implantation. In cases where a four-frequency PTA cannot be measured, the criterion of candidacy should be a two-frequency PTA of 85 dB HL or poorer in both ears. If adopted by policy-makers, these recommendations would expand the provision of cochlear implants among children in England and Wales. (Source: Ear and Hearing)
Estimating Productivity Costs in Health Economic Evaluations: A Review of Instruments and Psychometric Evidence
Abstract Health economic evaluations (i.e. cost-effectiveness appraisal of an intervention) are useful aids for decision makers responsible for the allocation of scarce healthcare resources. The relevance of including health-related productivity costs (or benefits) in these evaluations is increasingly recognized and, as such, reliable and valid instruments to quantify productivity costs are needed. Over the years, a number of work productivity instruments have emerged in the literature, along with a growing body of psychometric evidence. The overall aim of this paper is to provide a review of available instruments with potential for estimating health-related productivity costs. This included the Health and Labor Questionnaire, Health and Work Performance Questionnaire, Health-Rel...
HIV Counseling and Testing for the Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV in Swaziland: A Multilevel Analysis
Abstract HIV counseling and voluntary testing during antenatal care have been proven to reduce the risk of HIV transmission from mother to child, through increasing knowledge about safe behaviors, ascertaining HIV status and increasing coverage of effective antiretroviral regimens. However, it remains that, in developing countries where 95 % of mother-to-child HIV transmissions (MTCT) take place, such interventions are not widely accessible or available. Using a nationally representative cross-sectional household survey, the present study aimed to examine individual- and contextual-level influences on the receipt of HIV pre-test counseling and uptake of HIV testing during the antenatal care period in Swaziland, a country highly burdened by HIV/AIDS. The study sample was restrict...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Incorrect Grant Information
This article was corrected online and in print. (Source: JAMA Pediatrics)
Capsule Commentary on Tomko et al., A Comparison of Web- Versus Print-Based Decision Aids for Prostate Cancer Screening: Participants? Evaluation and Utilization
(Source: Journal of General Internal Medicine)
Fidelity of Implementation of an Evidence-Based HIV Prevention Program among Bahamian Sixth Grade Students
This study explores fidelity of implementation of the intervention, factors that may influence implementation fidelity, and the impact of variations in the implementation fidelity on student outcomes. Data were collected in the first wave of national implementation in 2011, involving 35 government primary schools and 110 teachers and 2,811 students. Structural equation modeling was performed to examine the relationships among factors which facilitated or impeded teachers? implementation of FOYC. Results indicate that teachers taught 16.3 out of 30 core activities, 24.9 out of 46 total activities, and 4.4 out of 8 sessions on average. The strongest predictor of implementation fidelity was teacher comfort level with the FOYC curriculum. Teachers who did not perceive the FOYC intervention t...
Effects of environmental disturbance on phenotypic variation: an integrated assessment of canalization, developmental stability, modularity, and allometry in lizard head shape.
Authors: Lazi? MM, Carretero MA, Crnobrnja-Isailovi? J, Kaliontzopoulou A Abstract Abstract When populations experience suboptimal conditions, the mechanisms involved in the regulation of phenotypic variation can be challenged, resulting in increased phenotypic variance. This kind of disturbance can be diagnosed by using morphometric tools to study morphological patterns at different hierarchical levels and evaluate canalization, developmental stability, integration, modularity, and allometry. We assess the effect of urbanization on phenotypic variation in the common wall lizard (Podarcis muralis) by using geometric morphometrics to assess disturbance to head shape development. The head shapes of urban lizards were more variable and less symmetric, suggesting that urban living is...
CD4+ T cell counts reflect the immunosuppressive state of CD4 helper cells in patients after allogeneic stem cell transplantation
Abstract The recovery of the host immune system after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is pivotal to prevent infections, relapse, and secondary malignancies. In particular, numerical CD4+ T cells reconstitution is delayed and CD4 helper cell function is considered impaired as a consequence of the transplant procedure and concomitant immunosuppressive medication. From HIV/AIDS patients, it is known that numerical and functional CD4 defects increase the risk of opportunistic infections. However, and in contrast to patients with HIV, anti-infective prophylaxis after allogeneic transplantation is usually given for 6 months depending on immunosuppressive medication and existing graft-versus-host disease but independently of absolute CD4+ T cells counts. We hypothesi...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Three-dimensional echocardiographic assessment of atrial septal defects.
Authors: German C, Nanda NC Abstract Echocardiography provides a useful tool in the diagnosis of many congenital heart diseases, including atrial septal defects, and aids in further delineating treatment options. Although two-dimensional echocardiography has been the standard of care in this regard, technological advancements have made three-dimensional echocardiography possible, and the images obtained in this new imaging modality are able to accurately portray the morphology, location, dimensions, and dynamic changes of defects and many other heart structures during the cardiac cycle. PMID: 25566714 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia)
Encephalitis of Unclear Origin Diagnosed by Brain Biopsy A Diagnostic Challenge
Conclusions and RelevanceENOS is the most common initial type of encephalitis diagnosed by brain biopsy. In such patients, it may be worth having the biopsy materials reviewed again in a comprehensive fashion by a neuropathologist because additional review led to a more specific categorization in one-third of our cases. Ancillary testing, clinical correlation, and clinical follow-up establish more specific diagnoses in some patients. ENOS still remains a diagnostic challenge after all these efforts in many cases. Current algorithms are of limited value. More advanced methods and better diagnostic algorithms are needed to characterize these patients. (Source: JAMA Neurology)
Novel mechanisms of controlling the activities of the transcription factors Spo0A and ComA by the plasmid?encoded quorum sensing regulators Rap60?Phr60 in Bacillus subtilis
Summary Bacillus subtilis and its closest relatives have multiple rap?phr quorum sensing gene pairs that coordinate a variety of physiological processes with population density. Extra?chromosomal rap?phr genes are also present on mobile genetic elements, yet relatively little is known about their function. In this work, we demonstrate that Rap60?Phr60 from plasmid pTA1060 coordinates a variety of biological processes with population density including sporulation, cannibalism, biofilm formation, and genetic competence. Similar to other Rap proteins that control sporulation, Rap60 modulates phosphorylation of the transcription factor Spo0A by acting as a phosphatase of Spo0F?P, an intermediate of the sporulation phosphorelay system. Additionally, Rap60 plays a noncanonical role in ...
Oral disease and HIV/AIDS
Since the first days of the HIV disease epidemic, remarkable discoveries have been made related to variations in the oral health of persons living with this disease or AIDS. Oral candidiasis (OC) was identified as a comorbid condition and early sign of immune suppression. Oral Kaposi sarcoma (KS) was recognized as a sign of AIDS related to oral disease. AIDS-associated oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL) and OC are now considered sentinels for decreased immune competence and clinical indicators of an increased possibility that HIV infection is present. (Source: Dental Abstracts)
Pertrochanteric Hip Fracture: A "Routine" Fracture With a Potentially Devastating Vascular Complication.
Pertrochanteric Hip Fracture: A "Routine" Fracture With a Potentially Devastating Vascular Complication. Orthopedics. 2015 Jan 1;38(1):e75-e79 Authors: Sullivan MP, Schenker ML, Mehta S Abstract Vascular injuries in conjunction with low-energy geriatric hip fractures, although uncommon, can be life-threatening. Furthermore, vascular injuries are usually iatrogenic, related to malpositioning of percutaneous reduction aids, aberrant drilling, or poorly sized implants. The authors describe an older woman who had a low-energy pertrochanteric hip fracture. She was noted preoperatively to have an isolated decrease in hemoglobin of 4.7 g/dL in the 2.5 days before surgery. Fracture reduction was performed with closed and percutaneous techniques with the limb free-legged on a r...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Persistence and pathogenesis of the neurotropic polyomavirus JC
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Annals of Neurology)
Exploring Perceived Social Support from Peer Facilitators in an HIV Treatment Adherence Intervention for African American Patients: A Content Analysis of Participant Perspectives
We examined how the type of social support perceived by participants was related to their self?reported behaviours in three domains: adherence, sexual safety and general coping. Our analysis revealed that most participants perceived informational and emotional support from their peer facilitators, followed by instrumental support. Affiliational support was the least frequently perceived type of social support. We found that perceived informational support from peer facilitators with regard to adherence had greater impact and credibility amongst participants than the same type of support from medical providers. Informational support was cited most frequently with regard to influencing adherence and sexual safety behaviours, whereas perceived emotional support was cited primarily with help...
Natural hosts of SIV: Implications in AIDS. Edited by Aftab A. Ansari and Guido Silvestri. 385 pp. London: Elsevier. 2014. $150.00 (cloth or e?book).
(Source: American Journal of Human Biology)
AIDS Presenting as Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis: PET and MR Imaging correlation
We report a patient in whom GAE secondary to Acanthamoeba was the initial presentation of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in a 41?year?old male, and discuss the FDG positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging findings that preceded the pathological diagnosis. The PET results provided complementary information when coupled with the MR brain findings. Improved understanding of the clinical and imaging findings of this deadly disease is the best hope for early diagnosis and treatment of this uncommon but deadly disease. (Source: Journal of Neuroimaging)
Improving the quality of colonoscopy bowel preparation using a smart phone application: A randomized trial
ConclusionsSuccessful cleansing and patient acceptability with the use of SPA were superior to written instructions in outpatients submitted for colonoscopy prepared 2?L PEG solution plus ascorbic acid (NCT02303743). (Source: Digestive Endoscopy)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
HIV Hearing Losses Cross High and Low FrequenciesHIV Hearing Losses Cross High and Low Frequencies
HIV-positive men and women are more likely to experience low-frequency and high-frequency hearing loss than their HIV-negative counterparts, researchers say. Reuters Health Information (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)
Tanzania: Scribes Need More Training On HIV-Aids
[Daily News]Veteran journalist Salim Said Salim (standing) addresses fellow scribes at a training workshop on HIV/AIDS in Zanzibar recently. (File photo) (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Socrates Was Not a Pimp: Changing the Paradigm of Questioning in Medical Education
The slang term ?pimping? is widely recognized by learners and educators in the clinical learning environment as the act of more senior members of the medical team publicly asking questions of more junior members. Although questioning as a pedagogical practice has many benefits, pimping, as described in the literature, evokes negative emotions in learners and leads to an environment that is not conducive to adult learning. Medical educators may employ pimping as a pedagogic technique because of beliefs that it is a Socratic teaching method. Although problems with pimping have previously been identified, no alternative techniques for questioning in the clinical environment were suggested. The authors posit that using the term ?pimping? to describe questioning in medical education is ...
Malawi: Controversy Over NAC Money As Mulhako Denies Receiving Funds
[Malawi24]Mist still surrounds the National Aids Commission (Nac) in which the board 'donated' money to some organisations which do not initially work towards combating HIV/AIDS. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Wayne Koff
Nature Reviews Drug Discovery 14, 10 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrd4528 The success rate for vaccines is even lower than for biopharmaceutical drugs, by some accounts. In an attempt to turn things around and address long-standing vaccinology problems, Wayne Koff, Chief Scientific Officer at the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI), and colleagues proposed a Human Vaccines Project in 2013. Top vaccinologists met to outline a scientific approach and business strategy in 2014, and the Human Vaccines Project could now launch by this summer, Koff tells Asher Mullard. (Source: Nature Reviews Drug Discovery)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Effectiveness of enfuvirtide in a cohort of highly antiretroviral-experienced HIV-1-infected patients in Mexico
Background: Treatments in patients with multidrug resistance often involve the use of multiple agents with partial antiviral activity and overlapping metabolic toxicities. Enfuvirtide is therefore a welcome addition to the antiretroviral management of patients with multiclass resistant virus, given the low risk of systemic toxicities and novel mechanism of action relative to existing drug classes.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of ENF plus optimized background regimen (OBR) in a Mexican cohort of highly HIV-1 ARV-experienced patients. Methods: Prospective cohort of treatment-experienced HIV-1-infected adults with virological failure who started therapy with an ENF-containing regimen. The effectiveness of ENF treatment was evaluated with percentages of undetectable H...
Stigma in HIV-infected healthcare workers in Kenya: A mixed method approach
HIV-related stigma decreases access to HIV testing, prevention, and treatment services. Our mixed method study explored stigma as perceived, experienced, and managed in a sample of 76 HIV-infected health care workers in Kisumu, Kenya. Stigma was quantitatively measured using the HIV/AIDS Stigma Instrument for People Living with AIDS (HASI-P). Overall, subjects experienced low stigma levels (Mean = 7.88, SD = 12.90; Range = 0-61), and none of the sociodemographic variables were predictive of stigma. (Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)
Minimum standards for the certification of patient decision support interventions: feasibility and application
Shared decision-making and the use of patient decision support interventions (also called patient decision aids) have been important innovations in healthcare [1,2], and have recently become part of health policy developments worldwide [3?5]. In the UK, the 2010 White Paper: ?Liberating the NHS? [3] and the NHS operating framework [6] promote the development and implementation of patient decision support interventions to support shared decision-making. These interventions are designed to help patients make informed decisions about their health care [8?10]. (Source: Patient Education and Counseling)
Year in Review: HIV-AIDS
(MedPage Today) -- Tragedy in the skies overshadowed AIDS conference. (Source: MedPage Today Infectious Disease)
'Very Strong Evidence' Of HIV Transmission During Porn Shoot
LOS ANGELES (AP) ? California public health officials have issued an alert after finding "very strong evidence" that an adult film actor became infected with HIV as a result of unprotected sex on an out-of-state film shoot. The Department of Public Health said Monday that the male actor tested positive for the virus that causes AIDS after engaging in unprotected sex with several other male actors during two separate film shoots. He had tested negative before the shoot. "During the second film shoot, he had symptoms of a viral infection," the alert states. "The actor went to a clinic and had another blood test that showed he had recently become infected with HIV." One actor from the second shoot has since tested positive for HIV. According to the health department, lab results indicate ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Prograf Aids in Myopathy-Related Lung Disease
(MedPage Today) -- Study "provides some reassurance" on use of tacrolimus. (Source: MedPage Today Primary Care)
Keeping HIV and AIDS in check - Deutsche Welle video
Keeping HIV and AIDS in check: Dr. Keikawus Arastéh is an internist at the Center for Infectious Medicine and HIV of the Berlin-based Auguste-Viktoria-Klinikum. He explains how to recognize an HIV infection, how to avoid contracting it in the first place, and what therapies help keep it in check. Posted at Clinical Cases and Images. Stay updated and subscribe, follow us on Twitter and connect on Facebook. (Source: Clinical Cases and Images)
This Muscle Could Save Your Life
You probably know someone who?s fallen and broken a hip. But what you may not know is that it?s not just elders who fall. The risk for breaking a hip doubles every five years after you turn fifty. And 30% of people who fall and break a hip develop complications and die within a year.1 The good news is you can use the power of your muscles to avoid falling and breaking your hip, starting today. The fact is falling down doesn?t have to be a part of aging. You just have to decide that you?re not going to take it lying down. It involves strengthening your quadriceps muscles. You see, the signals to your muscles start to slow down as you get older, making it harder for your muscles to respond. Researchers looked at how muscles respond when the brain cells that activate them ? called n...
Southern Africa: SMS for Healthy, Aids-Free Babies
[IPS]United Nations -In rural Zambia and Malawi, new mums face long delays finding out if they have passed HIV on to their babies. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Spontaneous Regression of Non?Small-Cell Lung Cancer in AIDS After Immune Reconstitution
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Thoracic Oncology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
NEJM Journal Watch HIV/AIDS Top Stories of 2014 (FREE)
By the NEJM Journal Watch Editors The top stories in HIV and AIDS this year ? (Source: Physician's First Watch current issue)
Nostalgia buffers the negative impact of low procedural justice on cooperation
Publication date: March 2015 Source:Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Volume 127 Author(s): Marius van Dijke , Tim Wildschut , Joost M. Leunissen , Constantine Sedikides This research integrates the discrete emotion of nostalgia (a sentimental longing for the past) with relational models of procedural justice. An organizational survey and four experiments demonstrated that nostalgia buffers (i.e., weakens) the deleterious impact of low (compared to high) procedural justice on organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and cooperation with authorities. Low procedural justice undermined social connectedness with authorities, and nostalgia?s buffering role derived from its capacity to block the pathway from this reduced social connectedness to decreased OCB and cooperat...
Cytomegalovirus Coinfection Is Associated With an Increased Risk of Severe Non-AIDS-Defining Events in a Large Cohort of HIV-Infected Patients
Conclusions In our study population, CMV/HIV coinfection was associated with the risk of severe non&ndash;AIDS-defining events/non&ndash;AIDS-related death, especially with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events, independently of other prognostic factors. This finding supports a potential independent role of CMV coinfection in vascular/degenerative organ disorders in HIV-infected subjects. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Cytomegalovirus Upregulates Expression of CCR5 in Central Memory Cord Blood Mononuclear Cells, Which May Facilitate In Utero HIV Type 1 Transmission
Administration of combination antiretroviral therapy to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)&ndash;infected pregnant women significantly reduces vertical transmission. In contrast, maternal co-opportunistic infection with primary or reactivated cytomegalovirus (CMV) or other pathogens may facilitate in utero transmission of HIV-1 by activation of cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMCs). Here we examine the targets and mechanisms that affect fetal susceptibility to HIV-1 in utero. Using flow cytometry, we demonstrate that the fraction of CD4+CD45RO+ and CD4+CCR5+ CBMCs is minimal, which may account for the low level of in utero HIV-1 transmission. Unstimulated CD4+ CBMCs that lack CCR5/CD45RO showed reduced levels of HIV-1 infection. However, upon in vitro stimulation with CMV, CBMCs un...
Pharmacokinetics of Efavirenz and Treatment of HIV-1 Among Pregnant Women With and Without Tuberculosis Coinfection
Conclusions Pregnancy increased the risk of low efavirenz concentrations, but MTCT was rare. A detectable HIV-viral load at delivery was more common among pregnant women with tuberculosis, in whom ART was generally initiated later. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Predictors of Women?s Intentions to be Screened for HIV during Pregnancy
Detection of HIV during pregnancy and a consequent treatment may reduce harm to the fetus. We examine whether the combination of Health Belief Model and Theory of Planned Behavior predicts women?s intentions to be screened for HIV during pregnancy. Two hundred Israeli women who participated in birth preparation classes completed e-mailed questionnaires. The results of a multiple linear regression reveal that perceived susceptibility to HIV, perceived benefits of screening, perceived severity of the illness, health motivation, and normative beliefs predicted women's intentions to be screened, while normative beliefs (beliefs about the extent to which significant others think they should be screened for HIV during pregnancy) was the most significant factor. (Source: Journal of the Associat...
Mortality among older adults with opioid use disorders in the Veteran's Health Administration, 2000-2011
Opioid use disorders (OUD) are associated with significant mortality. Regular and dependent opioid users die at nearly 15 times the rate of their age- and sex-matched peers, with a crude mortality rate of 2% per year (Degenhardt et al., 2011). Common causes of death include drug overdose, suicide, trauma, and AIDS-related illnesses. The relative contribution of specific causes of death to overall mortality varies with factors such as geography, background HIV prevalence and access to opioid substitution treatment (Degenhardt et al., 2011). (Source: Drug and Alcohol Dependence)
Mortality among older adults with opioid use disorders in the Veteran's Health Administration, 2000?2011
Opioid use disorders (OUD) are associated with significant mortality. Regular and dependent opioid users die at nearly 15 times the rate of their age- and sex-matched peers, with a crude mortality rate of 2% per year (Degenhardt et al., 2011). Common causes of death include drug overdose, suicide, trauma, and AIDS-related illnesses. The relative contribution of specific causes of death to overall mortality varies with factors such as geography, background HIV prevalence and access to opioid substitution treatment (Degenhardt et al., 2011). (Source: Drug and Alcohol Dependence)
Validation of a Novel Combination Hearing Aid and Tinnitus Therapy Device
Conclusions: Results of this study suggest that the use of hearing aids alone or hearing aids plus the use of sound generators both provide significant benefit with respect to alleviating effects of tinnitus. A larger controlled clinical trial is needed to obtain more definitive results regarding the two configurations of hearing aids. (Source: Ear and Hearing)
Bilateral Cochlear Implantation for Hearing-Impaired Children: Criterion of Candidacy Derived from an Observational Study
Conclusions: Children with an unaided four-frequency PTA of 80 dB HL or poorer in both ears should be considered candidates for bilateral cochlear implantation. In cases where a four-frequency PTA cannot be measured, the criterion of candidacy should be a two-frequency PTA of 85 dB HL or poorer in both ears. If adopted by policy-makers, these recommendations would expand the provision of cochlear implants among children in England and Wales. (Source: Ear and Hearing)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Reduced Darunavir Dose Maintains HIV SuppressionReduced Darunavir Dose Maintains HIV Suppression
A 600-mg dose of darunavir is as effective as the approved 800-mg dose in maintaining HIV suppression, researchers from Spain report. Reuters Health Information (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)
Nigeria: The Cure
[This Day]Kayode Oguntebi writes like Grisham. His approach is not tentative. He sees the pictures and puts them on paper. His sense of pacing ensures that the reader is not lost in the wilderness of boredom. His direct style makes Viral Load an interesting tale - one that chronicles the tragedies of this world on the parchment of hope. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Perception of HIV Risk and Adherence to FEM-PrEPPerception of HIV Risk and Adherence to FEM-PrEP
Does perceived HIV risk influence patients' decisions to adhere to pre-exposure prophylaxis? JAIDS: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
Nigeria: 3,051 Die of Aids in Nigeria in 4 Years
[Daily Trust]Nigeria has recorded a total of 3,051 deaths out of 187,846 AIDS cases within a span of four years, the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) has reported. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Zimbabwe: 1,3 Million Zimbabweans Living With HIV/Aids
[Financial Gazette]AT LEAST 1,3 million people in Zimbabwe are living with HIV/AIDS compared to two million recorded in the previous years, a government official has said. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Survival, Continence and Potency (SCP) recovery after radical retropubic prostatectomy: A long-term combined evaluation of surgical outcomes
Conclusion Survival, Continence and Potency (SCP) classification offer a comprehensive report of surgical results, even in those patients who do not represent the best category, thus allowing to provide a much more accurate evaluation of outcomes after RP. (Source: European Journal of Surgical Oncology (EJSO))
Natural Killer Cells: In Health and Disease
Publication date: Available online 27 December 2014 Source:Hematology/Oncology and Stem Cell Therapy Author(s): Arundhati Mandal , Chandra Viswanathan Natural killer (NK) cells constitute our bodies? frontline defense system, guarding against tumors and launching attacks against infections. The activities of NK cells are regulated by the interaction of various receptors expressed on their surfaces with cell surface ligands. While the role of NK cells in controlling tumor activity is relatively clear, the fact that they are also linked to various other disease conditions is now being highlighted. Here, we present an overview of the role of NK cells during normal body state as well as under diseased state. We discuss the possible utilization of these powerful cells as immunotherapeutic a...
Live course: pediatric HIV [FOR YOUR INFORMATION]
(Source: AAP News)
Preparatory behaviours and condom use during receptive and insertive anal sex among male-to-female transgenders (Waria) in Jakarta, Indonesia.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results have implications for the development of interventions to target preparatory behaviours and condom use behaviours. Five behaviours and three psychological factors as defined in the TPB are to be targeted. PMID: 25529498 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
AIDS, People who Use Drugs, and Altruism: Reflection on a Personal Image
Substance Use & Misuse, Ahead of Print. (Source: Substance Use and Misuse)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Hearing preservation and cochlear implants according to inner ear approach: multicentric evaluation
Conclusion The hearing preservation occurred in 89.4% of cases. There was no significant difference between the forms of inner ear approach. (Source: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology)
Pain, Anxiety, and Negative Outcome Expectations for Activity: Do Negative Psychological Profiles Differ Between the Inactive and Active?
ConclusionIdentifying differences in negative psychological factors aids in the understanding of differential adherence between activity groups and highlights possible factors to change in future intervention and research. (Source: Arthritis Care and Research)
HIV Tied to Worse Hearing in Older Adults
Study suggests virus might have effect on the inner ear, one expert said Source: HealthDay Related MedlinePlus Pages: HIV/AIDS, Hearing Disorders and Deafness (Source: MedlinePlus Health News)
Hepatitis C Infection Isn't Related to HIV Brain Woes
Mood swings, memory problems may be triggered by inflammation, researchers say Source: HealthDay Related MedlinePlus Pages: HIV/AIDS and Infections, Hepatitis C, Living with HIV/AIDS (Source: MedlinePlus Health News)

 

 


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