Complete HIV Informative Website.




Welcome to HIV INFORMATION — your comprehensive hiv resource. Our mission is to give you the facts you need about hiv — fast — so you can get on the road to taking action right away`.

CD4 Cells
By Afsath Jameela

CD4 Cells
Treatment centers need consulting rooms, offices, waiting rooms and secure storage for valuable drugs. They also require basic facilities to test for anemia, pregnancy, renal function, white blood cell counts and other factors that may affect treatment.
In developed countries, decisions about when to start treatment are based on the results of clinical tests called the CD4 test and the viral load test. Ideally these tests should be used everywhere, but in many parts of the world they are currently unavailable, as they require expensive equipment, electricity and trained technicians. In theory, decisions about when to start treatment may be based on symptoms alone. However in practice some treatment programmers provide medication only to people who have had a CD4 count.
There are two primary types of T-cells.
1. CD4 Cells-These cells have molecules called CD4 on its surface. These "helper" cells initiate the body's response to invading micro-organisms such as viruses.
2.CD8 Cells-These types of T-cells have a molecule called CD8 on their surface. CD8 cells destroy cells that have been infected with foreign invading micro-organisms. CD8 cells also produce antiviral substances (antibodies) that help fight off the foreign invader.
3.Normal values-In a healthy adult, a normal CD4 count can vary a great deal but is typically 600 to 1200 cells per cubic millimeter of blood
Between 600 and 350- In an HIV+ person, this range is considered "very good".
HIV medications are typically not be indicated.
Between 350 and 200-The immune system is weakened and therefore the HIV+ person may be at increased risk for infection and illness.
Function of T helper cells: Antigen presenting cells present antigen on their Class II MHC molecules. Helper T cells recognize these, with the help of their expression of CD4 co-receptor. The activation of a resting helper T cell causes it to release cytokines and other stimulatory signals. The importance of CD4 T cells is demonstrated with infection.
It has been proposed that during the non-symptomatic phase of infection, the virus has a relatively low affinity towards T cells (and has a higher affinity for macrophages), resulting in a slow kill rate of CD4+ T cells by the immune system. This is initially compensated for via the production of new helper T cells from thymus. Once the virus becomes T-tropic, it begins to infect CD4+ T cells far more efficiently, and

First conviction under POCSO Act - Hindu: News
On Thursday, the Mahila Court in Chennai convicted for the first time a 55-year old man under the Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (POCSO) Act 2012 for molesting a 10-year old mentally c...
Gulfs of Kambhat, Kutch show high vulnerability indices: Govt - Zee News : India National
The Gulfs of Kambhat and Kutch in Gujarat show very high indices to multi-hazard coastal vulnerability, according to mapping carried out by the Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS), the government on Thursday said.
NIMHANS to file report - The Hindu: Today's Paper
NIMHANS to file report
Nimhans to Submit Medical Report on Sailor Tomorrow - The New Indian Express - Kerala -
NIMHANS to file report
How 'mentally ill' homeless women in India get caught in a vicious cycle - DNA: Urban Tales
A new research has demonstrated how homeless, mentally ill women in India face a vicious cycle. The study conducted at Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine showed that during psychotic episodes, Indian women wander away from home, sometimes for long distances, and wind up in homeless shelters. They later return to their families before undergoing sufficient psychosocial rehabilitation to deal with their illness. Consequently, they suffer mental illness relapses and wind up homeless again. Study author Anita Rao asserted that the study illustrated how there must be a balance between reintegrating homeless, mentally ill women with their families and achieving a psychiatric remission first. Rao surveyed 21 women in a residential facility for homeless, mentally ill women. The surveys were prepared in conjunction with the Indian National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences. Information was collected on the women's socio-demographic variables and psychosocial and familial conditions in ...
Why Mentally Ill Women in India Remain Homeless -
A new research has demonstrated how homeless, mentally ill women in India face a vicious cycle. The study conducted at Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine showed that during psychotic episodes, Indian women wander away from home, sometimes for long distances, and wind up in homeless shelters. They later return to their families before undergoing sufficient psychosocial rehabilitation to deal with their illness. Consequently, they suffer mental illness relapses and wind up homeless again. Study author Anita Rao asserted that the study illustrated how there must be a balance between reintegrating homeless, mentally ill women with their families and achieving a psychiatric remission first. Rao surveyed 21 women in a residential facility for homeless, mentally ill women. The surveys were prepared in conjunction with the Indian National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences. Information was collected on the women's socio-demographic variables and psychosocial and familial conditions in ...
Homeless, mentally ill Indian women face vicious cycle: Study - Zee News : India National
Homeless, mentally ill women in India are reunited with their families before undergoing sufficient psychosocial rehabilitation which causes them to suffer relapses and end up homeless again, an award-winning study by an Indian-American researcher has found.
One-third of Libyans suffer mental health problems: Report - New Kerala: World News
Tripoli, Nov 26 : Human rights violations in Libya have left nearly a third of the population suffering from mental health problems, according to a new report.
One-third of Libyans suffer mental health problems: Report - All News-IANS Stories
Human rights violations in Libya have left nearly a third of the population suffering from mental health problems, according to a new report.
Brain knows what is virtual or real: Study - Zee News : Science and Technology
Neurons in the brain react differently to virtual reality than they do to real-life environments, shows a study.
Why mentally ill women in India remain homeless - Sify News
Neurons in the brain react differently to virtual reality than they do to real-life environments, shows a study.
How 'mentally ill' homeless women in India go through a vicious cycle - New Kerala: India News
Washington, Nov 26 : A new research has demonstrated that how homeless, mentally ill women in India face a vicious cycle.
Brain knows what is virtual or real: Study - New Kerala: Technology
Washington, Nov 26 : Neurons in the brain react differently to virtual reality than they do to real-life environments, shows a study.
Why mentally ill women in India remain homeless - New Kerala: India News
New York, Nov 26 : Re-uniting wandering mentally ill women with their families is ironically the reason why many of them end up homeless again, says an award-winning study by an Indian-American researcher.
Brain knows what is virtual or real: Study - All News-IANS Stories
Neurons in the brain react differently to virtual reality than they do to real-life environments, shows a study.
Why mentally ill women in India remain homeless - All News-IANS Stories
Re-uniting wandering mentally ill women with their families is ironically the reason why many of them end up homeless again, says an award-winning study by an Indian-American researcher.
How 'mentally ill' homeless women in India go through a vicious cycle - Sify News
A new research has demonstrated that how homeless, mentally ill women in India face a vicious cycle.
Anxiety, depression plague Ukraine?s violence-torn east - FirstPost: World
<p>At Donetsk's main psychiatric hospital, Dr Mikhail Bero has seen hundreds of patients check in as the seven months of fighting that has cost over 4,300 lives takes its toll.<br /> At Donetsk's main psychiatric hospital, Dr Mikhail Bero has seen hundreds of patients check in as the seven months of fighting that has cost over 4,300 lives takes its toll. </p> <p>The post <a rel="nofollow" href="">Anxiety, depression plague Ukraine&#8217;s violence-torn east</a> appeared first on <a rel="nofollow" href="">Firstpost</a>.</p>
'40% people seeing doc for an ailment have depression' - Nagpur News, Nagpur City News | Cities News - Times of India
Despite better understanding of the condition, depression still remains the most under-detected illness in the world, say ...
Asymmetrical breasts can play havoc with teens' emotional health - New Kerala: Health News
Washington, Nov 25 : A new study has revealed that differences in breast size have a significant mental health impact in adolescent girls, affecting self-esteem, emotional well-being, and social functioning.
Four held for abetting suicide - The Hindu: Today's Paper
Four held for abetting suicide
District witnesses spike in cases of Schizophrenia among adolescents - TOI: All Headlines
District witnesses spike in cases of Schizophrenia among adolescents
National Organ and Tissue Transplantation Organisation (NOTTO) - Latest News
The National Organ and Tissue Transplant Organization (NOTTO) has been set up in New Delhi. It has become partially functional. It will result in ensuring increased availability of organs/tissues retrieved from deceased donors and help save lives ...
Kids seek professional help as exam stress mounts - TOI: All Headlines
Kids seek professional help as exam stress mounts
Man gets life term for raping mentally challenged girl -
<strong>A special court on Monday sentenced a man to life imprisonment under the Pocso Act for sexually assaulting a mentally challenged minor girl last year.</strong><br /><br />The court also imposed a fine of Rs 50,000 on the 51-year-old convict Sundara. Failure to pay the fine will entail an additional year of imprisonment. The parents of the victim have been directed to file an application with the District Legal Services Authority to claim the compensation amount of Rs 50,000.<br /><br />Sundara had sexually assaulted the girl on July 11, 2013, after taking her to his house on the pretext of giving her snuff. The misdeed was exposed by Childline members with the help of the police. A case was registered at the Bajpe police station on August 23, 2013.

the immune system is overwhelmed.
At this point, functional CD4+ T cell levels begin to decrease, eventually to a point where the CD4+ T cell population is too small to recognize the full range antigens that could potentially be detected. The lack of full antigen cover results in the core symptoms of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).CD4 T cell depletion during AIDS allows various pathogens to escape T cell recognition, thus allowing opportunistic infections that would normally elicit a helper T cell response to bypass the immune system. While these complete bypass situations only occur when the helper T cell response is absolutely necessary for infection clearance, most infections increase in severity and/or duration because the immune system's helper T cells provide a weaker contribution to a less efficient immune response.
Two components of the immune system are particularly affected in AIDS, due to its CD4+ T cell dependency:
CD8+ T cells are not stimulated as effectively during the AIDS period of infection, making AIDS patients very susceptible to most viruses, including itself. This decline in killing of CD4+ T cells results in the virus being produced for a longer period (the infected CD4+ T cells are not killed as quickly), increasing the proliferation of the virus, and accelerating the development of the disease.
Antibody class switching declines significantly once helper T cell function fails. The immune system loses its ability to improve the affinity of their antibodies, and are unable to generate B cells that can produce antibody groups such as IgG and IgA. These effects are primarily due to the loss of any helper T cell that can interact with the B lymphocyte correctly. Another symptom of AIDS is the reduction in antibody levels due to a decrease in Th2 cytokines (and less interactions by helper T cells). All of these complications result in an increased susceptibility to aggressive bacterial infections, especially in areas of the body not accessible by IgM antibodies.
If the patient does not respond to Treatment they will succumb usually to either cancers or infections; the immune system finally reaches a point where it is no longer coordinated or stimulated enough to deal with the disease.

 Keywords:  HIV,AIDS,HIV Cure,HIV Treatment,HIV Infection,HIV Dating,HIV Positive,HIV Symptoms.

Afsath Jameela is a successful lady writer from Kairo. She right now living in UK.

Time for a systematic look at inactivated HIV vaccines
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
HIV inactivation: time for a second look
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Different expression of Blimp-1 in HIV infection may be used to monitor disease progression and provide a clue to reduce immune activation and viral reservoirs
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
The elephant and the blind men: making sense of the seemingly multifaceted role of blimp-1 in HIV-1 infection
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Cardiac effects of in-utero exposure to antiretroviral therapy in HIV-uninfected children born to HIV-infected mothers
Conclusion:There was no evidence of significant cardiac toxicity of perinatal combination antiretroviral therapy exposure in HEU children. Subclinical differences in left ventricular structure and function with specific in-utero antiretroviral exposures indicate the need for a longitudinal cardiac study in HEU children to assess long-term cardiac risk and cardiac monitoring recommendations. (Source: AIDS)
Age-specific and sex-specific weight gain norms to monitor antiretroviral therapy in children in low-income and middle-income countries
Background:Viral load and CD4% are often not available in resource-limited settings for monitoring children's responses to antiretroviral therapy (ART). We aimed to construct normative curves for weight gain at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months following initiation of ART in children, and to assess the association between poor weight gain and subsequent responses to ART. Design:Analysis of data from HIV-infected children younger than 10 years old from African and Asian clinics participating in the International epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS. Methods:The generalized additive model for location, scale, and shape was used to construct normative percentile curves for weight gain at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months following ART initiation. Cox proportional models were used to assess the association ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Growth patterns in the first year of life differ in infants born to perinatally vs. nonperinatally HIV-infected women
Objective:To compare the growth patterns in the first year of life between children born to perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV) vs. nonperinatally HIV-infected (NPHIV) women in the United States. Design:Retrospective cohort study of HIV-infected pregnant women who received care and delivered a live-born at two urban tertiary centers from January 2004 to March 2012. Methods:We collected data via chart review on demographics, behavioral risk factors, HIV clinical markers, combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), mode of HIV acquisition, pregnancy outcomes, and infant anthropometrics on study participants. Mixed-effects models were used to assess the association between maternal mode of HIV acquisition and weight-for-age z-score (WAZ), length-for-age z-score (LAZ), and weight-for-length z-score...
Dramatic decline in substance use by HIV-infected pregnant women in the United States from 1990 to 2012
Objective:We aimed to describe temporal changes in substance use among HIV-infected pregnant women in the United States from 1990 to 2012. Design:Data came from two prospective cohort studies (Women and Infants Transmission Study and Surveillance Monitoring for Antiretroviral Therapy Toxicities Study). Methods:Women were classified as using a substance during pregnancy if they self-reported use or had a positive biological sample. To account for correlation between repeated pregnancies by the same woman, generalized estimating equation models were used to test for temporal trends and evaluate predictors of substance use. Results:Over the 23-year period, substance use among the 5451 HIV-infected pregnant women sharply declined; 82% of women reported substance use during pregnancy in 1990, c...
Combination antiretroviral therapy reduces the detection risk of cervical human papilloma virus infection in women living with HIV
Conclusion:cART significantly reduced cervical HPV infection. This effect was dependent on the duration of exposure to cART and is the mechanism by which cART may improve the outcome of dysplasia in HIV-infected women. (Source: AIDS)
Trends in and correlates of CD4+ cell count at antiretroviral therapy initiation after changes in national ART guidelines in Rwanda
This study was conducted to better understand barriers and enablers to timely ART initiation in Rwanda where ART coverage is high and national ART eligibility guidelines first expanded in 2007?2008. Methods:Using data on 6326 patients (?15 years) at five Rwandan clinics, we assessed trends and correlates of CD4+ cell count at ART initiation and the proportion initiating ART with advanced HIV disease (CD4+ (Source: AIDS)
Testosterone replacement therapy among HIV-infected men in the CFAR Network of Integrated Clinical Systems
The objectives of this study were to determine the rate of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) initiation, TRT predictors and associated monitoring in HIV-infected men. Design:A multisite cohort study. Methods:We examined TRT initiation rates and monitoring among adult HIV-infected men in routine care at seven sites in the Centers for AIDS Research (CFAR) Network of Integrated Clinical Systems (CNICS) from 1996 to 2011. We determined TRT predictors using Cox regression modelling. Results:Of 14?454 men meeting inclusion criteria, TRT was initiated in 1482 (10%) with an initiation rate of 19.7/1000 person-years [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 18.7?20.7]. In the multivariable model, TRT was significantly associated with age at least 35 years, white race, diagnosis of AIDS wasting, he...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Persistent HIV-related stigma in rural Uganda during a period of increasing HIV incidence despite treatment expansion
Conclusion:Internalized stigma has increased over time among PLHIV in the setting of worsening anticipated stigma in the general population. Further study is needed to better understand the reasons for increasing HIV-related stigma in Uganda and its impact on HIV prevention efforts. (Source: AIDS)
Design of a highly potent HIV-1 fusion inhibitor targeting the gp41 pocket
Conclusion:Our studies delivered an ideal HIV-1 fusion inhibitor that specifically targeted the highly conserved gp41 pocket and possessed potent binding and antiviral activity. Furthermore, HP23 can serve as a critical tool to explore the mechanisms of HIV-1 fusion and inhibition. (Source: AIDS)
Broad and persistent Gag-specific CD8+ T-cell responses are associated with viral control but rarely drive viral escape during primary HIV-1 infection
Conclusions:These data underscore the importance of HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, particularly to the Gag protein, in the maintenance of low viral load levels during primary infection, and show that these responses are initially poorly elicited by natural infection. These data have implications for vaccine design strategies. (Source: AIDS)
Mx2 expression is associated with reduced susceptibility to HIV infection in highly exposed HIV seronegative Kenyan sex workers
Introduction:Recent studies have identified Mx2 as a novel HIV-1 innate restriction factor that inhibits proviral integration. A pilot proteomic study of immune cells from highly exposed HIV-seronegative (HESN) individuals enrolled in the Pumwani sex worker cohort identified Mx1 as potential correlate of HIV protection. A detailed population level analysis of Mx1 and Mx2 expression and their role in reduced susceptibility to HIV infection in HESN women was conducted. Methods:Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated from 102 HESN women and 100 high-risk negative controls enrolled in a Nairobi-based sex worker cohort. Whole-cell lysates were prepared and analyzed for Mx1 and Mx2 expression by commercial ELISA. Bivariate and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to...
Gut epithelial barrier and systemic inflammation during chronic HIV infection
Objective:Microbial translocation and innate immune action characterize HIV infection. Continued gut mucosal dysfunction during treatment and its relationship to CD4+ T-cell recovery has not been well described. Design:A cross-sectional study was performed of antiretroviral therapy (ART)-suppressed (immunologic responders with CD4+ >?500?cells/?l and immunologic nonresponders with CD4+ (Source: AIDS)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Therapy with boceprevir or telaprevir in HIV/hepatitis C virus co-infected patients to treat recurrence of hepatitis C virus infection after liver transplantation
Conclusion:Our data suggest that in HIV/HCV co-infected patients, triple anti-HCV therapy with telaprevir greatly improved efficacy despite poor tolerability. Significant decreases in cyclosporine or tacrolimus doses are necessary prior to introduction of boceprevir or telaprevir. Close monitoring is essential to prevent drug?drug interactions among antiretroviral therapy, immunosuppressive agents and anti-HCV therapy. (Source: AIDS)
The contrasting cultures of HIV and tuberculosis care
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Mitochondrial disturbances in HIV pregnancies
Background:Mitochondrial consequences from foetal exposure to HIV infection and antiretrovirals could be further investigated. Objective:The main objective of this study was to evaluate maternofoetal mitochondrial disturbances in HIV infection and antiretroviral administration in human pregnancies as the aetiopathogenic basis of suboptimal perinatal-clinical features. Design:Cross-sectional, prospective, observational, exploratory and controlled study. Methods:Clinical/epidemiological data of 35 HIV-infected pregnant women and 17 controls were collected. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and RNA (mtRNA) content (real time-PCR), enzymatic activities and content (spectrophotometry) were measured in leucocytes. Genetic-functional, maternofoetal and molecular-clinical correlations were assessed. Resul...
World AIDS Day ? December 1, 2014
(Source: CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report)
Liberia: Ebola Hampers Nat'l HIV Response
[Inquirer]The National AIDS Commission (NAC) has revealed that people living with HIV and AIDS who should be on treatment are only 25 percent receiving treatment in Liberia. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Gambia: 'Positive Behavioural Practices, Critical in Halting, Reversing HIV'
[Daily Observer]The president of the Republic and chairman of the National Aids Council (NAC) has reiterated that positive behavioral practices are very critical in halting and reversing HIV in the country. He revealed that recent studies indicate that Lower River Region (LRR) is the hardest hit in terms of HIV prevalence, followed by West Coast Region (WCR). (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Liberia: 'Ebola Outbreak Stalls HIV Response'
[NEWS]The Chairman of the National AIDS Commission of Liberia, Dr. Ivan F. Camanor has disclosed that Ebola has negatively impacted the national HIV response. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Europe and Central Asia failing to curb spread of HIV: WHO
LONDON (Reuters) - Despite major advances in treating and preventing HIV, Europe and Central Asia have failed to tackle the epidemic, with some 136,000 people becoming newly infected with the incurable AIDS virus last year, health officials said on Thursday. (Source: Reuters: Health)
Zimbabwe: Government Urges Zimbabweans to Know Their Status
[Key Correspondents]Zimbabwe's Ministry of Health and Child Care is stepping up its efforts to promote voluntary counselling and testing for HIV, amid concerns that the current uptake of these services is too low. The government launched a new HIV testing and counselling campaign and new national guidelines on 20 November. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: U.S. Votes U.S.$500 Million to Fight HIV/Aids in Nigeria
[Guardian]Abuja -As part of United States President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), the United States Government yesterday earmarked an extra $500 million to support the fight against HIV/AIDS in Nigeria. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Liberia: 'Ebola Outbreak Undermines HIV Response'
[Observer]The Chairman of the National AIDS Commission of Liberia, Dr. Ivan F. Camanor, has disclosed that the Ebola virus disease outbreak has negatively affected the national HIV response in the country. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nutritional Management in HIV/AIDS Infection.
Authors: van Graan AE PMID: 25418402 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics)
Nigeria: U.S. Commits Over U.S.$3.5 Billion to Nigeria HIV/Aids Response
[Leadership]The Embassy of the United States of America yesterday revealed that its government has committed more than $3.5 billion, about N580 billion, to Nigeria's HIV/AIDS response since 2004. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Tanzania: Dar Seeks Funds for Anti-Retroviral Care
[Daily News]Dodoma -THE government is looking for funds to implement World Health Organization (WHO) guidance of placing HIV/Aids positive people with CD4 count of 500 on Antiretroviral (ARV) therapy. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Use of Sargassum fusiforme Extract and its Bioactive Molecules to inhibit HIV Infection: Bridging Two Paradigms between Eastern and Western Medicine
Publication date: November 2014 Source:Chinese Herbal Medicines, Volume 6, Issue 4 Author(s): Hui-jun Guo , Yan-ze Liu , Elena E. Paskaleva , Manoj Arra , Jeffrey S. Kennedy , Alexander Shekhtman , Mario Canki AIDS is a global pandemic that has seen the development of novel and effective treatments to improve the quality of life of those infected and reduction in the spread of the disease. While great advancements have been made in HIV/AIDS therapeutics, there is still no cure or viable vaccine in development. The high rate of HIV-1 mutation contributing to virus immune escape, combined with increase in sexual transmission and the significant clinical therapeutics side effects of the currently available treatments highlights the need for novel therapeutics with broad anti-viral activity ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Death from AIDS is preventable, so why are people still dying of AIDS in Europe?
(Source: Eurosurveillance)
Report of filamentous forms in a mating type VNI clinical sequential isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans from an HIV virus-infected patient
We reported a cryptococcal meningitis Aids-patient infected with a mating type VNI isolate showing filamentous cells in direct examination of cerebrospinal fluid. Clinical data, outcome, treatment features and microbiological findings were discussed. (Source: Medical Mycology Case Reports)
Holiday Survival 101
Now that Halloween is in the rear view mirror, we're speeding towards the holidays and if we're not careful, to the destination of burnout. Foods we don't usually eat, later nights than usual, holiday expectations, family dynamics and the financial stress of gift buying can send even the strongest person right over the edge. It's no surprise so many of us start the new year feeling exhausted and sick. How to skip symptoms of burnout? I've got five easy ways to carve out a little sanity amongst the chaos. Holiday Survival 101. 1. Remember time-outs when you were a kid? Back then you probably considered them punishment but today they will save you from punishing yourself. Taking small breaks throughout the day for me-time isn't self indulgent, it's necessary during the holidays. How t...
DIGIGLASSES Headsets for People with Vision Disabilities
The DIGIGLASSES project, which kicked off in 2012, set out to develop a marketable digital tool for the visually impaired using stereoscopic vision, corrected and customised for the specific symptoms of the user?s eye disease. The project?s latest video (see below) announces the opening of product lines for participating SMEs. The project hopes it can be on market at the end of 2015. (Source: Disabled World)
Swaziland: Nutrition Advice Helps Farmer Win Battle Against Aids
[WFP]Diagnosed as HIV positive in 2011, Sabelo became badly malnourished as he struggled to keep his farm going and feed his family. He seemed to be on a downward spiral. But a combination of antiretrovirals, food assistance and nutrition advice turned things around. Today, he grows enough vegetables to keep himself healthy and earn an income on the local market. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Liberia: Monrovia Medical Unit Aids Health Care Workers in Ebola Fight
[State Department]The United States has been engaged in fighting the Ebola outbreak since the first cases were reported in March and on November 5, as part of our whole-of-government response to the Ebola crisis, we opened the Monrovia Medical Unit, which will provide care to any health care workers who become infected with Ebola while treating patients. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Africa: Global Fund Analysis of Audits and Investigations
[Global Fund]At the 32nd Board meeting of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, held 20-21 November, the Board was informed of an analysis of audits and investigations, reaffirming a policy of zero tolerance for corruption and a commitment to a high degree of transparency. The Global Fund reports all cases of misused funds, publishing audits and investigations reports on its website. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Zimbabwe: STI Cases On the Rise
[The Herald]The number of people treated for sexually transmitted infections continues to increase in Harare in contrast to the declining trend in new HIV infections. This was revealed by the Harare City Health Director Dr Prosper Chonzi, who said in 2013 Harare reported an increase of 17 percent, up from 15 percent the previous year. Dr Chonzi attributed the increase to people's laxity in using protection during sex. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Liberia: World Aids Day Program Earmarked
[NEWS]The National AIDS Commission (NAC) and partners have planned series of programs to mark the commemoration of this year's World AIDS Day in Liberia. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Kenya: Gender-Based Violence Against Sex Workers and Its Implications On HIV and Aids
[The Star]This is the second part of our series to mark 16 Days of Activism Against Gender-Based Violence (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Zimbabwe: World Day Aids Day Theme Song Launched
[The Herald]Aids remains one of the killer diseases in Zimbabwe with many people succumbing to the disease each year. It is against this background that local musicians have joined hands and launched an HIV and AIDS awareness theme song for the coming World Aids Day to be commemorated in Victoria Falls on December 1. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Zambia: U.S. Launches U.S.$25Million HIV/Aids Project
[Times of Zambia]THE United States Government has launched a US$25million project towards HIV/AIDS prevention in Zambia. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Kenya: First Lady's Speech During the Handing Over of 13th Mobile Clinic to Kisii County
[Kenya Presidency]Distinguished Guests, (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Paragangliomas Arising in the Head and Neck
Seventy percent of parasympathetic paragangliomas arise in the head and neck and are nonsecretory. Awareness of the differential diagnosis based on location, overlapping morphology, and immunohistochemical profiles aids in the correct diagnosis, particularly on limited tissue samples. Moreover, 30% to 40% of head and neck paragangliomas are known to be associated with hereditary syndromes, with the succinate dehydrogenase enzyme family comprising the most frequent association. The pathologist?s role is becoming increasing critical for facilitating optimal patient care beyond the initial tissue diagnosis of paraganglioma to include screening and documenting potential hereditary tumors requiring further patient counseling and testing. (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Application of the analytic hierarchy process to a risk assessment of emerging infectious diseases in shaoxing city in southern china.
This study aimed to assess the likelihood of an outbreak or epidemic of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) in Shaoxing city, China, and its resulting impact to provide decision makers with quantitative, directive results. Factors related to the risk of EIDs were selected through meeting with experts and were arranged in a hierarchical structure. These evaluation factors were also weighted to allow the use of a point system for evaluation. As a result, 14 evaluation factors comprising a 3-layer hierarchy were generated. The riskiest top 10 EIDs were HIV/AIDS (consistency index [CI] = 3.206), cholera (CI = 3.103), SARS (CI = 2.804), acute schistosomiasis (CI = 2.784), malaria (CI = 2.777), legionellosis (CI = 2.743), avian influenza A/H5N1 (CI = 2.734), dengue fever (CI = 2.702), Escherichi...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Botswana: NACA Continues Fight Against HIV/Aids Fights
[Botswana Daily News]Serowe -Botswana remains committed to ending HIV/AIDS via intensified efforts to achieve universal access to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support, deputy coordinator with National AIDS Coordinating Agency (NACA), Mr Fraiser Tlhoiwe has said. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Updated Fact Sheet: HIV in the United States
Overview of HIV in the United States, including new HIV infections, AIDS, and deaths. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
Updated Basic Statistics
A basic overview of HIV and AIDS statistics in the United States. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
New Testing Poster and Social Media Badge
Posters and social media badges highlighting the fact that 1 in 7 people living with HIV are unaware of their infection. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
HIV Surveillance Supplemental Report: Monitoring Selected National HIV Prevention and Care Objectives by Using HIV Surveillance Data ? United States and 6 Dependent Areas ? 2012
This surveillance supplemental report complements the 2012 HIV Surveillance Report and presents the results of focused analyses of NHSS and MMP data to measure progress toward achieving selected objectives of the NHAS and the DHAP Strategic Plan. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Vital Signs: HIV Care Saves Lives
Vital Signs shows, among the 1.2 million Americans living with HIV in 2011, less than a third had their virus under control through effective care and treatment. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
The last issue of the Infectious Disease Clinics of North America devoted specifically to HIV/AIDS was published in 1988. Edited by Merle Sande and Paul Volberding, that landmark issue provided a state-of the-art snapshot of the newly defined epidemic, its epidemiology, and the basic principles of treatment and care. Much has happened since then. In 2012, the number of persons living with HIV infection worldwide reached an all-time high of 35.3 million. The medical, social, and economic consequences of this global disaster have reached all continents, presenting society with a health-related challenge unlike any other. (Source: Infectious Diseases Clinics of North America)
Evaluation of a Red Cell Leukofilter Performance and Effect of Buffy Coat Removal on Filtration Efficiency and Post Filtration Storage
This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of Imugard III-RC 4P in removing the leukocyte from packed red cells and the storage effects thereafter. The effects of buffy coat removal on the efficiency of leukofiltration, storage parameters of leukofiltered packed red blood cells and feasibility of prestorage leukofiltration were also assessed. Sixteen units each of buffy coat-depleted (LP) and nondepleted (NLP) PRBC were taken. Every unit was divided into two equal halves, one leukofiltered and other, non-leukofiltered. Cell counts, volume, hematocrit and hemoglobin were measured before and after filtration. Levels of K+, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and hemolysis were assessed in all the units weekly, post leukofiltration. Post leukofiltration, red cell and volume loss was withi...
Improving the Two Ends of the HIV Care CascadeImproving the Two Ends of the HIV Care Cascade
Dr Benjamin Young reviews two recently published studies on testing and treating HIV patients within the context of the UNAIDS recently announced 90-90-90 treatment targets. Medscape HIV/AIDS (Source: Medscape Hiv-Aids Headlines)
Only 3 in 10 Americans With HIV Have Virus Suppressed: CDCOnly 3 in 10 Americans With HIV Have Virus Suppressed: CDC
Most of the 1.2 million Americans living with HIV infection have not achieved viral suppression. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
UCLA and House Clinic sign letter of intent to expand patients? access to specialty ear care
The UCLA department of head and neck surgery and House Clinic announced today that they have signed a letter of intent to pursue and finalize a clinical partnership. The alliance would create the nation?s leader in patient care, research and education for hearing and ear disorders. ?We are thrilled to invite the House Clinic?s world-class group of physicians to the internationally recognized UCLA Health and David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA,? said Dr. David Feinberg, president of the UCLA Health System, CEO of the UCLA Hospital System and associate vice chancellor of the Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA. ?Our partnership will enable patients from Los Angeles and throughout the world to be treated by House doctors as part of the UCLA network.? The move would preserve eac...
Sound Transfer of Active Middle Ear Implants
This article attempts to summarize the current knowledge concerning the mechanical interaction between active middle ear implants (AMEIs) and the normal or reconstructed middle ear. Some basic characteristics of the different AMEIs are provided in conjunction with the middle ear mechanics. The interaction of AMEIs and middle ear and the influence of various boundary conditions are discussed in more detail. (Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America)
Awareness, Knowledge and Misconceptions about Some Reproductive Health Issues among the Married Couples in High-risk States of India
The objective of this article is to study awareness, knowledge and misconception regarding RTI/STI and HIV/AIDS among the married couples in high-risk states of India. Data for this paper have been obtained from the Rapid Household Survey under Reproductive and Child Health Survey, Round II, during 2002&ndash;04. The states of Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Manipur, Nagaland and Tamil Nadu were purposively selected for the analysis; except Gujarat all these states were in the category of high risk. A total of 82,596 married couples were considered for the study. A bi-variate technique was used for the analysis. In addition, a knowledge index was computed as a summary measure of knowledge and misconception. It was categorized into Low, Medium and High Knowledge. The analys...
Viruses, Vol. 6, Pages 4800-4810: Genotypic Analysis of Kaposi?s Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus from Patients with Kaposi?s Sarcoma in Xinjiang, China
Kaposi?s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the causal agent of all forms of Kaposi?s sarcoma (KS), including AIDS-KS, endemic KS, classic KS and iatrogenic KS. Based on Open reading frame (ORF) K1 sequence analysis, KSHV has been classified into seven major molecular subtypes (A, B, C, D, E, F and Z). The distribution of KSHV strains varies according to geography and ethnicity. Xinjiang is a unique region where the seroprevalence of KSHV is significantly higher than other parts of China. The genotyping of KSHV strains in this region has not been thoroughly studied. The present study aimed to evaluate the frequency of KSHV genotypes isolated from KS tissues in Classical KS and AIDS KS patients from Xinjiang, China. ORF-K1 of KSHV from tissue samples of 28 KS patients was amplifie...
Blood component use in a sub-Saharan African country: Results of a four-year evaluation of diagnoses associated with transfusion orders in Namibia
National blood use patterns in sub-Saharan Africa are poorly described. While malaria and maternal hemorrhage remain important drivers of blood demand across Africa, economic growth and changes in malaria, HIV/AIDS, and non-communicable disease epidemiology may contribute to changes in blood demand. We evaluated indications for blood utilization in Namibia, a country in southern Africa, using a nationally representative sample and discuss implications for the region. Clinical and demographic data related to the issuance of blood component units in Namibia were reviewed for a four year period (August 1, 2007 - July 31, 2011). (Source: Transfusion Medicine Reviews)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Successful coping in urban, community dwelling older adults with HIV
By 2015, 50% of HIV-infected individuals in the United States will be 50 years of age and older. Examining successful coping in older adults with HIV could expand existing coping toolkits, enhance disease management, and improve overall outcomes. We explored how urban, community-dwelling older adults (N = 40) coped with HIV infection, co-morbidities, and related stressors. Participants completed an individual or focus group interview session using open-ended questions formulated from extended participant observation. (Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)
Factors associated with therapeutic success in HIV?positive individuals in southern Brazil
The objective of this study was to evaluate factors associated with therapeutic success in adult patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in a specialized centre for HIV?AIDS in southern Brazil, being defined therapeutic success as achieving and maintaining undetectable viral load, stable immune status (CD4+ T lymphocyte count ?200 cells/mm3) and adherence to HAART ? 95%. MethodsWe conducted a historical cohort study nested in the PC?HIV randomized clinical trial of PC?HIV. We included adults who were on HAART at Pelotas HIV/AIDS Assistance Service between June 2006 and July 2007 and for whom information on treatment adherence, viral load and CD4+ cell count was available. Pregnant women were excluded. We obtained clinical data from medical records and socio?de...
Most Americans with HIV Don't Have Virus Under Control, CDC Says
U.S. experts cite indifference, lack of access to care Source: HealthDay Related MedlinePlus Pages: HIV/AIDS, Health Disparities, Infection Control (Source: MedlinePlus Health News)
Beyond the Rhetoric: Implement Proven Community Strategies to Fight HIV/AIDS
Press releaseBeyond the Rhetoric: Implement Proven Community Strategies to Fight HIV/AIDS November 24, 2014 JOHANNESBURG/NEW YORK?The recent call by UNAIDS to ?close the gap?around access to HIV services will not be met unless the delivery of antiretroviral treatment (ARV) is radically reshaped into community-led approaches that adapt to the realities of those living with HIV, said the international medical humanitarian organization Doctors Without Borders/Médecins sans Frontières (MSF) ahead of World Aids Day, December 1. (Source: MSF News)
Africa: African First Ladies Unite to Ensure That All Children Are Born HIV-Free
[UNAIDS]Geneva -The First Ladies of Africa call on governments and communities to ensure that all babies in Africa are born and stay free of HIV. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Q&A: David Gere and the fight to end AIDS
Through the UCLA Art and Global Health Center he created, visionary director and professor David Gere of the Department of World Arts and Cultures has used art and a network of artists to communicate his message about ending the AIDS epidemic around the world. On Tuesday, Nov. 18, before World AIDS Day 2014 (Dec. 1), Michel Sidibé, the executive director of the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), came to Glorya Kaufman Hall to announce a plan to accomplish just that by 2030. South African and American actress Charlize Theron, the founder of an Africa outreach project and a designated UN Messenger of Peace, also talked about the progress that's being made in Africa. More than 100 people, from UCLA students to longtime researchers associated with the UCLA AIDS Institute, we...
Kenya: Campaign Seeks One Million Men to End Gender Based Violence
[Key Correspondents]Today (25 November), as around the world 16 days of activism against gender based violence begins, many Kenyans are asking if the campaign is likely to help eliminate this issue that contributes highly to new HIV infections. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Mali: Top UN Health Officials Take Joint Mission to Mali in Support of Ebola Response
[UN News]The Executive Director of Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), Michel Sidibé and the Director-General of the World Health Organization, Dr. Margaret Chan, have visited Mali in a joint mission to support the country in its efforts to curb the spread of Ebola, as authorities there announced one new case and that two more suspected patients were being tested. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Africa: Aids Is No. 1 Killer of African Teenagers
[IPS]Lagos -Two years ago, Shola* was kicked out of the family house in Abeokuta, in southwestern Nigeria, after testing HIV-positive at age 13. He was living with his father, his stepmother and their seven children. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
HIV: Earlier Therapy May Be BetterHIV: Earlier Therapy May Be Better
Initiating antiretroviral therapy for patients with HIV on the basis of time, rather than CD4+ counts, could help more patients achieve immunologic normalization. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Infectious Diseases Headlines)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
South Africa: SAP Africa Commits Funds for Global Aids Summit
[CAJ News]Abuja -SYSTEMS Applications Products (SAP) Africa has allocated $150, 000 (about R1,65 million) as support for next year's 21st International AIDS Conference. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Pandemic obesity and the contagion of nutritional nonsense.
Authors: Katz DL Abstract The United States is the epicenter of an obesity pandemic. As more countries acculturate to a Western lifestyle, rates of obesity and its sequelae are rising steadily in both adults and children. In response, a variety of weight-loss diets emphasizing alternative distributions of macronutrient classes have been promoted with considerable success. Among the most popular is the so-called "Atkins Diet," in which carbohydrate restriction is touted as the key to weight loss. Despite claims, however, evidence that weight loss is enhanced by means other than caloric restriction is lacking. Also lacking is evidence that fad diets produce sustainable weight loss. Most important, fad diets generally ignore or refute what is known about fundamental associations betwe...
Long-term ventilation of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy: experiences at the Neuromuscular Centre Ulm.
Authors: Wollinsky KH, Kutter B, Geiger PM Abstract The various measures used to treat the symptoms of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), i.e. medication with steroids, early operation on contractures and spine deformities as well as cardiac diagnostics and therapy, should always be accompanied by careful monitoring of the patient's respiratory status. Therapy for respiratory failure, in particular long-term ventilation, is now generally accepted as essential for DMD patients. The provision of assisted ventilation has made a decisive contribution to the quality of life for older patients and the stigma hitherto attached to it as being merely a means of keeping a patient comfortable towards the end of life has now been dispelled. Even outside the hospital, assisted ventilation has b...
The impact of permanent muscle weakness on quality of life in periodic paralysis: a survey of 66 patients.
Authors: Cavel-Greant D, Lehmann-Horn F, Jurkat-Rott K Abstract The periodic paralyses are hereditary muscle diseases which cause both episodic and permanent weakness. Permanent weakness may include both reversible and fixed components, the latter caused by fibrosis and fatty replacement. To determine the degree of handicap and impact of permanent weakness on daily life, we conducted a 68-question online survey of 66 patients over 41 years (mean age, 60 ± 14 years). Permanent weakness occurred in 68%, muscle pain in 82% and muscle fatigue in 89%. Eighty-three percent of patients reported themselves as moderately to very active between ages 18-35. At the time of the survey only 14% reported themselves as moderately to very active. Contrary to the literature, only 21% of patients re...
Evaluating New Definitions of Acute and Early HIV Infection from HIV Surveillance Data.
CONCLUSION: MSM with known AHI were not identified by proposed definitions of AHI and early infection. These known AHI cases were frequently missed by HIV surveillance because concurrent negative antibody tests were not reported. Successful implementation of the revisions to the HIV staging system will require more comprehensive reporting. PMID: 25317222 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Male Circumcision and HIV Transmission; What Do We Know?
Authors: Jayathunge PH, McBride WJ, MacLaren D, Kaldor J, Vallely A, Turville S Abstract Male circumcision (MC) has been shown to be protective against heterosexual HIV transmission and is being explored in some parts of the world as a means of combating the epidemic. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that MC be considered as an important component of HIV prevention in high prevalence settings. We review evidence that demonstrates that the inner foreskin is likely to be the main portal of entry for the HIV virus in males. Whether removal of the inner foreskin accounts for all the protection afforded by circumcision is yet to be established. The proposed mechanisms of protection range from inherent immunohistological factors of foreskin such as difference in thickness o...
Prevalence of Anogenital Warts in Men with HIV/AIDS and Associated Factors.
CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrate that anogenital warts occur in almost one-third of the male population infected with HIV and factors associated with a higher risk of being diagnosed with anogenital warts were irregular cART use and co-infection with HSV, other variables could not be associated. PMID: 25317220 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
Fcgbp - A Potential Viral Trap in RV144.
Authors: Schwartz JL Abstract Years of extensive research have yielded much knowledge in many aspects of HIV-1 infection, treatments, and education. However, without a vaccine, the number of people infected worldwide continues to grow. The partial success of the Thai RV144 vaccine trial provides hope that a method of protection is indeed possible. Understanding the mechanism behind the protection is critical if we hope to achieve our goal of inhibiting new infections of HIV-1. We hypothesize that the Fc of IgG binding protein (Fcgbp) is associated with the protection observed in the RV144 vaccine trial. It has the ability to trap viral-antibody complexes in the mucosa by binding the Fc of IgG to Fcgbp. This property could be used in the form of a microbicide containing antibodies t...
Understanding STI Risk and Condom Use Patterns by Partner Type Among Female Sex Workers in Peru.
This study compared high risk behaviors among 120 Peruvian FSW from government regulated brothels with both clients and non-commercial partners. Our study found that 12% of FSW reported unprotected vaginal sex with clients (compared to 75% with non-commercial partners), and 42% reported unprotected anal sex with clients (compared to 87% with non-commercial partners). Group differences were observed in the expectation to have oral sex (32% for partners vs 60% for clients; p&lt;0.01), and a history of anal sex (65% for partners vs 32% for clients; p&lt;0.01) and both vaginal and anal sex with the same partners (46% for partners vs 25% for clients; p&lt;0.001). These findings suggest that FSW constitute an important bridge population for STI/HIV transmission in Peru. PMID: 24949112 [PubM...
Factors Associated with Uptake of HIV Test Results in a Nationally Representative Population-Based AIDS Indicator Survey.
Authors: Mwangi M, Kellogg TA, Dadabhai SS, Bunnell R, Baltazar G, Ngare C, K'opiyo G, Mburu M, Kim AA Abstract Population-based surveys with HIV testing in settings with low testing coverage provide opportunities for participants to learn their HIV status. Survey participants (15-64 years) in a 2007 nationally representative population-based HIV serologic survey in Kenya received a voucher to collect HIV test results at health facilities 6 weeks after blood draw. Logistic regression models were fitted to identify predictors of individual and couple collection of results. Of 15,853 adults consenting to blood draw, 7,222 (46.7%) collected HIV test results (46.5% men, 46.8% women). A third (39.5%) of HIV-infected adults who were unaware of their infection and 48.2% of those who had n...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Modulation of Regulatory T-Cell Subsets in Very Long-Term Treated Aviremic HIV(+) Patients and Untreated Viremic Patients.
Authors: Serana F, Chiarini M, Quiros-Roldan E, Gotti D, Zanotti C, Sottini A, Bertoli D, Caimi L, Imberti L Abstract Naïve, central- and effector-like memory regulatory T cells (Tregs) were evaluated in untreated and long-term antiretroviral-treated HIV(+) patients that showed comparable CD4(+) cell levels, while being, respectively, viremic and aviremic. In the untreated patients, the percentage of naïve-like Tregs was significantly increased to the detriment of central memory regulatory T cells. This redistribution of regulatory Treg subsets may contribute to explain the partially preserved CD4(+) cell counts seen in these patients despite the ongoing viremia. On the contrary, in the long-term treated patients, the percentages of Treg subsets were similar to those of healthy d...
Cervical HPV Infection in Female Sex Workers: A Global Perspective.
CONCLUSIONS: Female sex workers have an overall high prevalence of HPV infection of high-risk types as evident through various testing methods. FSWs are thought to be at increased risk of cervical cancer because of high HPV exposure. This highlights the need for HPV and cervical prevention campaigns tailored to FSWs. PMID: 24511334 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
Older Adults with HIV/AIDS in Rural China.
Authors: Zhang Y, Fuller-Thomson E, Anne Mitchell C, Zhang X Abstract Although the number of older people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) has increased substantially, few studies have focused on older PLWHA in developing countries. Based on a sample of 866 rural PLWHA in Henan, Anhui and Yunnan provinces in China, this study compares the characteristics of PLWHA aged 50 or older (n=185) with younger PLWHA (n=681). Most of the older PLWHA were female (n=112), illiterate, married and at the clinical stage of HIV. Over 90% of older people with HIV/AIDS lived in Henan and Anhui provinces. The severe epidemic in Henan and Anhui provinces was caused by commercial blood and plasma donation. Older PLWHA were less educated, received less social support and were more likely to live alone than y...
The Higher Frequency of Blood Group B in a Brazilian Population with HIV Infection.
CONCLUSIONS: A more restricted antigen recognition capacity of anti-Gal?1-3Gal in blood groups AB and B and a weaker antigen-binding capacity of anti-A antibodies may contribute to a higher frequency of HIV infection in blood group B. PMID: 24222813 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
An Ecological View of Internet Health Information Seeking Behavior Predictors: Findings from the CHAIN Study.
CONCLUSIONS: The benefits of accessing the Internet may influence health behavior and may be considered a target for interventions that aim to increase access to health related information online. Coupled with increased access, is the need for increased patient education interventions, and creative managed care approaches to ensure that information gleaned from online sources is interpretable and accurate in order to benefit the lives of those living with HIV/AIDS. PMID: 24222812 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
mHealth for HIV Treatment & Prevention: A Systematic Review of the Literature.
Authors: Catalani C, Philbrick W, Fraser H, Mechael P, Israelski DM Abstract This systematic review assesses the published literature to describe the landscape of mobile health technology (mHealth) for HIV/AIDS and the evidence supporting the use of these tools to address the HIV prevention, care, and treatment cascade. The speed of innovation, broad range of initiatives and tools, and heterogeneity in reporting have made it difficult to uncover and synthesize knowledge on how mHealth tools might be effective in addressing the HIV pandemic. To do address this gap, a team of reviewers collected literature on the use of mobile technology for HIV/AIDS among health, engineering, and social science literature databases and analyzed a final set of 62 articles. Articles were systematicall...
Do Men who have Sex with Men (MSM) in the United States Understand that HIV Serodiscordance is Possible?
CONCLUSIONS: A large proportion of young, internet-using MSM in the United States may not understand that HIV serodiscordance is possible within sexual partnerships. Based on these results, we recommend that CVCT provided to male couples in the United States should include education on HIV serodiscordance. PMID: 24133557 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
Delay in Seeking Care for Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Young Men and Women Attending a Public STD Clinic.
CONCLUSIONS: Many young persons delay seeking care for STDs for a number of reasons. Strategies to improve STD care-seeking include encouragement of symptomatic persons to seek medical care more rapidly, reduction of social stigmas, and improved access to testing options. PMID: 24078858 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
Short Text Messages to Motivate HIV Testing Among Men Who have Sex with Men: A Qualitative Study in Lima, Peru.
CONCLUSION: Text messages can be used to promote HIV testing among Peruvian MSM. It is important to consider adequate frequency, message content and cost when delivering messages to promote HIV testing in this population. PMID: 23802032 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
Comparative Evaluation of HIV-1 Neutralization in External Secretions and Sera of HIV-1-Infected Women.
CONCLUSIONS: Results demonstrate that HIV-1-specific neutralizing antibodies are almost exclusively of the IgG isotype in serum/plasma and CVL samples. HIV-1-specific binding antibodies detected in RL are not responsible for neutralization activity, suggesting that the antibody-mediated virus neutralization in external secretions should be verified by means of a selective depletion of Ig. PMID: 23346267 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Association of Nevirapine Levels with Rash or Hepatotoxicity Among HIV-Infected Thai Women.
CONCLUSIONS: We cannot conclude definitively that nevirapine concentrations at two weeks of therapy are associated with rash or hepatotoxicity. It is unlikely that therapeutic drug monitoring at that time will improve identification of patients at risk for rash or hepatotoxicity. PMID: 23304252 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
The Influence of HIV-1 Subtype in the Response to Therapeutic Dendritic Cell Vaccine.
Authors: Ferreira V, Moura P, Crovella S, Sobhie Diaz R, Castelo Filho A, Ximenes R, Arraes LC Abstract In the present study, we investigated the influence of HIV-1 subtype in the response to the dendritic cell (DC) therapeutic vaccine for HIV. HIV-1 viral load and TCD8+/TCD4+ cell counts for up to 48 weeks after vaccination. Out of 19 immunized subjects, 13 were infected by subtype B, 5 by subtype F, and 1 by subtype D. Overall, 42.1% (8/19) achieved a viral load decline of ? 1 log(10) sustained up to 48 weeks after immunization. Such magnitude of viral load drop was seen in 80% (4/5) of subtype F infected patients, and in 23.0% (3/13) of the subtype B infected ones (p=0.08). Moreover, mean viral load decline was 1.32 log(10), for subtype F infected individuals compared to 0.5 l...
HIV-1 Vaccine Trials: Evolving Concepts and Designs.
Authors: Sanou MP, De Groot AS, Murphey-Corb M, Levy JA, Yamamoto JK Abstract An effective prophylactic HIV-1 vaccine is needed to eradicate the HIV/AIDS pandemic but designing such a vaccine is a challenge. Despite many advances in vaccine technology and approaches to generate both humoral and cellular immune responses, major phase-II and -III vaccine trials against HIV/AIDS have resulted in only moderate successes. The modest achievement of the phase-III RV144 prime-boost trial in Thailand re-emphasized the importance of generating robust humoral and cellular responses against HIV. While antibody-directed approaches are being pursued by some groups, others are attempting to develop vaccines targeting cell-mediated immunity, since evidence show CTLs to be important for the control...
The Burden of Orphans and Vulnerable Children Due to HIV/AIDS in Cameroon.
The objective of this study was to assess the burden of orphans and vulnerable children due to HIV/AIDS in Cameroon. A structured search to identify publications on orphans and other children made vulnerable by AIDS was carried out. A traditional literature search on google, PubMed and Medline using the keywords: orphans, vulnerable children, HIV/AIDS and Cameroon was conducted to identify potential AIDS orphans publications, we included papers on HIV prevalence in Cameroon, institutional versus integrated care of orphans, burden of children orphaned by AIDS and projections, impact of AIDS orphans on Cameroon, AIDS orphans assisted through the integrated care approach, and comparism of the policies of orphans care in the central African sub-region. We also used our participatory approach w...
HIV/AIDS-Related Knowledge and Behaviors Among Most-at-Risk Populations in Vietnam.
Authors: Vian T, Semrau K, Hamer DH, Loan le TT, Sabin LL Abstract The U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) has supported the Vietnamese Ministry of Health (MOH) in implementing behavior change strategies to slow the HIV epidemic. These programs target commercial sex workers (CSW), injection drug users (IDU), and men who have sex with men (MSM). Using data from a program evaluation to assess effectiveness of the PEPFAR intervention, we conducted a sub-analysis of HIV/AIDS knowledge, sexual behaviors, and injection drug risk behaviors among 2,199 Vietnamese respondents, including those reporting recent contact with an outreach worker and those who did not report contact. We found overall high levels of HIV/AIDS knowledge, low rates of needle sharing, and moderate...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Expression of CCR5, CXCR4 and DC-SIGN in Cervix of HIV-1 Heterosexually Infected Mexican Women.
CONCLUSION: Levels of expression of the tested chemokine receptors in the cervix are different from each other and alsovary from woman to woman, and seem to support the suggestion that chemokine receptor expression in genital tissues may be playing a role in the HIV transmission. PMID: 23115608 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
Factors Associated with Lifetime HIV Testing in Texas by Race/Ethnicity.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings have important implications for future research into racial/ethnic disparities between lifetime HIV testing, and can help guide practitioners who work with populations at risk for HIV/AIDS in Texas. PMID: 23115607 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
Developing a Web-Based HIV Behavioral Surveillance Pilot Project Among Men Who Have Sex with Men.
CONCLUSIONS: Only the DM method achieved a substantial number of complete MSM surveys. Successful implementation of an internet-based systematic sampling method may be problematic, but a convenience sample of MSM using banner advertisements is feasible and may produce useful and timely behavioral information from a large number of MSM. PMID: 23091580 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
Use of and Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy in a Large U.S. Sample of HIV-infected Adults in Care, 2007-2008.
CONCLUSION: Our results support the measurement of multiple dimensions of medication-taking behavior in order to avoid overestimating adherence to ART. PMID: 23056163 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
Risk Factor Detection as a Metric of STARHS Performance for HIV Incidence Surveillance Among Female Sex Workers in Kigali, Rwanda.
CONCLUSIONS: Differences in risk factor estimates by each method could reflect true differences in risk factors between the prevalent, recently, or newly infected populations, the effect of study interventions (among those followed prospectively), or assay misclassification. Similar investigations in other populations/settings are needed to further establish the epidemiologic utility of STARHS for identifying risk factors, in addition to incidence rate estimation. PMID: 23056162 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Enhanced Collection of Laboratory Data in HIV Surveillance Among 5 States with Confidential Name-based HIV Infection Reporting, 2005-2006.
Authors: Gray KM, Kajese T, Crandell-Alden E, Anderson BJ, Wendell D, Crutchfield A, Jackson T, Hall HI Abstract Laboratory data reported through HIV surveillance can provide information about disease severity and linkage to care; however these measures are only as accurate as the quality and completeness of data reported. Using data from five states that implemented enhanced collection of laboratory data in HIV surveillance from 2005-2006, we determined completeness of reporting, stage of disease at diagnosis, the most common opportunistic illnesses (OI) at diagnosis, and linkage to medical care. Methods to enhance laboratory reporting included increasing active surveillance efforts, identifying laboratories not reporting to HIV surveillance, increasing electronic reporting, and u...
Risk behaviors and STI prevalence among people with HIV in El Salvador.
Authors: Paz-Bailey G, Shah N, Creswell J, Guardado ME, Nieto AI, Estrada MC, Cedillos R, Pascale JM, Monterroso E Abstract To date, there are no studies from El Salvador among people with HIV to inform prevention programs. We conducted a study in El Salvador in 2008 among people with HIV using audio computer-assisted interviews on risk behaviors and access to health care. Blood was tested for syphilis and herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2). Active syphilis was defined as RPR titer ?1:8. Genital specimens were tested for other sexually transmitted infections (STI) by PCR. We evaluated factors associated with unprotected sex with last stable partner of HIV-negative or unknown status among those reporting a stable partner. A total of 811 HIV-positive individuals participated: 413 men an...
Repeat Western blot testing after receiving an HIV diagnosis and its association with engagement in care.
DISCUSSION: Having repeat positive WB tests may be a marker of engaging HIV care. However, given the limited resources available for care, it is important that healthcare reform policy and clinical recommendations promote improvements in communications about previous test results. PMID: 23049670 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
Regional differences among HIV patients in care: California medical monitoring project sites, 2007-2008.
DISCUSSION: The majority of MMP respondents reported standard of care CD4 and viral load monitoring, high treatment use, undetectable HIV viral loads and CD4 counts indicative of good immune function and treatment efficacy. Information from MMP can be used by planning councils, policymakers, and HIV care providers to improve access to care and prevention. Identifying regional differences can facilitate sharing of best practices among health jurisdictions. PMID: 23049669 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
Prevalence of and viral outcomes associated with primary HIV-1 drug resistance.
We examined HIV surveillance data, including both patient demographic characteristics and laboratory data, combined with HIV genotypic test results to evaluate the comprehensiveness of drug resistance surveillance, prevalence of primary drug resistance, and impact, if any, of primary resistance on population-based virological outcomes. The King County, WA Variant, Atypical, and Resistant HIV Surveillance (VARHS) system increased coverage of eligible genotypic testing - within three months of an HIV diagnosis among antiretroviral naïve individuals -- from - 15% in 2003 to 69% in 2010. VARHS under-represented females, Blacks, Native Americans, and injection drug users. Primary drug resistance was more common among males, individuals aged 20 - 29 years, men who had sex with men, and individu...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Population-based study of risk factors for coronary heart disease among HIV-infected persons.
We describe CHD risk factors from the 2007-2008 Oregon Medical Monitoring Project, a population-based survey of HIV-infected persons receiving care that included both patient interview and medical record review. Among the 539 HIV-infected patients interviewed, the mean age was 45.5 years. Diagnoses from the medical record associated with CHD risk included preexisting CHD (5%), diabetes (11%), and hypertension (28%). Current smoking was reported by 46%; college graduates were less likely to smoke compared with those with lesser education (21% versus 53%, respectively; P &lt;.0001). Obesity was present among 17%. Among the 65% of the survey group with lipid values available, 55% had high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) &lt;40 mg/dL and 42% had triglycerides ? 200 mg/dL. Among the 15%...
Piloting a system for behavioral surveillance among heterosexuals at increased risk of HIV in the United States.
CONCLUSIONS: Results from the NHBS pilot study underscore the key role of social factors as determinants of HIV infection risk among U.S. heterosexuals, and low SES was incorporated into the definition of a heterosexual at increased risk for HIV in NHBS-HET cycles. Future cycles of NHBS-HET will help tailor prevention programs for those populations most at risk of HIV in the US. PMID: 23049666 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
Describing the Chinese HIV surveillance system and the influences of political structures and social stigma.
Authors: Zhang L, Chow EP, Zhang J, Jing J, Wilson DP Abstract China's public health surveillance system for HIV was established in late 1980s and has evolved significantly during the past three decades. With the gradually changing mode of HIV transmission from sharing of intravenous injecting equipment to sexual exposure and the rapid spread of HIV infection among Chinese homosexual men in recent years, an efficient and comprehensive population-level surveillance system for describing epidemics trends and risk behaviours associated with HIV acquisition are essential for effective public health interventions for HIV. The current review describes the overall strength of the Chinese HIV surveillance system and its structural weaknesses from a political and social perspective. The HIV...
Comparison of HIV/AIDS rates between U.S.-born Blacks and African-born Blacks in Utah, 2000 - 2009.
Authors: Ashton C, Bernhardt SA, Lowe M, Mietchen M, Johnston J Abstract The Utah Department of Health currently groups African-born blacks with U.S.-born blacks when reporting HIV/AIDS surveillance data. Studies suggest that categorizing HIV/AIDS cases in this manner may mask important epidemiological trends, and the distinct differences between these two populations warrant disaggregating data prior to reporting. The purpose of this study was to characterize the HIV/AIDS positive populations in U.S. and African-born blacks in Utah and evaluate the need for disaggregating the two groups. A total of 1,111 cases were identified through the statewide electronic HIV/AIDS Reporting System from 2000 - 2009. Data were analyzed for prevalence of HIV diagnosis for African-born blacks, U.S....
Auditing national HIV guidelines and policies: The United Kingdom CD4 Surveillance Scheme.
Authors: Brown AE, Kall MM, Smith RD, Yin Z, Hunter A, Hunter A, Delpech VC Abstract The United Kingdom's CD4 surveillance scheme monitors CD4 cell counts among HIV patients and is a national resource for HIV surveillance. It has driven public health policy and allowed auditing of national HIV testing, treatment and care guidelines. WE DEMONSTRATE ITS UTILITY THROUGH FOUR EXAMPLE OUTPUTS: median CD4 count at HIV diagnosis; late HIV diagnosis and short-term mortality; the timing of first CD4 count to indicate entry into HIV care; and the proportion of patients with CD4 counts &lt;350 cells/mm3 receiving anti-retroviral therapy (ARV). In 2009, 95% (61,502/64,420) of adults living with diagnosed HIV infection had CD4 counts available. The median CD4 count at diagnosis increased from 2...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Anal intercourse and HIV risk among low-income heterosexual women: findings from Chicago HIV behavioral surveillance.
CONCLUSION: AI was associated with multiple high risk behaviors including a greater number of sexual partners, STI diagnosis, and earlier age at first sex. The combination of risk factors found to be associated with AI call for new HIV prevention services tailored to the needs of women and young girls living in poverty. PMID: 23049662 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
Using HIV surveillance data to monitor missed opportunities for linkage and engagement in HIV medical care.
Authors: Bertolli J, Shouse RL, Beer L, Valverde E, Fagan J, Jenness SM, Wogayehu A, Johnson C, Neaigus A, Hillman D, Courogen M, Brady KA, Bolden B Abstract Monitoring delayed entry to HIV medical care is needed because it signifies that opportunities to prevent HIV transmission and mitigate disease progression have been missed. A central question for population-level monitoring is whether to consider a person linked to care after receipt of one CD4 or VL test. Using HIV surveillance data, we explored two definitions for estimating the number of HIV-diagnosed persons not linked to HIV medical care. We used receipt of at least one CD4 or VL test (definition 1) and two or more CD4 or VL tests (definition 2) to define linkage to care within 12 months and within 42 months of HIV diagn...
Use of HIV case surveillance system to design and evaluate site-randomized interventions in an HIV prevention study: HPTN 065.
CONCLUSIONS: In a novel use of site-aggregated surveillance data, baseline data was used to design and evaluate site randomized studies for both HIV test and HIV care sites. Surveillance data have the potential to inform and monitor sitelevel health outcomes in HIV-infected patients. PMID: 23049660 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
Is back-projection methodology still relevant for estimating HIV incidence from national surveillance data?
Authors: Mallitt KA, Wilson DP, McDonald A, Wand H Abstract Accurate estimates of HIV incidence are crucial to understand the extent of transmission of the infection, evaluate intervention strategies and effectively plan new public health control measures. HIV/AIDS surveillance systems in numerous industrialised countries record the number of known new HIV and/or AIDS diagnoses, which are often used as a surrogate marker for HIV incidence. HIV/AIDS diagnosis data have been used to reconstruct historical HIV incidence trends using modified back-projection methods. Estimates of HIV incidence are most robust when reliable data on the number of incident infections, a subset of all diagnoses, is widely available, and surveillance systems should prioritize the collection of these data. B...
Estimating the population size of men who have sex with men in the United States to obtain HIV and syphilis rates.
CONCLUSIONS: Estimating the population size for MSM allowed us to calculate rates for disease metrics and to develop rate ratios showing dramatically higher rates among MSM than among other men or women. These data greatly improve our understanding of the disproportionate impact of these diseases among MSM in the U.S. and help with prevention planning. PMID: 23049658 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Internet-based methods may reach higher-risk men who have sex with men not reached through venue-based sampling.
CONCLUSIONS: Many MSM recruited online also attended physical venues, but attendance varied by sub-group. Participants in WHBS and NHBS differed, and WHBS may represent a group of MSM at higher risk of HIV infection. These findings suggest that an internet-based method may be a useful supplement to NHBS. PMID: 23049657 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
Assessing the assumptions of respondent-driven sampling in the national HIV Behavioral Surveillance System among injecting drug users.
Authors: Lansky A, Drake A, Wejnert C, Pham H, Cribbin M, Heckathorn DD Abstract Several assumptions determine whether respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is an appropriate sampling method to use with a particular group, including the population being recruited must know one another as members of the group (i.e., injection drug users [IDUs] must know each other as IDUs) and be networked and that the sample size is small relative to the overall size of the group. To assess these three assumptions, we analyzed city-specific data collected using RDS through the US National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System among IDUs in 23 cities. Overall, 5% of non-seed participants reported that their recruiter was "a stranger." 20 cities with multiple field sites had ?1 cross-recruitment, a proxy f...
A probability sample for monitoring the HIV-infected population in care in the U.S. and in selected states.
We describe a three-stage probability sampling method that provides both nationally and state-level representative estimates.In stage-I, 20 states, which included 6 separately funded cities/counties, were selected using probability proportional to size (PPS) sampling. PPS sampling was also used in stage-II to select facilities for participation in each of the 26 funded areas. In stage-III, patients were randomly selected from sampled facilities in a manner that maximized the possibility of having overall equal selection probabilities for every patient in the state or city/county. The sampling methods for MMP could be adapted to other research projects at national or sub-national levels to monitor populations of interest or evaluate outcomes and care for a range of specific diseases or cond...
HIV Surveillance: The conscience of the epidemic.
Authors: Sullivan PS, Delpech V PMID: 23049654 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
Prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases and hepatitis C in a survey of female sex workers in the north-East of Italy.
Authors: Zermiani M, Mengoli C, Rimondo C, Galvan U, Cruciani M, Serpelloni G Abstract A key issue in the prevention and control of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) is to provide access to health centres, and in diagnosing and treating STD. The present study is aimed to assess the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) in a population of immigrant female sex workers (FSWs). We conducted a cross sectional survey of FSWs working in Verona, North-eastern Italy. Screening test included serology for STDs [including Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), syphilis and Hepatitis B virus (HBV)] and hepatitis C virus (HCV).Sixteen out of 345 (4.6%) street FSWs screened during 1999-2007 resulted positive for HIV, 12 (3.5%) were positive for HBsAg, 7 (2....<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Differences and Similarities in HIV Testing Among Men Who have Sex with Men and Women (MSMW) and Men Who Have Sex with Men Only (MSMO).
Authors: Maulsby C, Sifakis F, German D, Flynn CP, Holtgrave D Abstract The study examined differences in HIV testing between men who have sex with men only (MSMO) (n=300) and men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) (n=105) and assessed associations with HIV testing among MSMW. A venue-based cross-sectional HIV surveillance study in 2008 (BESURE-MSM2) was examined. Prevalence of HIV testing was similar for MSMO and MSMW. One-on-one counseling (excluding counseling that is part of HIV testing) and having seen a health care provider in the past twelve months were associated with HIV testing in the past six months among MSMW in multivariate analyses. One-on-one counseling interventions may increase rates of HIV testing among MSMW. PMID: 22833774 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Jour...
Mean Corpuscular Volume as a Marker for Adherence to Zidovudine-Containing Therapy in HIV-Infected Adults.
CONCLUSION: In low-income countries, where HIV RNA may be unavailable, 12-weekly MCV measurements may be useful in monitoring adherence to AZT-containing regimens. PMID: 22715353 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
Very early anthropometric changes after antiretroviral therapy predict subsequent survival, in karonga, Malawi.
CONCLUSIONS: Very early anthropometric changes, after 2 and 6 weeks on ART, are strong predictors of survival, independent of baseline characteristics. This should help identify patients requiring more detailed assessment where facilities are limited. MUAC is particularly valuable, requiring the simplest equipment and being appropriate for patients who have problems standing. PMID: 22670166 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
Cardiovascular Disease in Blacks with HIV/AIDS in the United States: A Systematic Review of the Literature.
CONCLUSIONS: Few studies have addressed the issue of Black race, HIV/AIDS, and CVD, highlighting the need for future research in this area. PMID: 22563364 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
HIV Transmission Rates in the United States, 2006-2008.
Authors: Holtgrave DR, Hall HI, Prejean J Abstract National HIV incidence for a given year x [I(x)] equals prevalence [P(x)] times the transmission rate [T(x)]. Or, simply rearranging the terms, T(x) = [I(x)/P(x)]*100 (where T(x) is the number of HIV transmissions per 100 persons living with HIV in a given year). The transmission rate is an underutilized measure of the speed at which the epidemic is spreading. Here, we utilize recently updated information about HIV incidence and prevalence in the U.S. to estimate the national HIV transmission rate for 2006 through 2008, and present a novel method to express the level of uncertainty in these estimates. Transmission rate estimates for 2006 through 2008 are as follows (respectively): 4.39 (4.01 to 4.73); 4.90 (4.49 to 5.28); and 4.06 ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Immune Reconstitution During the First Year of Antiretroviral Therapy of HIV-1-Infected Adults in Rural Burkina Faso.
Authors: Tiba F, Nauwelaers F, Traoré S, Coulibaly B, Ouedraogo T, Compaoré A, Kräusslich HG, Böhler T Abstract There are no data on the outcome of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-infected adults in rural Burkina Faso. We therefore assessed CD4(+) T-cell counts and HIV-1 plasma viral load (VL), the proportion of naive T-cells (co-expressing CCR7 and CD45RA) and T-cell activation (expression of CD95 or CD38) in 61 previously untreated adult patients from Nouna, Burkina Faso, at baseline and 2 weeks, 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after starting therapy. Median CD4(+) T-cell counts increased from 174 (10(th)-90(th) percentile: 33-314) cells/µl at baseline to 300 (114- 505) cells/µl after 3 months and 360 (169-562) cells/µl after 12 months of HAART. Median VL decr...
Partner Referral by HIV-Infected Persons to Partner Counseling and Referral Services (PCRS) - Results from a Demonstration Project.
CONCLUSION: Success in obtaining partner information varied by the PCRS approach used and effectiveness in locating and notifying partners varied by the referral approach selected. These results provide valuable insights for enhancing partner services. PMID: 22408699 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
A County-Level Examination of the Relationship Between HIV and Social Determinants of Health: 40 States, 2006-2008.
CONCLUSIONS/IMPLICATIONS: Overall, HIV diagnosis rates increased as income inequality and the proportion unmarried increased, and rates decreased as proportion of whites increased. The data reflect the higher HIV prevalence among non-whites. Although statistical correlations were moderate, identifying and understanding these social determinants of health variables can help target prevention efforts to aid in reducing HIV diagnosis rates. Future analyses need to determine whether the higher proportion of singles reflects higher populations of gay and bisexual men. PMID: 22408698 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
Correlates of HIV Infection Among Sexually Active Adults in Kenya: A National Population-Based Survey.
CONCLUSION: Kenya's heterogeneous epidemic will require regional and gender-specific prevention approaches. PMID: 22253668 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
Readiness in HIV Treatment Adherence: A Matter of Confidence. An Exploratory Study.
Authors: Sylvain H, Delmas P Abstract Adherence to treatment is recognized as the essence of a successful HIV combination therapy. Optimal adherence implies a readiness to begin the treatment on the part of the patient. A better understanding of the "readiness phenomenon" will become an asset for optimizing HIV treatment. However, few studies have focused on understanding the process underlying the choice to adhere. The aim of this study is to understand the readiness process that leads to adhering to the HIV treatment, from both patient and professional perspectives. Twenty-seven in-depth interviews, with a qualitative exploratory design, were the source of our data. Participants were recruited in two hospitals in Paris. Throughout the data-collection process, analysed data were s...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Trends in the Treatment of Anemia Using Recombinant Human Erythropoietin in Patients with HIV Infection.
CONCLUSIONS: Through 2006, EPO prescription increased over time for patients with moderate or severe anemia. Many patients treated with EPO had post-treatment Hb&gt;12 g/dL. Based on 2011 FDA recommendations, changes in previous prescription practices will be needed. PMID: 22253666 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
Sustainability of an HIV PEP Program for Sexual Assault Survivors: "Lessons Learned" from Health Care Providers.
This study explored challenges to continuing an HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) program of care provided to sexual assault survivors in the province of Ontario, Canada. Data were collected as part of an implementation and evaluation of a universal offering of HIV PEP (known as the HIV PEP Program) at 24 of 34 provincial hospital-based sexual assault treatment centres. Experienced health care providers were surveyed (n = 132) and interviewed in four focus groups (n = 26) about their perceptions of what, if any, factors threatened their ability to maintain the HIV PEP Program. All focus groups were audio-recorded and the recordings transcribed. The transcriptions and open-ended survey responses were analyzed using content analysis. Administrator, nurse, physician, social worker, and phar...
HIV Screening and Awareness Survey for Pregnant Women in a Remote Area in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China.
CONCLUSION: The results suggested that HIV infection had not become a significant problem among the pregnant women in this remote area of Xinjiang, but continued efforts to improve the awareness of HIV, especially the knowledge about mother-to-child transmission of HIV, in pregnant women were needed. PMID: 22207891 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
Immune Responses of HIV-1 Tat Transgenic Mice to Mycobacterium Tuberculosis W-Beijing SA161.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data show quantitative differences in the inflammatory response to the SA161 clinical isolate of M. tuberculosis W-Beijing between Tat transgenic and non-transgenic mice, suggesting Tat contributes to the pathogenesis of tuberculosis. PMID: 22046211 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
HIV Testing among Adolescents and Youth in the United States: Update from the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.
CONCLUSIONS: The low prevalence of adolescents who tested for HIV and the low proportion of those offered rapid HIV testing after the 2006 CDC's new guidelines about HIV testing raise serious concerns about the effectiveness of HIV prevention efforts particularly among adolescents. More innovative strategies are needed to increase the number of adolescents and youth who become aware of their HIV serostatus. PMID: 21915233 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Normal Range of CD4 Cell Counts and Temporal Changes in Two HIVNegative Malawian Populations.
Authors: Crampin AC, Mwaungulu FD, Ambrose LR, Longwe H, French N Abstract Longitudinal studies were carried out to determine trends in CD4 cell counts over a four year period in healthy HIV-negative adults in a rural (134 individuals) and an urban (80 individuals) site in Malawi, using TruCountTM and FACScountTM platforms. At baseline, median counts and 95% ranges were 890 (359-1954) cells per microlitre (?l) and 725 (114-1074) cells/?l respectively. 1.5% and 6% respectively had baseline counts below 350 cells/?l and 1.5% and 2.5% below 250 cells per ?l. Transient dips to below 250 cells/?l were observed in seven individuals, with two individuals having persistently low CD4 counts over more than one year. Women and individuals from the urban site were significantly more likel...
Impact of HIV/AIDS on Social Relationships in Rural China.
This study compares the characteristics of those who report that HIV/AIDS had a substantial impact versus a modest impact on their social relationships. We obtained data from a survey of 866 PLWHA in rural China, which was conducted in 2006-2007 in the three Chinese provinces with the highest prevalence of HIV/AIDS. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression were performed. The analysis shows that PLWHA who had full-blown AIDS (OR= 1.53; 95% CI=1.09-2.13) and those who were poor (OR=2.19; 95% CI=1.52-3.16) reported greater impact on their social relationships. The results lay a solid foundation for designing effective policy initiatives and intervention programs aimed at alleviating the impact of HIV/AIDS on social relationships and improving the quality of life of PLWHA. PMID: 2...
Recurrent Meningitis and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Due to Salmonella in an HIV+ Patient: Case Report and Mini-Review of the Literature.
We report a case of a patient with &gt;300 CD4+ cells/mm3 who presented with five episodes of recurrent meningitis, focal subarachnoid hemorrhage and cerebral vasculitis ultimately attributed to Salmonella choleraesuis infection. Even within the cART era invasive salmonellosis can occur in unusual ways in HIV-infected patients. PMID: 21772932 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
Non-cirrhotic portal hypertension in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients: a new challenge in antiretroviral therapy era.
We describe herein two HIV-infected patients with clinical picture suggestive of NCPH. Besides the case reports, we briefly address questions to apply to patient care in clinical practice. PMID: 21760875 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
Realities and Challenges of a Five Year Follow Up of Mother and Child Pairs on a PMTCT Program in Zimbabwe.
CONCLUSION: HIV infected mothers and their children succumbed to mortality whereas the HIV negatives were LTFU. Mortality rates and LTFU are high within PMTCT program. PMID: 21760874 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Knowledge of Pregnant Women on Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV in Yaoundé.
CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that women have some good knowledge on the Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission (PMTCT) of HIV. Nevertheless, improving the formal educational level of these women may contribute to a further reduction of HIV transmission. PMID: 21643423 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
A Multicenter, Open Labeled, Randomized, Phase III Study Comparing Lopinavir/Ritonavir Plus Atazanavir to Lopinavir/Ritonavir Plus Zidovudine and Lamivudine in Naive HIV-1-Infected Patients: 48-Week Analysis of the LORAN Trial.
CONCLUSIONS: ATV/LPV/r had less virologic efficacy than the conventional RTI-based regimen and resulted in a high virological failure rate with low level replication. PMID: 21643422 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
HIV Prevalence Comparison Between Antenatal Sentinel Surveillance and Demographic and Health Survey in Rwanda.
CONCLUSIONS: HIV prevalence in the antenatal survey overestimated that among women of the general population in Rwanda in 2005. This overestimation could be corrected by standardization of antenatal prevalence according to the distribution of age, geographical area, marital status, parity, and education, in the general population. PMID: 21643421 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
Learning from Interviews with HIV-Discordant Couples (Male Positive, Female Negative): The Challenges and Successes.
This article examines the challenges and successes of recruiting participants and maintaining momentum in a small qualitative study on the experiences of HIV-discordant couples (where the male is HIV-positive and the female is HIV-negative) undergoing fertility assessment and/or treatment in Ontario, Canada, to reduce the risk of HIV transmission to the woman and fetus. The purpose of this article is to identify barriers and successes encountered in our study, consider how these are addressed in the literature, and highlight specific factors that need to be considered when studying a unique population similar to ours. PMID: 21629505 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
Multiple ART Programs Create a Dilemma for Providers to Monitor ARV Adherence in Uganda.
CONCLUSION: Organizational duality at facilities is a major factor in poor adherence monitoring. The different ART programs in Uganda need to be coordinated and integrated into a single well resourced program to improve ART services and adherence monitoring. The focus on long-term care of patients on ART requires that the limitations to providers' capacity for monitoring adherence become central during the planning and implementation of ART programs. PMID: 21629504 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
HIV/AIDS Clinical Manifestations and their Implication for Patient Clinical Staging in Resource Limited Settings in Tanzania.
CONCLUSIONS: HIV/AIDS clinics managing large cohorts should develop validated site specific guidelines based on local experiences. Simplified guidelines are useful for resource constrained settings without CD4 counting facilities. PMID: 21629503 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
A quarter of a century with AIDS.
This report compiles data on patients who were diagnosed with AIDS in NWS between 1984 and 2008. From 1981, when the first case of AIDS was described, until December 31, 2008, a total of 3,766 AIDS cases were registered in NWS. Of these, 2,085 cases (55.4%) resulted in death. Examining data from individual provinces revealed that the highest number of cases was in A Coruña (1,548 cases) followed by Pontevedra (1,485 cases).For almost half of the new cases of AIDS diagnosed between 2003 and 2008 (44%), less than six months passed between the diagnosis of infection and manifestations of the disease. Thus, the number of patients that do not receive early diagnosis of HIV infection has remained high.With regard to the transmission mechanism, 64% of the cases occurring during these years resul...
Effect of Maternal HIV-1 Status and Antiretroviral Drugs on Haematological Profiles of South African Infants in Early Life.
Authors: Schramm DB, Anthony F, Mathebula B, Sherman G, Coovadia A, Gray GE, Kuhn L, Tiemessen CT Abstract Maternal HIV-1 status and antiretroviral drug exposure may influence the haematological profiles of infants. We recruited infants from 118 uninfected control women and from 483 HIV-1 infected women who received no antiretroviral drugs (n=28), or received single-dose Nevirapine (sdNVP) (n=424) or triple-drug combination therapy (n=31) to reduce HIV-1 transmission. Blood was drawn from infants within 24 hours of delivery or 6-12 weeks post-delivery and full blood counts performed using a fully automated AcT-5-diff haematology analyser and reference controls. Exposed uninfected (EU; no NVP) differed from control infants only in having lower basophil counts and percentages. In all...
Validation of Microcapillary Flow Cytometry for Community-Based CD4+ T Lymphocyte Enumeration in Remote Burkina Faso.
CONCLUSION: Use of the EasyCD4 system was feasible and highly accurate in the harsh conditions of this remote city in Sub-Saharan Africa, demonstrating acceptable sensitivity and specificity compared to a standard operating system. Microcapillary flow cytometry offers a cost-effective alternative for community-based, point-of-care CD4+ testing and could play a substantial role in scaling up HIV care in remote, resource-limited settings. PMID: 21253463 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
Efficacy and Safety of Abacavir/Lamivudine/Zidovudine Plus Tenofovir in HBV/HIV-1 Coinfected Adults: 48-Week Data.
Authors: Rodriguez AE, Dejesus E, Williams V, Irlbeck D, Ross L, Ha B, Lancaster CT Abstract In HBV/HIV-coinfected patients, the risk of end-stage liver disease and death is increased. This open-label, prospective, pilot study evaluated abacavir/lamivudine/zidovudine twice daily plus tenofovir once daily in HBV/HIV-coinfected antiretroviral-naïve subjects. Nine adults (8 males) enrolled, with baseline mean HIV-1 RNA = 4.5 log(10) copies/mL, HBV DNA = 9.0 log(10) copies/mL, and median CD4 count =158 cells/mm(3). No subject had baseline ALT &gt;5x ULN.SIX SUBJECTS COMPLETED THE STUDY: 1 withdrew due to non-treatment-related toxoplasmosis and 2 were lost-to-follow-up. At week 48, 100% (6/6) of remaining subjects had ?2 log(10) decrease in HBV DNA, and 100% (6/6) and 83% (5/6) had H...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
HIV Patient Characteristics that Affect Adherence to Exercise Programmes: An Observational Study.
CONCLUSION: Perceived well-being appears to differentiate between adherent and non-adherent patients. Further studies are required to investigate other psychological characteristics and barriers to maintaining exercise. PMID: 20871752 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
Formative Assessment of ARM-U: A Modular Intervention for Decreasing Risk Behaviors Among HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Methamphetamine-Using MSM.
We present results of formative research used to evaluate the content and to assess feasibility and acceptability of this individual-level HIV risk-reduction intervention. SETTING: HIV research clinic in a high MSM and methamphetamine prevalence neighborhood. PROJECT: Avoiding Risks from Methamphetamine-Use (ARM-U) is a brief toolbox intervention that allows counselors to select modules that suit a client's individual risk profile and intervention needs employing motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioral theory. We evaluated the format and content of the intervention through focus groups and pre-testing of the entire intervention using volunteers from the target population stratified into four groups (HIV+/IDU, HIV-/IDU, HIV+/non-IDU, HIV-/non-IDU). Four individuals in eac...
Measuring the Quality of Data Collection in a Large Observational Cohort of HIV and AIDS.
This study shows that a high proportion of data was correctly collected. However, the collection of start-stop dates was not optimal, and the collected data included surplus and missing data. Data collectors should be more knowledgeable about HIV disease and trained in the use of difficult protocols, so that they can better recognize what data to collect and how it should be collected. Among physicians, there should be more agreement about what information to record in the charts, to facilitate data extraction for data collectors. PMID: 20657828 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
Developing a Text Messaging Risk Reduction Intervention for Methamphetamine-Using MSM: Research Note.
Authors: Reback CJ, Ling D, Shoptaw S, Rohde J Abstract Men who have sex with men (MSM) who use methamphetamine experience high risks for HIV infection due to sexual transmission behaviors often engaged in when under the influence of methamphetamine. Methamphetamine-using MSM use various forms of information technology (IT) communication such as instant messaging, social networking sites, and websites to facilitate a sexual and/or drug "hook up." Given the acceptability of IT communication in their daily lives, an IT intervention represents an appropriate strategy to reach and intervene with out-of-treatment, methamphetamine-using MSM. The aim of this study was to conduct formative work to develop a text messaging intervention to reduce methamphetamine use and high-risk sexual beha...
Adaptation of a Couple-Based HIV Intervention for Methamphetamine-Involved African American Men who have Sex with Men.
Authors: Wu E, El-Bassel N, Donald McVinney L, Fontaine YM, Hess L Abstract In the U.S., incidence of HIV infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) has steadily increased since the 1990s. This points to a need for innovation to address both emerging trends as well as longer-standing disparities in HIV risk and transmission among MSM, such as the elevated rates of HIV/STIs among African American MSM and methamphetamine users. While couple-based sexual risk reduction interventions are a promising avenue to reduce HIV/STI transmission, prior research has been almost exclusively with heterosexual couples. We sought to adapt an existing, evidence-based intervention-originally developed and tested with heterosexual couples-for a new target population consisting of African American ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Toward a Better Understanding of Non-Addicted, Methamphetamine-Using, Men who Have Sex with Men (MSM) in Atlanta.
In this study, focus groups and in-depth interviews were conducted in order to understand the motives, context, and other facilitators and barriers of methamphetamine use among non-addicted MSM residing in Atlanta. Participants included 30 non-addicted, methamphetamine-using MSM and 16 local mental and public health officials. Findings from the first of this two-phase formative research project will result in the initial development of a community-tested, culturally-specific social marketing campaign and an individual-based intervention based in HIV-testing facilities. PMID: 20657718 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
Using a modified intervention mapping approach to develop and refine a single-session motivational intervention for methamphetamine-using men who have sex with men.
Authors: Zule WA, Coomes CM, Karg R, Harris JL, Orr A, Wechsberg WM Abstract There is an ongoing need for the development and adaptation of behavioral interventions to address behaviors related to acquisition and transmission of infectious diseases and for preventing the onset of chronic diseases. This paper describes the application of an established systematic approach to the development of a behavioral intervention to reduce sexual risk behaviors for HIV among men who have sex with men and who use methamphetamine. The approach includes six steps: (1) a needs assessment; (2) preparing matrices of proximal program objectives; (3) selecting theory-based methods and practical strategies; (4) producing program components and materials; (5) planning for program adoption, implementatio...
Socio-Demographic Determinants of Condom Use Among Sexually Active Young Adults in Rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
CONCLUSIONS: In this rural South African setting, condom use remains low, especially among females and with an older partner, situations commonly associated with increased HIV acquisition. Targeted supportive interventions to increase condom use need to be developed if HIV prevention programmes are to be successful. PMID: 20648225 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
Developing innovative intervention approaches for methamphetamine-using men who have sex with men not currently in drug treatment.
Authors: Mansergh G, Charania MR, Purcell D PMID: 20648218 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
A typology of intellectual property management for public health innovation and access: design considerations for policymakers.
Authors: Taubman A Abstract This paper seeks to set the practical discipline of public interest intellectual property (IP) management in public health into its broader policy context. The most immediate and direct impact of IP systems on public welfare results not from international standards nor from national legislation - though these norms are fundamentally important - but rather from the accumulated impact of numerous practical choices whether or not to seek IP protection; where and where not; and how any exclusive rights are deployed, by whom, and to what end. IP management is the essentially practical exercise of limited exclusive rights over protected subject matter, the judicious use of those rights to leverage outcomes that advance an institution's or a firm's objectives. ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Feasibility of a Population Based Survey on HIV Prevalence in Barbados, and Population Preference for Sample Identification Method.
CONCLUSION: The HIV prevalence estimated by a linked survey would have a reasonable response rate and be valid, as likelihood of participation is not related to infection risk. PMID: 20448809 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
The Development and Implementation of an Outreach Program to Identify Acute and Recent HIV Infections in New York City.
CONCLUSION: Community education of at-risk groups, with the goal of increased self-diagnosis of possible acute HIV infection, may be a useful addition to traditional efforts to identify such individuals. PMID: 20386719 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
The UNITAID Patent Pool Initiative: Bringing Patents Together for the Common Good.
Authors: Bermudez J, 't Hoen E Abstract Developing and delivering appropriate, affordable, well-adapted medicines for HIV/AIDS remains an urgent challenge: as first-line therapies fail, increasing numbers of people require costly second-line therapy; one-third of ARVs are not available in pediatric formulations; and certain key first- and second-line triple fixed-dose combinations do not exist or sufficient suppliers are lacking. UNITAID aims to help solve these problems through an innovative initiative for the collective management of intellectual property (IP) rights - a patent pool for HIV medicines. The idea behind a patent pool is that patent holders - companies, governments, researchers or universities - voluntarily offer, under certain conditions, the IP related to their inv...
Technology Development Through Pooling ARV Drug Patents: A Vision from China.
Authors: Liu L, Lu H Abstract Unaffordable prices still bar the end-users in China from accessing ARV drugs. Patent protection of ARV drugs has dramatically limited the availability of these lifesaving drugs to AIDS patients in China.The way Chinese government can go to breakthrough the ARV drug patents are suggested as:Make more generic drugs available through compulsory licensing, impartment from other countries or building ARVs plants by partnerships between governments or generic drug companies.Do a thorough and detailed research on the patent application of ARV drugs to find out the loophole.Try patent pool to make AIDS medicines more affordable and appropriate for patients. PMID: 20224635 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
Patent pools: intellectual property rights and competition.
Authors: Rodriguez V Abstract Patent pools do not correct all problems associated with patent thickets. In this respect, patent pools might not stop the outsider problem from striking pools. Moreover, patent pools can be expensive to negotiate, can exclude patent holders with smaller numbers of patents or enable a group of major players to form a cartel that excludes new competitors. For all the above reasons, patent pools are subject to regulatory clearance because they could result in a monopoly. The aim of this article is to present the relationship between patents and competition in a broad context. PMID: 20200607 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Implications of patent pools on innovation regarding antiretrovirals.
Authors: Noehrenberg E Abstract Patent pools have been promoted as an innovative means of promoting the production of fixed-dose combination antiretroviral medicines (ARVs), which can be particularly appropriate for resource-poor settings. An important question, however, is what are the implications of patent pools on innovation for creating new and improved antiretrovirals. Indeed, given the continuing mutation of HIV and growing resistance to existing treatments, continued innovation in ARV development is vital for addressing these challenges. Would patent pools be a hindrance or rather a stimulus for further innovation? This question is particularly relevant in light of UNITAID's initiative to create a patent pool for ARV development, focusing on pediatric formulations and new c...
Designing ARVs Patent Pool Up to Trade & Policy Evolutionary Dynamics.
Authors: Dionisio D, Racalbuto V, Messeri D Abstract Patent pools for second and third-line Fixed Dose Combination (FDC) antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) should not be delayed as they are instrumental to urgent public health needs in the under-served markets.Nonetheless, multinational originator companies still seem to perceive patent pooling for ARVs as a minefield that would offer the generic competitors lots of deeply exploitable opportunities, to the detriment of patent owner's rights.This paper analyses the brand industry concerns, while looking for a strategy up to a really equitable and free world market, without any discrimination between end-users in wealthy and resource-limited countries.This strategy would urge partnerships between originator companies first to make newer FDC...
Pooling ARV Drug Patents: A Pro-Access Fitting Strategy?
Authors: Dionisio D PMID: 20161762 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
Patent Pools for ARVs: Industry Perspectives from ASPEN.
Authors: Nicolaou S Abstract AFFORDABILITY THROUGH REDUCED PRICING IS ONLY ONE PART OF ENHANCING ACCESS TO TREATMENT IN PUBLIC HEALTH EMERGENCIES: Supply Security and the guarantee of supply consistency is the other. To the extent that Patent Pooling is able to create Regional African Manufacturing capability, Africans will support the concept. However, to the extent that if further decentralises manufacture away from the continent and increases Africa's dependence on imports, Patent Pooling can potentially weaken supply security and will continue to relegate Africa a Continent of dependency, rather than one that invests in its own capability. Patent Pooling, should be viewed guardedly on the African Continent and will only be embraced, provided it is consistent with the AU Heads o...
Patent Pooling for Promoting Access to Antiretroviral Drugs (ARVs) - A Strategic Option for India.
Authors: Satyanarayana K, Srivastava S Abstract The current HIV/AIDS scenario in India is quite grim with an estimated 2.4 million people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) in 2008, just behind South Africa and Nigeria. The anti-retroviral drugs (ARVs) remain the main stay of global HIV/AIDS treatment. Over 30 ARVs (single and FDCs) available under six categories viz., NRTIs (nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors), NNRTIs (non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors), Protease inhibitors, the new Fusion inhibitors, Entry inhibitors-CCR5 co-receptor antagonists and HIV integrase strand transfer inhibitors. The major originator companies for these ARVs are: Abbott, Boehringer Ingelheim (BI), Bristol-Myers Squibb (BMS), Gilead, GlaxoSmithKline (GSK), Merck, Pfizer, Roche, and Tibot...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Towards a Patent Pool for HIV Medicines: The Background.
Authors: Childs M Abstract Recent WHO guidelines for antiretroviral therapy recommend switching to less toxic, but more expensive medicines for first-line and second-line ART, raising questions about the financial sustainability of many AIDS treatment programmes. At the same time, many key generic producing countries such as India now grant pharmaceutical product patents so competition between multiple manufacturers will not be able to play the role it has in bringing down the price of newer drugs.Overcoming these patent barriers will require a range of solutions, such as restricting patentability criteria, or compulsory licensing. One additional systematic solution is provided by the patent pool, a collective solution to the management of patent rights, initially presented by Méd...
Antiretroviral (ARV) Therapy in Resource Poor Countries: What do we Need in Real Life?
Authors: Castelli F, Pietra V, Diallo I, Schumacher RF, Simpore J Abstract Significant progresses have been made in the last 5 years towards the ultimate goal to provide universal access to care for all HIV/AIDS patients needing antiretroviral treatment in resource-poor countries. However, many barriers are still to be overcome, including () cost of care for the individual, () stigma, () lack of qualified human resources and infrastructure, especially in the rural setting, () rescue drugs for failing patients and () pediatric formulations. Priority actions to be promoted if the fight against HIV/AIDS is to be successful include: (i) promoting access to care in the rural areas, (ii) strengthening of basic health infrastructures, (iii) waiving of users' fee to get ARV, (iv) a larger ...
Achieving a dream: meeting policy goals related to improving drug access.
This article highlights that drug access even for relatively cheap medicines is out of reach for the vast numbers of global poor. This badly affects people living with HIV/AIDS who face serious obstacles in accessing ARVs. The same concerns are attributed to neglected diseases. Despite international meetings, promises from the pharmaceutical industry and a lot of media attention little has changed in the past 20 years. The accessibility gap to life-saving drugs could be reduced by the UNITAID initiative to pool patents for the many different ARVs, but the reality is that UNITAID is still a promise. To surmount this global problem of inequity requires a rethinking of traditional models of drug access and health objectives that should not be compromised by commercial interests. PMID: 201...
Short and Long-Term Incidence of Tuberculosis and CD4-Cell Count Dynamic on HAART in Senegal.
CONCLUSIONS: This study provides an estimate of TB incidence among patients on HAART in Senegal and supports two underlying mechanisms. PMID: 20148061 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
Correlates of Inconsistent Refusal of Unprotected Sex among Armenian Female Sex Workers.
Authors: Markosyan K, Lang DL, DiClemente RJ Abstract This cross-sectional study assessed the prevalence and correlates of inconsistent refusal of unprotected sex among female sex workers (FSWs) in Armenia. One hundred and eighteen street-based FSWs between the ages of 20 and 52 completed a questionnaire assessing FSWs' demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics. A total of 52.5% (n = 62) of FSWs reported inconsistent refusal of unprotected sex with clients in the past 3 months. Logistic regression analysis controlling for participants' age and education revealed that perceiving more barriers toward condom use (AOR = 1.1; P &lt; 0.01), reporting more types of abuse (AOR = 2.1; P &lt; 0.01), and setting lower fees for service (AOR = 0.9; P = 0.02) significantly predic...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Evaluation of a Smoking Cessation Program for HIV Infected Individuals in an Urban HIV Clinic: Challenges and Lessons Learned.
Conclusions. A low-intensity smoking cessation intervention in an HIV treatment setting is effective in a minority of participants. Further research is needed to better address barriers to smoking cessation such as substance use. PMID: 25349726 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Antiretroviral Therapy Helps HIV-Positive Women Navigate Social Expectations for and Clinical Recommendations against Childbearing in Uganda.
Authors: Kastner J, Matthews LT, Flavia N, Bajunirwe F, Erikson S, Berry NS, Kaida A Abstract Understanding factors that influence pregnancy decision-making and experiences among HIV-positive women is important for developing integrated reproductive health and HIV services. Few studies have examined HIV-positive women's navigation through the social and clinical factors that shape experiences of pregnancy in the context of access to antiretroviral therapy (ART). We conducted 25 semistructured interviews with HIV-positive, pregnant women receiving ART in Mbarara, Uganda in 2011 to explore how access to ART shapes pregnancy experiences. Main themes included: (1) clinical counselling about pregnancy is often dissuasive but focuses on the importance of ART adherence once pregnant; (2) ...
Factors Associated with HIV Testing History among Pregnant Women and Their Partners in Georgia: The ANRS 12127 Prenahtest Trial.
In conclusion, HIV testing history among women at reproductive age was poor in Georgia. Women mostly received HIV testing at prenatal centers. Efforts should be made to promote HIV testing in primary care settings, which would increase its acceptability and overall testing rate in the population. PMID: 25328692 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
The Effect on Treatment Adherence of Administering Drugs as Fixed-Dose Combinations versus as Separate Pills: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
Authors: van Galen KA, Nellen JF, Nieuwkerk PT Abstract Administering drugs as fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) versus the same active drugs administered as separate pills is assumed to enhance treatment adherence. We synthesized evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) about the effect of FDCs versus separate pills on adherence. We searched PubMed for RCTs comparing a FDC with the same active drugs administered as separate pills, including a quantitative estimate of treatment adherence, without restriction to medical condition. The odds ratio (OR) of optimal adherence with FDCs versus separate pills was used as common effect size and aggregated into a pooled effect estimate using a random effect model with inverse variance weights. Out of 1258 articles screened, only six st...
Oral Health Status and Oromucosal Lesions in Patients Living with HIV/AIDS in India: A Comparative Study.
In conclusion HIV positive individuals have poor oral health status and poor periodontal status compared to control group. Effective policies need to be drafted to take care of the oral health of this high risk group. PMID: 25215229 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Serum Micronutrient Status of Haart-Naïve, HIV Infected Children in South Western Nigeria: A Case Controlled Study.
Conclusion. Deficiency of these key micronutrients is widely prevalent in HAART naïve HIV infected children irrespective of social class. This suggests that supplementation trial studies may be indicated in this population. PMID: 25180086 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Determinants of Mortality among Adult HIV-Infected Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy in a Rural Hospital in Southeastern Nigeria: A 5-Year Cohort Study.
Conclusion. Study showed lower mortality than most studies in Nigeria and Africa, with mortality higher among males and patients with CD4 count &lt;200. Further studies are recommended to further compare treatment outcomes between Combivir- and Truvada-based regimens in resource-limited settings using clinical indicators. PMID: 25165579 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Exploration of the Effect of Tobacco Smoking on Metabolic Measures in Young People Living with HIV.
Authors: Rubinstein ML, Harris DR, Rudy BJ, Kapogiannis BG, Aldrovandi GM, Mulligan K Abstract We conducted cross-sectional, multicenter studies in HIV-positive young women and men to assess metabolic and morphologic complications from tobacco smoking in 372 behaviorally infected HIV-positive youth, aged 14-25 years. Measurements included self-reported tobacco use, fasting lipids, glucose, fat distribution, and bone mineral density (BMD; dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans). Overall, 144 (38.7%) self-reported smoking tobacco and 69 (47.9%) of these reported smoking greater than five cigarettes per day. Smokers versus nonsmokers had lower mean total cholesterol (146.0 versus 156.1?mg/dL; P &lt; 0.01) and lower mean total body fat percent (24.1% versus 27.2%, P = 0.03). There wa...
Cost of Care for HIV-Infected Patients with Co-Occurring Substance Use Disorder or Psychiatric Disease: Report from a Large, Integrated Health Plan.
Conclusions. Given these higher expenditures in the care of HIV+ patients with comorbid SU disorder and/or PD, greater efforts to facilitate SU disorder or PD treatment initiation and persistence could provide substantial savings. PMID: 25045533 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Treatment outcomes in a decentralized antiretroviral therapy program: a comparison of two levels of care in north central Nigeria.
Conclusion. ART decentralization is feasible in resource-limited settings, but efforts have to be intensified to maintain good quality of care. PMID: 25028610 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Point-of-Care Tests for HIV, Related Coinfections, and Blood-Borne Infections.
Authors: Pant Pai N, Peeling RW, Smith BD, Dowdy D PMID: 24895531 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
HIV Prevention Messages Targeting Young Latino Immigrant MSM.
Authors: Solorio R, Norton-Shelpuk P, Forehand M, Martinez M, Aguirre J Abstract Young Latino immigrant men who have sex with men (MSM) are at risk for HIV and for delayed diagnosis. A need exists to raise awareness about HIV prevention in this population, including the benefits of timely HIV testing. This project was developed through collaboration between University of WA researchers and Entre Hermanos, a community-based organization serving Latinos. Building from a community-based participatory research approach, the researchers developed a campaign that was executed by Activate Brands, based in Denver, Colorado. The authors (a) describe the development of HIV prevention messages through the integration of previously collected formative data; (b) describe the process of translat...
Engagement with Care, Substance Use, and Adherence to Therapy in HIV/AIDS.
This study is a secondary data analysis using a cross-sectional design from a larger randomized controlled trial (n = 775) that investigated the efficacy of a self-care symptom management manual for participants living with HIV. Participants were recruited from countries of Africa and the US. This study provides evidence that substance use is linked with lower self-reported engagement with care and adherence to therapy. Data on substance use and engagement are presented. Clinical implications of the study address the importance of utilizing health care system and policy factors to improve engagement with care. PMID: 24800065 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Poor Reporting of Outcomes Beyond Accuracy in Point-of-Care Tests for Syphilis: A Call for a Framework.
Conclusion. Although POC screening tests for syphilis were generally favourably evaluated across a range of outcomes, the quality of evidence was compromised by inconsistent definitions, poor methodology, and documentation of outcomes. A framework for standardized reporting of outcomes beyond accuracy was proposed and considered a necessary first step towards an effective implementation of these metrics in POC diagnostics research. PMID: 24795821 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Etravirine as a Switching Option for Patients with HIV RNA Suppression: A Review of Recent Trials.
Authors: Nelson M, Hill A, van Delft Y, Moecklinghoff C Abstract Unlike other nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, etravirine is only approved for use in treatment-experienced patients. In the DUET 1 and 2 trials, 1203 highly treatment-experienced patients were randomized to etravirine or placebo, in combination with darunavir/ritonavir and optimized background treatment. In these trials, etravirine showed significantly higher rates of HIV RNA suppression when compared with placebo (61% versus 40% at Week 48). There was no significant rise of lipids or neuropsychiatric adverse events, but there was an increase in the risk of rash with etravirine treatment. In the SENSE trial, which evaluated etravirine and efavirenz in 157 treatment-naïve patients in combination with 2 ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Resource Utilization and Costs of Care prior to ART Initiation for Pediatric Patients in Zambia.
Conclusions. Zambian pediatric patients initiating ART ?6 months after presenting to care do so quickly, utilize fewer resources than mandated by national guidelines, and accrue low costs. PMID: 24711925 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
HIV Testing and Counselling in Colombia: Local Experience on Two Different Recruitment Strategies to Better Reach Low Socioeconomic Status Communities.
In this report, we describe the experience of CLS at reaching populations from low socioeconomic backgrounds in 2008-2009. Two different approaches were used: one led by CLS and local health care providers (BAFI-1) and the other by CLS and community leaders (BAFI-2). Both approaches included the following: consented HIV screening test, a demographic questionnaire, self-reported HIV knowledge and behaviour questionnaires, pre- and posttest counselling, confirmatory HIV tests, clinical follow-up, access to comprehensive care and antiretroviral treatment. A total of 2085 individuals were enrolled in BAFI-1 and 363 in BAFI-2. The effectiveness indicators for BAFI-1 and BAFI-2, respectively, were HIV positive-confirmed prevalence = 0.29% and 3.86%, return rate for confirmatory results = 62.5% a...
Point of Care Technologies for HIV.
Authors: Haleyur Giri Setty MK, Hewlett IK Abstract Effective prevention of HIV/AIDS requires early diagnosis, initiation of therapy, and regular plasma viral load monitoring of the infected individual. In addition, incidence estimation using accurate and sensitive assays is needed to facilitate HIV prevention efforts in the public health setting. Therefore, more affordable and accessible point-of-care (POC) technologies capable of providing early diagnosis, HIV viral load measurements, and CD4 counts in settings where HIV is most prevalent are needed to enable appropriate intervention strategies and ultimately stop transmission of the virus within these populations to achieve the future goal of an AIDS-free generation. This review discusses the available and emerging POC technolog...
Feasibility and Field Performance of a Simultaneous Syphilis and HIV Point-of-Care Test Based Screening Strategy in at Risk Populations in Edmonton, Canada.
The objectives of the study were to evaluate the feasibility and diagnostic performance of performing both HIV and syphilis POC testing in outreach settings and to document new cases identified in the study population. 1,265 outreach testing visits were offered syphilis and HIV POC testing and 81.5% (n = 1,031) consented to testing. In our population, the SD Bioline 3.0 Syphilis Test had a sensitivity of 85.3% [CI (68.9-95.0)], specificity of 100.0% [CI (99.6-100.0)], positive predictive value (PPV) of 100.0% [CI (88.1-100.0)], and negative predictive value (NPV) of 99.5% [CI (98.9-99.8)]. Test characteristics for the INSTI HIV-1/HIV-2 Antibody Test had a 100.0% sensitivity [CI (39.8-100.00], 99.8 specificity [CI (99.3-100)], 66.7% PPV [CI (22.3-95.7)], and 100.0% NPV [CI (99.6-100.0)]. Fo...
Will an unsupervised self-testing strategy be feasible to operationalize in Canada? Results from a pilot study in students of a large canadian university.
Conclusion. An unsupervised self-testing strategy was found to be feasible in Canadian students. Findings call for studies in at-risk populations to inform Canadian policy. PMID: 24511392 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Differences in Salivary Flow Level, Xerostomia, and Flavor Alteration in Mexican HIV Patients Who Did or Did Not Receive Antiretroviral Therapy.
Conclusion. The study results suggest that antiretroviral therapy can cause cumulative damage that affects the amount of salivary flow. PMID: 24455222 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Attitudes towards and Beliefs about HIV Testing among Latino Immigrant MSM: A Comparison of Testers and Nontesters.
Authors: Solorio R, Forehand M, Simoni J Abstract Latino immigrant men who have sex with men (MSM) are at risk for HIV and delayed diagnosis. An exploratory study using qualitative interviews that assess the beliefs and attitudes of 54 Latino immigrant MSM in Seattle, Washington, is presented. The goal of this research is to determine whether attitudinal differences exist between participants who had and had not been tested and to use any insight into the development of a media campaign to promote testing. Over one-third of the men have never been tested for HIV. Nontesters are more likely to be men who have sex with men and women, have less knowledge about HIV risks, perceive their sexual behaviors as less risky, and deflect HIV-related stigma. Testers are more likely to be self-i...
Successful Integration of Hepatitis C Virus Point-of-Care Tests into the Denver Metro Health Clinic.
Conclusion. DMHC successfully integrated HCV POC testing and piloted a HCV linkage-to-care program. Providing testing opportunities at STD clinics could increase identification of persons with HCV infection. PMID: 24455220 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Did Universal Access to ARVT in Mexico Impact Suboptimal Antiretroviral Prescriptions?
Conclusions. Universal ARVT access in Mexico was associated with changes in ARVT-prescription patterns over time. Health providers' performance improved, but not homogeneously. Training of personnel and guidelines updating is essential to improve prescription. PMID: 24396592 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Using Mobile Health Technology to Improve HIV Care for Persons Living with HIV and Substance Abuse.
Authors: Kirk GD, Himelhoch SS, Westergaard RP, Beckwith CG PMID: 24381751 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Intersection of HIV and Reproductive Health.
Authors: Cohen CR, Bukusi E, Rees H, Blanchard K PMID: 24349767 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
The exposure assessment in current time study: implementation, feasibility, and acceptability of real-time data collection in a community cohort of illicit drug users.
Conclusion. Near real-time EMA data collection in the field is feasible and acceptable among community-dwelling illicit drug users. These data provide the basis for future studies of EMA-informed interventions to prevent drug relapse and improve HIV treatment outcomes in this population. PMID: 24307943 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Determinants of Tuberculosis Infection among Adult HIV Positives Attending Clinical Care in Western Ethiopia: A Case-Control Study.
This study aimed to assess the determinants of TB/HIV coinfection among adult HIV positives attending clinical care at two public health facilities in Nekemte, western Ethiopia. Unmatched case-control study was conducted from December 26, 2011, to February 29, 2012. Cases were 123?TB infected HIV positives, and controls were 246 non-TB infected HIV positives. Being divorced/widowed AOR = 3.02, 95% CI (1.70, 7.88), not attending formal education AOR = 4.32, 95% CI (2.20, 14.15), being underweight (BMI &lt; 18.5?kg/m(2)) AOR = 3.87, 95% CI (2.18, 6.87), having history of diabetic mellitus AOR = 3.63, 95% CI (1.33, 9.94), and being in advanced WHO HIV/AIDS clinical staging AOR = 2.29, 95% CI (1.32, 3.98), were determinant factors associated with TB/HIV co-infection. Having a separate kitc...
Ethical issues in mHealth research involving persons living with HIV/AIDS and substance abuse.
Authors: Labrique AB, Kirk GD, Westergaard RP, Merritt MW Abstract We aim to raise awareness and stimulate dialogue among investigators and research ethics committees regarding ethical issues that arise specifically in the design and conduct of mHealth research involving persons living with HIV/AIDS and substance abuse. Following a brief background discussion of mHealth research in general, we offer a case example to illustrate the characteristics of mHealth research involving people living with HIV/AIDS and substance abuse. With reference to a well-established systematic general ethical framework for biomedical research with human participants, we identify a range of ethical issues that have particular salience for the protection of participants in mHealth research on HIV/AIDS and...
Point-of-Care HIV Testing and Linkage in an Urban Cohort in the Southern US.
Authors: Zinski A, Dougherty SM, Tamhane A, Ross-Davis KL, Raper JL Abstract The Southern states experience the highest rates of HIV and AIDS in the US, and point-of-care (POC) testing outside of primary care may contribute to status awareness in medically underserved populations in this region. To evaluate POC screening and linkage to care at an urban south site, analyses were performed on a dataset of 3,651 individuals from an integrated rapid-result HIV testing and linkage program to describe this test-seeking cohort and determine trends associated with screening, results, and linkage to care. Four percent of the population had positive results. We observed significant differences by test result for age, race and gender, reported risk behaviors, test location, and motivation for...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Smartphone Delivery of Mobile HIV Risk Reduction Education.
Authors: Phillips KA, Epstein DH, Mezghanni M, Vahabzadeh M, Reamer D, Agage D, Preston KL Abstract We sought to develop and deploy a video-based smartphone-delivered mobile HIV Risk Reduction (mHIVRR) intervention to individuals in an addiction treatment clinic. We developed 3 video modules that consisted of a 10-minute HIVRR video, 11 acceptability questions, and 3 knowledge questions and deployed them as a secondary study within a larger study of ecological momentary and geographical momentary assessments. All 24 individuals who remained in the main study long enough completed the mHIVRR secondary study. All 3 videos met our a priori criteria for acceptability "as is" in the population: they achieved median scores of ?2.5 on a 5-point Likert scale; ?20% of the individuals ga...
Preliminary Evidence for Feasibility, Use, and Acceptability of Individualized Texting for Adherence Building for Antiretroviral Adherence and Substance Use Assessment among HIV-Infected Methamphetamine Users.
Authors: Moore DJ, Montoya JL, Blackstone K, Rooney A, Gouaux B, Georges S, Depp CA, Atkinson JH, Tmarc Group T Abstract The feasibility, use, and acceptability of text messages to track methamphetamine use and promote antiretroviral treatment (ART) adherence among HIV-infected methamphetamine users was examined. From an ongoing randomized controlled trial, 30-day text response rates of participants assigned to the intervention (individualized texting for adherence building (iTAB), n = 20) were compared to those in the active comparison condition (n = 9). Both groups received daily texts assessing methamphetamine use, and the iTAB group additionally received personalized daily ART adherence reminder texts. Response rate for methamphetamine use texts was 72.9% with methamphetamine u...
Acceptability of Mobile Phone Technology for Medication Adherence Interventions among HIV-Positive Patients at an Urban Clinic.
Authors: Miller CW, Himelhoch S Abstract Mobile phone technology is increasingly used to overcome traditional barriers limiting access to care. The goal of this study was to evaluate access and willingness to use smart and mobile phone technology for promoting adherence among people attending an urban HIV clinic. One hundred consecutive HIV-positive patients attending an urban HIV outpatient clinic were surveyed. The questionnaire evaluated access to and utilization of mobile phones and willingness to use them to enhance adherence to HIV medication. The survey also included the CASE adherence index as a measure of adherence. The average age was 46.4 (SD = 9.2). The majority of participants were males (63%), black (93%), and Hispanic (11.4%) and reported earning less than $10,000 pe...
Information and Communication Technology to Link Criminal Justice Reentrants to HIV Care in the Community.
In this report, we describe the development of this ICT/mHealth intervention, outline the study procedures used to evaluate this intervention, and summarize the implications for the mHealth knowledge base. PMID: 23984054 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Feasibility and Acceptability of a Real-Time Adherence Device among HIV-Positive IDU Patients in China.
Authors: Bachman Desilva M, Gifford AL, Keyi X, Li Z, Feng C, Brooks M, Harrold M, Yueying H, Gill CJ, Wubin X, Vian T, Haberer J, Bangsberg D, Sabin L Abstract We collected data on feasibility and acceptability of a real-time web-linked adherence monitoring container among HIV-positive injection drug users (IDU) in China. "Wisepill" uses wireless technology to track on-time medication dosing. Ten patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) at the Guangxi CDC HIV clinic in Nanning, China, used Wisepill for one ART medication for one month. We monitored device use and adherence and explored acceptability of the device among patients. Mean adherence was 89.2% (SD 10.6%). Half of the subjects reported a positive overall experience with Wisepill. Seven said that it was inconvenient, suppo...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Same-Day CD4 Testing to Improve Uptake of HIV Care and Treatment in South Africa: Point-of-Care Is Not Enough.
Conclusions. Offering CD4 testing using a point-of-care, but not rapid, technology and without other health system changes had minor impacts on the uptake of HIV care and treatment. Point-of-care technologies alone may not be enough to improve linkage to care and treatment after HIV testing. PMID: 23956850 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Utilization of and Barriers to HIV and MCH Services among Community ART Group Members and Their Families in Tete, Mozambique.
Authors: Geelhoed D, Decroo T, Dezembro S, Matias H, Lessitala F, Muzila F, Brumana L, Capobianco E Abstract Mozambique continues to face many challenges in HIV and maternal and child health care (MCH). Community-based antiretroviral treatment groups (CAG) enhance retention to care among members, but whether such benefits extend to their families and to MCH remains unclear. In 2011 we studied utilization of HIV and MCH services among CAG members and their family aggregates in Changara, Mozambique, through a mixed-method assessment. We systematically revised all patient-held health cards from CAG members and their non-CAG family aggregate members and conducted semistructured group discussions on MCH topics. Quantitative data were analysed in EPI-Info. Qualitative data were manually ...
Comparative Effectiveness of Darunavir 1,200?mg Daily and Approved Dosing Strategies for Protease Inhibitor-Experienced Patients.
Conclusions. Darunavir 1,200?mg daily should be investigated for use in protease inhibitor-experienced patients. PMID: 23956848 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Engagement in HIV Medical Care and Technology Use among Stimulant-Using and Nonstimulant-Using Men who have Sex with Men.
Authors: Horvath KJ, Carrico AW, Simoni J, Boyer EW, Amico KR, Petroll AE Abstract Aims of this study were to assess the associations between stimulant use and attitudes toward and engagement in HIV medical care and to examine technology use among stimulant-using and nonstimulant-using men who have sex with men (MSM). HIV-positive MSM (n = 276; mean age = 42 years; 71% white, non-Hispanic; 43% with college degree) completed an online survey in 2009. Most men (69%) had not missed any scheduled HIV medical appointments in the past year, while 23% had missed at least one, and 9% had not attended any appointments. Stimulant use was significantly associated with not attending any HIV medical appointments in the unadjusted model (relative risk ratio (RRR) = 2.84, 95% CI [1.07, 7.58]), as...
Providers' Perspectives on Provision of Family Planning to HIV-Positive Individuals in HIV Care in Nyanza Province, Kenya.
Conclusions. These findings suggest the importance of considering issues such as patient flow, provider burden, commodity supply, gender and cultural issues affecting FP use, and provider training in FP/HIV when designing integrated FP/HIV services in high HIV prevalence areas. PMID: 23738058 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Overcoming Barriers to Family Planning through Integration: Perspectives of HIV-Positive Men in Nyanza Province, Kenya.
This study explored barriers to and facilitators of using family planning services among HIV-positive men in Nyanza Province, Kenya. From May to June 2010, in-depth interviews were conducted with 30 men receiving care at 15 HIV clinics. The key barriers to the use of family planning included concerns about side effects of contraceptives, lack of knowledge about contraceptive methods, myths and misconceptions including fear of infertility, structural barriers such as staffing shortages at HIV clinics, and a lack of male focus in family planning methods and service delivery. The integration of family planning into HIV clinics including family planning counseling and education was cited as an important strategy to improve family planning receptivity among men. Integrating family planning into...
A Community-Supported Clinic-Based Program for Prevention of Violence against Pregnant Women in Rural Kenya.
Conclusion. Integrating GBV programs into rural antenatal clinics has potential to contribute to both primary and secondary GBV prevention. Following further evaluation, this model may be deemed applicable for rural communities in Kenya and elsewhere in East Africa. PMID: 23738056 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Integration of HIV Care with Primary Health Care Services: Effect on Patient Satisfaction and Stigma in Rural Kenya.
Authors: Odeny TA, Penner J, Lewis-Kulzer J, Leslie HH, Shade SB, Adero W, Kioko J, Cohen CR, Bukusi EA Abstract HIV departments within Kenyan health facilities are usually better staffed and equipped than departments offering non-HIV services. Integration of HIV services into primary care may address this issue of skewed resource allocation. Between 2008 and 2010, we piloted a system of integrating HIV services into primary care in rural Kenya. Before integration, we conducted a survey among returning adults ?18-year old attending the HIV clinic. We then integrated HIV and primary care services. Three and twelve months after integration, we administered the same questionnaires to a sample of returning adults attending the integrated clinic. Changes in patient responses were asse...
Social Support Network among People Living with HIV/AIDS in Iran.
This study considers social network interactions as a potential source of support for individuals living with HIV/AIDS in Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 224 people with HIV/AIDS who refer to behavioral counseling centers. Participants were randomly selected among all people with HIV/AIDS from these centers. Relatives were more reported as sources of support than nonrelatives. They were closer to participants, but there was difference between the closest type among relative and nonrelative supporters (P = 0.01). Mean of functional support with considering the attainable range 0-384 was low (126.74??(SD = 76.97)). Social support of participants has been found to be associated with CD4 cell count (P = 0.000), sex (P = 0.049), and network size (P = 0.000) after adjusted ...
Sources of Information on HIV and Sexual and Reproductive Health for Couples Living with HIV in Rural Southern Malawi.
Authors: Gombachika BC, Chirwa E, Malata A, Maluwa A Abstract WITH WIDER ACCESS TO ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY, PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV ARE RECONSIDERING THEIR REPRODUCTIVE DECISIONS: remarrying and having children. The purpose of the paper is to explore sources of information for reproductive decision used by couples living with HIV in patrilineal and matrilineal districts of Malawi. Data were collected from forty couples from July to December 2010. Our results illuminate five specific issues: some of the informants (1) remarry after divorce/death of a spouse, (2) establish new marriage relationship with spouses living with HIV, and (3) have children hence the need for information to base their decisions. There are (4) shared and interactive couple decisions, and (5) informal networks o...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Current challenges to the United states' AIDS drug assistance program and possible implications of the affordable care act.
Authors: McManus KA, Engelhard CL, Dillingham R Abstract AIDS Drug Assistance Programs, enacted through the Ryan White Comprehensive AIDS Resources Emergency Act of 1990, are the "payer of last resort" for prescription medications for lower income, uninsured, or underinsured people living with HIV/AIDS. ADAPs face declining funding from the federal government. State funding of ADAP is discretionary, but some states increased their contributions to meet the gap in funding. The demand for ADAP support is increasing as people living with HIV are living longer; the antiretroviral therapy (ART) guidelines have been changed to recommend initiation of treatment for all; the United States is increasing HIV testing goals; and the recession continues. In the setting of increased demand and l...
Developing multipurpose reproductive health technologies: an integrated strategy.
Authors: Harrison PF, Hemmerling A, Romano J, Whaley KJ, Young Holt B Abstract WOMEN WORLDWIDE CONFRONT TWO FREQUENTLY CONCURRENT REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH CHALLENGES: the need for contraception and for protection from sexually transmitted infections, importantly HIV/AIDS. While conception and infection share the same anatomical site and mode of transmission, there are no reproductive health technologies to date that simultaneously address that reality. Relevant available technologies are either contraceptive or anti-infective, are limited in number, and require different modes of administration and management. These "single-indication" technologies do not therefore fully respond to what is a substantial reproductive health need intimately linked to pivotal events in many women's lives. ...
HIV-Associated Central Nervous System Disease in Patients Admitted at the Douala General Hospital between 2004 and 2009: A Retrospective Study.
Conclusions. HIV-associated CNS disease is common in Douala. CNS symptoms in HIV patients need urgent investigation because of their association with diseases of high case fatality. PMID: 23533732 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Patterns of Use and Outcomes in Patients Treated with Etravirine in the HIV Research Network.
Authors: Gebo K, Voss C, Mrus J, Hiv Research Network Abstract This observational analysis examined the clinical outcomes of patients receiving etravirine-(ETR-) based therapy, particularly with protease inhibitors (PIs) other than darunavir (DRV) and with raltegravir (RAL). Data included treatment-experienced adults in the HIV Research Network who began ETR-containing antiretroviral regimens in 2008-2010. The primary objective was to assess 6-month outcomes (durability, i.e., still on an ETR-containing regimen; change in CD4+ cell count and HIV-1 RNA &lt;400?copies/mL). The cohort included 587 patients receiving ETR; 42% of ETR use was in patients not on DRV/ritonavir (r). Patients receiving ETR plus DRV/r had longer durability versus those on ETR plus a PI other than DRV/r at m...
Performance of Clinical Criteria for Screening of Possible Antiretroviral Related Mitochondrial Toxicity in HIV-Infected Children in Accra.
Authors: Langs-Barlow A, Renner L, Katz K, Northrup V, Paintsil E Abstract Mitochondrial damage is implicated in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) toxicity. HIV infection also causes mitochondrial toxicity (MT). Differentiating between the two is critical for HIV management. Our objective was to test the utility of the Mitochondrial Disease Criteria (MDC) and the Enquête Périnatale Française (EPF) to screen for possible HAART related MT in HIV-infected children in Ghana. The EPF and MDC are compilations of clinical symptoms, or criteria, of MT: a (+) score indicates possible MT. We applied these criteria retrospectively to 403 charts of HIV-infected children. Of those studied, 331/403 received HAART. Comparing HAART exposed and HAART naïve children, the difference in...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
The Association between Noncommercial Partnerships and Risk of HIV among Female Sex Workers: Evidences from a Cross-Sectional Behavioral and Biological Survey in Southern India.
Authors: Somanath RP, Mishra RM, Saggurti N, Parimi P Abstract This paper examines the association between female sex workers' (FSWs) noncommercial partnerships with risk of HIV in Andhra Pradesh, India. Data were drawn from a cross-sectional behavioral and biological survey conducted in 2009 among 3225 FSWs from Andhra Pradesh. Participants were asked about their sexual partnerships, condom use, and vulnerability factors and tested for HIV and sexually transmitted infections. The key independent variables considered were presence of a noncommercial sexual partner (no, yes) and the nature of such partnerships (regular, nonregular). FSWs who reported husband as noncommercial partner were considered to have a regular partner, while the rest were defined as having nonregular partners....
Psychometric Assessment of a Physician-Patient Communication Behaviors Scale: The Perspective of Adult HIV Patients in Kenya.
Discussion. The revised PPCB scale showed acceptable validity and reliability in Kenya. PMID: 23476754 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
The Linked Response: Lessons Emerging from Integration of HIV and Reproductive Health Services in Cambodia.
Authors: White J, Delvaux T, Chhea C, Saramony S, Ouk V, Saphonn V Abstract A qualitative assessment was made of service provider and user perceptions of the quality of integrated reproductive health services established through a pilot intervention in Cambodia. The intervention aimed to promote pregnant women's HIV testing and general utilization of reproductive health facilities as well as improve the follow-up of HIV-positive women and exposed infants through strengthened referral and operational linkages amongst health facilities/services and community-based support interventions for PLHIV. The study was conducted in one operational district where the intervention was piloted and for comparative purposes in a district where integrated services had yet to be implemented. Service...
The Impact of ART on the Economic Outcomes of People Living with HIV/AIDS.
Conclusions. ART was associated with greater improvement in work status, even after controlling for change in physical health functioning, suggesting other factors associated with ART may influence work. PMID: 23424678 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Effects of a Phone Call Intervention to Promote Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy and Quality of Life of HIV/AIDS Patients in Baoshan, China: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
Conclusion. A mobile phone call intervention to patients could maintain high adherence rates although no statistically significant differences were found. A phone call could improve some domains of QOL among treatment-naive patients. PMID: 23401755 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Risky Behaviors among HIV-Positive Female Sex Workers in Northern Karnataka, India.
Conclusion. This study would help inform programs to target the following particularly vulnerable HIV-positive FSWs: those who are older, those who changed their occupation post-HIV diagnosis, and those who are nonmobile. PMID: 23365728 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
AIDS and HIV Infection after Thirty Years.
Authors: Ippolito G, Levy JA, Sonnerborg A, Mugusi F, Dianzani F PMID: 23365727 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
The Intersection between Sex Work and Reproductive Health in Northern Karnataka, India: Identifying Gaps and Opportunities in the Context of HIV Prevention.
Conclusions. Antenatal HIV testing remains low in the context of ongoing sex work during pregnancy. Existing HIV prevention programs are well positioned to immediately integrate reproductive health care with HIV interventions targeted to FSWs. PMID: 23346390 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
The Female Sex Work Industry in a District of India in the Context of HIV Prevention.
Authors: Buzdugan R, Halli SS, Hiremath JM, Jayanna K, Raghavendra T, Moses S, Blanchard J, Scambler G, Cowan F Abstract HIV prevalence in India remains high among female sex workers. This paper presents the main findings of a qualitative study of the modes of operation of female sex work in Belgaum district, Karnataka, India, incorporating fifty interviews with sex workers. Thirteen sex work settings (distinguished by sex workers' main places of solicitation and sex) are identified. In addition to previously documented brothel, lodge, street, dhaba (highway restaurant), and highway-based sex workers, under-researched or newly emerging sex worker categories are identified, including phone-based sex workers, parlour girls, and agricultural workers. Women working in brothels, lodges,...
Childbearing Decision Making: A Qualitative Study of Women Living with HIV/AIDS in Southwest Nigeria.
Authors: Sofolahan YA, Airhihenbuwa CO Abstract Using the PEN-3 model, the purpose of this qualitative study was to understand the factors responsible for the childbearing decisions of women living with HIV/AIDS (WLHA) in Lagos, Nigeria. Sixty WLHA who sought care at a teaching hospital in Lagos were recruited to participate in in-depth interviews. The average age of the participants was 30 years, and 48 participants were receiving antiretroviral therapy. Healthcare and spiritual practices, healthcare provider-patient communication about childbearing, and husband/partner support emerged as factors that contribute to the childbearing decisions of WLHA. The findings reveal the importance of discussing sexual reproductive health and childbearing issues with WLHA in the healthcare cont...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Tanzanian Couples' Perspectives on Gender Equity, Relationship Power, and Intimate Partner Violence: Findings from the RESPECT Study.
Authors: Krishnan S, Vohra D, de Walque D, Medlin C, Nathan R, Dow WH Abstract Intimate partner violence (IPV) is widely prevalent in Tanzania. Inequitable gender norms manifest in men's and women's attitudes about power and decision making in intimate relationships and are likely to play an important role in determining the prevalence of IPV. We used data from the RESPECT study, a randomized controlled trial that evaluated an intervention to prevent sexually transmitted infections in a cohort of young Tanzanian men and women, to examine the relationship between couples' attitudes about IPV, relationship power, and sexual decision making, concordance on these issues, and women's reports of IPV over 12 months. Women expressed less equitable attitudes than men at baseline. Over time,...
Bolstering the Evidence Base for Integrating Abortion and HIV Care: A Literature Review.
Authors: Manski R, Dennis A, Blanchard K, Lince N, Grossman D Abstract HIV-positive women have abortions at similar rates to their HIV-negative counterparts, yet little is known about clinical outcomes of abortion for HIV-positive women or the best practices for abortion provision. To fill that gap, we conducted a literature review of clinical outcomes of surgical and medication abortion among HIV-positive women. We identified three studies on clinical outcomes of surgical abortion among HIV-positive women; none showed significant differences in infectious complications by HIV status. A review of seven articles on similar gynecological procedures found no differences in complications by HIV status. No studies evaluated medication abortion among HIV-positive women. However, we did f...
Caregivers' Barriers to Disclosing the HIV Diagnosis to Infected Children on Antiretroviral Therapy in a Resource-Limited District in South Africa: A Grounded Theory Study.
Authors: Madiba S, Mokwena K Abstract We used a grounded theory approach to explore how a sample of caregivers of children on antiretroviral treatment (ART) experience HIV disclosure to their infected children. This paper explores caregivers' barriers to disclosing HIV to infected children. Caregivers of children aged 6-13 years who were receiving ART participated in four focus-group interviews. Three main themes, caregiver readiness to tell, right time to tell, and the context of disclosure, emerged. Disclosure was delayed because caregivers had to first deal with personal fears which influenced their readiness to disclose; disclosure was also delayed because caregivers did not know how to tell. Caregivers lacked disclosure skills because they had not been trained on how to tell t...
Differences in the Nonuse of any Contraception and Use of Specific Contraceptive Methods in HIV Positive and HIV Negative Rwandan Women.
We describe factors associated with nonuse of contraception and with use of specific contraceptive methods in HIV positive and HIV negative Rwandan women. Data from 395 HIV-positive and 76 HIV-negative women who desired no pregnancy in the previous 6 months were analyzed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression models to identify clinical and demographic characteristics that predict contraceptive use. Differences in contraceptive methods used were dependent on marital/partner status, partner's knowledge of a woman's HIV status, and age. Overall, condoms, abstinence, and hormonal methods were the most used, though differences existed by HIV status. Less than 10% of women both HIV+ and HIV- used no contraception. Important differences exist between HIV-positive and HIV-negative ...
Women's Health Care Utilization among Harder-to-Reach HIV-Infected Women ever on Antiretroviral Therapy in British Columbia.
Conclusion. A health service gap exists along geographical and social axes for harder-to-reach HIV-infected women in BC. Women-centered WHC and HIV-specific care should be streamlined and integrated to better address women's holistic health. PMID: 23227316 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Effects of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors on Liver Fibrosis in HIV and Hepatitis C Coinfection.
Conclusions. There was not a protective association between angiotensin inhibition and liver fibrosis in coinfection. These noninvasive indices may be useful for ruling out significant fibrosis in coinfection. PMID: 23193466 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Pharmacists' Research Contributions in the Fight against HIV/AIDs.
Authors: Horace AE Abstract Pharmacists have made many contributions to HIV/AIDs research and are still showing their significance as members of the healthcare team through innovative clinical trials. Pharmacists are showing advances in several healthcare settings including inpatient, outpatient, and community pharmacies. Because of the complex regimens of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the increased life span of patients living with HIV, and other concomitant medications taken for comorbid disease states, there is a high risk for health-related complications and the development of adverse events. These adverse events may lead to decreased adherence to HAART, which may cause the development of HIV drug resistance. Pharmacists are providing examples through growing re...
Cost-Effectiveness of Antiretroviral Therapy for Multidrug-Resistant HIV: Past, Present, and Future.
Authors: Harris M, Nosyk B, Harrigan R, Lima VD, Cohen C, Montaner J Abstract In the early years of the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era, HIV with resistance to two or more agents in different antiretroviral classes posed a significant clinical challenge. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) HIV was an important cause of treatment failure, morbidity, and mortality. Treatment options at the time were limited; multiple drug regimens with or without enfuvirtide were used with some success but proved to be difficult to sustain for reasons of tolerability, toxicity, and cost. Starting in 2006, data began to emerge supporting the use of new drugs from the original antiretroviral classes (tipranavir, darunavir, and etravirine) and drugs from new classes (raltegravir and maraviroc) fo...
Living with uncertainty: acting in the best interests of women.
Authors: Gollub E, Stein Z Abstract A recent multi-country study on hormonal contraceptives (HC) and HIV acquisition and transmission among African HIV-serodiscordant couples reported a statistically significant doubling of risk for HIV acquisition among women as well as transmission from women to men for injectable contraceptives. Together with a prior cohort study on African women seeking health services, these data are the strongest yet to appear on the HC-HIV risk. This paper will briefly review the Heffron study strengths and relevant biological and epidemiologic evidence; address the futility of further trials; and propose instead an alternative framework for next steps. The weight of the evidence calls for a discontinuation of progestin-dominant methods. We propose here five...
Symptom Status Predicts Patient Outcomes in Persons with HIV and Comorbid Liver Disease.
Authors: Henderson WA, Martino AC, Kitamura N, Kim KH, Erlen JA Abstract Persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are living longer; therefore, they are more likely to suffer significant morbidity due to potentially treatable liver diseases. Clinical evidence suggests that the growing number of individuals living with HIV and liver disease may have a poorer health-related quality of life (HRQOL) than persons living with HIV who do not have comorbid liver disease. Thus, this study examined the multiple components of HRQOL by testing Wilson and Cleary's model in a sample of 532 individuals (305 persons with HIV and 227 persons living with HIV and liver disease) using structural equation modeling. The model components include biological/physiological factors (HIV viral l...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
CD4 Count Pattern and Demographic Distribution of Treatment-Naïve HIV Patients in Lagos, Nigeria.
Conclusion. Females account for more than half of registered patients in HIV clinic and have a relatively higher CD4 count than males. About three-quarter of HIV positives require antiretroviral therapy at registration. PMID: 23056931 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Comparison of the Minimental State Examination Scale and the International HIV Dementia Scale in Assessing Cognitive Function in Nigerian HIV Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy.
Conclusion. These findings indicate that the IHDS detects higher rates of HAND and may identify HIV/AIDS patients who require further cognitive assessment using more robust assessment batteries. PMID: 23050130 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Morbidity and Mortality Patterns of Hospitalised Adult HIV/AIDS Patients in the Era of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy: A 4-year Retrospective Review from Zaria, Northern Nigeria.
Conclusion. In the current HAART era, late presentation and tuberculosis continue to fuel the HIV/AIDS pandemic in Africa, with emerging challenges due to ART-related complications. PMID: 23019521 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Oral HIV-Associated Kaposi Sarcoma: A Clinical Study from the Ga-Rankuwa Area, South Africa.
CONCLUSIONS: In Ga-Rankuwa, South Africa where HIV-KS is prevalent, oral KS affects similarly males and females. A low CD4+ T-cell count at the time of oral HIV-KS diagnosis and the development of facial lymphoedema during the course of HIV-KS disease portends a poor prognosis. PMID: 23008762 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infections in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Children and Adolescents.
Conclusions. MRSA occurred at a rate of 11.1 infections/1,000 PY in HIV-infected youth but invasive disease was uncommon. Geographic location, black race, and increased VL, but not immunosuppression, were independently associated with MRSA risk. PMID: 23008761 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Meeting the Contraceptive Needs of Key Populations Affected by HIV in Asia: An Unfinished Agenda.
Authors: Petruney T, Minichiello SN, McDowell M, Wilcher R Abstract Like all women, women living with and at risk of acquiring HIV have the right to determine the number and timing of their pregnancies and to safely achieve their reproductive intentions. Yet, many women in Asia affected by HIV lack access to family planning services and experience disproportionately high rates of unintended pregnancy and abortion. Programs that have succeeded in promoting condom use and providing HIV prevention and treatment services in this region have largely missed the opportunity to address the contraceptive needs of the key populations they serve. The importance of better linkages between family planning and HIV policies and programs is now widely recognized by global health policymakers and d...
Concurrent FDG Avid Nasopharyngeal Lesion and Generalized Lymphadenopathy on PET-CT Imaging Is Indicative of Lymphoma in Patients with HIV Infection.
This study retrospectively evaluated the diagnostic value of concurrent nasopharyngeal lesion and lymphadenopathy on positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG PET-CT) imaging. The eligible cases were from patients with HIV infection and lymphadenopathy and referred for FDG PET-CT to evaluate lymphoma or other malignancies prior to pathological investigation. FDG PET-CT images and interpretation reports were correlated with clinical information and pathological diagnoses. Among 22 eligible patients, FDG avid nasopharyngeal lesions were incidentally noted in 7 on PET-CT imaging, and all had lymphomas diagnosed with subsequent biopsies (6 diffuse large B-cell lymphomas and 1 Hodgkin's lymphoma). In the remaining 15 patients with adenopa...
High Initial HIV/AIDS-Related Mortality and -Its Predictors among Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy in the Kagera Region of Tanzania: A Five-Year Retrospective Cohort Study.
We examined mortality rates and its predictors from a five years retrospective cohort data of HIV/AIDs patients attending care and treatment clinic in Biharamulo Tanzania. Cox regression analysis was used to identify predictors of mortality. Of the 546 patient records retrieved, the mean age was 37 years with median CD4 count of 156 cells. The mortality rate was 4.32/100 person years at risk with males having three times higher mortality compared to females. Starting Antiretroviral treatment with advanced disease state, body weight below 45 kegs, WHO stage 4 disease, and CD4 cells below 50 were main predictors of mortality. Promoting early voluntary counselling and testing should be given a priority to facilitate timely start of treatment. PMID: 22973505 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research...
A Comparison of Chronic Periodontitis in HIV-Seropositive Subjects and the General Population in the Ga-Rankuwa Area, South Africa.
Authors: Khammissa R, Feller L, Altini M, Fatti P, Lemmer J Abstract The effect of HIV infection on the prevalence and the rate of progression of chronic periodontitis is not clear. The aim of this study was to compare parameters associated with the severity of chronic periodontitis in terms of periodontal probing depths, gingival recession, plaque indexes, and bleeding indexes of HIV-seropositive subjects and healthy age-matched control subjects, and of HIV-seropositive subjects on highly active antiretroviral therapy and those not receiving such treatment. Two cohorts of subjects with chronic periodontitis were recruited for this study over a period of six months. There were 30 HIV-seropositive subjects, and 30 control subjects. Periodontal probing depths, gingival marginal reces...
Thirty years later: pregnancies in females perinatally infected with human immunodeficiency virus-1.
Authors: Badell ML, Lindsay M Abstract The first cases of mother to child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were described more than two decades ago and since then several thousands more have been reported in western countries. In the early 1980s the majority of perinatally acquired HIV children did not survive beyond childhood. However combined antiretroviral therapy (ART) for perinatally HIV-acquired children has prolonged their survival and in the past 2 decades, many have reached adulthood. As the perinatally HIV-infected females become sexually active, they are in turn at risk for pregnancy and of transmitting HIV infection to their children. A considerable proportion of this population appears to engage in unprotected sexual intercourse leading to teenage pre...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
The Changing Epidemiology of Oropharyngeal Candidiasis in Patients with HIV/AIDS in the Era of Antiretroviral Therapy.
Authors: Patel PK, Erlandsen JE, Kirkpatrick WR, Berg DK, Westbrook SD, Louden C, Cornell JE, Thompson GR, Vallor AC, Wickes BL, Wiederhold NP, Redding SW, Patterson TF Abstract The impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on opportunistic conditions in HIV patients continues to evolve. We specifically studied the changing epidemiology of oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) in 215?HIV/AIDS patients. Status of yeast colonization was assessed from oral rinse samples, and preliminary yeast identification was made using CHROMagar Candida and confirmed with standard microbiological techniques and/or molecular sequencing. Susceptibility to fluconazole was determined by CHROMagar Candida agar dilution screening and CLSI broth microdilution. 176 (82%) patients were colonized and 59 (27%) patie...
Assessing the Association between Leptin and Bone Mineral Density in HIV-Infected Men.
Authors: Rao MN, Schambelan M, Tai VW, Abrams DI, Khatami H, Havel PJ, Sakkas G, Mulligan K Abstract HIV-infected individuals are at risk for decreased bone mineral density (BMD). The known risk factors for bone loss do not fully explain the increased risk in this population. There is emerging evidence that leptin, a hormone secreted by adipocytes, plays an important role in bone metabolism. Several studies have assessed the relationship between leptin and bone density in healthy adults, but there are few such studies in HIV-infected individuals. Furthermore, HIV infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy are at increased risk for altered fat distribution, which may impact the relationship between leptin and BMD. In a cross-sectional analysis of data in 107 HIV-infected men, we...
Virological Response in Cerebrospinal Fluid to Antiretroviral Therapy in a Large Italian Cohort of HIV-Infected Patients with Neurological Disorders.
Authors: Giancola ML, Lorenzini P, Cingolani A, Baldini F, Bossolasco S, Bini T, Monno L, Picchi G, d'Arminio Monforte A, Cinque P, Tozzi V, Antinori A Abstract The aim of the present study was to analyse the effect of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy and single antiretroviral drugs on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) HIV-RNA burden in HIV-infected patients affected by neurological disorders enrolled in a multicentric Italian cohort. ARVs were considered "neuroactive" from literature reports. Three hundred sixty-three HIV-positive patients with available data from paired plasma and CSF samples, were selected. One hundred twenty patients (33.1%) were taking ARVs at diagnosis of neurological disorder. Mean CSF HIV-RNA was significantly higher in naïve than in experienced patients, and in patie...
Psychosocial Correlates among Adolescents of Responses to HIV Prevention Interventions.
Authors: Stanton B, Rosenthal S, Li X PMID: 22928093 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
The Cancer-Associated Virus Landscape in HIV Patients with Oral Hairy Leukoplakia, Kaposi's Sarcoma, and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma.
Authors: Burbelo PD, Kovacs JA, Wagner J, Bayat A, Rhodes CS, De Souza Y, Greenspan JS, Iadarola MJ Abstract Although HIV-positive patients are at higher risk for developing a variety of infection-related cancers, the prevalence of infections with the seven known cancer-associated viruses has not been studied. Luciferase immunoprecipitation systems were used to evaluate antiviral antibodies in four 23-person groups: healthy blood donors and HIV-infected patients with oral hairy leukoplakia (OLP), Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), or non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Antibody profiling revealed that all HIV-positive individuals were strongly seropositive for anti-gp41 and antireverse transcriptase antibodies. However, anti-p24 HIV antibody levels were highly variable and some OLP and KS patients dem...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Nothing as Practical as a Good Theory? The Theoretical Basis of HIV Prevention Interventions for Young People in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review.
Authors: Michielsen K, Chersich M, Temmerman M, Dooms T, Van Rossem R Abstract This paper assesses the extent to which HIV prevention interventions for young people in sub-Saharan Africa are grounded in theory and if theory-based interventions are more effective. Three databases were searched for evaluation studies of HIV prevention interventions for youth. Additional articles were identified on websites of international organisations and through searching references. 34 interventions were included; 25 mentioned the use of theory. Social Cognitive Theory was most prominent (n = 13), followed by Health Belief Model (n = 7), and Theory of Reasoned Action/Planned Behaviour (n = 6). These cognitive behavioural theories assume that cognitions drive sexual behaviour. Reporting on choice ...
Orthotopic liver transplantation in human-immunodeficiency-virus-positive patients in Germany.
Conclusions. Overall OLT is a feasible approach in HIV-infected patients with acceptable survival rates in Germany. Reinfection with HCV still remains a major clinical challenge in HIV/HCV coinfection after OLT. PMID: 22900154 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Antiretroviral treatment in resource-limited settings 2012.
Authors: Duerr A, Altice FL, Harries AD, Sohn AH PMID: 22888412 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Global HIV/AIDS Clinical and Translational Pharmacology.
Authors: Morse GD, Maartens G, Maponga CC, Ma Q PMID: 22852073 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Age Differences among Female Sex Workers in the Philippines: Sexual Risk Negotiations and Perceived Manager Advice.
Authors: Urada LA, Malow RM, Santos NC, Morisky DE Abstract Consistent condom use among high risk groups such as female sex workers (FSWs) remains low. Adolescent female sex workers are especially at higher risk for HIV/STI infections. However, few published studies have compared the sexual risk negotiations among adolescent, emerging adult, and older age groups or the extent a manager's advice about condom use is associated with an FSW's age. Of 1,388 female bar/spa workers surveyed in the southern Philippines, 791 FSW who traded sex in the past 6 months were included in multivariable logistic regression models. The oldest FSWs (aged 36-48) compared to adolescent FSWs (aged 14-17) were 3.3 times more likely to negotiate condoms when clients refused condom use. However, adolescent ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
A systematic review of clinical diagnostic systems used in the diagnosis of tuberculosis in children.
Conclusions. Though scoring systems and diagnostic criteria remain widely used in the diagnosis of tuberculosis in children, validation has been difficult due to lack of an established and accessible gold standard. Estimates of sensitivity and specificity vary widely, especially in populations with high HIV co-infection. PMID: 22848799 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
TB and HIV Therapeutics: Pharmacology Research Priorities.
Authors: Dooley KE, Kim PS, Williams SD, Hafner R Abstract An unprecedented number of investigational drugs are in the development pipeline for the treatment of tuberculosis. Among patients with tuberculosis, co-infection with HIV is common, and concurrent treatment of tuberculosis and HIV is now the standard of care. To ensure that combinations of anti-tuberculosis drugs and antiretrovirals are safe and are tested at doses most likely to be effective, selected pharmacokinetic studies based on knowledge of their metabolic pathways and their capacity to induce or inhibit metabolizing enzymes of companion drugs must be conducted. Drug interaction studies should be followed up by evaluations in larger populations to evaluate safety and pharmacodynamics more fully. Involving patients w...
Examination of the Relationship between Psychosocial Mediators and Intervention Effects in It's Your Game: An Effective HIV/STI/Pregnancy Prevention Intervention for Middle School Students.
This study suggests that the underlying causal mechanisms of action of these interventions are complex and warrant further analyses. PMID: 22811892 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Adolescents Living with HIV: An Indian Profile.
Conclusion. These findings highlight the profile of adolescents in India and their equation with HIV on demographic and psychosocial levels. PMID: 22778924 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
A Qualitative Exploration of the Economic and Social Effects of Microcredit among People Living with HIV/AIDS in Uganda.
Authors: Wagner G, Rana Y, Linnemayr S, Balya J, Buzaalirwa L Abstract HIV medical care, including antiretroviral therapy (ART), is often successful in restoring physical health and functioning. But in developing countries, HIV medical care is often insufficient to achieve social and economic health, and hence innovative economic support programs are much needed. We conducted semistructured interviews with 30 adults receiving ART and microcredit loans operated by Uganda Cares. Using content analysis, we explored the impact of the microcredit loans on the economic, social, and psychological well-being of respondents. Most respondents indicated that the microcredit loans played a positive role in their lives, helped them to keep their children in school and sustain their families, an...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
But I trust my teen: parents' attitudes and response to a parental monitoring intervention.
Authors: Metzger A, Ice C, Cottrell L Abstract Parental knowledge gained from monitoring activities protects against adolescent risk involvement. Parental monitoring approaches are varied and may be modified with successful interventions but not all parents or adolescents respond to monitoring programs the same way. 339 parent-adolescent dyads randomized to receive a parental monitoring intervention and 169 parent-adolescent dyads in the control group were followed for one year over four measurement periods. Parent attitudes about the usefulness of monitoring, the importance of trust and respecting their teens' privacy, and the appropriateness of adolescent risk-taking behavior and experimentation were examined as predictors of longitudinal change in parental monitoring and open co...
Decision Processes about Condom Use among Shelter-Homeless LGBT Youth in Manhattan.
Authors: Ream GL, Barnhart KF, Lotz KV Abstract Health behavior interventions based on Theory of Planned Behavior address participants' personally-held beliefs, perceived social norms, and control over the behavior. New data are always needed to "member check" participants' decision processes and inform interventions. This qualitative study investigates decision processes around condom use among 81 homeless LGBT youth ages 18-26. Findings indicated considerable endorsement of the conventional policy of always using condoms, promulgated in HIV prevention education targeting this population. Although some participants reported risk behavior in contexts of sex work, survival sex, casual encounters, open relationships, and substance use, most were aware of these risks and consistently ...
Thirty Years with HIV Infection-Nonprogression Is Still Puzzling: Lessons to Be Learned from Controllers and Long-Term Nonprogressors.
Authors: Gaardbo JC, Hartling HJ, Gerstoft J, Nielsen SD Abstract In the early days of the HIV epidemic, it was observed that a minority of the infected patients did not progress to AIDS or death and maintained stable CD4+ cell counts. As the technique for measuring viral load became available it was evident that some of these nonprogressors in addition to preserved CD4+ cell counts had very low or even undetectable viral replication. They were therefore termed controllers, while those with viral replication were termed long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs). Genetics and virology play a role in nonprogression, but does not provide a full explanation. Therefore, host differences in the immunological response have been proposed. Moreover, the immunological response can be divided into an ...
Short-Term Rationing of Combination Antiretroviral Therapy: Impact on Morbidity, Mortality, and Loss to Follow-Up in a Large HIV Treatment Program in Western Kenya.
Conclusions. Rationing of cART, even for a relatively short period of six months, led to clinically adverse outcomes. PMID: 22690332 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Salivary gland adaptations: modification of the glands for novel uses.
Authors: Tucker AS Abstract Salivary glands across the animal kingdom show a huge array of shapes, sizes and variations in number within the oral cavity. Some are branched, others elongated and unbranched, some are small and numerous, while others are greatly enlarged. In most species the salivary glands are used to produce saliva, which lubricates the oral cavity, aids digestion and protects the oral mucosa and dentition. In some species, however, the glands have been modified so that they function in new and diverse ways. Examples include the ability to create thread from the salivary glands to create hides and cocoons, as shown by some arthropods, the ability to create nests out of saliva, as shown by the Aerodramus swiftlets, or the ability to produce venom from modified saliva...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Focus on: ethnicity and the social and health harms from drinking.
This article examines the relationship of ethnicity and drinking to (1) unintentional injuries, (2) intentional injuries, (3) fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), (4) gastrointestinal diseases, (5) cardiovascular diseases, (6) cancers, (7) diabetes, and (8) infectious diseases. Reviewed evidence shows that Native Americans have a disproportionate risk for alcohol-related motor vehicle fatalities, suicides and violence, FAS, and liver disease mortality. Hispanics are at increased risk for alcohol-related motor vehicle fatalities, suicide, liver disease, and cirrhosis mortality; and Blacks have increased risk for alcohol-related relationship violence, FAS, heart disease, and some cancers. However, the scientific evidence is incomplete for each of these harms. More research is needed on the relation...
Determinants of Common Mental Disorder, Alcohol Use Disorder and cognitive morbidity among people coming for HIV testing in Goa, India
ConclusionsAmong people coming for testing for HIV/AIDS in Goa, India, we found that CMD occurred in the context of social and economic stressors (violence, symptoms of STI, poor education and food insecurity) and AUD was associated with violence and risky sexual behaviour. Further research is necessary to understand the role of gender, stigma and social norms in determining the relationship between sexual and mental health. Understanding associations between these background characteristics and psychological morbidity may help inform the design of appropriate early interventions for depression among people newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Tropical Medicine and International Health)
Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare Brain Abscesses in an HIV-Infected Patient
We present a case of a multiple MAC brain abscesses, confirmed by brain biopsy and culture, in a patient with AIDS. The patient's initial symptoms were weakness, confusion and headaches. The patient was initially treated for toxoplasmosis and pyogenic bacterial brain abscesses with no resolution. Following treatment for MAC the patient's abscesses resolved. (Source: IDCases)
Current Practices of Screening for Incident Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection Among HIV-Infected, HCV-Uninfected Individuals in Primary Care
Conclusions.&nbsp;Although most HIV-infected patients were screened for prevalent HCV infection at enrollment in care, only half who were HCV uninfected were screened again. Screening varied between sites, even when controlling for demographics and risk behaviors. Patients with new ALT elevations to &gt;100 IU/L were seldom assessed for incident HCV infection. Guidelines are needed to help HIV providers know whom to screen, how frequently to screen, and which screening test to use. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Telaprevir for HIV/Hepatitis C Virus-Coinfected Patients Failing Treatment With Pegylated Interferon/Ribavirin (ANRS HC26 TelapreVIH): An Open-Label, Single-Arm, Phase 2 Trial
Conclusions.&nbsp;Despite a high discontinuation rate related to toxicity, a substantial proportion of treatment-experienced HIV-coinfected patients achieved SVR24 with a telaprevir-based regimen. Clinical Trials Registration.&nbsp;NCT01332955. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Editorial Commentary: Does HIV Remain a Risk Factor for Achieving Sustained Virologic Response Under Direct Acting Antiviral-Based Modern Hepatitis C Virus Therapy?
(Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Increased Coronary Vessel Wall Thickness in HIV-Infected Young Adults
Conclusions.&nbsp;This investigation provides evidence of subclinical coronary vascular disease among individuals infected with HIV in early life. Increased duration of ART, hyperlipidemia, and smoking contributed to proximal RCA thickening, independent of atherosclerotic plaque quantified by CT. These modifiable risk factors appear to influence early atherogenesis as measured by coronary wall thickness and may be important targets for CVD risk reduction. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Cross-sectional Comparison of the Prevalence of Age-Associated Comorbidities and Their Risk Factors Between HIV-Infected and Uninfected Individuals: The AGEhIV Cohort Study
Conclusions.&nbsp;All AANCCs were numerically more prevalent, with peripheral arterial, cardiovascular disease, and impaired renal function significantly so, among HIV-infected participants compared with HIV-uninfected controls. Besides recognized cardiovascular risk factors, HIV infection and longer time spent with severe immunodeficiency increased the risk of a higher composite AANCC burden. There was a less pronounced contribution from residual inflammation, immune activation, and prior high-dose ritonavir use. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Acquired Rifampicin Resistance in Thrice-Weekly Antituberculosis Therapy: Impact of HIV and Antiretroviral Therapy
Conclusions.&nbsp;HIV-infected patients with tuberculosis treated with a thrice-weekly antituberculosis regimen are at a higher risk of ARR, compared with HIV-uninfected patients, in the presence of baseline isoniazid resistance. HAART reduces but does not eliminate the risk of ARR. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Radiology of HIV/AIDS: A Practical Approach
(Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Experiences with an integrative approach to treating HIV/AIDS in East Africa
Abstract HIV/AIDS is a multifaceted condition affecting the whole person and family, which requires an individualized and holistic approach, as defined by Person Centered Health Care. In East Africa, Homoeopathy for Health in Africa offers patients an integrative, holistic method to supplement standard medical treatment and mitigate the side effects of anti-retroviral (ARV) drugs that often interfere with patient adherence to treatment and lead to drug resistance. Patients who have homoeopathy treatment as a supplement to ARVs report amelioration of side effect symptoms, increased energy and enhanced well-being, allowing them to work and care for their families. Results of an audit give demographic information. AIDS medical practitioners support homoeopathy, an approved form of me...
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in Miliary Tuberculosis and AIDS: A Case Report
Conclusion?Even though the use of such extensive and expensive treatment can be questioned, this example encourages an aggressive approach in a young patient, even in situations of multiple diagnosis of individually limited prognosis.[...]Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New YorkArticle in Thieme eJournals:Table of contents  |  Abstract  |  open access Full text (Source: The Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon Reports)
Assessment of Patient Health Literacy: A National Survey of Plastic Surgeons
Conclusions: Formal assessment of health literacy is rarely performed, as most plastic surgeons use a general impression. Although plastic surgeons devote significant time to patient counseling, evidence-based communication methods, such as the teach-back method, are underused. Simple, directed questions can identify patients with low literacy skills, to accommodate their communication needs. (Source: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery)
Top UN health officials take joint mission to Mali in support of Ebola response
The Executive Director of Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), Michel Sidibé and the Director-General of the World Health Organization, Dr. Margaret Chan, have visited Mali in a joint mission to support the country in its efforts to curb the spread of Ebola, as authorities there announced one new case and that two more suspected patients were being tested. (Source: UN News Centre - Health, Poverty, Food Security)
?When Pirates Feast ? Who Pays?? Condoms, Advertising, and the Visibility Paradox, 1920s and 1930s
Abstract For most of the 20th century, the condom in the United States was a cheap, useful, but largely unmentionable product. Federal and state statutes prohibited the advertising and open display of condoms, their distribution by mail and across state lines, and their sale for the purpose of birth control; in some states, even owning or using condoms was illegal. By the end of World War I, condoms were increasingly acceptable for the prevention of sexually transmitted disease, but their unique dual function?for disease prevention and contraception?created ongoing ambiguities for sellers, consumers, and distributors as well as for legal, political, health, and moral leaders. Not until the 1970s did condoms emerge from the shadows and join other personal hygiene products on op...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
CDC-Funded HIV Testing, United States, Puerto Rico, and U.S. Virgin Islands, 2012
This report summarizes the test event-level National HIV Prevention Program Monitoring and Evaluation data for CDC-funded testing events in the United States and dependent areas (Puerto Rico and U.S. Virgin Islands). (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
Gambia: AAITG Sensitises Local Authorities, Others On HIV/Aids Stigma, Discrimination
[Daily Observer]Action-Aid International the Gambia (AAITG) in collaboration with the National Aids Secretariat (NAS) office, Thursday held a three-day sensitization forum on issues of stigma and discrimination perpetuated by some members of society against people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIDs) in the Gambia. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Zimbabwe: HIV Test and Treat Campaign Targets Men, Children
[The Herald]Government has embarked on a family test and treat HIV and Aids campaign aimed at increasing the number of men and children accessing anti-retroviral drugs.Officially launching the campaign, expected to see over 120 000 people getting tested in the next 10 days in Harare alone, Minister of State for Harare Province Miriam Chikukwa said voluntary medical male circumcision would also be carried out at all health institutions. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Zimbabwe: 70 000 Pregnant Women Test HIV+
[The Herald]Seventy thousand pregnant women tested positive to HIV this year, a Government official has revealed. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: Dealing With the HIV/Aids Menace
[This Day]A fortnight ago today, hundreds of people living with HIV picketed the National Agency for Control of AIDS (NACA) to protest the neglect and inadequate funding that has led to the death of thousands of their colleagues in recent months. In the course of the protest, the headquarters of NACA was barricaded and sealed off by the Network of People Living with HIV/AIDS in Nigeria (NEPWHAN). What gave the protest greater significance was the timing: It came at a period when international donor agencies have sta (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Africa: New Approach At the OIG Means Fewer Country Audits and More Audits of Secretariat Processes
[GFO]In 2015, OIG will evaluate the allocations methodology and the effectiveness of CCMs (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Botswana: Behavioral Change Remains Challenge
[Botswana Daily News]Gaborone -The decline in the use of condoms among the general population and an increase in the multiple sexual partnerships still remain a challenge. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Zimbabwe: UK - HIV+ Rapist Escapes to Zimbabwe
[New Zimbabwe]A CONVICTED rapist who knowingly infected a woman with HIV in the UK is believed to have absconded to Zimbabwe. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Kenya: HIV High in Young Girls
[The Star]HIV prevalence is highest among women and men aged 25 and 44, statistics from the National Aids Control Council have shown. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Narrow time window exists to start HIV therapy, study shows
(University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio) HIV-1 infected US military members and beneficiaries treated with antiretroviral therapy soon after infection were half as likely to develop AIDS and were more likely to reconstitute their immune-fighting CD4+ T-cells to normal levels, researchers reported Nov. 24 in JAMA Internal Medicine. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Rwanda: World Aids Day - How Effective Is PMTCT?
[New Times]A research article published last year titled "Prevention of mother-to-child (PMTCT) transmission of HIV: cost-effectiveness of antiretroviral regimens and feeding options in Rwanda" summarizes the progress the country has made in that direction. According to the research, Rwanda's national PMTCT programme aims to achieve elimination of new HIV infections in children by 2015. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Heartbeat: Highlights from this issue
Clinical cardiovascular research primarily is conducted in high-income countries where highly sophisticated medical care is widely available. We have little data on disease patterns and outcomes in low and middle-income countries (LMIC) where medical resources often are limited. In the Editor's choice in this issue of Heart, Professor Sliwa and colleagues (see page 1967) present a prospective cohort study of 225 pregnant women with cardiovascular disease seen at a single center in South Africa. In high risk women, 32% had congenital heart disease, 26% valvular disease and 27% had a cardiomyopathy. In contrast to higher-income countries where congenital heart disease is the primary concern, in this cohort rheumatic valve disease, hypertensive heart disease and cardiomyopathy were more commo...
Rigorous Methodology Is Needed to Analyze and Interpret Observational Data on the Use and Effectiveness of Smoking Cessation Aids
(Source: Nicotine and Tobacco Research)
"Pictures Don't Lie, Seeing Is Believing": Exploring Attitudes to the Introduction of Pictorial Warnings on Cigarette Packs in Ghana
Conclusions: Warning labels combining pictures and text have the potential to reduce smoking uptake, increase quit attempts, and reduce smoking appeal among smokers and nonsmokers in Ghana. Measures to prevent single stick sales, or to promote health messages to purchasers of single sticks, are required. (Source: Nicotine and Tobacco Research)
Expression of activating receptors on natural killer cells from AIDS-related lymphoma patients
Conclusions: We show a more pronounced defect in NK activating molecule when HIV infection is associated with lymphoma than when only one condition (HIV positivity or lymphoma) is present. Defective NK phenotype, in addition to CD4+ depletion and dysfunction, may participate to the increased incidence of lymphoma in HIV patients. (Source: AIDS Research and Therapy)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Influence of the Timing of Antiretroviral Therapy on the Potential for Normalization of Immune Status in Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1?Infected Individuals
ImportanceIn individuals with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infection who are receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART), factors that promote full immune recovery are not well characterized. ObjectiveTo investigate the influence of the timing of ART relative to HIV-1 infection on normalization of CD4+ T-cell counts, AIDS risk, and immune function.Design, Setting, and ParticipantsParticipants in the observational US Military HIV Natural History Study with documented estimated dates of seroconversion (EDS) who achieved virologic suppression with ART were evaluated. Markers indicative of immune activation, dysfunction, and responsiveness were determined. Responses to hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine, an indicator of in vivo immune function, were also assessed. The timing of ART was index...
Dyspareunia in HIV-positive and HIV-negative middle-aged women: a cross-sectional study
Conclusions Dyspareunia was common in this group of HIV-positive women and was associated principally with vaginal dryness and urinary incontinence. The importance of treating dyspareunia within the context of sexual health in this group of women should be emphasised and appropriate management of this issue may reduce the likelihood of lesions on the vaginal wall, which may act as a portal of entry for other infections. (Source: BMJ Open)
Gym exercising patterns, lifestyle and high-risk sexual behaviour in men who have sex with men and in heterosexual men
Conclusions MSM practised more IAT than heterosexual men, and their interaction between IAT and sexual risk was multiplicative. The MSM community could benefit from a holistic approach to sexual health and its association with body image and IAT. The gym MSM culture demonstrates how internal dynamics and social norms are possible factors driving MSM to high-risk behaviour for HIV/STI. Study registration The study was approved by the Wolfson Hospital Review Board, Holon, Israel (WOMC-0058-09). (Source: BMJ Open)
HIV diversity and drug resistance from plasma and non-plasma analytes in a large treatment programme in western Kenya.
CONCLUSIONS: In a large treatment programme in western Kenya, we report high HIV-1 subtype diversity; low plasma transmitted resistance, increasing when multiple analytes were combined; and high-acquired resistance with unique mutation patterns. Resistance surveillance may be augmented by using non-plasma analytes for lower-cost genotyping in resource-limited settings. PMID: 25413893 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Low adverse event rates following voluntary medical male circumcision in a high HIV disease burden public sector prevention programme in South Africa.
CONCLUSIONS: VMMC can be delivered safely at resource-limited settings. The intensive three-visit post-operative review practice may be unfeasible due to high attrition rates over time, particularly amongst older men. PMID: 25406951 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
The disproportionate burden of HIV and STIs among male sex workers in Mexico City and the rationale for economic incentives to reduce risks.
CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that economic incentives are a relevant approach for HIV prevention among MSWs, given the market-based inducements for unprotected sex. This type of targeted intervention seems to be justified and should continue to be explored in the context of combination prevention efforts. PMID: 25399543 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Liberia: Ebola Hampers HIV/Aids Care
[IRIN]Monrovia/Dakar -Ebola has crippled the provision of treatment and care to people living with HIV/AIDS in Liberia, according to health workers and patients. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Note: Page numbers of article titles are in boldface type. AIDS (Source: Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics)
Noninfectious Pulmonary Complications of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection
Abstract:Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is the retrovirus responsible for the development of AIDS. Its profound impact on the immune system leaves the host vulnerable to a wide range of opportunistic infections not seen in individuals with a competent immune system. Pulmonary infections dominated the presentations in the early years of the epidemic, and infectious and noninfectious lung diseases remain the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in persons living with HIV despite the development of effective antiretroviral therapy. In addition to the long known immunosuppression and infection risks, it is becoming increasingly recognized that HIV promotes the risk of noninfectious pulmonary diseases through a number of different mechanisms, including direct tissue toxicity b...
Note: Page numbers of article titles are in boldface type. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). See AIDS (Source: Infectious Diseases Clinics of North America)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
The last issue of the Infectious Disease Clinics of North America devoted specifically to HIV/AIDS was published in 1988. Edited by Merle Sande and Paul Volberding, that landmark issue provided a state-of the-art snapshot of the newly defined epidemic, its epidemiology, and the basic principles of treatment and care. Much has happened since then. In 2012, the number of persons living with HIV infection worldwide reached an all-time high of 35.3 million. The medical, social, and economic consequences of this global disaster have reached all continents, presenting society with a health-related challenge unlike any other. (Source: Infectious Diseases Clinics of North America)
Medical Librarians Month ? Making a Difference in Swaziland
Janet Schnall&#8217;s experience as an Invited Lecturer to a newly open nursing school in Swaziland and a return trip to teach  students and faculty preparing to open a medical school is next in our stories about librarians making a difference. By Janet Schnall, MS, AHIP Information Management Librarian University of Washington Seattle, WA Have I as a librarian changed lives? I believe YES! Last year as University of Washington Health Sciences Library liaison to the UW School of Nursing I received an email from a former UW PhD nursing student, Gloria Nam, whom I had previously assisted with her dissertation, asking for book donations for a new nursing school opening in Swaziland. Dr. Nam, PhD, MSN, FNP, RN was to become the Head of Department of Nursing Science and Dean of Student Affair...
2014 Medical Librarians Month ? Making a Difference in Swaziland
Janet Schnall&#8217;s experience as an Invited Lecturer to a newly open nursing school in Swaziland and a return trip to teach  students and faculty preparing to open a medical school is next in our stories about librarians making a difference. By Janet Schnall, MS, AHIP Information Management Librarian University of Washington Seattle, WA Have I as a librarian changed lives? I believe YES! Last year as University of Washington Health Sciences Library liaison to the UW School of Nursing I received an email from a former UW PhD nursing student, Gloria Nam, whom I had previously assisted with her dissertation, asking for book donations for a new nursing school opening in Swaziland. Dr. Nam, PhD, MSN, FNP, RN was to become the Head of Department of Nursing Science and Dean of Student Affair...
Self?transfer and mortality amongst adults lost to follow?up in ART programmes in low and middle?income countries: systematic review and meta?analysis
ConclusionsSubstantial unaccounted for transfers and deaths among patients LTFU confirms that retention and mortality is underestimated where the true outcomes of LTFU patients are not ascertained.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Tropical Medicine and International Health)
Lopinavir/Ritonavir-Based Antiretroviral Treatment (ART) Versus Efavirenz-Based ART for the Prevention of Malaria Among HIV-Infected Pregnant Women
Conclusions Lopinavir/ritonavir-based ART did not reduce the risk of placental or maternal malaria or improve birth outcomes, compared with efavirenz-based ART. Clinical Trials Registration NCT00993031. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Evidence After Imputation for a Role of MICA Variants in Nonprogression and Elite Control of HIV Type 1 Infection
Past genome-wide association studies (GWAS) involving individuals with AIDS have mainly identified associations in the HLA region. Using the latest software, we imputed 7 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)/indels of the 1000 Genomes Project from the GWAS-determined genotypes of individuals in the Genomics of Resistance to Immunodeficiency Virus AIDS nonprogression cohort and compared them with those of control cohorts. The strongest signals were in MICA, the gene encoding major histocompatibility class I polypeptide-related sequence A (P = 3.31 x 10&ndash;12), with a particular exonic deletion (P = 1.59 x 10&ndash;8) in full linkage disequilibrium with the reference HCP5 rs2395029 SNP. Haplotype analysis also revealed an additive effect between HLA-C, HLA-B, and MICA variants. ...
Metabolic abnormalities and cardiovascular risk in HIV-infected cohort of patients treated with protease inhibitors
Conclusion The study confirms differences in CV risk factors between different cART drugs and this should be considered during initiation of the therapy. (Source: HIV and AIDS Review)
Human immunodeficiency virus-negative plasmablastic lymphoma in the neck: a rare case report and literature review
Abstract Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is an aggressive neoplasm exclusively occurring in AIDS patients. Recently, increasing cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative PBL have been reported. No standard therapy protocol is currently available since there is a great difference between PBL with and without HIV infection. Here, we present a rather rare case of HIV-negative PBL in the neck that dramatically responded to radiotherapy alone. Our case highlights the possibility of PBL in the neck and helps to expand our understanding of this separate lymphoma. The related literature review summarized the clinicopathological features and treatment status of HIV-negative PBL. (Source: European Journal of Medical Research)
HIV/AIDS Drugs Could Potentially Be Repurposed to Treat Age-Related Macular Degeneration
(Source: News from NIGMS Funded Institutions)
Toward an AIDS-Free Generation: Healthcare Outreach and Enrollment for People Living with HIV
The webinar will feature HIV and viral hepatitis leaders from CDC and HRSA as well as individuals from CMS and the HHS Secretary?s Office who are leading ACA enrollment outreach for communities of color. The speakers will highlight benefits of the healthcare law for people at risk for or living with HIV or viral hepatitis, [&#8230;] (Source: NN/LM Middle Atlantic Region Blog)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Women with HIV: gender violence and suicidal ideation

12 More Mind-Blowing Documentaries You Can Stream On Netflix
In light of World Television Day and the upcoming holiday weekend, it seemed like a good time to review another set of Netflix documentaries. If you've already powered through the first three collections, here are 12 more: "How to Survive a Plague" "How to Survive a Plague" captures the turmoil witnessed in Larry Kramer's semi-autobiographical "The Normal Heart" with depictions of actual events at the onset of HIV/AIDS activism. Telling the story of organizations AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power (ACT UP) and Treatment Action Group (TAG), the film depicts the challenges to change perceptions that AIDS is a death sentence. Director David France tackles an infuriating obstacle to highlight the compelling power of grass-roots movements. "The Waiting Room" An intimate look at the health-care...
AIDS Is No. 1 Killer of African Teenagers
As AIDS becomes the leading cause of death of adolescents in Africa, empowering youth ? especially girls - to make safe life choices and avoid HIV is crucial. Credit: Mercedes SayaguesBy Sam OlukoyaLAGOS, Nigeria, Nov 21 2014 (IPS)Two years ago, Shola* was kicked out of the family house in Abeokuta, in southwestern Nigeria, after testing HIV-positive at age 13. He was living with his father, his stepmother and their seven children.?The stepmother insisted that Shola must go because he is likely to infect her children,? Tayo Akinpelu, programme director of Youth?s Future Savers Initiative, told IPS.SNAPSHOT: ADOLESCENTS WITH HIV IN TANZANIA In Tanzania, alarmingly, HIV prevalence has not decreased among adolescents aged 15-19 between 2007 and 2012. An estimated 165,000 adolescents ...
South Africa: Ekurhuleni Partners With NGOs to Reach HIV, TB Targets
[Health-e]Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality hopes that by partnering with non-governmental organisations (NGOs), it can reach ambitious targets laid out in the country's national HIV and tuberculosis (TB) plan. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: Beyond the Rhetoric - Implement Proven Community Strategies to Fight HIV/Aids
[MSF]Johannesburg -The call by UNAIDS to "close the gap" around access to HIV services will not be met unless the delivery of antiretroviral treatment (ARV) is radically reshaped into community-led approaches that adapt to the realities of those living with HIV, warns the international medical organisation Médecins sans Frontières (MSF) ahead of World Aids day (December 1st). (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
South Africa: Call to Support People Living With HIV, Aids
[]With the commemoration of World Aids Day around the corner, Cabinet has called on all communities to support, care and accept people living with HIV and Aids. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Kenya: First Lady Launches a New Partnership Programme With China
[Capital FM]Nairobi -First Lady Margaret Kenyatta has launched a new partnership programme that aims to support and promote cooperation between Kenya and China. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Research shows anti-HIV medicines can cause damage to fetal hearts
(Wayne State University - Office of the Vice President for Research) Just-published findings in the journal AIDS raise concern about potential long-term harmful impact of 'antiretroviral therapy' on in-utero infants whose mothers are HIV-positive, but who are not infected with HIV themselves. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Viruses, Vol. 6, Pages 4571-4580: Role of Host MicroRNAs in Kaposi?s Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Pathogenesis
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA species that can bind to both untranslated and coding regions of target mRNAs, causing their degradation or post-transcriptional modification. Currently, over 2500 miRNAs have been identified in the human genome. Burgeoning evidence suggests that dysregulation of human miRNAs can play a role in the pathogenesis of a variety of diseases, including cancer. In contrast, only a small subset of human miRNAs has been functionally validated in the pathogenesis of oncogenic viruses, in particular, Kaposi?s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). KSHV is the etiologic agent of several human cancers, such as primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and Kaposi?s sarcoma (KS), which are mostly seen in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients or other im...
Successful use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in a human immunodeficiency virus infected patient with severe acute respiratory distress Syndrome
Conclusion: HIV infected patients with ARDS and MDR bacterial VAP whose HIV replication is controlled by ART could be successfully managed with ECMO. (Source: AIDS Research and Therapy)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
The development of drug resistance mutations K103N Y181C and G190A in long term Nevirapine-containing antiviral therapy
Conclusion: In some patients, first-line ART had the possibility to provide sufficient treatment effect for over than 72 months, but in long-term treatment, the dominant NNRTI drug resistance mutation K103N could reduced, while the proportion of variants with mutation Y181C or G190A may increased. This result was not similar with that in vitro study, which state that variant with K103N or Y181C had an equal viral fitness with wild type. (Source: AIDS Research and Therapy)
Acute hepatitis C infection in HIV?negative men who have sex with men
Summary Acute hepatitis C infection is recognized in HIV?infected men who have sex with men (MSM), but the risk in HIV?negative MSM remains unclear. We evaluated a population of MSM with acute hepatitis C. From January 2010 to May 2014, all cases of HCV antibody positive HIV?negative MSM were identified. European AIDS Network criteria were applied to determine acute infection, and 44 individuals fulfilled the criteria for acute hepatitis C. Ten were RNA negative at baseline and classed as prior spontaneous clearance. 15 (34.1%) had a previously negative HCV antibody within 1 year. 11 (25.0%) had significant elevation in ALT levels, and 18 (40.9%) were clinically diagnosed from risk exposure and history. Median age was 37 years (range 24?75). 41 (93.2%) individuals reported unprot...
NIH-Sponsored Study Identifies Superior Drug Regimen for Preventing Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission
"For HIV-infected women in good immune health, taking a three-drug regimen during pregnancy prevents mother-to-child HIV transmission more effectively than taking one drug during pregnancy, another during labor and two more after giving birth, an international clinical trial has found. &nbsp; "The ongoing PROMISE (Promoting Maternal-Infant Survival Everywhere) study also has found that one triple-drug regimen for preventing mother-to-child transmission may be safer than another for women and their babies." &nbsp; For more information, read the NIH press release. (Source: AIDSinfo At-a-Glance: Offering Information on HIV/AIDS Treatment, Prevention, and Research, A Service of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS))
FDA Publishes Final Guidance for Industry/Vaginal Microbicides: Development for the Prevention of HIV Infection
"The guidance provides the FDA's current thinking for development of vaginal microbicides for the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The final guidance supersedes the 2012 draft guidance and incorporates the FDA&rsquo;s responses to public comments submitted to the Agency. &nbsp; "The guidance addresses issues related to nonclinical development, early phases of clinical development, phase 3 trial considerations, and safety considerations in vaginal microbicide development, including safety considerations in adolescent and pregnant populations." &nbsp; For more information, read the FDA press release or view the&nbsp;guidance. (Source: AIDSinfo At-a-Glance: Offering Information on HIV/AIDS Treatment, Prevention, and Research, A Service of the U.S. Department of Heal...
CDC Releases 2012 HIV Surveillance Report
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recently released the&nbsp;2012&nbsp;HIV Surveillance Report. The report presents data from the National HIV Surveillance System on diagnoses of HIV infection in the United States and 6 dependent areas. The data in this report are used by federal agencies, health departments, and other organizations to help focus prevention efforts, allocate resources, and monitor trends in HIV infection. (Source: AIDSinfo At-a-Glance: Offering Information on HIV/AIDS Treatment, Prevention, and Research, A Service of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS))<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
December 1 is World AIDS Day
The theme of World AIDS Day 2014 is "Focus, Partner, Achieve: An AIDS-free Generation." The theme represents both the progress and the ongoing challenges in the global fight against HIV/AIDS. Successes include the wider availability of life-saving antiretroviral drugs, advances in HIV vaccine research, and declines in mother-to-child transmission of HIV. To meet the challenge of an AIDS-free generation, partners worldwide will continue to focus on eliminating new HIV infections and AIDS-related deaths. Visit our&nbsp;World AIDS Day webpage&nbsp;[en espa&ntilde;ol] to learn more about this annual observance. The page includes links to HIV-related information from AIDSinfo&nbsp;and other sources. (Source: AIDSinfo At-a-Glance: Offering Information on HIV/AIDS Treatment, Prevention, and Rese...
Pap Test Adherence, Cervical Cancer Perceptions, and HPV Knowledge Among HIV-Infected Women in a Community Health Setting
The Health Belief Model (HBM) has been widely used as a framework to explain health behaviors in diverse populations, but little HBM research has focused on HIV-infected women and their increased risks for cervical cancer. We used Champion?s Health Belief Model and Self-Efficacy scales to assess relationships between Pap test adherence and constructs of the HBM among 300 HIV-infected women. In addition, we assessed the relationship between HPV and cervical cancer knowledge and key HBM concepts. Participants reported low levels of knowledge regarding risk for cervical cancer and HPV. (Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)
Effects of disability on pregnancy experiences among women with impaired mobility
ConclusionsIn addition to other pregnancy?associated health risks, women with mobility disabilities appear to experience problems relating to their functional impairments. Pre?conception planning and in?depth discussions during early pregnancy could potentially assist women with mobility disabilities to anticipate and address these difficulties.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica)
Application of the Information-Motivation and Behavioral Skills (IMB) model in risky sexual behaviors amongst male students
As AIDS is not merely a hygienic problem but a disease that creates a great deal of economic, cultural, and social problems, it is necessary for most of the state and nongovernmental organizations and individuals to participate in both controlling AIDS and preventing it. As no effective vaccine or therapy for this disease exists currently, the only method for avoiding being afflicted by this disease is prevention. The present study aims to examine the Information-Motivation and Behavioral Skills (IMB) model in risky sexual behaviors. (Source: Journal of Infection and Public Health)
Incentivizing shared decision making in the USA ? where are we now?
Conclusion Efforts to incentivize shared decision making are at risk of being limited to the promotion of patient decision aids, passing over the opportunity to influence the communication processes between patients and providers. (Source: Healthcare)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
World AIDS Day Portraits: My Life in My Hands
Voice from the FieldWorld AIDS Day Portraits: My Life in My Hands November 20, 2014 On World AIDS Day 2014, we're sharing stories from some of the hundreds of thousands of people worldwide receiving treatment for HIV/AIDS in Doctors Without Borders/Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) projects. While the right drugs can enable people with HIV to live normal, healthy lives, patients often face challenges in finding treatment and adhering to their prescriptions once they do. To this end, MSF has implemented community models of care to remove obstacles to accessing essential antiretroviral treatment (ART). (Source: MSF News)
HIV/AIDS community mourns loss of its own aboard MH17.
Authors: Dumiak M PMID: 25401195 [PubMed - in process] (Source: IAVI Rep)
We Must Beat Alzheimer's Before It Beats Us! And Here's How!
Alzheimer's Has Become the Scariest Disease of Later Life It's true. In a new Age Wave/Merrill Lynch study titled Health and Retirement: Planning for the Great Unknown, we surveyed a representative sample of over 3,000 Americans to uncover both their hopes and their concerns about health and healthcare expenses. Overwhelmingly, the study respondents said that the most important ingredient for a happy retirement is health. And while all diseases can disrupt both health and wealth in retirement, people of all ages now say the scariest disabling condition in later life is Alzheimer's disease. In fact, Alzheimer's was cited more often than cancer, heart disease, stroke and diabetes combined (see Figure 1). We may have reached a critical "tipping point" with regard to the public recognition ...
HIV/AIDS drugs could be repurposed to treat AMD, researchers suggest
Drugs that have been used for the past 30 years to treat HIV/AIDS, could be repurposed to treat the dry form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a new study suggests. AMD is a progressive condition that is untreatable in up to 90 percent of patients and is a leading cause of blindness in the elderly worldwide. The two forms of AMD, wet and dry, are classified based on the presence or absence of blood vessels that have invaded the retina. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)
Being Your Purpose in Life: A Chat With Marianne Williamson
I first saw Marianne Williamson speak when she had a profound conversation with Eckhart Tolle about what she called "midwifing the new consciousness," and she talked about all of the ways in which we can connect with presence in our everyday lives. In this interview, I was able to speak with Marianne about discovering our unity with and relatedness to others, and coming to accept the light of our true being so that we can find our true purpose in life. You've spent many years founding and running non-profit and social enterprises. How did you find your own sense of purpose in serving the community around you? I don't think of purpose as something we "find," I think of it as something we "are." Language is a limitation here, tempting us to think that our purpose is something separate fr...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
HIV drugs show promise in treating common eye disease
WASHINGTON (Reuters) - A class of drugs used for three decades by people infected with the virus that causes AIDS may be effective in treating a leading cause of blindness among the elderly. (Source: Reuters: Health)
Uganda: Ugandan Government Must Make CD4 Testing Accessible in Rural Areas
[Key Correspondents]People living with HIV in rural areas of Uganda need improved access to vital medical equipment to test their levels of immunity and guide antiretroviral treatment. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Tuberculosis is associated with non-tuberculosis-related deaths among HIV/AIDS patients in Rio de Janeiro
(Source: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease)
In The Latest Issue
The Price of Genius Alan Turing, the man who pioneered computing, also forced the world to question what it means to be human The 25 Best Inventions of 2014 Welcome to Time&rsquo;s annual round-up of the best inventions making the world better, smarter and&mdash;in some cases&mdash;a little more fun A Constitutional Moment The Founding Fathers were clear about who sets immigration policy Tackling Immigration Alone The President has good reason to bypass Congress. But he&rsquo;ll pay a price GE Makes a Big Bet on Manufacturing The company&rsquo;s plan to make things again is a test for the entire American economy Jorge Ramos Is America&rsquo;s New Anchor He&rsquo;s not just another journalist, and his opinions count with millions Aung San Suu Kyi and Burma&rsquo;s Backward Steps As its poli...
Namibia: IUM in Fake Degree Scandal
[Namibian]A LECTURER at the International University of Management was suspended for questioning the circumstances surrounding the awarding of degrees to three students in the Faculty of HIV-AIDS Management. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
South Africa: Informal Settlements Crucial to Ekurhuleni HIV Response
[Health-e]With more than 100 informal settlements in Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality, taking HIV prevention and care into communities is crucial in addressing the metro's high HIV prevalence rate, says local government. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Cannabinoids: novel medicines for the treatment of Huntington's disease.
Authors: Sagredo O, Pazos MR, Valdeolivas S, Fernandez-Ruiz J Abstract Cannabinoid pharmacology has experienced a notable increase in the last 3 decades which is allowing the development of novel cannabinoid-based medicines for the treatment of different human pathologies, for example, Cesamet® (nabilone) or Marinol® (synthetic ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol for oral administration) that were approved in 80s for the treatment of nausea and vomiting associated with chemotherapy treatment in cancer patients and in 90s for anorexiacachexia associated with AIDS therapy. Recently, the british company GW Pharmaceuticals plc has developed an oromucosal spray called Sativex®, which is constituted by an equimolecular combination of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol- and cannabidiol- enriched botanical ...
Naturally occurring and related synthetic cannabinoids and their potential therapeutic applications.
This article reviews patents (2003-2007) that describe methods for isolation of cannabinoids from cannabis, chemical and chromatographic methods for their purification, synthesis, and potential therapeutic applications of these compounds. PMID: 19519560 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Recent Patents on CNS Drug Discovery)
Nigeria: Eliminating Mother to Child HIV Transmission in Nigeria
[Guardian]The Presidency has taken the lead in efforts geared towards eliminating mother to child transmission of Human Immuno-deficiency Virus (HIV) with the launch of new National Operational Plan for the Elimination of Mother to Child Transmission of HIV in Nigeria (2015-2016), last week Thursday, in Abuja. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: Superstars Raise Awareness on HIV Pandemic
[This Day]Ahead of this year's World AIDS Day, Friends Africa and the National Agency for the Control of AIDS (NACA) in collaboration with Coca-Cola have unveiled the 3rd edition of World AIDS Day 'Superstars Play for Life' anti-stigma and discrimination campaign, which will hold on Saturday December 6 by 11am at the Campos mini stadium, Onikan, Lagos. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Nigeria: How I Gave Birth to Five HIV-Free Children
[Vanguard]"No Nigerian child should be born with HIV." This is the new cliché in Nigeria following the launch of the National Elimination of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV (eMTCT) Plan 2015-2016 by President Goodluck Jonathan in Abuja last week. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Zimbabwe: 15 Years for Infecting Girl With HIV
[The Herald]A Zesa employee here has been sentenced to 15 years in jail for deliberately infecting a 17-year-old with HIV. Nyengedzai Bheka (39) met the teenager on December 22, 2013 and took her to Zvimba on the pretext that he intended to introduce her to his aunt and slept with her. Bheka stayed with the girl for six months in Chinhoyi. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
University of Kentucky reports HIV/AIDS drugs could be repurposed to treat AMD
(University of Kentucky) A new study released by the University of Kentucky today reports that drugs that have been used for the past 30 years to treat HIV/AIDS, could be repurposed to treat the dry form of age-related macular degeneration. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)
Androgen receptor?interacting protein HSPBAP1 facilitates growth of prostate cancer cells in androgen?deficient conditions
In conclusion, we suggest that HSPBAP1 aids in sustaining cell viability by maintaining AR signaling during androgen?deprived conditions. (Source: International Journal of Cancer)
Classification of the Aging Lips: A Foundation for an Integrated Approach to Perioral Rejuvenation
Conclusion A better understanding of perioral aging leads to a simple classification for the aging lips. Using the classification helps to tailor an appropriate treatment to the individual patient and aids to achieve a natural rejuvenation result. Level of Evidence IV This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors (Source: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Sleep aids: Understand over-the-counter options
(Source: Full Feed)
Barriers to uptake and use of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among communities most affected by HIV in the UK: findings from a qualitative study in Scotland
Conclusions PrEP implementation needs to identify appropriate communication methods in the context of diverse HIV literacy; address risk-reduction concerns and; demonstrate how PrEP can be part of a safe and comprehensive risk management strategy. (Source: BMJ Open)
Tenofovir-Related Nephropathies in HIV-Infected Patients.
CONCLUSION: This study highlights that TDF nephrotoxicity is a widely frequent but reversible form of renal damage with preferentially proximal tubular dysfunction. We suggest that all patients at the time of HIV diagnosis should carry out a screening for kidney disease with eGFR assessment, proteinuria, and urine analysis. PMID: 25412689 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)
Delayed auditory pathway maturation and prematurity.
Conclusions We present here for the first time a fully documented preterm patient with delayed auditory pathway maturation and normalization of hearing within 14 months of birth. Although rare, postpartum development of the auditory system should, therefore, be considered in the initial stages for treating preterm hearing impaired patients. PMID: 25409950 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift)
Prevalence and Correlates of Cryptococcal Antigen Positivity Among AIDS Patients?United States, 1986?2012
No abstract available (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Interruption of cART in Clinical Practice Is Associated With an Increase in the Long-Term Risk of Subsequent Immunosuppression in HIV-1-Infected Children
Conclusions:The risk of TI in clinical practice has decreased but remains high. In intent-to-treat analysis, TI was associated with a greater risk of subsequent immunosuppression, even after cART resumption. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Africa: UNAIDS Reports That Reaching Fast-Track Targets Will Avert Nearly 28 Million New HIV Infections and End the Aids Epidemic As a Global Health Threat By 2030
[UNAIDS]Geneva/Los Angeles -If the world does not rapidly scale up in the next five years, the epidemic is likely to spring back with a higher rate of new HIV infections than today (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: Report - Fast-Track - Ending the Aids Epidemic By 2030
[Health-e]Released on 18 November ahead of World AIDS Day, the UNAIDS report outlines new targets for the five-year window UNAIDS says is crucial to ending the global threat of HIV. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: World Has Five Years to Secure Victory in HIV Fight
[Health-e]The world has five years to increase access to HIV treatment and prevention to end HIV as a global health threat - and prevent the pandemic from resurging, according to the latest global HIV report released last night. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
South Africa: Study Shows How HIV+ Women Can Reduce Risk to Their Babies
[GroundUp]Pregnant women with HIV can take three anti-HIV medicines instead of one to reduce the risk of their infants contracting the virus, according to results of a study released yesterday. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Africa: UN Urges 'Fast-Track' Approach to End HIV/Aids
[UN News]Taking a fast-track approach in the battle against AIDS over the next five years will avert 21 million deaths and allow the world to end the epidemic by 2030, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) said in a new report published today. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Tanzania: Aspiring for Zero HIV/Aids Infection 'Is Viable Strategy'
[Daily News]FOR many years Dr Cleopas Sila Msuya (73), a retired US trained Medical Officer worked with the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) as regional health consultant, with 14 different national societies (countries) under his supervision. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
The landscape of metastatic progression patterns across major human cancers.
Authors: Budczies J, von Winterfeld M, Klauschen F, Bockmayr M, Lennerz JK, Denkert C, Wolf T, Warth A, Dietel M, Anagnostopoulos I, Weichert W, Wittschieber D, Stenzinger A Abstract The majority of patients with solid malignancies die from metastatic burden. However, our current understanding of the mechanisms and resulting patterns of dissemination is limited. Here, we analyzed patterns of metastatic progression across 16 major cancer types in a cohort of 1008 patients with metastatic cancer autopsied between 2000 and 2013 to assess cancer specific progression patterns of disease and related risk predictions. The frequency and location of metastases were evaluated in and across 1) 16 major cancers, 2) smoking- and non-smoking-related cancers and 3) adeno- and squamous cell carcin...
Angola: Alto-Hama Records Over Thirty New Cases of HIV/Aids
[ANGOP]Londuimbali -At least 36 new cases of HIV/AIDS were diagnosed from January until the first half of November this year, in the commune of Alto-Hama Hospital, 66 kilometers north off Huambo city, compared to 15 recorded in the same previous period. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Malignant syphilis in an AIDS patient
This study reports the case of a 27-year-old man who has been HIV positive for 6 years, uses antiretroviral therapy incorrectly, has a TCD4+ cell count of 340 cells/mm3, a VDRL of 1:128 and itchy disseminated hyperchromic maculopapular lesions with rupioid crusts compatible with malignant syphilis. (Source: Infection)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Temporal trends in prognostic markers of HIV-1 virulence and transmissibility: an observational cohort study
Publication date: Available online 18 November 2014 Source:The Lancet HIV Author(s): Nikos Pantazis , Kholoud Porter , Dominique Costagliola , Andrea De Luca , Jade Ghosn , Marguerite Guiguet , Anne M Johnson , Anthony D Kelleher , Charles Morrison , Rodolphe Thiebaut , Linda Wittkop , Giota Touloumi Background Measures of CD4 T-cell count and HIV-1 plasma viral load before antiretroviral therapy are proxies for virulence. Whether these proxies are changing over time has implications for prevention and treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate those trends. Methods Data were derived from the Concerted Action on SeroConversion to AIDS and Death in Europe (CASCADE) collaboration of mainly European seroconverter cohorts. Longitudinal CD4 cell counts and plasma viral load measurem...
Maternal HIV, Substance Use Role-Modeling, and Adolescent Girls? Alcohol Use
Parental role modeling has a major influence on adolescent alcohol use. Our study examined maternal factors associated with daughters? alcohol use among inner-city racial minority adolescents of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected mothers. A nonprobability sample of 176 mothers (37% with HIV) and their adolescent daughters completed self-administered surveys. Between- and within-group analyses were conducted using hierarchical multivariate logistic regressions. Findings showed that in the full sample, difficulty talking with daughters about alcohol was positively associated with alcohol use among daughters, whereas maternal report of importance of religion was negatively associated with alcohol use among daughters. (Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)
HIV-infected women?s perspectives on the use of the Internet for social support: A potential role for online group-based interventions
While the development and implementation of HIV-related online interventions has expanded, few have been tailored for women or have leveraged Web 2.0?s capabilities to provide social support. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 27 women with HIV at an urban community health center to understand their perspectives on the potential role of the Internet and the use of an online group format to provide social support. Data were analyzed using the constant comparative method. We identified six themes: a need for groups and increased sense of connectedness, convenience and accessibility, trust as a precondition for participating, online groups as a potential facilitator or barrier to expression, limited digital access and literacy, and privacy concerns. (Source: Journal of the Associa...
Fertility desire among HIV-positive women in Tigray region, Ethiopia: implications for the provision of reproductive health and prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission services
Conclusions: Age, HIV disclosure status to husband/sexual partner, and relatively few live children were all found to influence HIV-positive women?s fertility desire. Programmers and policy makers should consider the effects of these factors for HIV-positive women as they develop HIV/AIDS interventions. (Source: BMC Women's Health)
The impact of concomitant pulmonary infection on immune dysregulation in Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia
Conclusions: In summary, concurrent pulmonary infection might enhance immune dysregulation of PJP in non-AIDS immunocompromised patients, but did not affect the outcome as evidenced by morbidity and mortality. Because of limited number of cases studied, further studies with larger populations are needed to verify these issues. (Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Korean Public Opinion on Alcohol Control Policy: A Cross-Sectional International Alcohol Control Study
Alcohol consumption has been known to have a serious negative impact on public health and to cause many social problems. According to WHO global health risk report, alcohol use is the 3rdrisk factor (1st in middle-income countries) for global burden of diseases contributing to 4.5% of global DALYs (Disability-Adjusted Life Years) and 4% of global deaths, greater than deaths attributable to HIV/AIDS. Moreover, alcohol-related problems are not restricted only to drinkers:Consequences of alcohol use, especially episodic heavy drinking, are related toviolence, traffic accidents, child abuse and workplace productivity, affecting people around the drinkers. (Source: Health Policy)
Criminalising contagion
This special issue is the third in a series published by the BMJ Group.1 2 The papers published here arose from a call for papers linked to a project funded by the Economic and Social Research Council: &lsquo;Criminalising Contagion: Legal and Ethical Challenges of Disease Transmission and the Criminal Law&rsquo;, undertaken by David Gurnham, Hannah Quirk and myself. Since January 2013, we have held four seminars, which have brought together academics, healthcare professionals, representatives from charities, the Crown Prosecution Service, the Law Commission and the media. While the focus of these seminars was largely on the sexual transmission of disease (ie, HIV and herpes), the recent Ebola outbreak has highlighted the importance of addressing the broader questions as to whether, and if...
Non-culpable ignorance and HIV criminalisation
In this essay, I argue that any legal framework that addresses sexual transmission of HIV should be sensitive to the way that culpability can be mitigated by moral and factual ignorance. Though it is wrong to transmit HIV, public officials should be wary of criminalising transmission because people with HIV may be excused if they suffer from blameless moral or factual ignorance. I begin with the widely shared premise that blameless ignorance about one's HIV status is an excuse for sexual transmission of infections. I then extend this premise to other kinds of non-moral ignorance about HIV. Next, I argue that blameless moral ignorance also excuses transmission of HIV. There is some evidence of significant blameless non-moral and moral ignorance about HIV transmission. In these cases, transm...
Human semen contains exosomes with potent anti-HIV-1 activity
Conclusions: These illuminating findings i) improved our knowledge of the cargo of semen exosomes, ii) revealed that semen exosomes possess anti-retroviral activity, and iii) suggest that semen exosome-mediated inhibition of HIV-1 replication may provide novel opportunities for the development of new therapeutics for HIV-1. (Source: Retrovirology)
State of the Art Science addressing Injecting Drug Use, HIV and Harm Reduction
Unsafe injecting drug use continues to drive the HIV epidemics in many countries around the world. The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), Joint United Nations Programme on AIDS (UNAIDS), World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Bank estimate that there are 12.7 million (range: 8.9 million-22.4 million) people who inject drugs (PWID), globally. Among them, 13.1 per cent or 1.7 million people (range: 0.9-4.8 million) are living with HIV, with wide variations between regions and countries. (Source: International Journal of Drug Policy)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Short answer question case series: a case of total body pain
A middle-aged male with sickle &beta; thalassaemia presents to the emergency department with increasing joint, abdominal and back pain with fatigue and intermittent fevers, nausea and vomiting for 1&nbsp;week. Vital signs included a pulse of 99 beats/min, BP of 144/82&nbsp;mm&nbsp;Hg, RR of 16&nbsp;times/min, a pulse oximetry of 100% on room air, and temperature of 37.0. On physical exam, he had mild, diffuse abdominal pain with a normal motor-sensory exam of the lower extremities but increased left hip pain on extension of left leg. He kept his knees and hips in a flexed position. Labs revealed a normal leukocyte count, haemoglobin and reticulocyte count. Key questions What are the concerning historical and physical exam findings? What imaging should be considered? What does the CT (figur...
Inconsistent condom use by male clients during anal intercourse with occasional and regular female sex workers (FSWs): survey findings from southern states of India
Conclusions The results suggest that sex workers and their clients commonly practice anal intercourse, but a relatively high proportion of clients do not consistently use condoms, leading to a greater risk of acquiring HIV and its further transmission to other male and female sexual partners. Given the multidirectional risk, safer sex communication on heterosexual anal intercourse must be incorporated into HIV prevention programmes. (Source: BMJ Open)
Africa: Churches Have a Special Role to Play in HIV Response
[WCC]In Africa, where up to 40% of the health care facilities are provided by faith based organizations, Dr Mirfin Mpundu, executive director of the Ecumenical Pharmaceutical Network (EPN), says that due to their unique position churches can play a special role in eliminating HIV and AIDS and bringing improvements in the lives of people living with the virus. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
UN urges ?fast-track? approach to end AIDS epidemic by 2030
Taking a fast-track approach in the battle against AIDS over the next five years will avert 21 million deaths and allow the world to end the epidemic by 2030, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) said in a new report published today. (Source: UN News Centre - Health, Poverty, Food Security)
From Hypnos to the Heavenly Bed: A Brief History of Sleep
Sleep is having its moment in the sun -- or, more appropriately, its moment in a darkened room, with blackout shades drawn, the temperature somewhere between 60 and 67 degrees Fahrenheit, all smartphones and tablets banished from the room and maybe a white noise machine softly whirring in the corner. You'd have to be severely sleep-deprived not to see evidence of the new sleep revolution. Everywhere you look there are articles about the benefits of sleep and the downsides of lack of sleep, tips on how to get more sleep and new devices and apps to help us disconnect and drift off to sleep and then monitor and track different stages of our sleep. Of course, those of us at HuffPost have been eager participants in this revolution, having passionately promoted the importance of sleep for over ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Africa: Iapac, HIV Advocates, and Abbvie Launch Tools in Advance of World Aids Day to Strengthen Dialogue Between Women Living With HIV and Their Healthcare Providers
[PR Newswire]Washington, DC -Women take a stand to improve HIV care outcomes globally (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Comparison of pregnancies between perinatally and sexually HIV-infected women: an observational study at an urban hospital.
Authors: Badell ML, Kachikis A, Haddad LB, Nguyen ML, Lindsay M Abstract As perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV) women reach reproductive age, there is an increasing number who become pregnant. This is a retrospective cohort study of HIV-infected women who delivered from June 2007 to July 2012 at our institution. Maternal demographics, HIV characteristics, and obstetric and neonatal outcomes were compared. 20 PHIV and 80 SHIV pregnancies were reviewed. The groups had similar CD4+ counts, prevalence of AIDS, and use of antiretrovirals (ARV) at initiation of obstetrical care. PHIV women were significantly more likely to be younger, have a detectable viral load (35% versus 74%, P &lt; 0.01), and have HIV-genotype resistance (40% versus 12%, P &lt; 0.01) than the SHIV women. The median gest...
A Comparative Systematic Review of the Optimal CD4 Cell Count Threshold for HIV Treatment Initiation.
Authors: Olubajo B, Mitchell-Fearon K, Ogunmoroti O Abstract HIV infection is no longer characterized by high morbidity, rapid progression to AIDS, and death as when the infection was first identified. While anti-retroviral drugs have improved the outcome of AIDS patients, clinical research on the appropriate time to initiate therapy continues to evolve. Optimal therapy initiation would maximize the benefits of these drugs, while minimizing side effects and drug resistance. Recent 2013 WHO guidelines changed HIV therapy initiation from 350?cells/ ? L to 500?cells/ ? L. This systematic review provides an evidence-based comparison of starting treatment at &gt;500?cells/ ? L with starting treatment at the range between 350?cells/ ? L and 500?cells/ ? L. An 11% increase ...
Etiology and Outcome of Patients with HIV Infection and Respiratory Failure Admitted to the Intensive Care Unit.
Conclusions. Noninfectious etiologies of respiratory failure account for majority of HIV-infected patients admitted to ICU. Increased mortality was observed among patients with sepsis as etiology of respiratory failure (HIV related and non-AIDS related), in those receiving mechanical ventilation, and in patients with decreased CD4 cell count. Survival was not associated with the use of HAART. Complementary studies are warranted to address the impact of HAART on outcomes of HIV-infected patients with respiratory failure admitted to ICU. PMID: 24065988 [PubMed] (Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases)
Intensive Care Usage by HIV-Positive Patients in the HAART Era.
Authors: Turtle L, Vyakernam R, Menon-Johansson A, Nelson MR, Soni N Abstract In the 1980s the outlook for patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and critical illness was poor. Since then several studies of outcome of HIV+ patients on ICU have shown improving prognosis, with anti-retroviral therapy playing a large part. We retrospectively examined intensive care (ICU) admissions in a large HIV unit in London. Between April 2001 and April 2006 43 patients were admitted to the ICU. The mean age of patients was 44 years and 74% were male. Fifty-six percent of admissions were receiving anti-retroviral therapy and 44% had an AIDS defining diagnosis. The median CD4 count was 128?cells/mL and the median APACHE II score was 21. The commonest diagnostic ICU admission ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Immune Modulation as Adjunctive Therapy for Pneumocystis pneumonia.
Authors: Wang J, Wright TW, Gigliotti F Abstract Pneumocystis is an opportunistic fungal respiratory pathogen that causes life-threatening pneumonia (Pcp) in patients suffering from defects in cell-mediated immunity, including those with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and immunosuppression secondary to chemotherapy or organ transplantation. Despite major advances in health care, the mortality associated with Pcp has changed little over the past 25? years. Pcp remains a leading cause of death among HIV infected patients, with mortality rates of 50% or higher for patients developing severe Pcp. In addition, as more potent immunosuppressive therapies are developed for chronic inflammatory diseases, more cases of Pcp are occurring in non-HIV patients and in previously unre...
[Media Watch] No shame, only pride
In 1984, the HIV virus was isolated and tests became available in the UK. 2 years later the world's first major government-sponsored national AIDS awareness campaign darkened British television screens??There is now a danger that has become a threat to us all. It is a deadly disease and there is no known cure?. Controversial for its unambiguous and stark message, it seems to have paved the way for a popular genre?films about infectious diseases and viral outbreaks. Pride, directed by Matthew Warchus, is not a scaremongering film about heroic individuals saving humanity from impending doomsday, but it does suggest a foreboding of sorts. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
[Correspondence] Antiretroviral treatment initiation ? Authors' reply
We thank Arild Maeland and Samir Gupta for their interest in our Comment. Traditionally, concerns about cost, sustainability, and potential toxicities of long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART) have led to recommendations to defer ART initiation. The development, however, of more efficacious, convenient, and better-tolerated ART regimens has markedly reversed this trend. Furthermore, results from the HPTN 052 substudy show a range of individual benefits of early ART initiation, including a significant reduction in AIDS-related opportunistic infections and tuberculosis incidence. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Kenya: Murang'a Residents Get Free Aids Care
[The Star]The Murang'a county government has partnered with a health NGO to give residents free HIV-Aids services, including testing, care and treatment. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: Pregnant Women Demand HIV Testing Centres At Antenatal Clinics
[Leadership]Abuja -Over 64 per cent of respondents at the latest nationwide poll wants pregnant women tested for HIV at the antenatal clinic so that they don't infect their baby. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
South Africa to Spend USD 2.2 bln on HIV Drugs in Next 2 YearsSouth Africa to Spend USD 2.2 bln on HIV Drugs in Next 2 Years
South Africa plans to spend $2.2 billion over two years to buy HIV/AIDS drugs for public hospitals, a government minister said on Monday, as a study shows the prevalence of the virus is rising. Reuters Health Information (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)
A simplified approach to the minimally invasive antral membrane elevation technique utilizing a viscoelastic medium for hydraulic sinus floor elevation
Conclusions This simplified technique may make the minimally invasive antral membrane elevation technique more accessible to implant surgeons as it eliminates the need for purchase of specialized equipment and aids in further decrease of intra-operative time accomplished with the original technique. (Source: Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery)
Adherence to standards of quality HIV/AIDS care and antiretroviral therapy in the West Nile Region of Uganda
Conclusions: Adherence to standards of HIV/AIDS care at facilities was inadequate. Performance was better at the start of ART but declined during the follow up period. Higher level facilities were more likely to adhere to standards like CD4 monitoring and maintaining HIV clients on standard ARV regimen. Efforts geared towards strengthening the health system, including support supervision and provision of care guidelines and job aides are needed, especially for lower level facilities. (Source: BMC Health Services Research)
Analysis of the bacterial community in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease sputum samples by denaturing gradient Gel electrophoresis and real-time PCR
Conclusion: This study revealed strong relationship between alterations of sputum microbiota and COPD. By determining the content of several types of bacteria, we can provide evidence to aid in the diagnosis and treatment of COPD. (Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine)
Commercial plasma donation and individual health in impoverished rural China
Discussion Results indicate an urgent need of more comprehensive and effective interventions on hepatitis screening, diagnosis, and treatment among plasma donors in less developed contexts to eliminate cross-infection of infectious diseases and possible widespread epidemic in the future. Besides, we should encourage voluntary plasma donation to gradually crowd out paid donation. (Source: Health Economics Review)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Costs of Health Resource Utilization Among HIV-Positive Individuals in British Columbia, Canada: Results From a Population-Level Study
Conclusion Non-HAART direct medical costs were substantially lower for individuals during periods of sustained virologic suppression and high CD4 count. HIV treatment and prevention evaluations require detailed health resource use data to inform funding allocation decisions. (Source: PharmacoEconomics)
Impact of armed conflicts and warfare on opioid substitution treatment in Ukraine: responding to emergency needs
Ukraine has one of the highest HIV prevalences in the Eastern Europe (Vitek et al., 2014; Corsi et al., 2014; Mazhnaya et al., 2014; Degenhardt et al., 2014; Kiriazova, Postnov, Perehinets, & Neduzhko, 2013; Bojko, Dvoriak, & Altice, 2013; Simmons et al., 2014). Injection drug use contributes to the HIV epidemic and is one of the key public health priorities for those working in HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment in Ukraine (Vitek et al., 2014; Corsi et al., 2014; Degenhardt et al., 2014; Simmons et al., 2014; Smyrnov, Broadhead, Datsenko, & Matiyash, 2012; Des Jarlais et al., 2012). (Source: International Journal of Drug Policy)
HIV and aging: insights from the Asia Pacific HIV Observational Database (APHOD)
ConclusionsThe associations between older age and typical patient outcomes in HIV?positive patients from the Asia Pacific region are similar in AHOD and TAHOD. Our data indicate that ?age effects? traverse the resource?rich and resource?limited divide and that future ageing?related findings might be applicable to each setting. (Source: HIV Medicine)
Using a Geolocation Social Networking Application to Calculate the Population Density of Sex-Seeking Gay Men for Research and Prevention Services
Conclusions: Using a limited number of sampled points, we developed a geospatial density map of MSM using a social-networking sex-seeking app. This approach provides a simple method to describe the density of specific MSM subpopulations (users of a particular app) for future HIV behavioral surveillance and allow targeting of prevention resources such as HIV testing to populations and areas of highest need. (Source: Journal of Medical Internet Research)
Grief-processing-based psychological intervention for children orphaned by AIDS in central China: A pilot study
A group of 124 children orphaned by AIDS (COA), who resided in two orphanages funded by the Chinese government, participated in a study investigating the efficacy of a grief-processing-based psychological group intervention. This psychological intervention program was designed to specifically help COA process their grief and reduce their psychological distress. Six sessions of group intervention focused on processing grief, reducing traumatic symptoms and psychological distress, and fostering hope about the future. At the three-month post-test, children in both groups (intervention group and control group) reported significant reduction in trauma symptoms and demonstrated similar levels of hope. However, the intervention group reported significantly increased levels of grief processing and...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Commercial plasma donation and individual health in impoverished rural China
DiscussionResults indicate an urgent need of more comprehensive and effective interventions on hepatitis screening, diagnosis, and treatment among plasma donors in less developed contexts to eliminate cross-infection of infectious diseases and possible widespread epidemic in the future. Besides, we should encourage voluntary plasma donation to gradually crowd out paid donation. (Source: Health Economics Review)
Healthcare Costs Associated with Antiretroviral Adherence Among Medicaid Patients
Conclusion The results show that the relationship of ART adherence to healthcare costs is more complex than previously reported. (Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
South Africa to spend $2.2 billion on HIV drugs in next two years
PORT ELIZABETH South Africa (Reuters) - South Africa plans to spend $2.2 billion over two years to buy HIV/AIDS drugs for public hospitals, a government minister said on Monday, as a study shows the prevalence of the virus is rising. (Source: Reuters: Health)
South Africa to Spend $2.2 billion on HIV Drugs in Next 2 Years
South Africa plans to spend $2.2 billion over two years to buy HIV/AIDS drugs for public hospitals, a government minister said on Monday, as a study shows the prevalence of the virus is rising -- Read more on (Source: Scientific American - Official RSS Feed)
Action Cycling board adds President-elect position, ensuring...
Action Cycling Atlanta adds Scott Drinkard as President-elect and continues planning its 13th AIDS Vaccine 200, slated for May 16-17, 2015(PRWeb November 16, 2014)Read the full story at (Source: PRWeb: Medical Pharmaceuticals)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Cryptococcal Antigen Screening Among HIV-Infected WomenCryptococcal Antigen Screening Among HIV-Infected Women
Cryptococcal meningitis is an important HIV-associated opportunistic infection. Does cryptococcal antigen screening adequately identify those at risk? Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
Botswana: Government Committed to Zero New HIV Infections
[Botswana Daily News]Gaborone -President Lt Gen. Seretse Khama Ian Khama says the nation remains resolute in the commitment to getting to Zero New HIV infections, Zero Discrimination and Zero AIDS related deaths by 2016. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Preconception antiretroviral therapy and birth defects: what is needed?
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Role of education and differentiation in determining the potential of natural killer cells to respond to antibody-dependent stimulation
Antibody-dependent activation of natural killer (NK) cells might facilitate protective outcomes in the context of HIV exposure or infection. Antibody-dependent activation is heightened in NK cells educated by interactions between killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) and their major histocompatibility complex class I ligands during ontogeny. Differentiated NK cells, defined as CD57+, also exhibit enhanced antibody-dependent responsiveness. Although KIRs are more frequently expressed on CD57+ NK cells, the presented data suggest education and differentiation make independent contributions to NK cell anti-HIV envelope antibody-dependent activation. (Source: AIDS)
Successful treatment of aplastic anaemia associated with HIV infection with eltrombopag: implications for a possible immunomodulatory role
We report the first successful treatment with the thrombopoietin receptor mimetic eltrombopag in a patient with severe aplastic anaemia (SAA) associated with HIV infection, thereby avoiding the use of standard immunosuppressive agents for treatment of SAA. Eltrombopag induced a trilineage haematological response. We also show that eltrombopag had an immunomodulatory role with a decrease in proinflammatory T helpers (Th1 and Th17 cells) with increased T-regulatory cell/T-helper ratio, thus contributing to recovery of haemopoiesis. (Source: AIDS)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Efavirenz dose reduction in HIV-infected patients: a long-term follow-up
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Global burden of transmitted HIV drug resistance and HIV-exposure categories: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Objectives:Our aim was to review the global disparities of transmitted HIV drug resistance (TDR) in antiretroviral-naive MSM, people who inject drugs (PWID) and heterosexual populations in both high-income and low/middle-income countries. Design/methods:We undertook a systematic review of the peer-reviewed English literature on TDR (1999?2013). Random-effects meta-analyses were performed to pool TDR prevalence and compare the odds of TDR across at-risk groups. Results:A total of 212 studies were included in this review. Areas with greatest TDR prevalence were North America (MSM: 13.7%, PWID: 9.1%, heterosexuals: 10.5%); followed by western Europe (MSM: 11.0%, PWID: 5.7%, heterosexuals: 6.9%) and South America (MSM: 8.3%, PWID: 13.5%, heterosexuals: 7.5%). Our data indicated disproportion...
Poverty matters: contextualizing the syndemic condition of psychological factors and newly diagnosed HIV infection in the United States
Conclusions:Among the US general population, the association between co-occurring syndemic factors and incident HIV infection was stronger in the setting of poverty. Mental health interventions, particularly in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas, should be considered to reduce transmission of HIV. (Source: AIDS)
Preexposure prophylaxis is efficacious for HIV-1 prevention among women using depot medroxyprogesterone acetate for contraception
Conclusion:PrEP is efficacious for HIV-1 prevention among women using DMPA and men whose partners use DMPA, suggesting PrEP could mitigate the potential increased HIV-1 acquisition and transmission risks that have been associated with DMPA use. Women at risk for HIV-1 choosing DMPA could maintain this contraceptive method and add PrEP to achieve prevention of unintended pregnancy and HIV-1. (Source: AIDS)
Efficacy and safety of three regimens for the prevention of malaria in young HIV-exposed Ugandan children: a randomized controlled trial
Objective:Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis is recommended for HIV-exposed infants until breastfeeding ends and HIV infection has been excluded. Extending prophylaxis with a focus on preventing malaria may be beneficial in high transmission areas. We investigated three regimens for the prevention of malaria in young HIV-exposed children. Design:An open-label, randomized controlled trial. Setting:Tororo, Uganda, a rural area with intense, year-round, malaria transmission. Participants:Two hundred infants aged 4?5 months enrolled and 186 randomized after cessation of breastfeeding and confirmed to be HIV uninfected (median 10 months of age). Intervention:No chemoprevention, monthly sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, daily trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or monthly dihydroartemisinin-piperaqu...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
The relationship of physical performance with HIV disease and mortality
Conclusion:HIV infection was independently associated with reduced physical performance. HIV and reduced physical performance have independent and joint effects on mortality. Physical performance measurement may be an important research and clinical tool to predict adverse outcomes among aging HIV-infected persons. (Source: AIDS)
Adherence to HIV postexposure prophylaxis: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Conclusion:Adherence to a full 28-day course of antiretroviral drugs prescribed for PEP is poor. Efforts should be made to simplify guidelines for prescribers and support adherence for people taking PEP, with particular attention needed for adolescents and victims of sexual assault. (Source: AIDS)
Characteristics and outcomes of HIV-infected youth and young adolescents enrolled in HIV care in Kenya
We examined routinely collected patient-level data for antiretroviral treatment (ART)-naive HIV-infected patients, aged 10?24 years, enrolled in care during 2006?2011 at 109 ICAP-supported health facilities in three provinces in Kenya. Loss to follow-up (LTF) was defined as having no clinic visit for 12 months prior to ART initiation (pre-ART) and 6 months for ART patients. Competing risk and Kaplan?Meier estimators were used to calculate LTF and death rates. Sub-distributional and Cox proportional-hazards models were used to identify potential predictors of death and LTF. Results:Overall 22?832 patients were enrolled in care at 10?24 years of age, 69.5% were aged 20?24 years, and 82% were female. Median CD4+ cell count was 332?cells/?l (interquartile range 153?561); 70.8%...
Adherence to extended postpartum antiretrovirals is associated with decreased breast milk HIV-1 transmission
Conclusion:Nonadherence to extended postpartum antiretroviral regimens in ?real world? settings is likely to be higher than that seen in BAN. Identifying mothers with difficulty adhering to antiretrovirals, and developing effective adherence interventions, will help maximize benefits of antiretroviral provision throughout breastfeeding. (Source: AIDS)
Tuberculosis distorts the inhibitory impact of interleukin-10 in HIV infection
This study aimed to assess how Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) coinfection alters the impact of interleukin-10 in chronic HIV infection. Design:We assessed plasma cytokine levels (interleukin-10, interferon-?, tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-2, interleukin-6 and interleukin-13) in 82 individuals presenting with HIV monoinfection, HIV-LTBI (latent MTB infection) coinfection or HIV-TB (active tuberculosis) coinfection. We also assessed the influence of MTB on the functional impact of interleukin-10 receptor alpha (interleukin-10R?) blockade on HIV and MTB-specific CD4+ T cells. Methods:Plasma cytokine levels were measured by high sensitivity Luminex. We used an ex-vivo interleukin-10R? blockade assay to assess if functional enhancement of HIV and MTB-specific CD4+ T cells was possi...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Vitamin D supplementation is associated with reduced immune activation levels in HIV-1-infected patients on suppressive antiretroviral therapy
Conclusion:The present data support the rationale of vitamin D supplementation in the routine clinical management of HIV-1-infected patients, in order to decrease immune activation levels and possibly improve long-term survival. (Source: AIDS)
Evaluating the impact of prioritization of antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis in New York
Conclusion:PrEP implementation is relatively cost-inefficient under our initial assumptions. Our results suggest that PrEP should first be promoted among MSM who are at particularly high risk of HIV acquisition. Further expansion beyond this group may be cost-effective, but is unlikely to be cost-saving. (Source: AIDS)
Relationship between endothelin-1 levels and pulmonary arterial hypertension in HIV-infected patients
Conclusion:Plasma endothelin-1 levels are higher in HIV patients with PAH than in the HIV-noninfected population and levels increase with the severity of the PAH. (Source: AIDS)
HIV Tat acts on endogenous retroviruses of the W family and this occurs via Toll-like receptor 4: inference for neuroAIDS
Conclusion:In-vivo consequence of the study could be that, through increase of CD16 and CCR2, Tat promotes neuroinvasion not only by HIV-infected monocytes/macrophages but also by the HERV-Ws, with their neuropathogenic potential. Also, the novel finding of TLR4 stimulation by Tat may be of relevance, as TLR4 is critical in neuroinflammation. Within central nervous system (CNS), Tat-induced TNF? could induce high levels of the HERV-Ws, in both macrophages and astrocytes, also without HIV replication. The indirect mechanism by which Tat activates the HERV-Ws through induction of TNF? could add a new piece to the puzzle of CNS pathogenesis, that is the HERV-Wenv contribute to the HIV-related neurodegeneration. (Source: AIDS)
Emerging antiretroviral drug resistance in sub-Saharan Africa: novel affordable technologies are needed to provide resistance testing for individual and public health benefits
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Relationship of HIV reservoir characteristics with immune status and viral rebound kinetics in an HIV therapeutic vaccine study
The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of therapeutic HIV vaccination on the HIV reservoir and assess the relationship of the viral reservoir with HIV-specific immune status and viral rebound kinetics. Design:A retrospective analysis of ACTG A5197, a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of a therapeutic rAd5 HIV-1 gag vaccine. Methods:Participants received vaccine/placebo at weeks 0, 4 and 26 prior to a 16-week analytic treatment interruption (ATI) at week 38. Cell-associated HIV-1 RNA and DNA (CA-RNA and CA-DNA) and HIV-1 residual viremia were quantified at weeks 0, 8 and 38. HIV-specific CD4+/CD8+ activity was assessed by an intracellular cytokine staining assay. Results:At study entry, CA-RNA and CA-DNA levels were correlated inversely with the numbers of HIV-specific CD4...
Seminal plasma aids the survival and cervical transit of epididymal ram spermatozoa.
Authors: Rickard JP, Pini T, Soleilhavoup C, Cognie J, Bathgate R, Lynch GW, Evans G, Maxwell WM, Druart X, de Graaf SP PMID: 25398232 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Reproduction)
Nigeria: U.S. Denies Withdrawing From Funding
[This Day]Abuja - The United States government on Sunday said it was not withdrawing from funding HIV/AIDS programmes in Nigeria. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: USAID Donates N50 Million HIV/Aids Machine to UDUTH
[Leadership]The United States Agency For International Development (USAID) - sponsored Management Science for Health Project yesterday donated N50 million HIV/AIDs viral load measurement machine to Usmanu Danfodio University Teaching Hospital (UDUTH), Sokoto. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: Court Lifts Ban On Abalaka's HIV Vaccines
[Premium Times]A Federal High Court in Makurdi on Friday lifted a government ban on the use of HIV vaccines produced by a Nigerian doctor, Jeremiah Abalaka. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Kenya: Alcoholism, Drug Abuse Exposing Youth to HIV Infections in Kiambu, Says the First Lady
[The Star]First Lady Margaret Kenyatta has called on leaders in Kiambu to urgently address excessive consumption of alcohol and substance abuse that is exposing young people to HIV infections. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
South Sudan: War-Ravaged Nation Struggles to Contain Aids
[IPS]Juba -Dressed in a flowered African print kitenge and a blue head scarf, Sabur Samson, 27, sits pensively at the HIV centre at Maridi Civil Hospital in South Sudan's Western Equatoria state. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
The role of PfEMP1 adhesion domain classification in Plasmodium falciparum pathogenesis research
Publication date: July 2014 Source:Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, Volume 195, Issue 2 Author(s): Joseph D. Smith The Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) family has a key role in parasite survival, transmission, and virulence. PfEMP1 are exported to the erythrocyte membrane and mediate binding of infected erythrocytes to the endothelial lining of blood vessels. This process aids parasite survival by avoiding spleen-dependent killing mechanisms, but it is associated with adhesion-based disease complications. Switching between PfEMP1 proteins enables parasites to evade host immunity and modifies parasite tropism for different microvascular beds. The PfEMP1 protein family is one of the most diverse adhesion modules in nature. This review covers PfEMP1 adhes...
Cryptosporidium parvum has an active hypusine biosynthesis pathway
Publication date: June 2014 Source:Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, Volume 195, Issue 1 Author(s): Nimisha Mittal , Marie Morada , Pankaj Tripathi , V.S. Gowri , Swati Mandal , Alison Quirch , Myung Hee Park , Nigel Yarlett , Rentala Madhubala The protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum causes severe enteric infection and diarrheal disease with substantial morbidity and mortality in untreated AIDS patients and children in developing or resource-limited countries. No fully effective treatment is available. Hypusination of eIF5A is an important post-translational modification essential for cell proliferation. This modification occurs in a two step process catalyzed by deoxyhypusine synthase (DHS) followed by deoxyhypusine hydroxylase. An ORF of 1086bp was identified in the C. parv...
Technological aids to support choice strategies by three girls with Rett syndrome
This study was aimed at extending the use of assistive technology (i.e. photocells, interface and personal computer) to support choice strategies by three girls with Rett syndrome and severe to profound developmental disabilities. A second purpose of the study was to reduce stereotypic behaviors exhibited by the participants involved (i.e. body rocking, hand washing and hand mouthing). Finally, a third goal of the study was to monitor the effects of such program on the participants? indices of happiness. The study was carried out according to a multiple probe design across responses for each participant. Results showed that the three girls increased the adaptive responses and decreased the stereotyped behaviors during intervention phases compared to baseline. Moreover, during interventio...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Survival of AIDS?related diffuse large B?cell lymphoma, Burkitt lymphoma, and plasmablastic lymphoma in the German HIV Lymphoma Cohort
Summary Overall survival (OS) of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)?related Burkitt lymphoma (BL), diffuse large B?cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) was analysed in the German AIDS?related?Lymphoma?Cohort?Study. Of 291 patients prospectively included between January 2005 and December 2012, 154 had DLBCL, 103 BL and 34 PBL. Two?year OS rates were similar between BL (69%) and DLBCL patients (63%) but lower for PBL patients (43%). Intermediate (Hazard ratio [HR] 4·1 95% confidence interval [CI] 1·98?8·49) or high (HR 4·92 95% CI 2·1?11·61) International Prognostic Index, bone marrow involvement (HR 1·69 95% CI 1·00?2·84) and PBL histology (HR 2·24 95% CI 1·24?4·03) were independent predictors of mortality. (Source: Br...
Factors affecting changes in compliance with infection control practices by dentists in Japan
Publication date: Available online 15 November 2014 Source:American Journal of Infection Control Author(s): Akio Tada , Masaomi Watanabe , Hidenobu Senpuku We surveyed compliance with infection control practices (ICPs) and factors associated with ICPs reported by dentists in Japan in 2008 and 2011. ICPs improved during this period as did the proportion of dentists specializing in oral surgery, the proportion of dentists reporting a willingness to treat HIV and AIDS patients, and the proportion of dentists reporting knowledge about universal and standard precautions. Stronger associations between ICPs and these 3 factors were found in 2011 than in 2008. (Source: American Journal of Infection Control)
An AIDS-Denialist Online Community on a Russian Social Networking Service: Patterns of Interactions With Newcomers and Rhetorical Strategies of Persuasion
Conclusions: Contrary to the widespread public health depiction of AIDS denialists as totally irrational, our study suggests that some of those who become AIDS denialists have sufficiently reasonable grounds to suspect that &#8220;something is wrong&#8221; with scientific theory, because their personal experience contradicts the unitary picture of AIDS disease progression. Odd and inexplicable practices of some AIDS centers only fuel these people&#8217;s suspicions. We can conclude that public health practitioners&#8217; practices may play a role in generating AIDS-denialist sentiments. In interactions with the newcomers, the experienced community members highlighted the importance of personal autonomy and freedom of choice in decision making consistent with the consumerist...
The Characteristic Structure of Anti-HIV Actinohivin in Complex with Three HMTG D1 Chains of HIV-gp120.
Authors: Zhang F, Hoque MM, Jiang J, Suzuki K, Tsunoda M, Takeda Y, Ito Y, Kawai G, Tanaka H, Takénaka A Abstract The anti-HIV lectin actinohivin (AH) specifically interacts with HMTG (high-mannose-type glycan), which is attached to the glycoprotein gp120 of HIV-1 in a process in which the three branched mannotriose chains (D1, D2, and D3) of HMTG exhibit different binding affinities, it being estimated that that of D1 is the strongest, that of D3 is weaker, and that of D2 is undetectable. These properties have been ascribed to the stereochemical differences in linkages between the second and the third mannose residues of the three chains. In order to clarify the interaction geometry between AH and the major target D1, an X-ray determination of the crystal structure of AH in compl...
Fighting an Epidemic: AIDS Group Wages Lonely Fight Against Pill to Prevent H.I.V.
A growing consensus in favor of Truvada is opposed by one vocal man, Michael Weinstein, and his nonprofit organization. (Source: NYT)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Quality of Sleep in an HIV Population on Antiretroviral Therapy at an Urban Tertiary Centre in Lagos, Nigeria.
Conclusions. Sleep disturbances are quite common in the HIV population even in the era of HAART. Early recognition via routine assessment and effective treatments could prevent the resultant complications and improve quality of life. PMID: 24876959 [PubMed] (Source: Neurology Research International)
Clinical Features, Treatment, and Outcome of HIV-Associated Immune Thrombocytopenia in the HAART Era.
Authors: Ambler KL, Vickars LM, Leger CS, Foltz LM, Montaner JS, Harris M, Dias Lima V, Leitch HA Abstract The characteristics of HIV-associated ITP were documented prior to the HAART era, and the optimal treatment beyond HAART is unknown. We performed a review of patients with HIV-associated ITP and at least one platelet count &lt;20 × 10(9)/L since January 1996. Of 5290 patients in the BC Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS database, 31 (0.6%) had an ITP diagnosis and platelet count &lt;20 × 10(9)/L. Initial ITP treatment included IVIG, n = 12; steroids, n = 10; anti-RhD, n = 8; HAART, n = 3. Sixteen patients achieved response and nine patients achieved complete response according to the International Working Group criteria. Median time to response was 14 days. Platelet response ...
Paradigms and Controversies in the Treatment of HIV-Related Burkitt Lymphoma.
Authors: Petrich AM, Sparano JA, Parekh S Abstract Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is a very aggressive subtype of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that occurs with higher frequency in patients with HIV/AIDS. Patients with HIV-related BL (HIV-BL) are usually treated with high-intensity, multi-agent chemotherapy regimens. The addition of the monoclonal antibody Rituximab to chemotherapy has also been studied in this setting. The potential risks and benefits of commonly used regimens are reviewed herein, along with a discussion of controversial issues in the practical management of HIV-BL, including concurrent anti-retroviral therapy, treatment of relapsed and/or refractory disease, and the role of stem cell transplantation. PMID: 22570659 [PubMed] (Source: Advances in Hematology)
AIDS-Related Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma in the Era of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy.
Authors: Vishnu P, Aboulafia DM Abstract In economically developed countries, AIDS-related lymphoma (ARL) accounts for a large proportion of malignances in HIV-infected individuals. Since the introduction of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) in 1996, epidemiology and prognosis of ARL have changed. While there is a slight increase in the incidence of Hodgkin's lymphoma in HIV-infected individuals, use of HAART has contributed to a decline in the incidence of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and also a decrease in the overall incidence of ARL. Strategies that employ HAART, improved supportive care, and the use of Rituximab with multi-agent chemotherapy have contributed to improved rates of complete remission and survival of patients with ARL that rival those seen in stage and...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
HIV-Associated Hodgkin's Lymphoma: Prognosis and Therapy in the Era of cART.
Authors: Jacobson CA, Abramson JS Abstract Patients with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) are at increased risk for developing Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL), a risk that has not decreased despite the success of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in the modern era. HIV-associated HL (HIV-HL) differs from HL in non-HIV-infected patients in that it is nearly always associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and more often presents with high-risk features of advanced disease, systemic "B" symptoms, and extranodal involvement. Before the introduction of cART, patients with HIV-HL had lower response rates and worse outcomes than non-HIV-infected HL patients treated with conventional chemotherapy. The introduction of cART, however, has allowed for...
Epidural steroid injections: update on efficacy, safety, and newer medications for injection.
Authors: Kozlov N, Benzon HT, Malik K Abstract The best evidence for epidural injection appears to be in the setting of radicular pain with epidural steroid and non--steroid injections more efficacious than non-epidural injections. Studies showed the efficacy of non-particulate steroid to approach the efficacy of particulate steroid and very limited comparisons demonstrated no significant difference between epidural steroid and epidural non--steroid (local anesthetic) injection. Preliminary studies evaluating epidural injection of disease modifying anti--rheumatic drugs such etanercept and tocilizumab showed conflicting results and had significant limitations. Randomized studies support better efficacy of transforaminal injection due to greater incidence of ventral epidural spread ...
Nonhuman primate models for HIV/AIDS vaccine development.
Authors: Sui Y, Gordon S, Franchini G, Berzofsky JA Abstract The development of HIV vaccines has been hampered by the lack of an animal model that can accurately predict vaccine efficacy. Chimpanzees can be infected with HIV-1 but are not practical for research. However, several species of macaques are susceptible to the simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) that cause disease in macaques, which also closely mimic HIV in humans. Thus, macaque-SIV models of HIV infection have become a critical foundation for AIDS vaccine development. Here we examine the multiple variables and considerations that must be taken into account in order to use this nonhuman primate (NHP) model effectively. These include the species and subspecies of macaques, virus strain, dose and route of administratio...
Suvorexant: something new for sleep?
Authors: Reddy A, Puvvada SC, Kommisetti S, El-Mallakh RS, Lippmann S Abstract Orexin, also called hypocretin, is a neuropeptide that acts on central nervous system receptors to promote arousal. Suvorexant, its receptor antagonist, generates interest as a medication to treat insomnia. Suvorexant helps in decreasing wakefulness by counteracting orexin activity. Its low side effect potential may offer considerable benefit. Compared with other sleep aids, diminished drowsiness and less cognitive dysfunction is an advantage. Now approved for clinical use, an apparent lack of rebound insomnia or drug dependence potential might make suvorexant a good choice pharmacotherapy for patients with insomnia. PMID: 25397996 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Acta Neuropsychiatrica)
Secretory immunity with special reference to the oral cavity.
Authors: Brandtzaeg P Abstract The two principal antibody classes present in saliva are secretory IgA (SIgA) and IgG; the former is produced as dimeric IgA by local plasma cells (PCs) in the stroma of salivary glands and is transported through secretory epithelia by the polymeric Ig receptor (pIgR), also named membrane secretory component (SC). Most IgG in saliva is derived from the blood circulation by passive leakage mainly via gingival crevicular epithelium, although some may be locally produced in the gingiva or salivary glands. Gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) and nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) do not contribute equally to the pool of memory/effector B cells differentiating to mucosal PCs throughout the body. Thus, enteric immunostimulation may not be the b...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Pathogenesis and treatment of oral candidosis.
Authors: Williams D, Lewis M Abstract Oral infections caused by yeast of the genus Candida and particularly Candida albicans (oral candidoses) have been recognised throughout recorded history. However, since the 1980s a clear surge of interest and associated research into these infections have occurred. This has largely been due to an increased incidence of oral candidosis over this period, primarily because of the escalation in HIV-infection and the AIDS epidemic. In addition, changes in medical practice leading to a greater use of invasive clinical procedures and a more widespread use of immunosuppressive therapies have also contributed to the problem. Whilst oral candidosis has previously been considered to be a disease mainly of the elderly and very young, its occurrence throug...
Molecular genetic diagnostic techniques in choroideremia.
CONCLUSIONS: The development of new molecular biology techniques and ongoing optimization of existing methods allows for an improved integrated approach to confirm CHM diagnosis and carrier status in consideration of patient family history and available patient sample materials. CHM can be confirmed with an immunoblot assay. To detect the molecular cause of CHM, an examination of the genomic DNA or the mRNA must be performed. Presymptomatic carriers with no identifiable fundus signs can be identified only through molecular analysis of genomic DNA or through quantitative assays. PMID: 24791138 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Molecular Vision)
Persistent racial/ethnic disparities in AIDS diagnosis rates among people who inject drugs in U.S. metropolitan areas, 1993-2007.
CONCLUSIONS: AIDS diagnosis rates continue to be substantially higher for black/African American and Hispanic/Latino PWID than for white PWID in most large MSAs. This finding suggests a need for increased targeting of prevention and treatment programs, as well as research on MSA-level conditions that may serve to maintain the disparities. PMID: 24791025 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Public Health Reports)
Chapter Two Causes and Consequences of Regional Variations in Health Care11This chapter was written for the Handbook of Health Economics (Vol. 2). My greatest debt is to John E. Wennberg for introducing me to the study of regional variations. I am also grateful to Handbook authors Elliott Fisher, Joseph Newhouse, Douglas Staiger, Amitabh Chandra, and especially Mark Pauly for insightful comments, and to the National Institute on Aging (PO1 AG19783) for financial support.
Publication date: 2011 Source:Handbook of Health Economics, Volume 2 Author(s): Jonathan Skinner There are widespread differences in health care spending and utilization across regions of the US as well as in other countries. Are these variations caused by demand-side factors such as patient preferences, health status, income, or access? Or are they caused by supply-side factors such as provider financial incentives, beliefs, ability, or practice norms? In this chapter, I first consider regional health care differences in the context of a simple demand and supply model, and then focus on the empirical evidence documenting causes of variations. While demand factors are important?health in particular?there remains strong evidence for supply-driven differences in utilization. I then con...
Engineered DNA modifying enzymes: Components of a future strategy to cure HIV/AIDS
Publication date: February 2013 Source:Antiviral Research, Volume 97, Issue 2 Author(s): Frank Buchholz , Joachim Hauber Despite phenomenal advances in AIDS therapy transforming the disease into a chronic illness for most patients, a routine cure for HIV infections remains a distant goal. However, a recent example of HIV eradication in a patient who had received CCR5-negative bone marrow cells after full-body irradiation has fuelled new hopes for a cure for AIDS. Here, we review new HIV treatment strategies that use sophisticated genome engineering to target HIV infections. These approaches offer new ways to tackle the infection, and alone or in conjunction with already established treatments, promise to transform HIV into a curable disease. Highlights ? Curing HIV infection must addre...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Heme arginate potentiates latent HIV-1 reactivation while inhibiting the acute infection
In conclusion, HA appears to possess a combination of unique properties that could help to decrease the pool of latently infected reservoir cells, while simultaneously inhibiting HIV-1 replication in newly infected cells. Our results thus suggest a new direction to explore in treatment of HIV/AIDS disease. Highlights ? We analyzed effects of heme arginate on Human immunodeficiency virus-1 replication and provirus reactivation. ? Heme arginate inhibited the overall replication and reverse transcription of HIV-1. ? Heme arginate synergized with PMA or TNF-? in the reactivation of HIV-1 provirus. ? The mechanism involved heme oxygenase-1 and increased redox stress. ? The results suggest a new direction to explore in treatment of HIV/AIDS disease. (Source: Antiviral Therapy)
Bayesian Analysis of Complex Interacting Mutations in HIV Drug Resistance and Cross-Resistance.
Authors: Kozyryev I, Zhang J Abstract A successful treatment of AIDS world-wide is severely hindered by the HIV virus' drug resistance capability resulting from complicated mutation patterns of viral proteins. Such a system of mutations enables the virus to survive and reproduce despite the presence of various antiretroviral drugs by disrupting their binding capability. Although these interacting mutation patterns are extremely difficult to efficiently uncover and interpret, they contribute valuable information to personalized therapeutic regimen design. The use of Bayesian statistical modeling provides an unprecedented opportunity in the field of anti-HIV therapy to understand detailed interaction structures of drug resistant mutations. Multiple Bayesian models equipped with Marko...
J Int AIDS Soc[journal]; +166 new citations
166 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results: J Int AIDS Soc[journal] These pubmed results were generated on 2014/11/15PubMed, a service of the National Library of Medicine, includes over 15 million citations for biomedical articles back to the 1950's. These citations are from MEDLINE and additional life science journals. PubMed includes links to many sites providing full text articles and other related resources. (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
CYP2B6 516G>T (rs3745274) and Smoking Status Are Associated With Efavirenz Plasma Concentration in a Serbian Cohort of HIV Patients
Conclusions: The effects of CYP2B6 516G>T (rs3745274) and smoking status on EFV plasma concentration in the Serbian population have been established for the first time. (Source: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring)
Visual acuity of dentists in their respective clinical conditions
Conclusions Visual performance decreased with increasing age under the specific clinical conditions of each dentist?s private practice. Magnification aids can compensate for visual deficiencies. Clinical relevance The question of whether findings obtained under standardized conditions are valuable for the habitual setting of each dentist?s private practice seems clinically relevant. (Source: Clinical Oral Investigations)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
West Africa: Chidinma, Wyclef Kick Out HIV
[Independent (Lagos)]Chidinma Ekile is one artiste who has taken her game to another level since emerging winner of music reality show, Project Fame West Africa. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial of a Patient Decision Aid for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.
Conclusions: Use of a patient decision aid was associated with improvements in patient-centered PTSD treatment. The patient decision aid was also associated with greater use of evidence-based treatments and improvement of PTSD symptoms. This study suggests that clinics should consider using a patient decision aid for patients with PTSD. PMID: 25322473 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Psychiatric Services)
Obstructive Sleep Apnea Is Associated with Impaired Exercise Capacity: A Cross-Sectional Study
Conclusions:OSA is associated with impaired exercise capacity. Further study is needed to evaluate the utility of CPET for prognostic assessment of patients with OSA.Citation:Beitler JR, Awad KM, Bakker JP, Edwards BA, DeYoung P, Djonlagic I, Forman DE, Quan SF, Malhotra A. Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with impaired exercise capacity: a cross-sectional study. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(11):1199-1204. (Source: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine : JCSM)
Glycoproteomic Study Reveals Altered Plasma Proteins Associated with HIV Elite Suppressors
HIV elite suppressors (ES) or controllers are individuals achieving control of viremia by their natural immunological mechanisms without highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Study of the mechanisms responsible for the immunological suppression of viremia in ES may lead to the detection of individuals with ES and the effective control of HIV infection. We hypothesize that plasma glycoproteins play essential roles in the immune system of ES since plasma proteins are critical and highly relevant in anti-viral immunity and most plasma proteins are glycoproteins. To examine glycoproteins associated with ES, plasma samples from ES individuals (n=20), and from individuals on HAART (n=20), with AIDS (n=20), and no HIV infection (n=10) were analyzed by quantitative glycoproteomics. We foun...
Spatial distribution of the human development index, HIV infection and AIDS-Tuberculosis comorbidity: Brazil, 1982 - 2007
CONCLUSION: The prevention of HIV infection must be geographically specific, given socioeconomic and cultural differences. Although official records show decline in AIDS-TB co-infection, treatment of cases of HIV/AIDS should observe the occurrence of opportunistic diseases, which should be notified and/or updated. INTRODUÇÃO: A epidemia de AIDS deu visibilidade à incidência de tuberculose, por ter sido a infecção oportunista mais frequente nesses casos. Sabe-se que os indivíduos socialmente vulneráveis são mais suscetíveis à transmissão do HIV e também à tuberculose. OBJETIVO: Realizar um estudo geoepidemiológico sobre HIV/AIDS, coinfecção AIDS-tuberculose e vulnerabilidade social. MÉTODO: Trata-se de estudo ecológico com uso de coeficientes de incidência e do índice...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Willingness to Pay for Health Insurance Among HIV-Positive Patients in India
Conclusion The findings of the study can serve as evidence for possible changes to policy on health insurance that would allow PLHIV to purchase health insurance. (Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
Major depression in HIV-infected patient. Significance of cooperation with psychologist in ART therapy team. Case report
Publication date: Available online 15 November 2014 Source:HIV &amp; AIDS Review Author(s): Maria Jankowska , Agnieszka Jasi?ska , Ma?gorzata Lema?ska , Marcin Dr?czewski The prevalence of major depression in HIV-infected populations is reported to be up to 20?40% versus 7% in general population. Early screening, diagnosis and treatment of depression allow to tackle the symptoms associated with this psychiatric disorder before they fully develop. Specific stressors may include: stigma, decreased self-esteem, disruption in relationships with a partner and family, life-style disruptions and sexual dysfunction. The case describes 30-year-old man advanced in HIV infection, treated with antiretroviral therapy with clinical success, who developed major depression caused mainly by per...
Survival of AIDS patients in Sao Paulo-Brazil in the pre- and post-HAART eras: a cohort study
Conclusions: The study showed a strong impact following the introduction of HAART in 1996 with decreased AIDS mortality, increased survival rates, and benefits with early introduction of HAART. However, some groups of patients were less likely to benefit from the new drug regimens. Public policies promoting health equity create an enabling environment helping AIDS control programs in developing countries to achieve their goals as effectively as in developed countries. (Source: BMC Infectious Diseases)
Cause-specific mortality by income adequacy in Canada: A 16-year follow-up study.
This study examines cause-specific mortality rates by income adequacy among Canadian adults. It is based on data from the 1991 to 2006 Canadian census mortality and cancer follow-up study, which followed 2.7 million people aged 25 or older at baseline, 426,979 of whom died during the 16-year period. Age-standardized mortality rates (ASMRs), rate ratios, rate differences and excess mortality were calculated by income adequacy quintile for various causes of death. RESULTS: For most causes examined, ASMRs were clearly graded by income: highest among people in the in the lowest income quintile, and lowest among people in the highest income quintile. Inter-quintile rate ratios (quintile 1/quintile 5) were greater than 2.00 for HIV/AIDS, diabetes mellitus, suicide, cancer of the cervix, and ...
Detection and management of drug-resistant tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients in lower-income countries
(Source: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
The use of arthrography in pediatric orthopaedic surgery.
Authors: Nowicki PD, Duhn R Abstract Surgery near pediatric joints can be challenging because it is difficult to visualize vital articular structures. Assessment of underlying pathology is also challenging because the joint structures have not yet ossified. Arthrography is a useful tool that is quick and minimally invasive and allows adequate visualization of joint anatomy during surgery, which aids intraoperative decision making. In pediatric patients, arthrography is most useful for visualization of the elbow, knee, and hip joints. This tool can help the surgeon to refine the diagnosis and management of pediatric fractures and aids in surgical assessment during joint and limb reconstruction. Arthrography adds minimal time to surgery and carries a low risk of complications; it sho...
J Int AIDS Soc[journal]; +181 new citations
181 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results: J Int AIDS Soc[journal] These pubmed results were generated on 2014/11/14PubMed, a service of the National Library of Medicine, includes over 15 million citations for biomedical articles back to the 1950's. These citations are from MEDLINE and additional life science journals. PubMed includes links to many sites providing full text articles and other related resources. (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Pilot Study of a New Rehabilitation Tool: Improved Unilateral Short-term Adaptation of the Human Angular Vestibulo-ocular Reflex
ConclusionA visual stimulus driving the VOR gain to unity toward the nonadapting side aids unilateral adaptation more so than no visual stimulus. (Source: Otology and Neurotology)
Effect of Aided Hearing in the Nonimplanted Ear on Bimodal Hearing
ConclusionBased on the relationship between the aided hearing level and bimodal hearing performance, this current study suggests that bimodal benefits for sound localization and speech perception in noise are significant but only when sound detection is adequate for the hearing aids. Therefore, bimodal hearing could be applied to selective patients with favorable aided hearing levels. (Source: Otology and Neurotology)
Case Report: Cochlear Implantation in a Patient With Superficial Siderosis
ConclusionFor this patient with superficial siderosis, only marginal improvements in test scores at 11 months postimplantation were seen. Minimally, the use of a cochlear implant did prevent further deterioration of auditory performance. Therefore, patients with superficial siderosis who choose to proceed with cochlear implantation may still report perceived benefit from the maintenance of speech perception abilities even in the presence of minimal improvement. Rapid deterioration in hearing thresholds and speech discrimination before implantation may be an indicator of an actively progressing case of superficial siderosis, which may suggest possible limited benefit from cochlear implantation. (Source: Otology and Neurotology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Concurrent use of comedications reduces adherence to antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected patients.
CONCLUSIONS: Recently, the number of HIV-infected patients with polypharmacy has been higher, increasing the risk of nonadherence. Furthermore, previous treatment with antiretroviral therapy, HIV transmission by intravenous drug use, and high risk of drug-related problems are also associated with lower adherence. PMID: 25062078 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Managed Care Pharmacy)
Exploration of claims-based utilization measures for detecting potential nonmedical use of prescription drugs.
CONCLUSIONS: When comparing classes of drugs with a known abuse potential with classes of drugs not prone to such use, using an array of drug utilization measures, significantly different patterns emerge, although the ability of these measures to serve as reliable indicators of the extent of nonmedical prescribing may be limited. There is a need for valid and reliable algorithms to detect the extent of nonmedical use at a population level to help target public health interventions aimed at constraining illicit use. Further work is warranted on the development of novel measures that make use of individual patient-level use patterns. PMID: 24856602 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Managed Care Pharmacy)
Quitting patterns and predictors of success among participants in a tobacco cessation program provided by pharmacists in New Mexico.
CONCLUSIONS: The study findings showed that having community pharmacists provide smoking cessation interventions resulted in quitting success rates similar to other health care professionals, which ranged from 9.9% to 26.0%. Since pharmacists are a widely available resource for their patients, managed care organizations may be able to improve the health, and avoid subsequent tobacco-related adverse health outcomes, of their members by implementing a program similar to the NMPCF Tobacco Cessation Program. PMID: 24856596 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Managed Care Pharmacy)
Missed opportunities for HIV screening in pharmacies and retail clinics.
Authors: Dugdale C, Zaller N, Bratberg J, Berk W, Flanigan T Abstract In the wake of new recommendations to offer HIV screening to everyone aged 13-64 years and to start all people living with HIV/AIDS on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regardless of CD4 count, the need to generate widespread, scalable HIV screening programs is greater than ever. Nearly 50,000 new HIV infections occur in the United States each year, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that approximately half of these new infections are transmitted by individuals who are unaware of their HIV serostatus. Numerous barriers to screening exist, including the lack of primary care for many at-risk patients, expense of screening in traditional settings, and need for repeat testing in h...
Namibia: Maternal Mortality Attributed to HIV
[New Era]Windhoek -A report on the prevalence and contributing factors of facility-based maternal and neonatal deaths in five regions of Namibia in 2010 and 2012 shows that HIV/AIDS was an indirect cause of more than half of the reported maternal deaths. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
South Africa: Op-Ed - Academics for TAC
[Daily Maverick]South Africans have many people to thank for their scaled-up ability to access free antiretroviral treatment. Foremost among them is the Treatment Action Campaign, which has fought tirelessly for over a decade and a half to ensure that HIV-positive people in poor countries receive the same standard of treatment and care as those in the developed world. By PROFESSOR BROOK K BAKER and PROFESSOR YOUSUF VAWDA. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: 'Information Key to Gender Violence, HIV/Aids Mitigation'
[Daily Trust]Dr Yinka Falola-Anoemuah is the Assistant Director Gender and Orphans and Vulnerable Children of the National Agency for the Control of AIDS (NACA). She spoke on the relationship between Gender Based Violence and HIV/AIDS and support for women and children living with HIV/AIDS, among others in this interview with the Home Front during the recent national stakeholders validation meeting for the National Action Plan on Gender Based Violence (GBV) and HIV/AIDS intersection in Abuja. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: No Nigerian Child Should Be Born With HIV - Jonathan
[Vanguard]Abuja - President Goodluck Jonathan on Thursday inaugurated a national operational plan for the Elimination of Mother to Child Transmission of HIV (EMTCT) with a declaration that no Nigerian child should be born with HIV. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Namibia: New Shelter for Needy Children
[New Era]Swakopmund -Orphans, vulnerable children as well as homeless HIV-positive mothers now have a place to call home, thanks to Naftaline Maua - a caring local woman with a heart of gold. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
War-ravaged South Sudan Struggles to Contain AIDS
Displaced women flee fighting by boat to Mingkaman, Awerial County, Lakes State, South Sudan.. Only one out of 10 HIV positive mothers can get the drugs needed to avoid infecting her baby. Credit: Mackenzie Knowles-Coursin/IPSBy Charlton DokiJUBA, Nov 14 2014 (IPS)Dressed in a flowered African print kitenge and a blue head scarf, Sabur Samson, 27, sits pensively at the HIV centre at Maridi Civil Hospital in South Sudan?s Western Equatoria state. Today she paid 20 South Sudanese pounds (about six dollars) for a bodaboda (motorbike taxi) ride to the centre and will have to skimp on food in the next days.South Sudan at a quick glance After four decades of on-off war, South Sudan gained independence from north Sudan in July 2011. But stability did not last long. Violence rooted in politica...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Nigeria: No Child Should Be Born With HIV - Jonathan
[Leadership]President Goodluck Jonathan has called for political commitment at all levels of government, from the ward level to the national government, in order to increase the momentum in the effort to achieve elimination of mother to child transmission (eMTCT) of HIV, saying that no child deserves to be born with HIV and no mother deserves to die of AIDS. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: HIV-Positive Man Rapes Lover's Two Daughters
[Premium Times]A 32-year-old mason, Terkula Iorpuur, of Behind Hemko Hospital, Kanshio, was on Thursday remanded in prison by a Makurdi Magistrates' Court for allegedly raping two sisters. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Clinical guidelines for the management of type 1 diabetes in children in Saudi Arabia endorsed by the Saudi Society of Endocrinology and Metabolism (SSEM)
This article covers several insulin therapy regimens for children with diabetes in Saudi Arabia, including the management of acute complications, sick days and follow-up treatments. (Source: International Journal of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine)
The efficient photocatalytic degradation of methyl tert?butyl ether under Pd/ZnO and visible light irradiation
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Photochemistry and Photobiology)
Chapter Two KSHV Pathways to Tumorigenesis and Persistent Infection
Publication date: 2014 Source:Advances in Virus Research, Volume 88 Author(s): Louise Giffin , Blossom Damania Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV; also known as human herpesvirus 8) is the etiologic agent of Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma, and multicentric Castleman's disease. These cancers often occur in the context of immunosuppression, which has made KSHV-associated malignancies an increasing global health concern with the persistence of the AIDS epidemic. KSHV has also been linked to several acute inflammatory diseases. KSHV exists between a lytic and latent lifecycle, which allows the virus to transition between active replication and quiescent infection. KSHV encodes a number of proteins and small RNAs that are thought to inadvertently transform host cells w...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Chapter Six Genetic Variation and HIV-Associated Neurologic Disease
Publication date: 2013 Source:Advances in Virus Research, Volume 87 Author(s): Satinder Dahiya , Bryan P. Irish , Michael R. Nonnemacher , Brian Wigdahl HIV-associated neurologic disease continues to be a significant complication in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. A substantial subset of the HIV-infected population shows impaired neuropsychological performance as a result of HIV-mediated neuroinflammation and eventual central nervous system (CNS) injury. CNS compartmentalization of HIV, coupled with the evolution of genetically isolated populations in the CNS, is responsible for poor prognosis in patients with AIDS, warranting further investigation and possible additions to the current therapeutic strategy. This chapter reviews key advances in the field of neuropathogene...
Burden of diabetic foot disorders, guidelines for management and disparities in implementation in Europe: a systematic literature review
Summary The study aimed to assess the economic and quality of life burden of diabetic foot disorders and to identify disparities in the recommendations from guidelines and the current clinical practice across the EU5 (Spain, Italy, France, UK and Germany) countries. Literature search of electronic databases (MEDLINE®, Embase® and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews) was undertaken. English language studies investigating economic and resource burden, quality of life and management of diabetic foot disease in the EU5 countries were included. Additionally, websites were screened for guidelines and current management practices in diabetic foot complication in EU5. Diabetic foot complications accounted for a total annual cost of ?509m in the UK and ?430 per diabetic patient in Germany...
IJERPH, Vol. 11, Pages 11805-11821: Factors Contributing to the Risk of HIV Infection in Rural School-Going Adolescents
The objective of this study was to determine the factors that increase the risk of HIV infection in rural school-going adolescents and young adults. This was a cross-sectional study of 430 secondary school students (47.4% boys and 52.6% girls) from two rural schools in South Africa. Data were collected with a self-administered questionnaire on demographic information, sources of HIV/AIDS information, HIV knowledge, sexual behaviors, communication and negotiation skills, self-efficacy to refuse sex, peer influence and time perspective. Out of 113 (27.2%) participants who reported being sexually active, about 48% reported having had sex before the age of 15 and 42.2% reported penetrative sex with more than one partner in their lifetime. Only 44.8% of them reported consistent and regular use ...
Congo-Brazzaville: OIG Reveals Financial Irregularity in DRC, Burundi Grants
[GFO]Countries early-adopters of Fund's more holistic approach to risk management (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: On Time and in Full Deliveries Improve to 68% for Global Fund Health Commodities
[GFO]More than $1.2 billion in commodities purchased and delivered through pooled procurement in 2014 (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
HIV Viral Suppression Among Persons With Varying Levels of Engagement in HIV Medical Care, 19 US Jurisdictions
Conclusions: Higher levels of engagement in care, including more frequent monitoring of CD4 and viral load, were associated with viral suppression. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Brief Report: Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV-Infected Elite Controllers: Impact on Gut Immunology, Microbial Translocation, and Biomarkers of Serious Non-AIDS Conditions
Abstract: Elite controllers (ECs) maintain undetectable HIV viral loads without antiretroviral therapy (ART) but are at increased risk of serious non-AIDS conditions (SNA). We assessed the impact of ART in ECs on gut immune dysfunction and biomarkers predicting SNA (blood CD4/CD8 ratio, plasma IL-6, D-dimer levels). At baseline, ECs had elevated IL-6 and D-dimer levels and reduced CD4/CD8 ratio compared with HIV-uninfected controls, but no difference in microbial translocation or gut CD4 subsets. ART increased CD4/CD8 ratio but did not normalize IL-6 and D-dimer levels. EC SNA pathogenesis may be independent of gut immune dysfunction, and resolution may require prolonged ART. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Stimulant Use and Progression to AIDS or Mortality After the Initiation of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy
Conclusions: HIV-positive stimulant-using MSM receiving HAART seem to face no greater overall risks for all-cause, AIDS-related, or non-AIDS mortality compared with nonusers. However, men without AIDS at HAART initiation who more frequently reported stimulant use demonstrated modestly increased odds of progression to AIDS or all-cause mortality. Comprehensive approaches are needed to optimize the effectiveness of HAART with stimulant-using MSM. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Hearing Aid Use in Everyday Life: Managing Contextual Variability
Conclusion: Our findings suggest that hearing aid owners may proactively use the hearing devices to master situation-specific demands and difficulties in hearing quality. Such findings underline that hearing aid use and satisfaction depend on the extent to which the devices help to manage everyday life successfully.Gerontology (Source: Gerontology)
The APHA HIV/AIDS Section provides a professional base for members of diverse disciplines to combine talents and interests to help in the struggle with the HIV/AIDS pandemic and provides leadership to members on HIV/AIDS issues and needs. (Source:<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Woman catches HIV after having her nails done using shared manicure equipment
The woman in the 'extremely rare' case had been sharing equipment with her cousin, who it later turned out had HIV, according to the report in the journal AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses. (Source: the Mail online | Health)
West Africa: Emergency Fund
[Global Fund]On 10 November, the Global Fund for the first time tapped a new Emergency Fund that is designed to provide quick financing to fight HIV, TB and malaria in emergency situations. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: Norway Signs Multi-Year Contribution to Global Fund
[Global Fund]Oslo -Norway and the Global Fund today signed a multi-year contribution agreement for NOK1.7 billion for 2014-2016, signaling a strong partnership in global health and in efforts to end AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria as epidemics. (Source: AllAfrica News: Malaria)
Nigeria: Dwindling Funding for HIV/Aids
[This Day]The United States decision to withdraw its funding of AIDS related programmes in Nigeria, implemented through PEPFAR, may have put Nigeria on the precipice in its fight against the dreaded HIV/AIDS. Paul Obi writes that stakeholders in the health sector are concerned about the inability of the government to step up its local funding (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Algeria: Fight Against Aids - Mena's Women Leaders Highlight Algeria's Experience
[Algerie Presse Service]Algiers -Participants in the high-level meeting of women leaders in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), held in Algiers on 10 and 11November, highlighted the efforts made by Algeria and its experience in the fight against AIDS and the protection of women. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Liberia: AFL Launches Ebola Response in Three Communities
[Observer]The Medical Department of the Armed Forces of Liberia (AFL), with financial support from the US Department of Defense HIV & AIDS Prevention Program (DHAPP), has launched an Ebola response in three communities in Monrovia. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
South Africa: Not Enough Dentists or Doctors, Long Queues - Nyanga Residents Protest
[GroundUp]Members of the Treatment Action Campaign and residents marched today in Nyanga to protest about poor health services in Nyanga and surrounding townships. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Zimbabwe: Harare Treats 120 000 Aids-Related Cases a Day
[The Herald]HARARE City Council says 120 000 residents are treated for HIV/Aids related ailments in the city everyday. According to minutes of a full council meeting, the rate of infections is increasing. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: Jonathan to Launch New HIV Plan for Mothers, Babies Today
[Guardian]Abuja -President Goodluck Jonathan will today formally unveil a new National Operational Plan for the Mother to Child Transmission of Human Immuno-deficiency Virus (HIV) in Nigeria. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Glial alterations in tuberculous and cryptococcal meningitis and their relation to HIV co-infection ? A study on human brains
Conclusions: Further studies on neuronal-astroglial-microglial interaction will offer deeper insight into the pathogenetic and immune mechanisms in the cellular and pathomorphological evolution of tuberculous and cryptococcal infections. (Source: The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Why Lifespans Are More Variable Among Blacks Than Among Whites in the United States
This study is the first to decompose the black-white difference in lifespan variability in America. Are lifespans more variable for blacks because they are more likely to die of causes that disproportionately strike the young and middle-aged, or because age at death varies more for blacks than for whites among those who succumb to the same cause? We find that it is primarily the latter. For almost all causes of death, age at death is more variable for blacks than it is for whites, especially among women. Although some youthful causes of death, such as homicide and HIV/AIDS, contribute to the black-white disparity in variance, those contributions are largely offset by the higher rates of suicide and drug poisoning deaths for whites. As a result, differences in the causes of death for blacks...
Associations between use of pharmacological aids in a smoking cessation attempt and subsequent quitting activity: a population study
ConclusionsSmokers who have tried to quit in the past year are more likely to try to quit again within 6?months regardless of whether they used a pharmacological aid, and they are more likely to re?try aids they had used previously. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Addiction)
Revised Hepatitis C (HCV)/HIV Coinfection Section of the Adult and Adolescent Antiretroviral Treatment Guidelines Released
The HHS Panel on Antiretroviral Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents announces the release of the updated&nbsp;Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in HIV-1-Infected Adults and Adolescents. As described in What's New in the Guidelines, this interim revision of the guidelines features a revised section on Hepatitis C (HCV)/HIV Coinfection that emphasizes considerations for use of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs in patients who also receive treatment for HCV infection. The section includes a new table (Table 12) that provides clinicians with guidance on the concomitant use of HCV drugs and ARV drugs with a focus on potential pharmacokinetic drug interactions. &nbsp; To view or download the guidelines, go to the Adult and Adolescent ARV Guidelines section of AIDSinfo. Separate PDF fil...
LabeledIn: Cataloging labeled indications for human drugs
In this study, we focused on 250 highly accessed drugs in PubMed Health, a newly developed public web resource for consumers and clinicians on prevention and treatment of diseases. These 250 drugs corresponded to more than 8000 drug labels (500 unique) in DailyMed in which 2950 candidate indications were pre-tagged by an automatic tool. After being reviewed independently by two experts, 1618 indications were selected, and additional 97 (missed by computer) were manually added, with an inter-annotator agreement of 88.35% as measured by the Kappa coefficient. Our final annotation results in LabeledIn consist of 7805 drug?disease treatment relationships where drugs are represented as a triplet of ingredient, dose form, and strength. A systematic comparison of LabeledIn with an existing comp...
Accidental nicotine liquid ingestion: emerging paediatric problem
A 30-month-old child was brought to our Emergency Department with a history of accidental ingestion of nicotine solution. The mother had spotted her picking up a refill cartridge bottle and placing it in her mouth. Although she managed to snatch it away quickly she wasn't sure if the child had managed to swallow a small amount. The girl had vomited shortly after this incident but was otherwise asymptomatic. On examination the child was systemically well and all clinical observations were normal. The child's mother was unable to provide details about the amount or strength of solution in the bottle. Toxbase was searched. There was extensive information on nicotine intoxication including smoking cessation aids like patches, gums and sprays but specific guidance on ingestion of nicotine liqui...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Question 2: A pointed question: is a child at risk following a community-acquired needlestick injury?
Scenario You are asked to see a previously well 5-year-old boy who presented to the accident and emergency department. While playing in a public park he picked up a discarded 1&nbsp;mL syringe with an attached 27-gauge needle and punctured the skin of his hand. His mother asks, "Will he catch AIDS? What should we do now?" Structured clinical question In a child with a community-acquired needlestick injury (CA-NSI) (patient, intervention), what is the risk of blood-borne virus (BBV) transmission (outcome)? Introduction CA-NSI in children causes significant parental anxiety. The risk of HIV and hepatitis virus transmission following NSI in healthcare settings is well established. The risk of BBV transmission to a child from a CA-NSI is substantially less than from occupational exposure. Desp...
Palmitoylation as a key factor to modulate SP-C?lipid interactions in lung surfactant membrane multilayers
Publication date: January 2015 Source:Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Biomembranes, Volume 1848, Issue 1, Part A Author(s): Nuria Roldan , Erik Goormaghtigh , Jesús Pérez-Gil , Begoña Garcia-Alvarez Surfactant protein C (SP-C) has been regarded as the most specific protein linked to development of mammalian lungs, and great efforts have been done to understand its structure?function relationships. Previous evidence has outlined the importance of SP-C palmitoylation to sustain the proper dynamics of lung surfactant, but the mechanism by which this posttranslational modification aids SP-C to stabilize the interfacial surfactant film along the compression?expansion breathing cycles, is still unrevealed. In this work we have compared the structure, orientation and lipid?protei...
Highlights from this issue
Many of our readers will remember a period when the HIV care community collectively woke up to patients' ongoing need for STI testing and diagnosis. A number of published studies and audits showed that STI testing in this population was limited and sporadic, resulting in efforts to establish regular routines of testing. Since then, the need has become arguably greater, particularly for men who have sex with men (MSM): syphilis has regained its place as a commonly diagnosed condition, and lymphogranuloma venereum has become endemic in this populations, in a number of urban settings. But just how high does testing need to be, and how do we target testing? Hawkes et al1 present an interesting study from Toronto, demonstrating that a near-doubling of STI testing was associated with a decline i...
Sexual medicine and BASHH
What's in a name? That which we call a rose By any other name would smell as sweet; The BASHH sexual dysfunction special interest group concerns itself with the management of men and women who suffer psychosexual problems and organic sexual functioning problems, but usually a mixture of both. Our colleagues who do the same work can be found in many other specialist areas, such as Sexual and Reproductive Medicine, Gynaecology, general practice, Psychiatry and even Cardiology. There is also a deal of overlap with RELATE and the College of Sex and Relationship Therapy (COSRT) therapists. Our preference is for the speciality to be called Sexual Medicine. It is entirely appropriate and logical that patients with sexual dysfunction problems present and are referred to sexual health clinics. NATS...
Defining genital tract cytokine signatures of sexually transmitted infections and bacterial vaginosis in women at high risk of HIV infection: a cross-sectional study
Conclusions Chlamydia was associated with the highest genital cytokine levels, followed by gonorrhoea, HSV-2, trichomoniasis, and BV. In regions where HIV is prevalent and STIs are managed syndromically, better STI/BV screening is urgently needed, as certain infections were found to be highly inflammatory. (Source: Sexually Transmitted Infections)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
The acceptability of different HIV testing approaches: cross-sectional study among GMSM in Australia
Conclusions Australian GMSM prefer alternative testing approaches, possibly due to their convenience. The availability of new testing approaches may provide more options for GMSM at risk for HIV infection, improve access to HIV testing and potentially increase HIV testing rates. (Source: Sexually Transmitted Infections)
Modest rise in chlamydia and gonorrhoea testing did not increase case detection in a clinical HIV cohort in Ontario, Canada
Conclusions Chlamydia and gonorrhoea testing increased over time while test positivity rates declined and the overall proportion diagnosed remained stable, suggesting that the modest increase in testing did not improve case detection. (Source: Sexually Transmitted Infections)
High burden of STIs among HIV-infected adults prior to initiation of ART in South Africa: a retrospective cohort study
Conclusions The period prior to the initiation of ART is a critical period where increased attention should be focused on the detection and treatment of STIs. A successful effort to treat STIs in this period will likely reduce further HIV transmission and fits within a test-and-treat approach. (Source: Sexually Transmitted Infections)
Prevalence of HIV, HSV-2 and pregnancy among high school students in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: a bio-behavioural cross-sectional survey
Conclusions The high prevalence of HIV, HSV-2 and pregnancy underscore the need for school-based sexual and reproductive health services, and provide further impetus for the inclusion of adolescents in behavioural and biomedical trials with HIV incidence endpoints. (Source: Sexually Transmitted Infections)
Maintenance of virologic efficacy and decrease in levels of ?2-microglobulin, soluble CD40L and soluble CD14 after switching previously treated HIV-infected patients to an NRTI-sparing dual therapy
Publication date: November 2014 Source:Antiviral Research, Volume 111 Author(s): M. Concepción Romero-Sánchez , Ana I. Álvarez-Ríos , Enrique Bernal-Morell , Miguel Genebat , Francisco Vera , Mohammed Rafii-El-Idrissi Benhnia , Joaquín Bravo-Urbieta , Carlos Galera-Peñaranda , Rebeca S. de Pablo-Bernal , María Antonia Abad-Carrillo , Manuel Leal , Ezequiel Ruiz-Mateos Novel strategies are necessary to decrease inflammatory parameters in successfully treated HIV-infected patients. Our aim was to evaluate the maintenance of viral suppression and potential changes in inflammatory, immune-activation and coagulation biomarkers in virologically suppressed HIV-infected patients switched to a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-sparing (NRTI) and maraviroc (MVC)-containing combined...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Implementing an HIV Rapid Testing-Linkage-to-Care Project Among Homeless Individuals in Los Angeles County: A Collaborative Effort Between Federal, County, and City Government.
Conclusions. This initiative can be used as a template for other health departments and research teams focusing on homelessness and mitigation of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print November 13, 2014: e1-e6. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2014.302213). PMID: 25393202 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Public Health)
HIV/AIDS in Puerto Rican People Who Inject Drugs: Policy Considerations.
Authors: López LM, de Saxe Zerden L, Bourgois P, Hansen H, Abadie R, Dombrowski K, Curtis R Abstract We commend the important work of Deren et al.(1) that underscores the high rates of HIV among Puerto Rican people who inject drugs (PRPWID) and highlights the health, social, and service disparities between Puerto Rico and the Northeast US region. As articulated in their article, HIV/AIDS risk and substance use are not individual problems with individual consequences-the epidemic impacts community and culture, across borders and boundaries. In addition to service disparities, various socioeconomic contextual factors are associated with and may exacerbate the spread of HIV/AIDS in PRPWID, including limited educational and employment opportunities, poverty, and political disenfranchi...
Community Mobilization to Reduce Drug Use, Quang Ninh, Vietnam.
Conclusions. Our results suggested that the community mobilization had a positive influence in the intervention commune. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print November 13, 2014: e1-e7. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2014.302101). PMID: 25393171 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Public Health)
Rumors and Realities: Making Sense of HIV/AIDS Conspiracy Narratives and Contemporary Legends.
Authors: Heller J Abstract The social context of the early HIV/AIDS epidemic in the United States provided fertile ground for rumors about transmission. Today, however, rumors about HIV/AIDS persist only within the African American public. Focus group and public discourse data reveal the content and distribution of HIV/AIDS origin and conspiracy rumors. Rumor and contemporary legend theory allows reinterpretation of rumors as a measure of trust between the African American public and health professionals, not as evidence of ignorance or of historical racial oppression. To improve public health results in the African American community, HIV/AIDS efforts must acknowledge the sources and meanings of rumors, include rumors as a measure of trust, and address the underlying distrust that...
There Are Serious Ethical Concerns On Both Sides Of The Ebola Drug Trial Debate
WASHINGTON (AP) ? Health officials are scrambling to begin human testing of a handful of experimental drugs for Ebola. But the effort has sparked an ethical debate over how to study unproven medicines amid an outbreak that has killed nearly 5,000. U.S. officials say the studies must include one critical feature of traditional medical testing: a control group of patients who do not receive the drugs. But many European and African authorities argue that withholding drugs from study participants is unethical, given that the current outbreak kills between 50 and 80 percent percent of those infected in West Africa, according to Doctors Without Borders. They favor alternative studies in which every patient receives drug therapy. The split in testing philosophies means different researchers m...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Semen amps up HIV's power, but S.F. researchers ID potential fighters too
Semen boosts the infectiousness of the AIDS virus and renders ineffective many promising gels aimed at blocking HIV, according to UCSF/Gladstone Institutes researchers. However, they believe new drugs could undercut semen's HIV-enhancing effect and provide a new way to obstruct the virus. In a paper published Wednesday in the journal Science Translational Medicine, researchers said semen eliminates the protection of most microbicides, or gels applied to the vagina or rectum before or after sex.? (Source: Health Care:Pharmaceuticals headlines)
X1 Talks: Voice Guided TV Remote Control for Blind and Visually Impaired
?Talking Guide? Reads Aloud Channel Names, Show Titles and DVR Commands; Allows For Independent Search and Discovery For People With Disabilities. (Source: Disabled World)
Non-AIDS-defining cancers.
This article summarizes a presentation by Ronald T. Mitsuyasu, MD, at the IAS-USA continuing education program held in San Francisco, California, in March 2013. PMID: 25101532 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Topics in antiviral medicine)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Metabolic complications of HIV infection and its therapies.
This article summarizes a presentation by Edgar Turner Overton, MD, at the IAS-USA continuing education program held in New York, New York, in October 2013. PMID: 25101530 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Topics in antiviral medicine)
CROI 2014: viral hepatitis and complications of HIV disease and antiretroviral therapy.
Authors: Luetkemeyer AF, Havlir DV, Currier JS Abstract The remarkable advances in interferon-sparing, all-oral hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment were a highlight of the 2014 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI). The backbone of the nucleotide inhibitor sofosbuvir and the nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A) inhibitor ledipasvir with an additional third agent (HCV protease inhibitor or HCV nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor) led to a sustained virologic response (SVR) rate 12 weeks after cessation of treatment of 95% to 100% after only 6 weeks of treatment. These results demonstrate the potential of combination directacting antiviral (DAA) therapy for abbreviated, well-tolerated, and highly effective HCV treatment. Two triple-drug regimens that compr...
Implications of the Affordable Care Act for people with HIV infection and the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program: what does the future hold?
This article summarizes a presentation by Jennifer Kates, PhD, at the IAS-USA continuing education program held in New York, New York, in April 2013. PMID: 24225080 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Topics in antiviral medicine)
Treatment as prevention: toward an AIDS-free generation.
This article summarizes a presentation by Julio S. G. Montaner, MD, at the IAS-USA continuing education program held in San Francisco, California, in March 2013. PMID: 23981598 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Topics in antiviral medicine)
CROI 2013: Complications of HIV disease, viral hepatitis, and antiretroviral therapy.
Authors: Luetkemeyer AF, Havlir DV, Currier JS Abstract Studies with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) for hepatitis C virus (HCV) monoinfection and HIV coinfection were highlighted at the 2013 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI). In HCV monoinfected patients, several interferon alfa-sparing, all-oral regimens demonstrated cure rates of greater than 90% with 12 weeks of treatment, including for hard-to-treat patients. Cure rates of 75% were attained in HIV/HCV coinfected patients with the addition of the investigational HCV protease inhibitor (PI) simeprevir to peginterferon alfa and ribavirin. Drug-drug interaction data to inform safe coadminstration of antiretroviral therapy with DAA-based HCV treatment were presented. There was continued emphasis on path...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
The role of palliative care in the current HIV treatment era in developed countries.
Authors: Merlins JS, Tucker RO, Saag MS, Selwyn PA Abstract The goal of palliative care is to minimize and prevent suffering and maximize physical function and quality of life in patients with serious illness. In the early years of the AIDS epidemic in developed countries, prognosis was poor and palliative care was often inseparable from HIV care. Despite the advent of effective antiretroviral therapy and its availability in developed countries, patients with HIV disease still present many palliative care challenges and opportunities. The cases of 3 HIV-infected patients who embody these challenges will be presented in this article: an older patient with numerous medical comorbidities, chronic pain, and severely impaired physical function; a patient with psychiatric illness and sub...
Travel medicine and vaccines for HIV-infected travelers.
This article summarizes a presentation by D. Scott Smith, MD, at the IAS-USA continuing medical education program held in San Francisco in April 2012. PMID: 22954612 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Topics in antiviral medicine)
Aging, inflammation, and HIV infection.
This article summarizes a presentation by Judith A. Aberg, MD, at the IAS-USA live continuing medical education course held in New York City in October 2011. PMID: 22954610 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Topics in antiviral medicine)
Complications of HIV disease and antiretroviral therapy.
Authors: Luetkemeyer AF, Havlir DV, Currier JS Abstract Studies on the efficacy of and drug interactions with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) in HCV/ HIV coinfection were a highlight of the 2012 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections. The addition of an HCV protease inhibitor (PI) to pegylated interferon alfa/ribavirin increased HCV cure rates by 30% to 35% in HCV genotype 1 treatment-naive HIV-coinfected patients, an increase similar to that observed in HIV-uninfected HCV-infected patients. Drug interactions with antiretrovirals can be complex, and DAAs are recommended for use only with antiretroviral drugs for which pharmacokinetic data are available. Further drug interaction and clinical data are needed to ensure the safe coadminstrat...
Review of basic science advances in HIV.
Authors: Stevenson M Abstract The Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) is held annually to provide a forum for scientists to hear the most recent advances in the field of HIV and AIDS research. Although the conference has a primary mission to showcase advances in the prevention and management of HIV-1 infection and opportunistic infections (in particular, tuberculosis and hepatitis C virus [HCV]), there continues to be a strong basic research component. Research on cellular factors that influence the interplay between the virus and the host cell, and especially, cellular factors that antagonize viral replication, had the greatest presence at the conference. In the area of retroviral pathogenesis, research on viral reservoirs and mechanisms of viral persist...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Evaluating cognitive impairment in the clinical setting: practical screening and assessment tools.
This article summarizes a case-based presentation by Victor G. Valcour, MD, at the 14th Annual Clinical Conference for the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program held in Tampa, Florida, in June 2011. The Clinical Conference is sponsored by the IAS-USA under the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) contract number HHSH250200900010C. PMID: 22298886 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Topics in antiviral medicine)
Predicting and preventing cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected patients.
This article summarizes a presentation by Wendy S. Post, MD, at the 14th Annual Clinical Conference for the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program held in Tampa, Florida, in June 2011. Dr Kerunne Ketlogetswe provided additional editing. The Clinical Conference is sponsored by the IAS-USA under the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) contract number HHSH250200900010C. PMID: 22298885 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Topics in antiviral medicine)
Addressing alcohol use in HIV-infected persons.
This article summarizes a presentation by Geetanjali Chander, MD, MPH, at the 14th Annual Clinical Conference for the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program held in Tampa, Florida, in June 2011. The Clinical Conference is sponsored by the IAS-USA under the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) contract number HHSH250200900010C. PMID: 22156216 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Topics in antiviral medicine)
Complications of HIV disease and antiretroviral therapy.
Authors: Luetkemeyer AF, Havlir DV, Currier JS Abstract Studies on new direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) for hepatitis C virus infection were a focus of the 2011 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections. Although the majority of the data were from HIV-uninfected patients, much-needed work has begun to characterize DAA and antiretroviral drug interactions and to evaluate performance of DAAs for HIV/HCV-coinfected patients. There was continued emphasis on pathogenesis, management, and prevention of the long-term complications of HIV disease and its therapies, including cardiovascular disease, lipodystrophy, renal disease, and alterations in bone metabolism. Malignancies, particularly non-AIDS-defining cancers, have emerged as a leading complication and cause of death in ...
HIV epidemiology and breakthroughs in prevention 30 years into the AIDS epidemic.
Authors: Buchbinder SP Abstract Thirty years after the first AIDS cases were reported in the United States, the HIV epidemic continues to be heavily concentrated among men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States. MSM are heavily impacted throughout most of the world and are the predominant risk group throughout the Americas and Western Europe; heterosexuals are the predominant risk group in sub-Saharan Africa; and injection drug users predominate throughout Eastern Europe and Southeast Asia. In the United States, blacks and Latinos continue to be disproportionately affected, despite overall advances in HIV testing and care. The 2011 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections focused on populations heavily impacted throughout the world: adolescents, women, MSM,...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Factors influencing virus-host cell interplay.
Authors: Stevenson M Abstract The Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) provides an annual international forum for basic scientists and clinical and global health researchers to present and become current on the most recent advances in the field of HIV and AIDS research. The 18th conference contained a number of strong basic science sessions. HIV-1 infection of the cell is opposed by cellular factors that attack the viral replication cycle at various points. However, the virus has evolved defenses against these innate cellular antiviral proteins. CROI continues to be a strong forum for presentation of the most recent developments in this area of research. In addition, there were numerous presentations on cellular factors that regulate virus-host cell interp...
Prevention of perinatal HIV transmission: the Perinatal HIV Hotline perspective.
This articlesummarizes a presentation by Jess Fogler Waldura, MD, at the 13th Annual Clinical Conference for the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program held in August 2010 in Washington, DC. PMID: 21852713 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Topics in antiviral medicine)
Retention in HIV care: what the clinician needs to know.
This article summarizes a lecture by Thomas P. Giordano, MD, MPH, at the 13th Annual Clinical Conference for the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program held in Washington, DC, in August 2010. PMID: 21852711 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Topics in antiviral medicine)
Conceptual Framework and Research Methods for Migration and HIV Transmission Dynamics
Abstract Migration and mobility have had a profound influence on the global HIV epidemic. We propose a network-dyadic conceptual model to interpret previous literature and inform the development of future research with respect to study design, measurement methods, and analytic approach. In this model, HIV transmission is driven by risk behaviors of migrants that emerges and is enabled by mobility, the bridging of sub-epidemics across space and time, and the displacement effects on the primary residential sending community for migrants. To investigate these causal pathways, empirical study designs must measure the relative timing of migratory events, sexual risk behaviors, and incident HIV infections. Network-based mathematical models using empirical data on partnerships help gain...
Evaluating Outcome-Correlated Recruitment and Geographic Recruitment Bias in a Respondent-Driven Sample of People Who Inject Drugs in Tijuana, Mexico
Abstract Respondent-driven sampling?s (RDS) widespread use and reliance on untested assumptions suggests a need for new exploratory/diagnostic tests. We assessed geographic recruitment bias and outcome-correlated recruitment among 1,048 RDS-recruited people who inject drugs (Tijuana, Mexico). Surveys gathered demographics, drug/sex behaviors, activity locations, and recruiter-recruit pairs. Simulations assessed geographic and network clustering of active syphilis (RPR titers ?1:8). Gender-specific predicted probabilities were estimated using logistic regression with GEE and robust standard errors. Active syphilis prevalence was 7 % (crude: men = 5.7 % and women = 16.6 %; RDS-adjusted: men = 6.7 % and women = 7.6 %). Syphilis clustered in the Zona Norte, a neighbo...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Systematic Assessment of Condom Use Measurement in Evaluation of HIV Prevention Interventions: Need for Standardization of Measures
Abstract When evaluating HIV prevention interventions, condom use is a common outcome measure used to assess changes in HIV-related behaviors; however, no widely accepted standards exist for its measurement. Using systematic review data on HIV prevention interventions conducted in low- and middle-income countries, we examined trends in condom use measurement since 1990. We abstracted data from standardized forms on six dimensions of condom use: partner type, temporal period, measurement scale, consistency, controlling for abstinence, and type of sex. Of 215 studies reviewed, 109 studies (51 %) measured condom use as a primary outcome. Outcomes were stratified by partner type in 47 studies (43 %). Assessing condom use at last sex was the most common measurement. Consistency of c...
Prevalence and Predictors of Concurrent Sexual Partnerships in a Predominantly African American Population in Jackson, Mississippi
Abstract Concurrent sexual partnerships, or sexual partnerships that overlap in time, have been associated with HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STI). How best to measure concurrency and the personal characteristics and predictors of concurrency are not yet well understood. We compared two frequently used concurrency definitions, including a self-reported measure based on participant response regarding overlapping sex with partners, and the UNAIDS measure based on overlapping dates of last sex and intention to have sex again. We performed multivariable logistic regression analyses to identify socio-demographic, behavioral, and structural predictors of concurrency among 1,542 patients at an urban STI clinic in Jackson, Mississippi. Nearly half (44 %) reported concurrency ...
ACT2 Peer-Driven Intervention Increases Enrollment into HIV/AIDS Medical Studies Among African Americans/Blacks and Hispanics: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial
Abstract African American/Black and Hispanic persons living with HIV/AIDS (?AABH-PLHA?) are under-represented in HIV/AIDS medical studies (HAMS). This paper evaluates the efficacy of a social/behavioral intervention to increase rates of screening for and enrollment into HAMS in these populations. Participants (N = 540) were enrolled into a cluster randomized controlled trial of an intervention designed to overcome multi-level barriers to HAMS. Primary endpoints were rates of screening for and enrollment into therapeutic/treatment-oriented and observational studies. Intervention arm participants were 30 times more likely to be screened than controls (49.3 % vs. 3.7 %; p &lt; .001). Half (55.5 %) of those screened were eligible for HAMS, primarily observational studies....
Unannounced Telephone-Based Pill Counts: A Valid and Feasible Method for Monitoring Adherence
This study demonstrates that a simplified phone-based pill count protocol can be implemented among patients from a routine clinical care setting and is a feasible means of monitoring medication adherence. (Source: AIDS and Behavior)
Spatial Recruitment Bias in Respondent-Driven Sampling: Implications for HIV Prevalence Estimation in Urban Heterosexuals
Abstract Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is a study design used to investigate populations for which a probabilistic sampling frame cannot be efficiently generated. Biases in parameter estimates may result from systematic non-random recruitment within social networks by geography. We investigate the spatial distribution of RDS recruits relative to an inferred social network among heterosexual adults in New York City in 2010. Mean distances between recruitment dyads are compared to those of network dyads to quantify bias. Spatial regression models are then used to assess the impact of spatial structure on risk and prevalence outcomes. In our primary distance metric, network dyads were an average of 1.34 (95 % CI 0.82?1.86) miles farther dispersed than recruitment dyads, sugges...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Perceived HIV Status is a Key Determinant of Unprotected Anal Intercourse Within Partnerships of Men Who Have Sex With Men in Amsterdam
We examined the associations between insertive or receptive UAI and perceived HIV seroconcordance and partnership type in self-perceived HIV-negative and self-perceived HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). MSM (age ? 18 years) were recruited for a cross-sectional survey at the sexually transmitted infections clinic in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, in 2008?2009. Participants completed a questionnaire concerning partnerships in the preceding 6 months. Associations were quantified via multinomial logistic regression models using generalized estimating equations. The outcomes were ?no, or safe anal intercourse?, ?insertive UAI?, and ?receptive UAI?. We included 5,456 partnerships from 1,890 self-perceived HIV-negative men and 1,861 partnerships from 558 self-perceive...
Anticipated and Actual Reactions to Receiving HIV Positive Results Through Self-Testing Among Gay and Bisexual Men
Abstract We explored anticipated and actual reactions to receiving HIV positive results through self-testing with a diverse group of 84 gay and bisexual men in New York City. Grounded Theory was used to investigate these reactions in a two-phase study, one hypothetical, followed by a practical phase in which self-tests were distributed and used. Three major themes emerged when participants were asked about their anticipated reactions to an HIV positive self-test result: managing emotional distress, obtaining HIV medical care, and postponing sexual activity. When participants were asked about their anticipated reactions to a partner?s HIV positive self-test result, five themes emerged: provide emotional support; refrain from engaging in sex with casual partner; avoid high-risk s...
Sexual Motivation, Sexual Transactions and Sexual Risk Behaviors in Men who have Sex with Men in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Abstract Understanding the associations between sexual motivation and sexual risk behaviors of men who have sex with men (MSM) is critical for developing effective HIV prevention interventions. To examine these associations, we employed data from a survey of 200 MSM in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, recruited through respondent driven sampling. Results showed that 44.5 % of surveyed participants most often looked for love/affection when having sex, and 36.5 % most often looked for money. Money-motivated MSM were more likely to identify themselves as bisexual, more likely to have anal sex, and had significantly higher numbers of partners of both sexes. Those who most often looked for love/affection were less likely to ask for condom use, to actually use a condom, and to use lubricatio...
Sampling Methodologies for Epidemiologic Surveillance of Men Who Have Sex with Men and Transgender Women in Latin America: An Empiric Comparison of Convenience Sampling, Time Space Sampling, and Respondent Driven Sampling
Abstract Alternatives to convenience sampling (CS) are needed for HIV/STI surveillance of most-at-risk populations in Latin America. We compared CS, time space sampling (TSS), and respondent driven sampling (RDS) for recruitment of men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW) in Lima, Peru. During concurrent 60-day periods from June?August, 2011, we recruited MSM/TW for epidemiologic surveillance using CS, TSS, and RDS. A total of 748 participants were recruited through CS, 233 through TSS, and 127 through RDS. The TSS sample included the largest proportion of TW (30.7 %) and the lowest percentage of subjects who had previously participated in HIV/STI research (14.9 %). The prevalence of newly diagnosed HIV infection, according to participants? self-reported p...
Development of the Scale of Perceived Social Support in HIV (PSS-HIV)
Abstract Social support (SS) plays a key role for HIV/AIDS prevention and disease management. Numerous general and disease-specific SS instruments have been developed and perception of support has been increasingly considered, though no scales have been specifically developed to measure perceived social support (PSS) in HIV/AIDS. To help fill this gap a 12-item scale was developed. The study comprised 406 (HIV(+) and HIV(?)) participants from Chile and the UK. A principal component factor analysis yielded three factors explaining 77.0 % of the total variance: Belonging, Esteem and Self-development with Cronbach ? of 0.759, 0.882 and 0.927 respectively and 0.893 on the full scale. The PSS-HIV is brief, easy-to-apply, available in English and Spanish and evaluates the perceptio...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
A New Approach to Measuring Partnership Concurrency and its Association with HIV Risk in Couples
Abstract Empirical estimates of the association between concurrent partnerships (CP) and HIV risk are affected by non-sampling errors in survey data on CPs, e.g., because respondents misreport the extent of their CPs. We propose a new approach to measuring CPs in couples, which permits assessing how respondent errors affect estimates of the association between CPs and HIV risk. Each couple member is asked (1) to report whether s/he has engaged in CPs and (2) to assess whether his/her partner has engaged in CPs, since their couple started. Cross-tabulating these data yields multiple classifications (with varying combinations of sensitivity/specificity) of the CPs of each couple member. We then measure the association between CPs and HIV outcomes according to each classification. T...
Parameters for Sample Size Estimation from a Group-Randomized HIV Prevention Trial in HIV Clinics in Sub-Saharan Africa
Abstract Sample size calculations for a group-randomized trial (GRT) require an estimate of the expected intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). However, few ICC estimates from GRTs in HIV/AIDS research have been published, leaving investigators with little data on which to base expectations. We used data from a multi-country study to estimate ICCs for variables related to physical and mental health and HIV risk behaviors. ICCs for perceptions of physical and mental health tended to be higher than those for HIV risk behavior variables, which were higher than ICCs for CD4 count. Covariate adjustment for country and socio-demographic variables reduced most ICC estimates. For risk behavior variables, adjustment for country and socio-demographic variables reduced ICC estimates by a...
Earlier Anal Sexarche and Co-occurring Sexual Risk are Associated with Current HIV-Related Risk Behaviors Among an Online Sample of Men Who Have Sex with Men in Asia
We examined the relationships between earlier anal sexarche, unprotected earlier anal sexarche and current HIV risks among MSM from Asia. A cross-sectional online survey was conducted among MSM (N = 10,826) in Asia in 2010. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regressions were used to identify co-occurring (i.e., sexual experiences during sexarche) and current HIV-related risk factors (i.e., past 6 months) associated with earlier anal sexarche (before the age of 18) and unprotected earlier anal sexarche, respectively. Earlier anal sexarche was significantly associated with lack of condom use, being anal receptive or both receptive and insertive, and having a partner who were older during sexarche. It was also associated with current HIV-related risk behaviors including having multiple m...
Are Hormonal Contraceptive Users More Likely to Misreport Unprotected Sex? Evidence From a Biomarker Validation Study in Zimbabwe
Abstract We analyzed biomarker validation data of unprotected sex from women in Zimbabwe to determine whether condom and sexual behavior misreporting differs between users of different contraceptive methods. Self-reported sexual behavior was compared with the presence of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in vaginal fluid, a biomarker of semen exposure. Of the 195 women who were PSA positive, 94 (48 %) reported no sex or only condom-protected sex. Hormonal contraceptive users misreported sexual behavior less than women using non-hormonal methods (45 vs. 67 %, P = 0.03). This misclassification pattern could have implications on the elevated risk of HIV infection associated with hormonal contraception in some studies. (Source: AIDS and Behavior)
Can the HIV Home Test Promote Access to Care? Lessons Learned from the In-home Pregnancy Test
Abstract Adolescents and young adults are the fastest growing age group of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive individuals in the US, and many who are infected do not know their HIV status. The HIV home test has the potential to help curb the HIV epidemic by improving detection of persons living with HIV and enabling them to seek follow-up care but it has not yet been evaluated in adolescents. Analogous to the home pregnancy test, which was met with much resistance and only successfully marketed during a time of social change, the HIV home test has been met with resistance since its FDA approval. This commentary summarizes the need to systematically evaluate positive and untoward/unanticipated effects of HIV home testing, particularly in young adults. The overall incidenc...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Partner Age Differences and Concurrency in South Africa: Implications for HIV-Infection Risk Among Young Women
Abstract Partner-age difference is an HIV-risk factor among young women in Africa, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We used nationally representative data among black South Africans (men: 3,530; women: 3,946) to examine the proportion of women in partnerships involving male partner concurrency by age of female partners and by age-disparate (?5 years) partnerships. Of all partners reported by men, 35 % of young (16?24) women were in partnerships involving male partner concurrency of 4 weeks or longer during the past 12 months. Young women in age-disparate partnerships were more likely to be in partnerships with men who had other concurrent partners (9 %; OR 1.88 p &lt; 0.01) and more likely to be connected to an older sexual network. Our results sugg...
Accuracy of Un-supervised Versus Provider-Supervised Self-administered HIV Testing in Uganda: A Randomized Implementation Trial
Abstract Unsupervised HIV self-testing (HST) has potential to increase knowledge of HIV status; however, its accuracy is unknown. To estimate the accuracy of unsupervised HST in field settings in Uganda, we performed a non-blinded, randomized controlled, non-inferiority trial of unsupervised compared with supervised HST among selected high HIV risk fisherfolk (22.1 % HIV Prevalence) in three fishing villages in Uganda between July and September 2013. The study enrolled 246 participants and randomized them in a 1:1 ratio to unsupervised HST or provider-supervised HST. In an intent-to-treat analysis, the HST sensitivity was 90 % in the unsupervised arm and 100 % among the provider-supervised, yielding a difference 0f ?10 % (90 % CI ?21, 1 %); non-inferiority was not shown...
November is National Native American Heritage Month
During November, the nation collectively recognizes the achievements, contributions and rich culture of the Native Americans. History Native American Heritage Month was first recognized in 1915 with the annual meeting of the Congress of the American Indian Association, building upon previous work of Dr. Arthur C. Parker. Despite this proclamation, various states began organizing days of commemoration at different times of the year. It wasn?t until 1990 that a joint resolution from the White House was issued, designating November as National American Indian Heritage Month. Learn more about the history of Native American Heritage Month from the Library of Congress. Health Concerns American Indians and Alaska Natives have a unique relationship with the federal government. Tribes exist as so...
Africa: Daily Pill Should Be Part of a Combined Approach to Preventing HIV
[Key Correspondents]A 'magical' pill, popularly known as Truvada, emerged in the HIV community a few years ago but is continuing to cause controversy. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Malawi: Global Fund Grants Unaffected By Malawi Internal Challenges
[GFO]The ouster and delayed replacement of the head of PR National AIDS Commission should not affect implementation, Fund says (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Nigeria: Eradicating HIV/Aids Possible By 2030 - -UNAIDS
[Daily Trust]The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) has said that the eradication of the HIV/AIDS epidemic could be achieved by 2030 if present interventions and best practises are adhered to. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Medical Eye-Tracker May Bring Alternative Computer Vision and Assistive Technology to Forefront of Technology
This spring EyeComTec (LAZgroup SA) published the original assistive technology complex for those suffering from some form of partial or full paralysis. The eye-tracking based solution helps people with significantly impaired mobility to communicate their needs with others and enjoy a much more fulfilling life. Two very specific, important parameters were to be adhered to: make it an independent software solution and offer it free of charge to everyone in need. (Source: Disabled World)
Is HIV the cure to cancer? Married father-of-one, 30, now leukemia-free after doctors injected him with the virus that causes AIDS in experimental trial
Marshall Jensen, 30, of Utah, was diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in 2012 and has spent the last two years traveling the countryin search of an effective treatment. (Source: the Mail online | Health)
South Africa: Op-Ed - TAC, and Its Incalculable Impact
[Daily Maverick]It is difficult to make a personal appeal for public support of the Treatment Action Campaign (TAC) without mixing the movement's vital past, present and future work with the profound impact it has had on my own life. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Prescription sleep aid use among adults: United States, 2005-2010.
Authors: Chong Y, Fryer CD, Gu Q Abstract KEY FINDINGS: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2010. About 4% of U.S. adults aged 20 and over used prescription sleep aids in the past month. The percentage of adults using a prescription sleep aid increased with age and education. More adult women (5.0%) used prescription sleep aids than adult men (3.1%). Non-Hispanic white adults were more likely to use sleep aids (4.7%) than non-Hispanic black (2.5%) and Mexican-American (2.0%) adults. Prescription sleep aid use varied by sleep duration and was highest among adults who sleep less than 5 hours (6.0%) or sleep 9 or more hours (5.3%). One in six adults with a diagnosed sleep disorder and one in eight adults with trouble sleeping reported using sleep aids....<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Recombinant human erythropoietin to target cognitive dysfunction in bipolar disorder: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled phase 2 trial.
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first trial investigating erythropoietin to treat cognitive dysfunction in bipolar disorder. The findings highlight erythropoietin as a candidate treatment for deficits in attention and executive function in bipolar disorder. TRIAL REGISTRATION: identifier: NCT00916552. PMID: 25099079 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry)
Nigeria: Nigeria Reduces Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission By 52 Percent
[Leadership]Nigeria has recorded 52 per cent reduction in mother-to-child HIV infection, the Director-General of National Agency for Control of AIDS (NACA), Prof. John Idoko has said. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
New book from Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press: Tuberculosis
(Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory) Written and edited by experts in the field, 'Tuberculosis' from Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press examines all aspects of M. tuberculosis biology, transmission, and infection, as well as ongoing strategies to treat and control it. Contributors explore the biological characteristics of M. tuberculosis, its complex interactions with the human immune system, and factors that influence the progression from latent to active TB disease: e.g., coinfection with HIV/AIDS. The clinical manifestations of TB, both pulmonary and extrapulmonary, are fully described and illustrated. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Sierra Leone: UNAIDS Deputy Executive Director Pays Courtesy Call On President Koroma
[Sierra Leone Government]President Ernest Bai Koroma on Tuesday 11th November received the Executive Director of the United Nations joint programme on HIV/AIDS Dr Luiz Loures at State House Freetown. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Atrophin proteins: an overview of a new class of nuclear receptor corepressors.
Authors: Wang L, Tsai CC Abstract The normal development and physiological functions of multicellular organisms are regulated by complex gene transcriptional networks that include myriad transcription factors, their associating coregulators, and multiple chromatin-modifying factors. Aberrant gene transcriptional regulation resulting from mutations among these elements often leads to developmental defects and diseases. This review article concentrates on the Atrophin family proteins, including vertebrate Atrophin-1 (ATN1), vertebrate arginine-glutamic acid dipeptide repeats protein (RERE), and Drosophila Atrophin (Atro), which we recently identified as nuclear receptor corepressors. Disruption of Atrophin-mediated pathways causes multiple developmental defects in mouse, zebrafish, a...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Descriptive epidemiology of Kaposi sarcoma in Europe. Report from the RARECARE project
Publication date: Available online 22 October 2014 Source:Cancer Epidemiology Author(s): C.A. Stiller , A. Trama , D.H. Brewster , J. Verne , C. Bouchardy , C. Navarro , M.D. Chirlaque , R. Marcos-Gragera , O. Visser , D. Serraino , E. Weiderpass , A.P. Dei Tos , V. Ascoli Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is a virus-related malignancy which most frequently arises in skin, though visceral sites can also be involved. Infection with Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus (KSHV or HHV-8) is required for development of KS. Nowadays, most cases worldwide occur in persons who are immunosuppressed, usually because of HIV infection or as a result of therapy to combat rejection of a transplanted organ, but classic Kaposi sarcoma is predominantly a disease of the elderly without apparent immunosuppression. We analyzed 266...
CryptoDex: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III trial of adjunctive dexamethasone in HIV-infected adults with cryptococcal meningitis: study protocol for a randomised control trial
Background: Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is a severe AIDS-defining illness with 90-day case mortality as high as 70% in sub-Saharan Africa, despite treatment. It is the leading cause of death in HIV patients in Asia and Africa.No major advance has been made in the treatment of CM since the 1970s. The mainstays of induction therapy are amphotericin B and flucytosine, but these are often poorly available where the disease burden is highest. Adjunctive treatments, such as dexamethasone, have had dramatic effects on mortality in other neurologic infections, but are untested in CM. Given the high death rates in patients receiving current optimal treatment, and the lack of new agents on the horizon, adjuvant treatments, which offer the potential to reduce mortality in CM, should be tested.The pr...
Data analysis: Approximation aids handling of big data
Nature 515, 7526 (2014). doi:10.1038/515198d Author: Thomas Heinis We need a radical shift in our approach to data analysis &#8212; towards approximation. Our technical capacity is being overtaken by the unprecedented rate of data generation by today's powerful instruments and computers (see H.Esmaeilzadehet al. Commun. ACM56, 93&#8211; (Source: Nature)
Sex differences in atazanavir pharmacokinetics and associations with time to clinical events: AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study A5202
Conclusions Atazanavir clearance differed by sex. Females with fast clearance and males with slow clearance had increased risk of virological failure. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Inaccuracy of haemoglobin A1c among HIV-infected men: effects of CD4 cell count, antiretroviral therapies and haematological parameters
Conclusion HbA1c underestimates glycaemia in HIV-infected patients and its use in patients with risk factors for HbA1c discordance may lead to under-diagnosis and to under-treatment of established diabetes mellitus. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Nfu facilitates the maturation of iron?sulfur proteins and participates in virulence in Staphylococcus aureus
In this study we investigated the mechanisms utilized by S. aureus to metabolize Fe?S clusters. We identified that S. aureus utilizes the Suf biosynthetic system to synthesize Fe?S clusters and we provide genetic evidence suggesting that the sufU and sufB gene products are essential. Additional biochemical and genetic analyses identified Nfu as a Fe?S cluster carrier, which aids in the maturation of Fe?S proteins. We find that deletion of the nfu gene negatively impacts staphylococcal physiology and pathogenicity. A nfu mutant accumulates both increased intracellular non?incorporated Fe and endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) resulting in DNA damage. In addition, a strain lacking Nfu is sensitive to exogenously supplied ROS and reactive nitrogen species. Congruous with ex vi...
GCMS analysis of Cannabis sativa L. from four different areas of Pakistan
Publication date: Available online 11 November 2014 Source:Egyptian Journal of Forensic Sciences Author(s): Muhammad Tayyab , Durre Shahwar Cannabis is most frequently used drug of abuse not only in Pakistan but also in the whole world. Its use is mounting drastically every year. GCMS allows analysis of Cannabis sativa which shows divergence of the constituents of this plant. Prevalence of this plant can be identified through knowledge of its constituents. In this way we can obstruct the production if we know the region in which it is produced. GCMS is a useful technique for the comparison of constituents of this drug of abuse which will assist the investigator concerning the origin of plant. Comparison also aids in the understanding and acquaintance of similarities of different samples ...
Psychometric Properties of the Dependence Scale in Large Randomized Clinical Trials of Patients With Mild and Moderate Alzheimer's Disease
Conclusion: The DS is a psychometrically robust measure in mild to moderate AD. The empirically derived responder definition aids in the interpretation of DS change. (Source: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias)
No association between Apo?4 alleles, HIV infection, age, neuropsychological outcome, or death
Abstract The ?4 allele of the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) gene may have important interactions with physical health and cognitive function among individuals with HIV disease. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between ?4, HIV disease, age, neuropsychological impairment, and death in a large, well-characterized study sample. A total of 2846 men participating in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study had ApoE genotyping and neuropsychological test data available for analysis. We found a significant association between HIV infection and time to death (from any cause), as well as older age, race, and education. But, ApoE status was not significantly associated with time to death. Similarly, we found a significant association between HIV infection and time to incident c...
How A New Funding Model Will Shift Allocations From The Global Fund To Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, And Malaria [Web First]
We examined the Global Fund&rsquo;s historical HIV allocations and its predicted allocations under a new funding model that creates an explicit allocation methodology. We found that under the new funding model, substantial shifts in the Global Fund&rsquo;s portfolio are likely to result from concentrating resources in countries with more HIV cases and lower per capita incomes. For example, South Africa, which had 15.8&nbsp;percent of global HIV cases in 2009, could see its Global Fund HIV funding more than triple, from historic levels that averaged 3.0&nbsp;percent to 9.7&nbsp;percent of total Global Fund allocations. The new funding model methodology is expected, but not guaranteed, to improve the efficiency of Global Fund allocations in comparison to historical practice. We conclude with...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Perilipin 5 regulates islet lipid metabolism and insulin secretion in a cyclic AMP dependent manner: Implication of its role in the postprandial insulin secretion.
Authors: Trevino MB, Machida Y, Hallinger DR, Garcia E, Christensen A, Dutta S, Peake DA, Ikeda Y, Imai Y Abstract Elevation of circulating fatty acids (FA) during fasting supports postprandial (PP) insulin secretion that is critical for glucose homeostasis and impaired in diabetes. We tested our hypothesis that lipid droplet (LD) protein perilipin 5 (PLIN5) in beta cells aids PP insulin secretion by regulating intracellular lipid metabolism. We demonstrated that PLIN5 serves as a LD protein in human islets. In vivo, Plin5 and triglycerides were increased by fasting in mouse islets. MIN6 expressing PLIN5 (Ad-PLIN5) and those expressing perilipin 2 (PLIN2) (Ad-PLIN2) had higher [(3)H]FA incorporation into triglycerides than Ad-GFP control, which support their roles as LD proteins. H...
Fungi contamination of drinking water.
Authors: Al-Gabr HM, Zheng T, Yu X Abstract Aquatic fungi commonly infest various aqueous environments and play potentially crucial roles in nutrient and carbon cycling. Aquatic fungi also interact with other organisms to influence food web dynamics. In recent decades, numerous studies have been conducted to address the problem of microorganism contamination of water. The major concern has been potential effects on human health from exposure to certain bacteria, viruses, and protozoa that inhabit water and the microbial metabolites,pigments, and odors which are produced in the water, and their effects on human health and animals. Fungi are potentially important contaminants because they produce certain toxic metabolites that can cause severe health hazards to humans and animals. De...
Kyrgyzstan: Health system review.
Authors: Ibraimova A, Akkazieva B, Ibraimov A, Manzhieva E, Rechel B Abstract Kyrgyzstan has undertaken wide-ranging reforms of its health system in a challenging socioeconomic and political context. The country has developed two major health reform programmes after becoming independent: Manas (1996 to 2006) and Manas Taalimi (2006 to 2010). These reforms introduced comprehensive structural changes to the health care delivery system with the aim of strengthening primary health care, developing family medicine and restructuring the hospital sector.Major service delivery improvements have included the introduction of new clinical practice guidelines, improvements in the provision and use of pharmaceuticals, quality improvements in the priority programmes for mother and child health, ...
Ebola's True Toll Is Still Untallied As Another Deadly Fever Looms
Dr. Ross Donaldson recalls traveling around the Sierra Leone city of Kenema a decade ago, "telling people not to eat rats." The multimammate rat, which is ubiquitous in sub-Saharan Africa, can carry a deadly hemorrhagic illness akin to Ebola, known as Lassa fever. Yet for many residents of the impoverished region, the animal remains a staple food. "From a foreign perspective, it seems like a no-brainer," said Donaldson, who spent the summer of 2003 at Kenema Government Hospital's Lassa ward as a medical student studying the virus and treating its victims. He now directs the Emergency Medicine Global Health Program at the Harbor-UCLA Medical Center in Los Angeles County. "But when I was there, I could see a lot of things factoring in: the poverty, the lack of protein in the diet." The sc...
Altered milk protein can deliver aids drug to infants
A novel method of altering a protein in milk to bind with an antiretroviral drug promises to greatly improve treatment for infants and young children suffering from HIV/AIDS, according to a researcher. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Treatment as Prevention?Where Next?
Abstract Uptake of antiretroviral regimens with associated durable virologic suppression has been shown to reduce the risk of HIV transmission. Expanding antiretroviral therapy (ART) programs at a population level may serve as a vital strategy in the elimination of the AIDS epidemic. The global expansion of ART programs has greatly improved access to life-saving therapies and is likely to achieve the target of 15 million individuals on therapy set by UNAIDS. In addition to the incontrovertible gains in terms of life expectancy, growing evidence demonstrates that durable virologic suppression is associated with significant reductions in HIV transmission amongst heterosexual couples and men who have sex with men. Expansion of successful ART programs, best monitored by a program-leve...
Intestinal barrier dysfunction in HIV infection: pathophysiology, clinical implications and potential therapies
Conclusions We have reached a point where the effective control of HIV viremia by HAART should be combined with emerging pharmacological approaches aiming at the restoration of the intestinal barrier, targeting its diverse levels of structure and function. Elimination of the MT phenomenon would mitigate its effect on immune homeostasis, which might improve the prognosis of the HIV-infected patient in terms of morbidity and mortality. (Source: Infection)
Nigeria: Taraba Spends N61 Million on HIV/Aids
[Daily Trust]Jalingo -The Taraba State Aids Control Agency (TACA) said yesterday that it has so far disbursed N61 million to 17 civil society organisations in the state to fight the spread of HIV/AIDS. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: World to Eliminate HIV in 2030
[Independent (Lagos)]Abuja -If is the successes so far recorded in the fight against HIV are sustained, by 2030 the disease would be totally eradicated from the face of the earth. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Update on the treatment of HIV-associated hematologic malignancies.
Authors: Little RF, Dunleavy K Abstract HIV is associated with an excess cancer risk, particularly of lymphoid malignancies. Modern therapeutics has changed the landscape of HIV disease and typical opportunistic complications of AIDS are now largely avoided. Although the risk of lymphoma has decreased, it still remains high. Nevertheless, treatment outcomes have improved due both to improvements in HIV medicine and in cancer therapeutics for the common lymphomas occurring in those with HIV infection. Other hematologic malignancies are rarely seen in HIV-infected patients, but the standardized risk ratio for many of these cancers is higher than in the background population. Principles of cancer care and appreciation for HIV infection as a comorbid condition can guide physicians in s...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
North Africa: Need for Further Efforts in Fight Against Aids in Mena Region
[Algerie Presse Service]Algiers -Minister of Health, Population and Hospital Reform Abdelmalek Boudiaf has recommended Monday in Algiers "the coordination of efforts in the promotion of scientific research in the fight against AIDS in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA)." (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
South Africa: Op-Ed - TAC - We Cannot Ignore Our Moral Responsibility
[Daily Maverick]The Treatment Action Campaign (TAC) puts a human face on the continuing HIV epidemic, and, perhaps more importantly, puts a human face on the constitutionally entrenched right to health more broadly. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
South Africa: HIV Stigma Turns Deadly for New Mum
[Health-e]More than three decades into South Africa's HIV epidemic, treatment is widely available and HIV is not longer a death sentence - but stigma might be. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Zimbabwe: Heroes of Our Time - HIV+ Paida Mutopo
[New Zimbabwe]Paida Mutopo is an 18-year-old teenager based in Manchester who discovered she was HIV positive when just 10 years old. Paida has been involved in the fight against HIV/AIDS stigma in the UK and wants to add her voice to the awareness campaign in Zimbabwe. She tells her own story below, hoping it can help save some lives ... (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: Jonathan to Launch National Action Plan to End Mother to Child Transmission of HIV
[This Day]Abuja -As a strategic move to ensure that Nigeria does not slip down the ladder in the fight against HIV/AIDS, President Goodluck Jonathan is expected to launch a National Action Plan to end Mother to Child Transmission (MTCT) of HIV in the country. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Altered milk protein can deliver AIDS drug to infants
(Penn State) A novel method of altering a protein in milk to bind with an antiretroviral drug promises to greatly improve treatment for infants and young children suffering from HIV/AIDS, according to a researcher in Penn State's College of Agricultural Sciences. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Nigeria: 'Factoring Gender Based Violence Key in Reducing HIV/Aids in Nigeria'
[Independent (Lagos)]Integrating the reduction of gender based violence in the national response against HIV/AIDS is important for the prevention and mitigation in the country, National Programme Officer of the United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women (UN Women in Nigeria), Adekemi Ndieli, has said. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
New technology and illness self-management: Potential relevance for resource-poor populations in Asia
Publication date: Available online 5 November 2014 Source:Social Science &amp; Medicine Author(s): Henry Lucas Advances in technology have made it possible for many standard diagnostic and health monitoring procedures, traditionally carried out by qualified personnel within medical facilities, to be reliably undertaken by patients or carers in their own homes with a minimum of basic training. There has also been a dramatic increase in the number and diversity of both sources of information on health issues and the possibilities for sharing information and experiences over ICT-based social networks. It has been suggested that these developments have the potential to ?empower? patients, reducing their dependence on providers and possibly improving their quality of care by increasin...
Right to health, essential medicines, and lawsuits for access to medicines ? A scoping study
Publication date: November 2014 Source:Social Science &amp; Medicine, Volume 121 Author(s): Claudia Marcela Vargas-Peláez , Marina Raijche Mattozo Rover , Silvana Nair Leite , Francisco Rossi Buenaventura , Mareni Rocha Farias Despite countries' efforts to ensure access to essential medicines, some people do not have their needs met, and often resort to the Judiciary to get access to the medicines they need. This phenomenon, known as ?judicialization of access to medicines?, has aroused the academia's interest in law, health and social fields. In this context, this scoping study investigates, through qualitative thematic analysis, the approach to judicialization of access to medicines (normative or social) and its possible impacts (positive or negative) described in articles pub...
Trigger-helix folding pathway and SI3 mediate catalysis and hairpin-stabilized pausing by Escherichia coli RNA polymerase
We report that inhibiting TH unfolding with a disulfide crosslink slowed multiround nucleotide addition only modestly but eliminated hairpin-stabilized pausing. Conversely, a substitution that disrupts the TH folding pathway and uncouples establishment of key TH&ndash;NTP contacts from complete TH formation and clamp movement allowed rapid catalysis and eliminated hairpin-stabilized pausing. We also report that the active-site distal arm of the TH aids TL folding, but that a 188-aa insertion in the Escherichia coli TL (sequence insertion 3; SI3) disfavors TH formation and stimulates pausing. The effect of SI3 depends on the jaw domain, but not on downstream duplex DNA. Our results support the view that both SI3 and the pause hairpin modulate TL folding in a constrained pathway of intermedi...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
A sudden cardiac death induced by sildenafil and sexual activity in an HIV patient with drug interaction, cardiac early repolarization, and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy
In a large HIV cohort, left ventricular contractile dysfunction predicts sudden cardiac death (SCD), but not AIDS death [1]. Inflammation, anti-HIV therapy interruption, and concomitant medications are supposed to underlie HIV-associated SCD [1]; however, few reports have confirmed these issues. (Source: International Journal of Cardiology)
Contextualising women's mental distress and coping strategies in the time of AIDS: A rural South African case study
Increasing attention is paid to impacts of HIV/AIDS on women's mental health, often framed by decontextualized psychiatric understandings of emotional distress and treatment. We contribute to the small qualitative literature extending these findings through exploring HIV/AIDS-affected women's own accounts of their distress&mdash;focusing on the impacts of social context, and women's efforts to cope outside of medical support services. Nineteen in-depth interviews were conducted with women experiencing depression or anxiety-like symptoms in a wider study of services in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Thematic analysis was framed by Summerfield's emphasis on contexts and resilience. Women highlighted family conflicts (particularly abandonment by men), community-level violence, poverty and HIV/A...
Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis
Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used ?over the counter? sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. (Source: Alcohol)
Gene expression profile in long-term non progressor HIV infected patients: In search of potential resistance factors
Publication date: November 2014 Source:Molecular Immunology, Volume 62, Issue 1 Author(s): Maria Carolina Luque , Camila C. Santos , Eliane C. Mairena , Peter Wilkinson , Genèvieve Boucher , Aluisio C. Segurado , Luiz A. Fonseca , Ester Sabino , Jorge E. Kalil , Edecio Cunha-Neto Long-term non-progressors (LTNP) represent a minority (1?5%) of HIV-infected individuals characterized by documented infection for more than 7?10 years, a stable CD4+ T cell count over 500/mm3 and low viremia in the absence of antiretroviral treatment. Protective factors described so far such as the CCR5delta32 deletion, protective HLA alleles, or defective viruses fail to fully explain the partial protection phenotype. The existence of additional host resistance mechanisms in LTNP patients was investigated...
Analysis of effectiveness of R1-nj anthocyanin marker for in vivo haploid identification in maize and molecular markers for predicting the inhibition of R1-nj expression.
In this study, we characterized the expression of R1-nj marker in a large array of tropical/subtropical inbred lines, breeding populations and landraces by crossing with the R1-nj-based tropicalized haploid inducer. There was a high frequency of inhibition of the Navajo phenotype in the maize inbred lines, which are used in tropical breeding programs. Genome-wide association mapping showed that the C1 anthocyanin regulatory locus is the most significant genetic factor influencing inhibition of the Navajo phenotype. Molecular marker assays were designed based on polymorphism in the C1 vs C1-I alleles. Analysis of a set of 714 inbred lines demonstrated that a combination of two gene-specific markers-8 bp C1-I InDel and C1-I SNP-could predict with high accuracy the presence of anthocyanin co...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
The Effect of Therapeutic Lumbar Punctures on Acute Mortality From Cryptococcal Meningitis
Conclusions.&nbsp;Therapeutic LPs were associated with a 69% relative improvement in survival, regardless of initial intracranial pressure. The role of therapeutic LPs should be reevaluated. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Editorial Commentary: An Expanded Role for Therapeutic Lumbar Punctures in Newly Diagnosed AIDS-Associated Cryptococcal Meningitis?
(Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Hepatitis B Virus Sub-genotype A1 Infection Is Characterized by High Replication Levels and Rapid Emergence of Drug Resistance in HIV-Positive Adults Receiving First-line Antiretroviral Therapy in Malawi
Conclusions.&nbsp;HBV sub-genotype A1 infections showed a severe virologic expression in HIV-positive Malawians. The findings strengthen the urgency of interventions to improve ascertainment and management of chronic hepatitis B in the region. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
A Prospective Cohort Study of Neurocognitive Function in Aviremic HIV-Infected Patients Treated With 1 or 3 Antiretrovirals
Conclusions.&nbsp;The number of antiretrovirals included in the ART regimen does not seem to influence the evolution of neurocognitive function in HIV-infected patients with suppressed plasma viremia. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Editorial Commentary: Protease Inhibitor Monotherapy: Safe for the CNS in Durably Suppressed Patients?
(Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Neutrophil-Associated Central Nervous System Inflammation in Tuberculous Meningitis Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome
Conclusions.&nbsp;A high baseline M. tuberculosis antigen load drives an inflammatory response that manifests clinically as TBM-IRIS in most, but not all, patients with TBM. Neutrophils and their mediators, especially S100A8/A9, are closely associated with the central nervous system inflammation that characterizes TBM-IRIS. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Mortality in Patients With AIDS-Related Cytomegalovirus Retinitis in Myanmar
(Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Voltage-Gated Proton Channel HV1 in Microglia
Microglia are brain resident immune cells and their functions are implicated in both the normal and diseased brain. Microglia express a plethora of ion channels, including K+ channels, Na+ channels, TRP channels, Cl&ndash; channels, and proton channels. These ion channels play critical roles in microglial proliferation, migration, and production/release of cytokines, chemokines, and neurotoxic or neurotrophic substances. Among microglial ion channels, the voltage-gated proton channel HV1 is a recently cloned ion channel that rapidly removes protons from depolarized cytoplasm and is highly expressed in the immune system. However, the function of microglial HV1 in the brain is poorly understood. Recent studies showed that HV1 is selectively expressed in microglia but not neurons in the brain...
Touch-Screen Technology for the Dynamic Display of 2D Spatial Information Without Vision: Promise and Progress
Source: Volume 27, Issue 5-6, pp 359 - 378Many developers wish to capitalize on touch-screen technology for developing aids for the blind, particularly by incorporating vibrotactile stimulation to convey patterns on their surfaces, which otherwise are featureless. Our belief is that they will need to take into account basic research on haptic perception in designing these graphics interfaces. We point out constraints and limitations in haptic processing that affect the use of these devices. We also suggest ways to use sound to augment basic information from touch, and we include evaluation data from users of a touch-screen device with vibrotactile and auditory feedback that we have been developing, called a vibro-audio interface. (Source: Multisensory research)
The ABCs of Trait Anger, Psychological Distress, and Disease Severity in HIV.
CONCLUSION: The model supports a role for the ABC components of anger, which may negatively influence immune function through various psychosocial mechanisms; however, longitudinal study is needed to elucidate these effects. PMID: 25385204 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Annals of Behavioral Medicine)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Grieving in the Facebook Era
When a loved one passes away there is an instant shock, a nerve testing moment, when you hear the news for the first time. It is as though the universe within you is trying to adjust to an emptiness left by the person who parted; a deep ache, an indescribable hollowness. Through our lived experiences we react in the most natural of ways through lamentation, guilt, anger, and the eventual Facebook posting. How do we grieve in a day in age where you post your knee-jerk reaction on social media? Does it help ease the pain? Two weeks ago, I lost my cousin in a fatal car accident. The news came as I was preparing to depart for a work-related event. Without hesitation, there were many tears, many memories that rushed to mind and there was also a Facebook post. The post came as an immediate cry...
The Doctor's World: Like AIDS Before It, Ebola Isn?t Explained Clearly by Officials
Two different epidemics have prompted eerily similar reactions from health officials and the public, raising crucial questions about why the world remains persistently unprepared to react to the emergence of viral threats. (Source: NYT Health)
Racial Health Disparities in a Cohort of 5,135 Transgender Veterans
Conclusions This is the first study to examine a large cohort of transgender patients for the presence of racial disparities in psychiatric and medical health outcome disparities using retrospective medical chart data. Black transgender veterans were found to have a greater likelihood of social disadvantage and prevalence of several mental and medical conditions compared to White transgender veterans. Racial disparities occurred in a context of global health disparities in transgender veterans, as a group, compared to non-transgender veterans. These findings may have implications for policy, prevention strategies, and health-care delivery in VA and other health-care systems. (Source: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities)
Paragangliomas Arising in the Head and Neck: A Morphologic Review and Genetic Update
Abstract: Seventy percent of parasympathetic paragangliomas arise in the head and neck and are nonsecretory. Awareness of the differential diagnosis based on location, overlapping morphology, and immunohistochemical profiles aids in the correct diagnosis, particularly on limited tissue samples. Moreover, 30% to 40% of head and neck paragangliomas are known to be associated with hereditary syndromes, with the succinate dehydrogenase enzyme family comprising the most frequent association. The pathologist?s role is becoming increasing critical for facilitating optimal patient care beyond the initial tissue diagnosis of paraganglioma to include screening and documenting potential hereditary tumors requiring further patient counseling and testing. (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
End-Stage Kidney Disease and Transplantation in HIV PatientsEnd-Stage Kidney Disease and Transplantation in HIV Patients
Is kidney transplantation a good option for management of end-stage kidney disease in HIV-positive patients? JAIDS: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Nigeria/Kenya: Okocha, Kanu, Other Retired Footballers Join Entertainment Stars' Battle Against HIV
[Guardian]SUPER Eagles' former captains, Austin Okocha and Nw.wo Kanu, are among retired Super Eagles' players to lock horns with Entertainment All Stars at the Campos Mini Stadium on December 6 to create more awareness for the HIV/AIDS pandemic. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Perceptions and Experiences with the VOICE Adherence Strengthening Program (VASP) in the MTN-003 Trial
Abstract The VOICE Adherence Strengthening Program (VASP) was implemented in May 2011 to improve adherence counseling in VOICE (MTN-003), a multisite placebo-controlled trial of daily oral or vaginal tenofovir-based Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP). Anonymous baseline (N = 82) and final follow-up (N = 75) surveys were administered to counselors and pharmacists at 15 VOICE sites, and baseline (N = 18) and final (N = 26) qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with purposively selected counseling staff at 13 VOICE sites. Qualitative interviews with VOICE participants (N = 38) were also analyzed for segments related to counseling. Behavioral and biological measures of product use collected in the 6 months prior to VASP implementation were compared to those collected ...
Improving Hospital-Based Quality of Care by Reducing HIV-Related Stigma: Evaluation Results from Vietnam
This study highlights successful strategies to reduce stigma, and thus, improve quality of care for PLHIV. (Source: AIDS and Behavior)
Using a 2-Stage Strategy with Respondent-Driven Sampling to Recruit a Hard-to-Reach Population for a Placebo Microbicide Gel Clinical Trial in Nellore, Andhra Pradesh (India)
We report duration of recruitment and lessons learned from a two-stage process to recruit female sex workers (FSWs) into a placebo microbicide trial, and examined characteristics associated with successful recruitment of peers who screened for and enrolled in the trial. FSWs were first recruited via respondent-driven sampling (RDS) to complete a survey and subsequently invited to screen for enrollment into a placebo microbicide trial taking place at a local clinic. It took 6 months to enroll 267 participants into the trial. Successful recruiters of peers who enrolled were more likely to have enrolled themselves (AOR 2.0, CI 1.3?2.9) and less likely to visit Nellore city (AOR 0.5, CI 0.3?0.9). Recruitment of FSWs via a two-stage recruitment strategy with RDS can be a good option for fu...
High HIV Prevalence among Men who have Sex with Men in a Time-Location Sampling Survey, São Paulo, Brazil
Abstract We conducted a time-location sampling sero-behavioral surveillance survey of men who have sex with men (MSM) in São Paulo, Brazil, the largest city in Latin America and the Southern Hemisphere (N = 1,217 interviewed with serological results for 771). HIV prevalence was 15.4 % (95 % CI 11.6?20.1), with only 45.8 % previously aware of their infection. HIV prevalence achieved 6.4 % among youth 18?24 years and was higher among MSM with lower socio-economic status. In multivariate analysis, correlates of HIV were older age, gay identity, lower socio-economic status, social networks with HIV-positive MSM, receptive anal sex, and internet sex partners. Policy change towards increasing avenues for HIV testing coupled with antiretroviral treatment regardless of CD4...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Navigation System for People with Vision Disability from Microsoft
Microsoft has developed the prototype wearable device, with the help of the charity Guide Dogs UK and urban design firm Future Cities Catapult to launch a headset to help people who are blind or have low vision navigate around a city. (Source: Disabled World)
Nigeria: Coordinator Decries Poor Services to HIV Carriers
[Daily Trust]Kaduna -The Kaduna State coordinator of the Network of people living with HIV/AIDS, Benjamin Daniel, has complained over dwindling services being rendered to people living with HIV/AIDS by the Centre for Integrated Health Program (CIHP). (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: 'Checking Gender Violence Key to Reducing HIV/Aids'
[Daily Trust]The reduction of gender-based violence in the national response against HIV/AIDS is important for its prevention and mitigation in the country, National Programme Officer of the United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women (UN Women in Nigeria), Adekemi Ndieli, has said. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Sound Transfer of Active Middle Ear Implants
This article attempts to summarize the current knowledge concerning the mechanical interaction between active middle ear implants (AMEIs) and the normal or reconstructed middle ear. Some basic characteristics of the different AMEIs are provided in conjunction with the middle ear mechanics. The interaction of AMEIs and middle ear and the influence of various boundary conditions are discussed in more detail. (Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America)
South Africa: SA Can Overcome HIV Challenge - Deputy President
[]South Africa has the ability and resolve to overcome the challenge of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, Deputy President Cyril Ramaphosa said on Saturday. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Nigeria: Ex-Eagles, Entertainment Stars Play Against HIV
[Vanguard]Former Super Eagles players will lock horns with Entertainment All Stars at the Campos Mini Stadium on December 6 to create awareness for the HIV/AIDS pandemic. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Tanzania: 'Back to Care Initiative' Records Success in Mwanza, Geita
[Daily News]FOR sustainable HIV/AIDS services delivery; it is very clear in local context that the community owns a large share of responsibility in making sure People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) including children and women are accessing quality services, retained with continuous support for keeping them alive. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Can HIV be transmitted via manicure instruments?
(Mary Ann Liebert, Inc./Genetic Engineering News) The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention lists numerous potential alternative sources of HIV transmission in addition to the known classical modes for acquiring the AIDS virus. Although manicure instruments is not on this list of alternative sources, a case of HIV transmission that may be linked to sharing of manicure instruments is presented in AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Nigeria: NACA Bows to Nepwhan, As SGF Summons DG
[Independent (Lagos)]Abuja -Following the crisis between the Network of People Living With HIV/AIDS in Nigeria (NEPWHAN) and the National Agency for the Control of AIDS (NACA), the Director-General of NACA, John Idoko, has bowed to pressure to meet the demand of the group. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Modeling interleukin-2-based immunotherapy in AIDS pathogenesis
Publication date: 21 October 2013 Source:Journal of Theoretical Biology, Volume 335 Author(s): Marcel Joly , Darci Odloak In this paper, we sought to identify the CD4+ T-cell dynamics in the course of HIV infection in response to continuous and intermittent intravenous courses of interleukin-2 (IL-2), the principal cytokine responsible for progression of CD4+ T-lymphocytes from the G1 to the S phase of the cell cycle. Based on multivariate regression models, previous literature has concluded that the increase in survival of CD4+ T-cell appears to be the critical mechanism leading to sustained CD4+ T-cell levels in HIV-infected patients receiving intermittent IL-2 therapy. Underscored by comprehensive mathematical modeling, a major finding of the present work is related to the fact that, ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Incidence, risk, and protective factors of bicycle crashes: Findings from a prospective cohort study in New Zealand
Conclusion The risk is higher in urban areas and where cycling is less common, and increased by bunch riding and previous crashes. These findings alongside the possible protective effect of conspicuity aids suggest promising approaches to improving cycle safety. (Source: Preventive Medicine)
African-American Patients' Preferences for a Health Center Campaign Promoting HIV Testing: An Exploratory Study and Future Directions
Conclusion: The media are a cost-effective strategy to promote HIV prevention. Posters and brochures are inexpensive and easy to reproduce for clinical settings. Television campaigns may be feasible in clinics with closed-circuit televisions. Research is needed on campaign messages. An effective health center HIV testing campaign may help mitigate the disproportionate toll HIV is having on African Americans. (Source: Journal of the International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care (JIAPAC))
Health Care Practices and Associated Service Needs in a Sample of HIV-Positive Incarcerated Men in Puerto Rico: Implications for Retention in Care
Conclusions: Correctional facilities can be important settings for engaging high-risk populations in health care, capturing and enrolling unidentified HIV/HCV infections for clinical care, and engaging in substance abuse treatment. In order for these public health outcomes to be achieved, it is important to consider strategies to optimize care inside prison and in the community. (Source: Journal of the International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care (JIAPAC))
Antiretroviral Therapy in Zambia: Do Partners on ART Enhance Adherence?
Conclusions: This study of couples in Zambia found adherence was not enhanced by having a partner on ART, and that adherence declined over time. Partners on ART may not necessarily provide support for adherence to each other. Partners may represent an untapped resource for optimizing adherence; results highlight the need for provider guidance and structured adherence interventions targeting partner adherence support. (Source: Journal of the International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care (JIAPAC))
Viral Loads among Young HIV-Infected Men with Early Syphilis
High rates of HIV coinfection among men with syphilis suggest HIV transmission opportunities due to biologic and behavioral risk synergy. We abstracted HIV viral loads for HIV-infected males aged 24 years or younger with a diagnosis of early syphilis (ES) in Maricopa County, Arizona, in order to evaluate HIV infectivity. During 2009 to 2012, there were 56 HIV-infected, ES cases meeting the age criteria, of whom 32 (57%) had a detectable viral load performed within 1 year of syphilis diagnosis (median 21 000 copies/mL, range 130-302 844 copies/mL). Only 4 (7%) of the 56 patients had an undetectable viral load (&lt;100 copies/mL) reported within a year of syphilis diagnosis. Twenty (36%) had no reported viral load or a viral load collected after 1 year of syphilis diagnosis. Among this group...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Patient Perception of Whether an HIV Test Was Provided during the Emergency Department Encounter
This cross-sectional study approached emergency department (ED) patients after the treating physician&rsquo;s disposition decision to measure patient understanding of whether or not they had received an HIV test during their ED encounter. Of the 300 respondents, 24 were excluded due to missing data or because they had received an ED HIV test. Mean age was 41 years, 51% were men, 61% were black, and 29% had no high school degree. There were 5.8% (95% confidence interval: 3.5%-9.4%) who erroneously reported HIV test delivery during their ED course. Our results suggest a small but significant minority of patients falsely assume that they have been tested for HIV during their ED visit. This misperception could have broad implications, leading to less frequent subsequent testing, false reassura...
Iatrogenic Cushing Syndrome and Secondary Adrenal Insufficiency Related to Concomitant Triamcinolone and Ritonavir Administration: A Case Report and Review
Triamcinolone is a long-acting glucocorticoid medication that can be responsible for transient suppression of the hypothalamic&ndash;pituitary&ndash;adrenal (HPA) axis. This physiologic alteration may persist for weeks after repeated or even single localized injection of this agent. However, when this glucocorticoid agent is given to patients receiving the HIV protease inhibitor (PI) ritonavir (RTV), inhibition of their shared cytochrome P450 3A4 degradation pathway leads to an increased bioavailability of triamcinolone, with subsequent heightening and prolongation of the glucocorticoid serum levels. In those instances, iatrogenic Cushing syndrome may ensue. The authors encountered such an event in an HIV-infected patient on chronic treatment with an antiretroviral regimen containing RTV. ...
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis-Like Presentation in a HIV-Positive Patient
There has been several reports of an MND like syndrome in HIV-1 infection, however the data is still sparse. Furthermore, HIV-associated amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) syndrome differs from the classical ALS in some key aspects.. A 44-year-old male presented with a history of insidious onset and gradually progressive asymmetric weakness of lower limbs. He also complained of thinning in both legs, the left leg more than the right since 1 year along with spontaneous twitching of muscles in both the thighs. On neurological examination, the assessment of higher mental functions was normal. There were no cranial nerve deficits. Motor power was grade 5/5 (Medical Research Council scale) in both the upper limbs and 4+ at hips and knees bilaterally, 5 at right ankle, and 4+ at left ankle. All...
Aging with HIV: A Model of Disability
The purpose of this qualitative study was to develop a theoretical model describing the disability experienced by older adults living with HIV. Forty nine HIV positive men and women over the age of 50 years participated in in-depth qualitative interviews. Transcribed interviews were analyzed using grounded theory techniques. Uncertainty or worrying about the future was at the core of the model. Components of disability including symptoms and impairments, difficulties with day to day activities and challenges to social participation were experienced in the context of extrinsic or environmental factors (social support, stigma) and intrinsic contextual factors (positive living strategies, age). Time was an overarching component of the model. The model suggests areas for interventions to preve...
Incidence of Kaposi's Sarcoma and Associated Mortality in Fresno, California, 1998 to 2012
Conclusions: The incidence of KS remains stable since 1998 with a 12-month mortality of 30%. (Source: Journal of the International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care (JIAPAC))<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
The Prevalence and Determinants of Short Stature in HIV-Infected Children
Conclusion: In Botswana, short stature affects a quarter of HIV-infected children and severe short stature is associated with poor adherence to antiretroviral treatment, severe immunosuppression, and virologic failure. (Source: Journal of the International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care (JIAPAC))
Integration of HIV and Tuberculosis in the Community
Current strategies are insufficient to contain the growing tuberculosis (TB) epidemic in areas of high HIV prevalence such as sub-Saharan Africa. Due to the increased risk of morbidity and mortality among those coinfected, early detection is critical. However, strategies dependent on passive, facility-based case finding have failed due to severe limitations in the HIV-positive population. There is growing evidence from multiple clinical trials that early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in patients coinfected with HIV and TB reduces mortality. Integration of community-based distribution of ART and TB medicines should be considered for coinfected patients to help improve retention in care and to off-load busy health systems. Several models of integration of HIV and TB care in sub-...
Nonoccupational Post-Exposure Prophylaxis for HIV in New York State Emergency Departments
New York State (NYS) established guidelines for nonoccupational post-exposure prophylaxis (nPEP) to HIV in 1997. To assess current nPEP practices in NYS Emergency Departments (EDs), we electronically surveyed all ED directors in NYS, excluding Veterans&rsquo; Affairs hospitals, about nPEP and linkage-to-care protocols in the EDs. Basic descriptive statistics were used for analysis. The response rate was 96% (184/191). Of respondents, 88% reported evaluating any patient with a possible nonoccupational exposure to HIV, in accordance with NYS guidelines. Of these, 83% provided the patient with a starter pack of medications, while 4% neither supplied nor prescribed antiretroviral drugs in the ED. Sexually transmitted infection screening, risk reduction counseling, and education about symptoms ...
Inadequate Monitoring in Advanced Stages of Disease with Lack of Supportive Counseling Increases Attrition among Patients on Antiretroviral Treatment at a Large Urban Clinic in Uganda
Conclusion: This study demonstrates the importance of close patient monitoring in advanced stages of disease, supportive counseling for patients initiating ART, extra psychosocial support for patients with TB and HIV coinfection, assisting patients with disclosure, and setting up a good referral system to retain patients on ART. (Source: Journal of the International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care (JIAPAC))
Evaluation of Parent-Child Pairs on Antiretroviral Therapy in Separate Adult and Pediatric Clinics
In Africa, HIV infection is considered a family disease. A retrospective cohort analysis was performed to describe the characteristics and outcome in 35 parent&ndash;child pairs taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) in separate adult and pediatric HIV clinics. In 26 pairs, ART was first initiated in children. Baseline median CD4 count was 122/mm3 in adults and 376/mm3 in children. World Health Organization stage 3 or 4 disease affected 49% of adults and 83% of children. In all, 3 parents and 1 child died. Hospitalization, poor adherence, missed appointments, or regimen change affected &gt;50% of pairs on ART. Following tuberculosis diagnosis in their parents, 2 of the 5 children were not investigated. By week 104, 29 (83%) pairs remained on ART, and 69% of patients on ART were virologically ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
12 Years of Universal Access to Hepatitis C Treatment: Brazil's Comprehensive Response
This article describes Brazil&rsquo;s response to hepatitis C, from the first steps in 1993 to a national program in 2002. We reviewed the available literature, most of it in Brazilian Portuguese, and compiled them in order to share this experience with those seeking some pragmatic solutions. After 12 years, the national program has achieved universal coverage of treatment, resulting in saved lives and resources for the health system. There is abundant evidence that the HCV epidemic deserves attention. The overall consequence of long-term HCV infection is a negative impact on the health care economy. The Brazilian experience can be adapted to many countries in the world, in compliance with the 2010 World Health Organization World Health Assembly Resolution. (Source: Journal of the Internat...
A consensus statement on the renal monitoring of Australian patients receiving tenofovir based antiviral therapy for HIV/HBV infection
A number of antiviral agents used against Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and hepatitis B virus (HBV) mono or co-infection have been associated with real nephrotoxicity (including tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), atazanavir, indinavir and lopinavir) or apparent changes in renal function (e.g. cobicistat, ritonavir, rilpivirine and dolutegravir). Patients with HIV are at higher risk of acute and chronic renal dysfunction, so baseline assessment and ongoing monitoring of renal function is an important part of routine management of patients with HIV.Given the paucity of evidence in this area, we sought to establish a consensus view on how routine monitoring could be performed in Australian patients on ART regimens, especially those involving TDF. A group of nephrologists and ...
Future directions for interventions targeting PTSD in HIV-infected adults
Although studies consistently report high rates of comorbid Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and HIV infection, development and testing of PTSD treatment interventions in HIV-infected adults is limited. As such, the purpose of this review was twofold. First, this review augments the 3 existing reviews of research for PTSD in HIV-infected adults conducted within the past 10 years. We found 2 empirically supported cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)-based interventions for the treatment of trauma-related symptoms in HIV-infected adults. (Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)
Congenital Anomalies and In Utero Antiretroviral Exposure in Human Immunodeficiency Virus?Exposed Uninfected Infants
Conclusions and RelevanceFew individual ARVs and no drug classes were associated with an increased risk of CAs in HIV-exposed infants after adjustment for calendar year and maternal characteristics. While the overall risk remained low, a relative increase was observed in successive years and with atazanavir exposure. Given the low absolute CA risk, the benefits of recommended ARV therapy use during pregnancy still outweigh such risks, although further studies are warranted. (Source: JAMA Pediatrics)
Understanding the experiences of Mandarin-speaking patients diagnosed with life-threatening cancer in Australia.
This study raises several suggestions for service improvement, including the development of bilingual communication aids, improved educational opportunities for clinical staff to aid their mastery of cultural issues and effective interpreter consultations, and improved access to supportive services offering culturally specific strategies. PMID: 25381993 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Palliative and Supportive Care)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
UK National Guideline for the management of chancroid 2014
(Source: International Journal of STD and AIDS)
Performance and comparison of self-reported STI symptoms among high-risk populations - MSM, sex workers, persons living with HIV/AIDS - in El Salvador
Resource-limited countries have limited laboratory capability and rely on syndromic management to diagnose sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We aimed to estimate the sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) of STI syndromic management when used as a screening method within a study setting. Men who have sex with men (MSM), female sex workers (FSWs) and people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) participated in a behavioural surveillance study. Data were obtained on demographics, sexual behaviours, STI history and service utilisation. Biological specimens were tested for genital inflammatory infections (Neisseria gonorrhoeae [GC], Chlamydia trachomatis [CT], Mycoplasma genitalium [MG], Trichomonas vaginalis [TV]) and genital ulcerative infection (syphilis and Herpes simple...
Human papillomavirus awareness among HIV-infected drug users in two urban areas
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the cause of cervical and anal cancer. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and cocaine use are associated with increased risk for HPV infection and associated diseases, but little is known about HIV-infected drug users' awareness of HPV. We investigate HPV awareness among HIV-infected, sexually-active crack cocaine users from two inner-city hospitals in Florida and Georgia during their inpatient stays. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine potential correlates of HPV awareness. We interviewed 215 participants (110 women; 105 men) about their awareness of HPV infection. Overall, only 25% of respondents reported having heard of HPV. The odds of having heard of HPV were greater for respondents having a high-school degree or higher...
Seven years of teenage pregnancy in an inner London genitourinary medicine service - a retrospective cohort study
Young people attending genitourinary medicine services are at high risk of unplanned pregnancy. We performed a retrospective cohort study to identify characteristics of pregnant teenagers accessing an inner London genitourinary medicine service. There were 481 pregnancies in 458 teenagers with 54 previous pregnancies and 46 previous terminations of pregnancy. The under-18 and under-16 teenage pregnancy rates were 92.1 and 85.8 per 1000 age-matched clinic attendees, respectively. Median age was 17.1 years. &lsquo;Black Other&rsquo; teenagers (&lsquo;Black British&rsquo;, &lsquo;Mixed White-Black Caribbean&rsquo; and &lsquo;Mixed White-Black African&rsquo;) were over-represented, compared to our clinic population, while those of White ethnicity were under-represented. Few pregnancies (1.5%) ...
Young people's comfort receiving sexual health information via social media and other sources
Social media are growing in popularity and will play a key role in future sexual health promotion initiatives. We asked 620 survey participants aged 16 to 29 years about their time spent using social media and their comfort in receiving information about sexual health via different channels. Median hours per day spent using social network sites was two; 36% spent more than 2 hours per day using social network sites. In multivariable logistic regression, being aged less than 20 years and living in a major city (compared to rural/regional Australia) were associated with use of social media more than 2 hours per day. Most participants reported being comfortable or very comfortable accessing sexual health information from websites (85%), followed by a doctor (81%), school (73%), and the mainst...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Improved partner notification for genital chlamydia can be achieved by centralisation of the duty to a specially trained team
Partner notification is mandatory for Chlamydia trachomatis infections in Sweden. A significant quality improvement of partner notification for genital chlamydia was achieved by increasing the skills and reducing the number of individuals conducting partner notifications. By centralisation of the partner notification to a specially trained team of nurses, an additional 12% of genital chlamydia cases were found. Routine partner notification achieved a score of 3.3 notified partners per index case, and shows how important this activity is for detection of asymptomatic chlamydia infections in the community. (Source: International Journal of STD and AIDS)
Prevalence of cervical human papillomavirus infection in healthy women is related to sexual behaviours and educational level: a cross-sectional study
This study reports the prevalence and risk factors of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in healthy women in Singapore. Demography, education, sexual and reproductive history and cigarette smoking habits were obtained from a cross-sectional population of healthy women and girls aged above 12 years of age. Cervical or vaginal cytology samples were investigated for 37 known anogenital HPV subtypes using the linear array PCR method. Chi square statistics were used to test for associations of individual epidemiological factors with HPV infection. Independent risk factors were identified with binomial logistic regression analysis. Of 891 subjects, the prevalence of HPV infection was 9.31% (83/891 women) for any-type HPV and 5.05% (46/891 women) for the high-risk HPV (hrHPV). Of 30 HPV subtype...
Risk factors for invasive pneumococcal disease in HIV-infected adults in France in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era
Invasive pneumococcal diseases remain frequent and severe in HIV-infected subjects. To identify opportunities for prevention, we assessed risk factors of invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) in HIV-infected patients over a 10-year period in France. We performed a retrospective case-control study in a reference centre of HIV management in Paris. All HIV-infected patients having suffered from IPD between 2000 and 2011 were included. Control subjects were HIV-infected with no history of IPD or pneumonia, matched by date of diagnosis of HIV with controls. Two controls were randomly selected for each subject. In all, 42 HIV-infected patients presented 44 IPD episodes during the study period and were compared to 84 controls. In the multivariate analysis, patients with IPD were more likely than c...
Comparing HIV viral load assays and frequency of low level virological rebound in clinical practice
Research suggests that some low-level virological rebound results occurring for no obvious clinical cause, in patients stable on antiretroviral therapy (ART), may be a consequence of the viral load assay used. We compared the relative frequency of clinically unexplained low-level virological rebound results when using the Roche HIV Taqman version-1 (CTM v1), the Roche HIV Taqman version-2 (CTM v2) and the Abbott RealTime (Abbott RT) assays in clinical practice. In all, 247 patients from our centre who had their viral loads measured by the three different assays over a period of 3 consecutive years (each assay used for a period of 1 year each) were included in the study. Low-level virological rebound was defined as &lt;1000 copies/ml. Over similar time periods, there was significant discrep...
Home delivery of medication - the role of a patient information leaflet on maximising service uptake
There are currently over 30,000 HIV-positive individuals in London and over 25,000 on anti-retroviral therapy. In 2009/2010, this equated to &pound;170m spent by London&rsquo;s NHS on anti-retroviral drugs. Ways employed to reduce this cost include standardising the drugs patients are on and delivering medication to patients at home. Home delivery (HD) medication is exempt from value-added tax. The savings made from 10 patients using the home delivery service would free up resources to provide anti-retroviral therapy to one further patient. Studies have shown that concerns surrounding potential breaches of confidentiality are a potential barrier to some people using the home delivery service. In order to challenge these concerns, a leaflet was devised highlighting the major benefits to bot...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Text 2 treat - using SMS to recall clients for treatment
Prompt treatment of patients with genital Chlamydia shortens the period of infectivity with benefits to the individual and wider community. With large numbers of genital Chlamydia notifications, predominantly occurring in younger age groups, short message service (SMS) is a potentially useful technology for recalling this patient group quickly and efficiently. In the sexual health unit of Population Health-Midwest, Western Australia, genital Chlamydia cases were recalled for treatment with an SMS. Ninety-four per cent (n = 60) of clients responded to the SMS, with 84% (n = 54) responding on the same day they were contacted. All clients (n = 64) were treated for their infection, with 72% (n = 46) having directly-observed treatment within one day of being informed of their results via SMS. O...
Symptomatic primary Cytomegalovirus infection in a HIV-positive pregnant woman
We describe a case of symptomatic primary Cytomegalovirus infection in a HIV-positive pregnant woman on antiretroviral treatment with a CD4 count &gt;200 x 106/l requiring intravenous ganciclovir. No adverse consequences from ganciclovir or evidence of congenital Cytomegalovirus infection were found. (Source: International Journal of STD and AIDS)
Behcet's disease - part of the differential diagnosis of ulcerative lesions
This case describes a young white British man with a one-year history of recurrent genital ulceration managed by the GP. Initially this was thought to be a drug reaction; however, presentation at our genitourinary medicine clinic and onward review with dermatology allowed the diagnosis of Beh&ccedil;et&rsquo;s disease to be made. The clinical diagnosis was made based on painful oral and genital ulcers, eye irritation, erythema nodosum and positive pathergy test. Treatment with oral prednisolone was initiated by dermatology, which resulted in rapid improvement in the genital ulceration. This case highlights that clinicians should consider Beh&ccedil;et&rsquo;s disease in patients with recurrent genital ulceration to ensure prompt diagnosis and prevention of systemic involvement. (Source: In...
The urethral smear as a tool in diagnosing adenovirus-induced urethritis
Adenovirus is a recognised cause of non-gonococcal urethritis, and is not uncommonly associated with extragenital signs and symptoms. This case report describes a patient with symptoms of conjunctivitis, meatitis and urethritis. The urethral smear revealed almost exclusively monocytes microscopically, raising the suspicion of a viral aetiology. Results confirmed the presence of adenovirus in both the eyes and urethra. Despite waning reliance on the urethral smear in sexual health clinics, it can still be an important diagnostic tool in assessing the aetiology of non-specific urethritis. Finding an obvious monocytic cell response in the urethral smear can indicate a viral cause and allow the clinician to optimise management, counsel appropriately, and potentially reduce unnecessary antibiot...
Non-profit Foundation Fighting Friedreich?s Ataxia Names Catrike Partner of the Year
A tricycle design and manufacturing company, Catrike, has been dramatically improving the lives of individuals affected by the rare and genetic disease, Friedreich?s Ataxia (FA). Recognizing the company's many contributions to the FA community, Catrike has been honored as Partner of the Year by the Friedreich?s Ataxia Research Alliance. (Source: Disabled World)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Factors Enhancing Utilization of and Adherence to Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission (PMTCT) Service in an Urban Setting in Kenya
Abstract Despite expansive scale-up of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV services in Kenya over the last decade, Kenya remains one of the countries contributing to high numbers of children living with HIV globally and is among the 22 PMTCT global plan priority countries. Using structured and in-depth interviews this study examined enabling factors that enhance utilization of and adherence to PMTCT services in an urban setting in Kenya. HIV-positive birthmothers (N = 55) whose infants were HIV-negative at the time of the study completed a structured interview and a subset (n = 15) participated in in-depth interviews. The majority of the mothers (98 %) delivered at a health facility and 91 % exclusively breastfed. Further, 91 % attended clinic appointm...
Sexual Orientation- and Race-Based Discrimination and Sexual HIV Risk Behavior Among Urban MSM
Abstract Understanding what social factors are associated with risk of HIV acquisition and transmission among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM) is a critical public health goal. Experiencing discrimination may increase risk of HIV infection among MSM. This analysis assessed relations between experiences of sexual orientation- and race-based discrimination and sexual HIV risk behavior among MSM in New York City. 1,369 MSM completed a self-administered computerized assessment of past 3-month sexual behavior, experience of social discrimination and other covariates. Regression models assessed relations between recent experience of discrimination and sexual HIV risk behavior. Mean age was 32 years; 32 % were white; 32 % Latino/Hispanic; 25 % African American/...
Acceptability and Feasibility of Using Established Geosocial and Sexual Networking Mobile Applications to Promote HIV and STD Testing Among Men Who Have Sex with Men
This study is the first published multi-app study, of which we are aware, to evaluate both the acceptability and feasibility of providing sexual health information and HIV/STD testing referrals via established geosocial and sexual networking apps for MSM. Data were collected using an online survey and through four apps (A4A Radar, Grindr, Jack?d, and Scruff). Two-thirds (64 %) found apps to be an acceptable source for sexual health information. MSM who found apps as acceptable were more likely non-white, not sure of their current HIV status, and have low HIV testing self-efficacy. One-quarter (26 %) of informational chats with the health educator resulted in users requesting and being referred to local HIV/STD testing sites. There were significant differences in the number and types of...
Can behavioral theory inform the understanding of depression and medication nonadherence among HIV-positive substance users?
This study tested three components of behavioral depression theory?goal-directed activation, positive reinforcement, and environmental punishment?as potential indirect effects in the relation between depressive symptoms and medication nonadherence among low-income, predominantly African American substance users (n = 83). Medication nonadherence was assessed as frequency of doses missed across common reasons for nonadherence. Non-parametric bootstrapping was used to evaluate the indirect effects. Of the three intermediary variables, there was only an indirect effect of environmental punishment; depressive symptoms were associated with greater nonadherence through greater environmental punishment. Goal-directed activation and positive reinforcement were unrelated to adherence. Findings...
The &#8220;moral career&#8221; of perinatally HIV-infected children: revisiting Goffman's concept
(Source: AIDS Care)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Achieving pregnancy safely: perspectives on timed vaginal insemination among HIV-serodiscordant couples and health-care providers in Kisumu, Kenya
(Source: AIDS Care)
Challenges faced by health-care providers offering infant-feeding counseling to HIV-positive women in sub-Saharan Africa: a review of current research
(Source: AIDS Care)
&#8220;We have to try and have this child before it is too late&#8221;: missed opportunities in client&#8211;provider communication on reproductive intentions of people living with HIV
(Source: AIDS Care)
Providers' perspectives on male involvement in family planning in the context of a cluster-randomized controlled trial evaluating integrating family planning into HIV care in Nyanza Province, Kenya
(Source: AIDS Care)
Suffering, silence, and status: the importance and challenges of qualitative research on AIDS orphanhood
(Source: AIDS Care)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Depression and social functioning among HIV-infected and uninfected persons in South Africa
(Source: AIDS Care)
Improvements in depression and changes in quality of life among HIV-infected adults
(Source: AIDS Care)
Alcohol dependence and CD4 cell count: is there a relationship?
(Source: AIDS Care)
Understanding the experience and manifestation of depression in people living with HIV/AIDS in South Africa
(Source: AIDS Care)
High prevalence of stigma-related abuse among a sample of men who have sex with men in Tanzania: implications for HIV prevention
(Source: AIDS Care)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Spiritual coping predicts CD4-cell preservation and undetectable viral load over four years
(Source: AIDS Care)
Anxiety, depression, and HIV symptoms among persons living with HIV/AIDS: the role of hazardous drinking
(Source: AIDS Care)
Depression, substance use, viral load, and CD4+ count among patients who continued or left antiretroviral therapy for HIV in St. Petersburg, Russian Federation
(Source: AIDS Care)
Alcohol use disorders negatively influence antiretroviral medication adherence among men who have sex with men in Peru
(Source: AIDS Care)
Combined prevention for persons who inject drugs in the HIV epidemic in a transitional country: the case of Tallinn, Estonia
(Source: AIDS Care)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
The effect of women's property rights on HIV: a search for quantitative evidence
(Source: AIDS Care)
HIV economic burden of illness in the Veterans Health Administration population
(Source: AIDS Care)
Zambia: New Headways in HIV Treatment
[Times of Zambia]Gilead's new single-tablet regimen (STR) could compete strongly with ViiV's Triumeq in HIV treatment space. Phase III results mean Gilead can effectively address safety concerns surrounding renal and bone tolerability of its previous STRs, says analyst. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
NewEAR Digital Hearing Amplifier Aids in Restoring Full Range Sound
Designed for optimum user comfort, this hearing enhancer is fully adjustable to a wide range of volume levels and easily fits either ear. (Source: Disabled World)
Teens Circumcised To Reduce HIV Risk In Mozambique Shift Gender Norms Surrounding Sex
MANHICA, Mozambique -- A group of boys and teens queued up outside a registration tent at a male circumcision clinic last week, looking almost as if they were waiting in line at a baseball game concession stand. They played cards and traded breezy jokes, waiting to go in for their voluntary procedures. Helio Raimundo Ubisse, 15, stood off to the side of the traveling pop-up clinic. Last year, his friend who was infected with HIV died at the age of 19, Helio told The Huffington Post. Not long after, Helio asked his grandfather if he could be circumcised. Helio is part of a wave of boys and men in Mozambique who are being encouraged to get circumcised to reduce the risk of HIV contraction. The national government launched an initiative in 2013 with the goal of having 80 percent of men ages...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Thymol treatment of bacteria prior to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometric analysis aids in identifying certain bacteria at the subspecies level.
CONCLUSIONS: The thymol method can identify certain bacteria at the sub-species level and yield reproducible results over time. It improves the quality of spectra by increasing the number of peaks when compared to the other sample preparation methods assessed in this study. Published in 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. PMID: 25366408 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry : RCM)
Women with HIV: gender violence and suicidal ideation - Ceccon RF, Meneghel SN, Hirakata VN.
OBJECTIVE To analyze the relationship between gender violence and suicidal ideation in women with HIV. METHODS A cross-sectional study with 161 users of specialized HIV/AIDS care services. The study investigated the presence of gender violence thro... (Source: SafetyLit: All (Unduplicated))
Shared decision-making and decision support: their role in obstetrics and gynecology
Purpose of reviewTo discuss the role for shared decision-making in obstetrics/gynecology and to review evidence on the impact of decision aids on reproductive health decision-making. Recent findingsAmong the 155 studies included in a 2014 Cochrane review of decision aids, 31 (29%) addressed reproductive health decisions. Although the majority did not show evidence of an effect on treatment choice, there was a greater uptake of mammography in selected groups of women exposed to decision aids compared with usual care; and a statistically significant reduction in the uptake of hormone replacement therapy among detailed decision aid users compared with simple decision aid users. Studies also found an effect on patient-centered outcomes of care, such as medication adherence, quality-of-life mea...
Cigna Agrees to Restructure HIV Drug Benefits
Facing allegations of discriminating against people with HIV and AIDS, Cigna Corp. agreed to restructure the HIV prescription drug benefits in its 2015 plans in Florida, making them less costly and burdensome for such patients (Source: Health)
Vulnerabilities faced by the children of sex workers in two Mexico&#8211;US border cities: a retrospective study on sexual violence, substance use and HIV risk
(Source: AIDS Care)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Simulating cartilage conduction sound to estimate the sound pressure level in the external auditory canal
Publication date: 20 January 2015 Source:Journal of Sound and Vibration, Volume 335 Author(s): Ryota Shimokura , Hiroshi Hosoi , Tadashi Nishimura , Takashi Iwakura , Toshiaki Yamanaka When the aural cartilage is made to vibrate it generates sound directly into the external auditory canal which can be clearly heard. Although the concept of cartilage conduction can be applied to various speech communication and music industrial devices (e.g. smartphones, music players and hearing aids), the conductive performance of such devices has not yet been defined because the calibration methods are different from those currently used for air and bone conduction. Thus, the aim of this study was to simulate the cartilage conduction sound (CCS) using a head and torso simulator (HATS) and a model of au...
Racial Differences in Chronic Conditions and Sociodemographic Characteristics Among High-Utilizing Veterans
Conclusion Racial disparities among high-utilizing Veterans may differ from those found in the general population. Interventions should devote attention to social, environmental, and mental health issues in order to reduce racial disparities in this vulnerable population. (Source: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities)
Cigna Agrees to Reduce H.I.V. Drug Costs for Some Florida Patients
Under the settlement with Florida regulators, the insurer will limit to $200 a month what patients have to pay for some commonly prescribed drugs.. (Source: NYT Health)
Value of expert systems, quick reference guides and other cognitive aids
Purpose of reviewCognitive aids and other methods of decision support are receiving increased interest by the anesthesia community. These tools have significant safety implications because of the possibility to decrease variability in human performance. Recent findingsStudies of the use of cognitive aids during realistic simulations supports use of cognitive aids and other decision support tools. SummaryThe early work in this field of decision support is encouraging but there are many questions regarding the optimal design, presentation and use. (Source: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology)
Africa: The Young, Female Face of HIV in East and Southern Africa
[IPS]Nairobi -Experts are raising alarm that years of HIV interventions throughout Africa have failed to stop infection among young women 15 to 24 years old. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Kenya: Young LGBT People in Kenya Fight the Odds and Make Life Better for Their Peers
[Key Correspondents]It's a hot day in Kisumu, a busy town on the shores of Lake Victoria in western Kenya. As I walk down a crowded street I notice that people are staring at us. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
South Africa: Pasop Campaign to Reduce New HIV Infections
[]Pretoria -Gauteng MEC for Health, Qedani Mahlangu, has called on all communities to join hands with government in the fight against HIV/Aids and Tuberculosis. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Zimbabwe: New Nac, Forestry Boards Appointed
[The Herald]Health and Child Care Minister Dr David Parirenyatwa has appointed a nine-member board for the National Aids Council chaired by the director of Compre Health Services Dr Evaristo Marowa. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
The Young, Female Face of HIV in East and Southern Africa
Gender inequalities explain why prevention is failing to contain HIV infection among young women in East and Southern Africa. UNAIDS calls for a major effort to reduce their risk of infection. Credit: Mercedes Sayagues/IPSBy Miriam GathigahNAIROBI, Nov 7 2014 (IPS)Experts are raising alarm that years of HIV interventions throughout Africa have failed to stop infection among young women 15 to 24 years old.?Prevention is failing for young women,? says Lillian Mworeko, HIV expert with International Community of Women Living with HIV in Eastern Africa, based in Uganda.Among women in East and Southern Africa, four out of ten new HIV infections among women aged 15 years and over happen among  those aged 15 to 24, according to the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS).Worryingl...
South Africa: Deputy President Takes HCT Campaign to Secunda
[]Pretoria -Deputy President Cyril Ramaphosa will this weekend embark on an outreach campaign of the HIV Counselling and Testing (HCT) Campaign in Embalenhle in Secunda, Mpumalanga. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
AIDS-Associated Renal Tuberculosis
In order to study the prevalence and the clinical features of renal tuberculosis associated with AIDS, we studied the renal tissue of the necropsies made in 46 AIDS patients under light microscopy. We found renal tuberculous granuloma in 11 (23%) patients (in 3 without previous diagnosis of renal or extrarenal tuberculosis) and only 4 of them presented moderate hematuria or pyuria sterile. As subclinical renal tuberculosis was frequent in this group of AIDS patients, the urine culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis may be useful for diagnosing tuberculosis in AIDS patients.Nephron 1996;74:701?704 (Source: Nephron)
Cementless total hip arthroplasty after acute femoral neck fracture in active patients. Prospective matched study with a minimum follow-up of 5 years
Conclusion Cementless total hip replacement for treatment of acute femoral neck fracture showed results similar to those of elective surgery for osteoarthritis in these selected patients. (Source: Revista Espanola de Cirugia Ortopedica y Traumatologia)
18F-FDG PET/CT aids the diagnosis of adult onset Still's disease in a patient with fever of unknown origin
Publication date: November?December 2014 Source:Revista Española de Medicina Nuclear e Imagen Molecular (English Edition), Volume 33, Issue 6 Author(s): S.G. Roy , S. Karunanithi , V.S. Dhull , C. Bal , R. Kumar (Source: Revista Espanola de Medicina Nuclear e Imagen Molecular)
Bringing non-human primate research into the post-genomic era: how monkeys are teaching us about elite controllers of HIV/AIDS
Eric Vallender discusses a recent Genome Biology paper identifying how host-genetic factors influence SIV clinical progression, with clinical implications for HIV (Source: Genome Biology)
Assessing knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to HIV and AIDS in Nicaragua: A community-level perspective
Conclusions Interventions to reduce social-structural contextual factors in Nicaragua are needed so that individuals may adopt and maintain HIV risk reduction strategies. Increased gender-specific HIV education and skills-building programs need to be implemented. Sensitive mass media messages may also increase the knowledge of HIV and AIDS, and serve to encourage protective attitudes and behaviors. (Source: Sexual and Reproductive Healthcare)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Frequently asked questions in drug combinations and the mass-action law-based answers
This article reviews the current status and enlists the frequently occurred pit-falls, misconceptions and common errors in drug combination studies. The questions and issues are contemplated to be answered and clarified with the physico-chemical algorithms of the mass-action law, specifically with the unified theory of the median-effect equation and its combination index theorem for drug combinations. The derived theory, algorithm and its computer simulation lead to a quantitative indexed bioinformatics, and econo-green bio-research using small number of data points. (Source: Synergy)
Acute tubular nephropathy in a patient with acute HIV infection: review of the literature
We report a 57-year old man with diabetes mellitus and hypertension who presented with acute HIV infection. Routine blood tests showed an elevated blood urea nitrogen and creatinine. Renal biopsy showed acute tubular nephropathy, which has not been reported to occur during acute HIV infection, in the absence of rhabdomyolysis or multiple organ system failure. Antiretroviral therapy was initiated. His renal failure gradually resolved without further intervention. At one year of follow-up his HIV RNA was undetectable, and his renal function was normal. The case illustrates a rare manifestation of acute HIV infection - acute renal failure - in an older man with diabetes and hypertension. In this setting acute kidney injury might mistakenly have been attributed to his chronic comorbidities, an...
Updates to Adult and Adolescent Opportunistic Infections Guidelines Released
Updates to the Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Infected Adults and Adolescents were released on October 28, 2014. The updates affect the following sections: Pneumocystis Pneumonia&nbsp; Bacterial Enteric Infections Mucocutaneous Candidiasis&nbsp; Hepatitis C Virus Infection Table: Prophylaxis to Prevent First Episode of Opportunistic Disease&nbsp; Table: Treatment of AIDS-Associated Opportunistic Infections&nbsp; Table: Opportunistic Infection Drugs in Pregnancy&nbsp; For a summary of the major updates, please see What&rsquo;s New in the Guidelines. (Source: AIDSinfo At-a-Glance: Offering Information on HIV/AIDS Treatment, Prevention, and Research, A Service of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS))
News from NIAID
November 3, 2014: NIH Trial Tests Very Early Anti-HIV Therapy in HIV-Infected Newborns &nbsp; October 30, 2014: Model by NIH Grantees Explains Why HIV Prevention Dosing Differs by Sex &nbsp; October 28, 2014: In South Africa, RV144 HIV Vaccine Regimen Induces Immune Responses Similar to Those Seen in Thailand &nbsp; October 28, 2014: NIH-Led Study Explores Prevention of Heart Disease in HIV-Infected People (Source: AIDSinfo At-a-Glance: Offering Information on HIV/AIDS Treatment, Prevention, and Research, A Service of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS))
Saquinavir/r containing initial antiretroviral therapy (ART)-long term evaluation in Polish Observational Cohort of HIV/AIDS Patients (POLCA) Study Group
Conclusions Saquinavir/r containing regimen remains a valuable and safe option for patients with indications to protease inhibitor based antiretroviral treatment. (Source: HIV and AIDS Review)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
The Nkateko health service trial to improve hypertension management in rural South Africa: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial
DiscussionThere are challenges in the design of this trial. Assessing change through population surveys may reduce measurable effects; however, we feel this is appropriate because we aim to attract those who currently do not use clinics, and we hope to improve care for clinic users. Clinics were randomised at an open meeting because we were concerned that a remote process of randomisation would not be trusted by the community. We are constantly working to achieve an effective balance between the intervention and process evaluations.Trial registration: ISRCTN12128227 (registered 5 March 2014) (Source: Trials)
Do pigmentation and the melanocortin system modulate aggression and sexuality in humans as they do in other animals?
Publication date: July 2012 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 53, Issue 1 Author(s): J. Philippe Rushton , Donald I. Templer Pigmentation of the hair, skin, cuticle, feather and eye is one of the most salient and variable attributes of vertebrates. In many species, melanin-based coloration is found to be pleiotropically linked to behavior. We review animal studies that have found darker pigmented individuals average higher amounts of aggression and sexual activity than lighter pigmented individuals. We hypothesize that similar relationships between pigmentation, aggression, and sexuality occur in humans. We first review the literature on non-human animals and then review some of the correlates of melanin in people, including aggression and sexual activity. Both within...
Media use and HIV/AIDS knowledge: a knowledge gap perspective
This study examined the relationship between HIV/AIDS-related mass media use and HIV/AIDS-related knowledge among urban and rural residents of northwestern Ethiopia. A hierarchical regression analysis indicated that HIV/AIDS-related mass media use has both sequestering and mainstreaming effects in certain segments of the study population, although it was not a significant predictor of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge in the total population. The knowledge gaps between individuals with high and low education and between individuals who experience high and low levels of interpersonal communication about HIV/AIDS narrowed as HIV/AIDS-related media use increased, but the gap between urban and rural residents widened. The widening gap could be explained by differences in perceptions of information sa...
HIV Reverse-Transcriptase Drug Resistance Mutations During Early Infection Reveal Greater Transmission Diversity Than in Envelope Sequences
Conclusions.&nbsp;Reverse-transcriptase DRMs demonstrate that the breadth of variants in transmission may be greater than what is reflected in envelope sequences. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Decreased HIV Type 1 Transcription in CCR5-{Delta}32 Heterozygotes During Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy
Individuals who are heterozygous for the CCR5-32 mutation provide a natural model to examine the effects of reduced CCR5 expression on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) persistence. We evaluated the HIV reservoir in 18 CCR5-32 heterozygotes and 54 CCR5 wild-type individuals during suppressive antiretroviral therapy. Cell-associated HIV RNA levels (P = .035), RNA to DNA transcriptional ratios (P = .013), and frequency of detectable HIV 2&ndash;long terminal repeat circular DNA (P = .013) were significantly lower in CD4+ T cells from CCR5-32 heterozygotes. Cell-associated HIV RNA was significantly correlated with CCR5 surface expression on CD4+ T cells (r2 = 0.136; P = .002). Our findings suggest that curative strategies should further explore manipulation of CCR5. (Source: The Journal of I...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Longitudinal cerebral metabolic changes in pig-tailed macaques infected with the neurovirulent virus SIVsmmFGb
Abstract Longitudinal cerebral metabolite changes in pig-tailed macaques inoculated with the simian immunodeficiency virus SIVsmmFGb were evaluated with in vivo proton MRS at 3 T. Blood sample collection, and MRS were carried out before and 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 weeks after SIV inoculation. Significant reduction of N-acetylaspartate (NAA)/creatine (Cr) and choline (Cho)/Cr ratios in prefrontal gray matter (PGM) and glutamate/glutamine(Glx)/Cr ratio in striatum, and increase of myo-inositol (mI)/Cr in striatum were observed during acute SIV infection. The metabolite alterations during the SIVsmmFGb infection are largely in agreement with previous findings in other non-human primate models and HIV patients. Also, NAA/Cr in PGM and striatum and Glx/Cr in striatum are negative...
Viruses, Vol. 6, Pages 4258-4264: Twenty Years of KSHV
Twenty years ago, Kaposi?s sarcoma (KS) was the oncologic counterpart to Winston Churchill?s Russia: a riddle, wrapped in a mystery, inside an enigma. First described by Moritz Kaposi in 1872, who reported it to be an aggressive skin tumor, KS became known over the next century as a slow-growing tumor of elderly men?in fact, most KS patients were expected to die with the tumor rather than from it. Nevertheless, the course and manifestations of the disease varied widely in different clinical contexts. The puzzle of KS came to the forefront as a harbinger of the AIDS epidemic. The articles in this issue of Viruses recount progress made in understanding Kaposi?s sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) since its initial description in 1994. (Source: Viruses)
Sexually transmitted infections of the anus and rectum.
In this report, we review common anorectal STIs that are frequently referred to colorectal surgeons in the United States. Epidemiology, clinical presentation, and management are summarized, including the latest treatment recommendations. The particularity of anorectal diseases in HIV/AIDS is addressed, along with recent trends in anal cytology and human papillomavirus vaccination. PMID: 25386074 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)
Viral Load Reductions Persist With Less Efavirenz for HIVViral Load Reductions Persist With Less Efavirenz for HIV
Reduced-dose efavirenz is effective when used in combination with tenofovir plus emtricitabine as first-line therapy in HIV-positive patients, the ENCORE1 study shows. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)
Macrophage-Expressed Perforins Mpeg1 and Mpeg1.2 Have an Anti-Bacterial Function in Zebrafish
Macrophage-expressed gene 1 (MPEG1) encodes an evolutionarily conserved protein with a predicted membrane attack complex/perforin domain associated with host defence against invading pathogens. In vertebrates, MPEG1/perforin-2 is an integral membrane protein of macrophages, suspected to be involved in the killing of intracellular bacteria by pore-forming activity. Zebrafish have 3 copies of MPEG1; 2 are expressed in macrophages, whereas the third could be a pseudogene. The mpeg1 and mpeg1.2 genes show differential regulation during infection of zebrafish embryos with the bacterial pathogens Mycobacterium marinum and Salmonella typhimurium. While mpeg1 is downregulated during infection with both pathogens, mpeg1.2 is infection inducible. Upregulation of mpeg1.2 is partially dependent on the...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
The social determinants of health of the child-adolescent immigration and its influence on the nutritional status: systematic review.
Conclusions: the SDH with greater influence on child-adolescent immigrants were the socio-demographic conditions; among them: residence period distinguish the three identified generations while linguistic barrier and ethnic background are truly influential on the biological response to the experimented change caused by the acculturation process, establishing differences in the nutritional status. PMID: 25365003 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Nutricion Hospitalaria)
Siemens looks to consolidation, not growth, in 2015
Siemens resigns itself to another year of flat sales and deals its hearing aids business to private equity firm EQT for $2.7 billion. (Reuters) - Siemens&nbsp;(NYSE:SI) resigned itself to another year of flat sales today after reporting that 1-off charges hit profits again in the 4th quarter, this time for wind turbines. SiemensNews Well, Earnings Roundup, 2014, Hearing, Mergers & Acquisitions, Q3read more (Source: Mass Device)
Nigeria: '3.2 Million Nigerians Are HIV Positive'
[Daily Trust]Kaduna -Director General of the National Agency for the Control of AIDS (NACA), Professor John Idoko, has said that about 3.2 million Nigerians are living with the Human Immuno-deficiency Virus (HIV) while about 40 per cent of that number are not aware of their status. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: Ice Hockey Strategy Needed to Tackle TB-Diabetes Co-Infection
[Key Correspondents]Health experts have called for international action against a looming co-epidemic of diabetes and tuberculosis, in a new report published on 29 October. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Zimbabwe: Man Lives Through Four Generations of ARVs
[The Herald]Stanely Takaona (53) has been living with HIV and Aids for two decades and is still going strong. He survived the disease when it was still perceived a death sentence in Zimbabwe back in the 1990s. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Zimbabwe: A Deadly Concoction
[The Herald]"HIV destroys the immune system. When this happens, the capsule containing the TB germs weakens and breaks. The germs spill out and multiply. The person becomes sick with tuberculosis, transmitting the germs to others through a tell tale cough," were the words of Nobel Peace Prize Laureate Archbishop Desmond Tutu, himself a TB survivor, sometime in 2012. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Oral administration of squid lecithin-transphosphatidylated phosphatidylserine improves memory impairment in aged rats
In this study, the use of squid phosphatidylcholine-transphosphatidylated PS (SQ-PS) was evaluated through examination of its ameliorating effects on age-associated learning and memory deficits in rats. Aged rats were orally administered SQ-PS (10, 20, or 50mg/kg per day) once a day for seven days 30min prior to behavioral assessment in a Morris water maze. SQ-PS administration produced significant dose-dependent improvements in escape latency for finding the platform in the Morris water maze in the aged rats even though Soy-PS administration also exhibited comparable improvements with SQ-PS. Biochemical alterations in the hippocampal cholinergic system, including changes in choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase immunoreactivity, were consistent with the behavioral results. In...
Venous Thrombo-embolism prophylaxis: Intermittent pneumatic compression
Publication date: December 2013 Source:Reviews in Vascular Medicine, Volume 1, Issue 4 Author(s): Mehmet Kurtoglu , Emre Sivrikoz Pulmonary embolism (PE) is the most preventable cause of hospital deaths in Europe. Autopsy-proven fatal pulmonary emboli were found in 2.5% of 200 hospitalized medical patients followed-up prospectively. The number of venous thrombo-embolism (VTE) related deaths throughout the Europe (543,454) is more than double the amount of deaths attributed to AIDS, breast cancer, prostate cancer and transport accidents combined (209,926). Only 58.5% of surgical patients and 39.5% of medical patients receive the appropriate thrombo-prophylaxis for their conditions. An ideal VTE prophylaxis for any given patient should be (1) risk adjusted, (2) targeted, (3) personalized a...
Pharmacy education instruction: Preference and practices, Saudi students? perception
Conclusion The study outcomes had revealed a practical guidance to be considered for instituting preferred modes of instruction to upgrading students? capacities for better understanding and acquiring academic and professional skills. (Source: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal)
Epidemiologic Trends in Head and Neck Cancer and Aids in Diagnosis
Publication date: May 2014 Source:Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinics of North America, Volume 26, Issue 2 Author(s): Nadarajah Vigneswaran , Michelle D. WilliamsTeaser Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma is the sixth most common cancer worldwide predominately associated with tobacco use. Changing cause and increased incidence in oropharyngeal carcinomas is associated with high-risk types of human papilloma virus and has an improved survival. Optical devices may augment visual oral examination; however, their lack of specificity still warrants tissue evaluation/biopsy. Histologic factors of oral carcinomas are critical for patient management and prognostic determination. Clinical biomarkers are still needed to improve early detection, predict malignant transformation, and optimize t...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Oral hairy leukoplakia in patients without HIV: presentation of 2 new cases
Conclusions Although thought of as an HIV/AIDS-associated condition, OHL can develop in patients without HIV, including healthy individuals. There is a strong correlation between the use of immunosuppressants and development of OHL in these patients. (Source: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology)
Assessment of antioxidants status and superoxide dismutase activity in HIV-infected children
Conclusion HIV-infected children have an inadequate selenium and copper nutritional status, which could influence the progression to AIDS. An adequate micronutrient status could improve the clinical conditions in these patients and minimize free radical production and cellular oxidative stress. (Source: The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Hyperreactive malarious splenomegaly and aids: a case report
Publication date: September?October 2014 Source:The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases, Volume 18, Issue 5 Author(s): Zuleica Naomi Tano , Chafic Esper Kallas Filho , Regina Mitsuka Breganó , Wander Rogério Pavanelli , Uheyna Gancedo Ruzon Malaria is endemic in the North of Brazil. However, Hyperreactive Malarious Splenomegaly (HMS) has been rarely described. Splenomegaly in HIV/Aids infection has a large differential diagnosis, but malaria is a cause of gross splenomegaly, regardless of the HIV status. In this paper, we report the case of a 50-year-old man, HIV positive, with massive splenomegaly and multiple malaria infections in the past. He fulfilled the criteria for HMS, received a short course of anti-malarial treatment and weekly quimioprofilatic Chloroquine. In 9 months...
The clinical effectiveness of pegylated interferon and ribavirin for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C in HIV-infected patients in Brazil: a multicentric study
Conclusions in our Brazilian case series, the SVR rate under current clinical practice conditions was similar to that reported in other studies. There was a correlation between an SVR and being infected by genotypes 2 and 3, low viral load, high ALT levels at the onset of treatment, and absence of an AIDS-defining illness. Cytopenia and psychiatric disorders were the major causes of treatment interruption. Efforts should be focused on optimizing management of side effects and counseling to improve adherence and to keep patients on treatment. (Source: The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Initiation of antiretroviral therapy and viral suppression after home HIV testing and counselling in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, and Mbarara district, Uganda: a prospective, observational intervention study
Publication date: November 2014 Source:The Lancet HIV, Volume 1, Issue 2 Author(s): Ruanne V Barnabas , Heidi van Rooyen , Elioda Tumwesigye , Pamela M Murnane , Jared M Baeten , Hilton Humphries , Bosco Turyamureeba , Philip Joseph , Meighan Krows , James P Hughes , Connie Celum Background Antiretroviral therapy significantly decreases HIV-associated morbidity, mortality, and HIV transmission through HIV viral load suppression. In settings of high prevalence, outreach strategies are needed to find asymptomatic HIV-positive people, to link them to HIV care, to initiate antiretroviral therapy, and to achieve viral suppression. We aimed to assess the effect of a community-based strategy of HIV testing and counselling (HTC) and linkage to care in households. Methods We did an uncontrolled ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
The Lancet HIV: a journal for a new era of AIDS
Publication date: October 2014 Source:The Lancet HIV, Volume 1, Issue 1 Author(s): The Lancet HIV (Source: The Lancet HIV)
Characterisation of long-term non-progression of HIV-1 infection after seroconversion: a cohort study
Publication date: October 2014 Source:The Lancet HIV, Volume 1, Issue 1 Author(s): Jannie J van der Helm , Ronald Geskus , Sara Lodi , Laurence Meyer , Hanneke Schuitemaker , Barbara Gunsenheimer-Bartmeyer , Antonella d'Arminio Monforte , Ashley Olson , Giota Touloumi , Caroline Sabin , Kholoud Porter , Maria Prins Background Some individuals remain AIDS-free with a high and stable CD4 cell count without antiretroviral therapy (ART) for many years. We estimated long-term progression-free survival after HIV seroconversion and aimed to identify factors associated with loss of long-term non-progression (LTNP) status. Methods For this cohort study, we used data for individuals with well-estimated dates of HIV-1 seroconversion from the CASCADE Collaboration a network of 28 HIV seroconverter ...
Vulnerability of Bangladeshi street-children to HIV/AIDS: a qualitative study
Conclusions: The deplorable living conditions of street children, with no obvious rights or way out, make them highly vulnerable to HIV/AIDS. Urgent attention of the policy- makers to implement services addressing issues relating to social conditions, sexual health, and drug-use is warranted to prevent the possible epidemic of HIV/AIDS among this group of population. (Source: BioMed Central)
The Experience of Ugandan Nurses in the Practice of Universal Precautions
In Uganda nurses do not always practice universal precautions unless they know the patients? HIV status. In our study, focused ethnography was used to explore the experiences of Ugandan nurses in the practice of universal precautions while caring for persons living with HIV. In-depth interviews were completed with 16 participants from a variety of units at a large teaching hospital in Uganda. Although participants were knowledgeable about universal precautions, the primary challenge to the practice of universal precautions was the inadequate supply of resources, both material and human. (Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)
Analytical methods used in autism spectrum disorders
Publication date: November 2014 Source:TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry, Volume 62 Author(s): Joanna Ka?u?na-Czapli?ska , Jagoda Jó?wik , Ewa ?urawicz Autism is a neurodevelopmental brain disorder characterized by deficiencies of language and social interaction skills, and repetitive behaviors, and is often accompanied by hyperactivity and limited attention. There are numerous theories about the specific causes of autism but they have not yet been proved. Many studies have indicated that autism has a broad multifactorial etiology, with predisposing factors including exposure to toxic chemicals, nutrient deficiencies, and genetic susceptibility. Analytical methods are important in the determination of metabolites in biological samples from autistic children for potential use as b...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Methods for exploring treatment effect heterogeneity in subgroup analysis: an application to global clinical trials
We present three measures derived using the theory of order statistics, which can be used to understand the magnitude and the nature of the variation in treatment effects that can arise merely as an artefact of chance. These measures are not intended to replace a formal test of interaction but instead provide non?inferential visual aids, which allow comparison of the observed and expected differences between regions or other subgroups and are a useful supplement to a formal test of interaction. We discuss how our methodology differs from recently published methods addressing the same issue. A case study of our approach is presented using data from the Study of Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO), which was a large cardiovascular MRCT that has been the subject of controversy ...
Clinical presentation and diagnosis of toxoplasmic encephalitis in Japan
In this study, we retrospectively examined the clinical characteristics of 13 AIDS patients with TE in Japan, including magnetic resonance imaging and thallium 201 (201TI) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) findings, cerebral spinal fluid analysis, serology, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results. All patients improved on anti-toxoplasmosis treatment. Of the 11 patients who underwent serological testing, 6 (55%) had a positive serological result. Of the 7 patients who underwent PCR testing, 3 (42.9%) had a positive PCR result. Nine of 11 patients with TE (81.8%) had multiple lesions. Analysis of the sites of TE lesions did not reveal a difference in site predilection between TE and brain lymphoma. Uptake was negative in all 9 patients who underwent 201Tl SPECT. The stu...
Panic, Paranoia, and Public Health ? The AIDS Epidemic's Lessons for Ebola
New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 0, Issue 0, Ahead of Print. (Source: New England Journal of Medicine)
From Blue Bleach To Hazmat Hacks, Students Take On Ebola Challenges
College students excel at thinking creatively under pressure. Now they're designing tools to confront the challenges of Ebola, including friendlier-looking protective gear and diagnostic aids.&raquo; E-Mail This (Source: NPR Health and Science)
HIV Surveillance Report: Diagnoses of HIV Infection in the United States and Dependent Areas, 2012
The annual surveillance report, published by the Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention (DHAP), summarizes information about diagnosed HIV infection in the United States and dependent areas. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Updated Slide Set: HIV Surveillance - Epidemiology of HIV Infection Through 2012
The Epidemiology of HIV Infection slide set has been updated with information from the 2012 HIV Surveillance Report. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
Updated Slide Set: HIV Surveillance by Race/Ethnicity Through 2012
The HIV by Race/Ethnicity slide set has been updated with information from the 2012 HIV Surveillance Report. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
Angola: Govt Can Eliminate HIV/Aids Vertical Transmission By 2015
[ANGOP]M'banza Congo -The Angolan epidemiologist Marques Gomes, who is a technician of the National Institute for the Fight against Aids, last Tuesday in M'banza Congo, northern Zaire Province, said that Angola is among the 22 priority countries in the global plan to eliminate the vertical transmission of HIV/Aids by 2015. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Namibia: New HIV Strategy Launched
[Namibian]THE Ministry of Health and Social Services has launched a new national strategy for HIV Testing and Counselling aimed at targeting reproductive and sexual health. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Namibia: Health Deputy Minister Encourages HIV Testing
[New Era]Windhoek -The Deputy Minister of Health and Social Services, Petrina Haingura, yesterday urged people to know their HIV status. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Zimbabwe: Hubby Turns HIV+ Wife Into Punching Bag
[The Herald]A Harare man turned his wife into a punching bag from the day she told him that she had tested HIV positive, the Harare Civil Court heard yesterday. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: Group Raises Awareness on HIV/Aids
[This Day]A Lagos based group dedicated to fighting the HIV/AIDS, the Anti-Aids club, has advised youths to take absolute measures in preventing communicable and incommunicable diseases, in order to prevent the spread of sexually transmitted viruses. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
South Africa: Six Reasons Why South Africa Still Needs the TAC
[The Daily Vox]The Treatment Action Campaign (TAC) on Tuesday launched a global funding campaign to raise R10-million rand by the end of November. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
The Brazilian version of STarT Back Screening Tool - translation, cross-cultural adaptation and reliability
Conclusion: The translated and cross-culturally adapted SBST-Brazil proved to be reliable for screening patients according to their risk of poor prognosis and the presence of psychosocial factors. Contextualização: Fatores psicossociais não são rotineiramente identificados na avaliação fisioterapêutica e podem influenciar o prognóstico de pacientes com dor lombar. O questionário "STarT Back Screening Tool" (SBST) auxilia na triagem desses pacientes em relação ao risco de mau prognóstico no tratamento primário, considerando fatores físicos e psicossociais, classificando-os em de baixo, médio e alto risco. Objetivos: Traduzir e adaptar transculturalmente o SBST para Língua Portuguesa do Brasil e testar a sua confiabilidade. Método: A primeira etapa consistiu na tradução,...
Clinical applications and methemoglobinemia induced by dapsone
Dapsone is a synthetic sulfone that is used as an antibiotic in humans and animals to prevent and treat diseases including leprosy, tuberculosis, malaria, and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and Toxoplasma gondii encephalitis in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients as well as in anti-inflammatory conditions, such as dermatitis herpetiformis. However, this drug is also associated with several adverse effects, including dose-related hemolysis, methemoglobinemia, psychosis, peripheral neuropathy, agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia, hypersensitivity syndrome, sulfone syndrome, and others. Of these effects, methemoglobinemia is the most common side effect of dapsone, which leads to functional anemia and cellular hypoxia with symptoms of cyanosis, headache, fatigue, tachycardia, weak...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
The effectiveness of a joint mother?daughter sexual health program for Latina early adolescents
Publication date: January?February 2014 Source:Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, Volume 35, Issue 1 Author(s): Laura F. Romo , Magali Bravo , Jeanne M. Tschann A culturally and cognitively adapted joint mother?daughter sexual health and HIV transmission curriculum was implemented for 96 Latina early adolescents and their mothers (48 mother?daughter dyads). Pretest and posttest surveys, interviews, and observations of participants' conversations about AIDS were used to assess program effectiveness in increasing knowledge and communication about sexuality and HIV transmission, and fostering daughters' positive attitudes toward using condoms in the future. At posttest, mothers and daughters reported an increase in the frequency of home communication about sexual topics and ...
Sleep Medication Failure and Newly Diagnosed Obstructive Sleep Apnea: The Role of Brain Function Modulation by Muscle Afferent Activity
In this issue of Mayo Clinic Proceedings, Krakow et al1 report the results of a retrospective evaluation of 1210 patients with insomnia disorder. All 899 patients who were taking over-the-counter or prescription sleep aids had pharmacotherapeutic failure. Of the 942 patients objectively tested (77.9% of the total cohort), 860 (91.3%) met standard criteria, on average, for a moderate to severe sleep-related breathing disorder. (Source: Mayo Clinic Proceedings)
What HIV And Ebola Have In Common: Lessons From That Other Stigmatized Virus
It?s clear Ebola survivors are key to helping stop the outbreak. Their immunity to the disease means they can provide vital hands-on care to infected people, and blood transfusions from survivors may also turn out to be an important way to help other patients combat the virus. Yet survivors and their family members are struggling to get back to normal life after defeating the dreaded disease. Disturbing anecdotal reports of adults rejected from their communities and jobs and orphans with nowhere to turn began emerging almost as soon as the outbreak began. And as the virus continues to spread, there?s no sign that things are getting better. The culprit is stigma; shame, fear or disgrace around a particular experience -- such as having had Ebola virus disease. And as HIV/AIDS, another ...
True Durability: HIV Virologic Suppression in an Urban Clinic and Implications for Timing of Intensive Adherence Efforts and Viral Load Monitoring
We examined the risk of viral rebound for patients who achieved two consecutive viral loads lower than the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) within 390 days. For 791 patients with two viral loads below the LLOQ, viral rebound &gt;LLOQ from the first viral load was 36.9 % (95 % CI 32.2?41.6) in the first year, 26.9 % (95 % CI 21.7?32.1) in the year following one year of viral suppression, and 24.6 % (95 % CI 18.4?30.9) in the year following 2 years of viral suppression. However, for patients with CD4 ?300 cells/µl who had 3?6 years of virologic suppression, the risk of viral rebound was very low. At the population level, the risk of viral rebound in a complex urban clinic population is surprisingly high even out to 3 years. Intensified monitoring and adherence effort...
Inconsistencies on U.S. Departments of Health Websites Regarding Anal Use of the Female Condom
Abstract The female condom (FC) is FDA approved to prevent pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections during vaginal intercourse, but not for use during anal intercourse. Studies suggest that a sizeable proportion of men who have sex with men use the FC for anal intercourse despite lack of safety and efficacy information. We reviewed Department of Health (DOH) websites for U.S. states (n = 50) and major municipalities (population &gt;500,000; n = 29) regarding anal use of the FC. Forty-eight (60.8 %) websites mentioned the FC, of which only 21 (45.8 %) mentioned anal use. Of those that mention anal use, 8 (38.1 %) supported, 13 (61.9 %) were neutral, and 1 (4.8 %) discouraged this use. Ten websites (47.6 %) provided instructions for anal use of the FC-ranging from rem...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Long-term functional outcome and satisfaction of patients with an active middle ear implant for sensorineural hearing loss compared to a matched population with conventional hearing aids
The objectives of the study were to review the results of an active middle ear implant for sensorineural hearing loss in patients who were unable to wear or did not benefit from conventional hearing aids in comparison to patients with a matched degree of hearing loss successfully fitted with a conventional hearing aid. A retrospective chart review of 10 patients (10 ears) after implantation of an active middle ear implant and 12 patients (13 ears) with conventional hearing aids in one tertiary referral center was performed. Intervention for sensorineural hearing loss was the implantation of an active middle ear implant in one group or fitting of conventional hearing aids in the other group. Outcome measures were pure-tone audiometry (auditory thresholds, functional gain), speech audiometry...
Early Initiation of Combo Antiretrovirals Gaining SupportEarly Initiation of Combo Antiretrovirals Gaining Support
More evidence supports the use of combined antiretroviral therapy soon after HIV infection, say researchers. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)
Media, M.D.
After almost two months of screaming newspaper headlines and wall-to-wall cable television coverage about the Ebola outbreak, a calm descended over the media in late October. On Oct. 30, the Washington Post's front page carried the headline, "New Cases of Ebola Declining, WHO Says." The next day, the same real estate carried stories about the war in Syria and the CEO of Apple, Inc. Over the same two days, Ebola was nowhere to be found on the front page of the New York Times. It was 23 days after the death of Thomas Eric Duncan, the first and only confirmed Ebola fatality in the United States. Barring another victim arriving on U.S. shores, this slowdown in Ebola stories could be the start of a downward slope often seen in coverage of new, scary viral outbreaks. Coverage of epidemics oft...
UC launches study on high risk of heart attack, stroke in people with HIV
Researchers at the University of Cincinnati hope to enroll up to 150 people with HIV in a clinical trial to determine whether drugs known as statins, which are designed to lower cholesterol, can help reduce their risk of stroke and heart attack. Statins can reduce such risks in people without HIV, but it's unclear whether they have the same effect on those with the virus that causes AIDS. "There appear to be differences in the way people develop heart attacks and strokes ? with differences in? (Source: Health Care:Physician Practices headlines)
Nigeria: Govt to Provide HIV Drugs to Private Hospitals - FACA
[Leadership]The FCT Agency for the Control of AIDS (FACA) has said that the Federal Government will provide private hospitals with HIV drugs under the Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) programme. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Gambia: NBR Aids Committee Holds Review Meeting On HIV and Aids
[The Point]The North Bank Regional aids committee recently held it quarterly meeting to review progress and challenges in the implementation of HIV and AIDS programme in the region held at the NAS resource centre in Kerewan North Bank Region. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
South Africa: SA a Beacon of Hope in Aids Fight
[]Every war has a defining moment that changes the course of the fight. The global battle against HIV/AIDS reached a turning point in 2000 at the 13th Conference in Durban. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Tanzania: Thousands to Wear Hearing Aids
[Daily News]MORE than 5,000 patients in five regions in the country will soon be fitted with hearing aids by the Starkey Hearing Foundation. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Food Insecurity and Other Poverty Indicators Among People Living with HIV/AIDS: Effects on Treatment and Health Outcomes
This study examined indicators of poverty at multiple levels in a sample of 364 men and 157 women living with HIV recruited through an offering of a free holiday food basket. Results showed that 61 % (N = 321) of participants had experienced at least one indicator of food insecurity in the previous month. Multivariate analyses showed that food insecurity was closely tied to lack of transportation. In addition, food insecurity was associated with lacking access to ART and poor ART adherence after adjusting for neighbourhood poverty, living in an area without a supermarket (food desert), education, stable housing, and reliable transportation. Results therefore affirm previous research that has suggested food insecurity is uniquely associated with poor ART adherence and calls for structura...
Nigeria: HIV Positive Persons Barricade NACA to Protest Living Conditions
[Leadership]People living with HIV/AIDS, yesterday laid siege at the entrance of the National Agency for the Control of AIDS (NACA) Abuja, to protest what they described as their poor condition of living, which they said, has increased their mortality rate to 20,000 every month. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Rwanda: Knowing HIV Status Important for Pregnant Women
[Focus]Prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV/Aids is still a challenge in African Countries, including Rwanda. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: HIV Patients Protest Neglect in Abuja, Bar NACA Boss From Office
[Daily Trust]Hundreds of people living with HIV have picketed the National Agency for Control of AIDS (NACA) to protest what they say is neglect and inadequate funding that's led to more deaths of some 20,000 people every month from AIDS. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Novel nanofiber-based technology could help prevent HIV/AIDS transmission
(American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists) Scientists have developed a novel topical microbicide loaded with hyaluronic acid nanofibers that could potentially prevent transmission of HIV through the vaginal mucosa. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)
Interactions of the EGFR juxtamembrane domain with PIP2-containing lipid bilayers: Insights from multiscale molecular dynamics simulations
Conclusions These simulations support the proposal that the positively charged residues at the start of the JM-A domain stabilize the JM-A helices in an orientation away from the membrane surface through binding to PIP2, thus promoting a conformation corresponding to an asymmetric (i.e. activated) kinase. General significance This study indicates that MD simulations may be used to characterise JM/lipid interactions, thus helping to define their role in the mechanisms of receptor tyrosine kinases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Recent developments of molecular dynamics. (Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) General Subjects)
Analysis of drug abuse data reported by medical institutions in Taiwan from 2002 to 2011
This study showed that the top five reported abused drugs by medical institutions during the last decade were heroin, methamphetamine, benzodiazepines, ketamine, and zolpidem. Heroin and methamphetamine continued to be the first two abused drugs reported by medical institutions. Heroin abuse was significant, but has shown a downward trend. However, emerging abused drugs, such as ketamine and zolpidem, presented upward trends. 3,4-Methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA) abuse seems to have re-emerged and has increased gradually since 2010. Injection without needle sharing has become the most common route of administration of abused drugs since 2002. The majority of causes for these reported drug abuses were drug dependence, followed by peer influence and stress relief. Hepatitis C was the...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Multiple variations of internal iliac artery ? A case report
Discussion The knowledge of such variations aids in performing various surgical and radiological procedures in this region. (Source: Journal of the Anatomical Society of India)
?Strain engineering? aids materials research
Publication date: October 2014 Source:Membrane Technology, Volume 2014, Issue 10 In the ongoing search for new materials for fuel cells, batteries, photovoltaics, separation membranes and electronic devices, one recent approach involves applying and managing stresses within known materials to give them dramatically different properties. (Source: Membrane Technology)
IRAK1 mutation defines PEL [Microbiology]
Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is an AIDS-defining cancer. All PELs carry Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). X chromosome-targeted sequencing of PEL identified 34 common missense mutations in 100% of cases. This included a Phe196Ser change in the interleukin 1 receptor-associated kinase 1 (IRAK1). The mutation was verified in primary PEL exudates.... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Antibody persistence and T-cell balance [Medical Sciences]
The quest for a prophylactic AIDS vaccine is ongoing, but it is now clear that the successful vaccine must elicit protective antibody responses. Accordingly, intense efforts are underway to identify immunogens that elicit these responses. Regardless of the mechanism of antibody-mediated protection, be it neutralization, Fc-mediated effector function, or both,... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Ocular Inflammation in Neurorheumatic Disease
Semin Neurol 2014; 34: 444-457DOI: 10.1055/s-0034-1390393Neuroimmunologic and systemic rheumatic diseases are frequently accompanied by inflammation of the eye, ocular adnexa, and orbital tissues. An understanding of the diverse forms of ophthalmic pathology in these conditions aids the clinician in making appropriate preventative, diagnostic, therapeutic, and prognostic decisions. In this review, the authors address ocular inflammation in neurorheumatic disease in three sections: first, they highlight current perspectives on immune mechanisms in the development of these disorders; next, they provide a framework for the recognition and evaluation of ophthalmologic inflammatory entities; finally, they discuss in detail several inflammatory conditions that affect the nervous system and the e...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Study, by use of coarse-grained models, of the functionally crucial residues and allosteric pathway of anesthetic regulation of the Gloeobacter violaceus ligand-gated ion channel.
Authors: Li XY, Xie F, Zhang JC, Su JG Abstract Although pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs) have been found to be the targets of general anesthetics, the mechanism of the effects of anesthetics on pLGICs remains elusive. pLGICs from Gloeobacter violaceus (GLIC) can be inhibited by the anesthetic ketamine. X-ray crystallography has shown that the ketamine binding site is distant from the channel gate of the GLIC. It is still not clear how ketamine controls the function of the GLIC by long-range allosteric regulation. In this work, the functionally crucial residues and allosteric pathway of anesthetic regulation of the GLIC were identified by use of a coarse-grained thermodynamic method developed by our group. In our method, the functionally crucial sites were identified a...
HIV Drug TherapyHIV Drug Therapy
Read clinically focused news coverage of key developments from HIV 2014 Medscape HIV/AIDS (Source: Medscape Hiv-Aids Headlines)
Antiretroviral Combos With Emtricitabine Outdo LamivudineAntiretroviral Combos With Emtricitabine Outdo Lamivudine
First-line tenofovir-based antiretroviral regimens containing lamivudine are associated with a greater risk for virologic failure in HIV than those with emtricitabine, report Dutch investigators. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)
Gates Foundation ramps up malaria eradication efforts
While the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation is one of many organizations putting efforts toward helping the Ebola crisis in West Africa, Bill Gates is also continuing work on another deadly disease: malaria. On Sunday, Gates wrote on his blog that the foundation will increase its malaria budget by 30 percent. That means an investment of more than $200 million annually, the Associated Press reported, on top of donations to the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. The foundation has? (Source: Health Care:Pharmaceuticals headlines)
Nigeria: Nepwhan Protest Poor Funding of HIV/Aids Programmes
[This Day]Abuja -The Network of People With HIV/AIDS in Nigeria (NEPWHAN) have besieged the headquarters of the National Agency for the Control of AIDS (NACA) in Abuja demanding an increase funding for HIV / AIDS programmes in the country. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
ReWalk Motorized Device Helps People with Disabilities to Walk
ReWalk is a wearable robotic exoskeleton that provides powered hip and knee motion to enable individuals with Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) to stand upright and walk. ReWalk, the only exoskeleton with FDA clearance via clinical studies and extensive performance testing for personal use, is now available throughout the United States. (Source: Disabled World)
Uganda: Govt Now Looks to Sports to Fight HIV
[Observer]The ministry of Health, in an apparent shift in strategy, says it will use sports to raise awareness about the rising prevalence of HIV, now at 7.3 per cent. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Zimbabwe: Zimbabwe to Get $435 Million to Fight HIV
[New Zimbabwe]ZIMBABWE is set to receive a $435 million grant for HIV and Aids from the Global Fund to boost its HIV programmes which are heavily underfunded, a top United Nations official has announced. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Mozambique: Mozambique Tackles Its Twin Burden of Cervical Cancer and HIV
[IPS]Maputo -The woman on bed 27 in Maputo Central Hospital's oncology ward has no idea how lucky she is. In January, when abdominal pains racked her, a pharmacist suggested pain killers. For months, "the pain would go and return," she told IPS. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
3D ablation catheter localisation using individual C-arm x-ray projections.
In this study four different types of ablation catheters were used. Experiments using measured C-arm fluoroscopy projections of a catheter in a RSD phantom deliver an average 3D accuracy of 4.5 mm. PMID: 25350552 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Physics in Medicine and Biology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Comparing elearning and classroom instruction on HIV/AIDS knowledge uptake and internalizing among South African and Irish pupils
Conclusion: Elearning proved a superior technique to classroom instruction for HIV/AIDS knowledge uptake and internalizing and should be considered for wider implementation. (Source: Health Education Journal)
HIV/AIDS knowledge, perception of knowledge and sources of information among university students in USA, Turkey, South Africa and Nigeria
Conclusion: More students in countries with higher HIV prevalence had accurate HIV/AIDS knowledge and poorer perception of their level of knowledge than students in countries with low prevalence. Governments in the countries studied should ensure that young people receive accurate HIV/AIDS information, with special attention paid to educating young women. (Source: Health Education Journal)
The regulatory framework for similar biotherapeutic products in Cuba
Publication date: September 2011 Source:Biologicals, Volume 39, Issue 5 Author(s): Yanet Hechavarría Núñez , Rodrigo Omar Pérez Massipe , Santa Deybis Orta Hernández , Lázara Martínez Muñoz , Olga Lidia Jacobo Casanueva , Violeta Pérez Rodríguez , Rolando Bárbaro Domínguez Morales , Rafael B. Pérez Cristiá Biopharmaceuticals make up a significant proportion of medicinal products used for the treatment of diseases such as cancer, arthritis, cardiac dysfunctions and AIDS. Access to therapies based on the use of these products has been limited as a result of the high marketing costs. Cuba has a biopharmaceutical industry with great potential for innovation, capable of developing new products and to produce others, like the biosimilars destined to fulfill the needs of its Natio...
Management of Coronary Disease in the Era of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement Comprehensive Review of the Literature
This article provides a comprehensive review of the literature to depict the actual knowledge on the subject of aortic stenosis and concomitant CAD. This article also aids heart teams in their decision-making process to appropriately manage these challenging patients with aortic stenosis and CAD. Upcoming randomized studies will clarify the influence of CAD, the best timing for percutaneous coronary intervention, and its impact on TAVR results. (Source: Interventional Cardiology Clinics)
Paramolar tubercle in endodontics: An overview, case report and specimen study
Publication date: December 2013 Source:Journal of Pierre Fauchard Academy (India Section), Volume 27, Issue 4 Author(s): J. Paras Mull , M.K. Manjunath Paramolar tubercle is an additional cusp occurring on the buccal surface of a permanent maxillary molar. Due to their overall low occurrence, there is limited information about root anatomy of paramolar tubercles. Periapical radiographs do not always image the root canal associated with the paramolar tubercle. Teeth with paramolar tubercle can promote problems like dental caries, gingivitis, periodontitis, and may pose problems to the clinician in procedures like orthodontic banding and rubber dam placement. Although, small paramolar tubercles may not have pulp tissue, a very large tubercle may contain separate pulp chamber and associated...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Differential activation of human constitutive androstane receptor and its SV23 and SV24 splice variants by rilpivirine and etravirine
CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONSNNRTIs activate hCAR?WT, hCAR?SV23, and hCAR?SV24 in a ligand?specific and isoform?selective manner. The activation occurs by a mechanism that does not appear to involve binding to the LBD or recruitment of SRC?1, SRC?2, or SRC?3. (Source: British Journal of Pharmacology)
Functional assessment of elderly patients with hearing impairment: A preliminary evaluation
Conclusion Elderly patients with HI have vital functional limitations in daily living activities in Nigeria. The factors associated with the limitations deserve urgent attention. (Source: Journal of Clinical Gerontology and Geriatrics)
Central nervous system cryptococcoma in a Ugandan patient with Human Immunodeficiency Virus
We describe a cryptococcoma in the central nervous system (CNS) in a Ugandan patient with AIDS, and review the diagnosis and management with special focus on difficulties encountered in low or middle-income countries. (Source: Medical Mycology Case Reports)
Cryptococcus albidus encephalitis in newly diagnosed HIV-patient and literature review
We present the first case of encephalitis caused by Cryptococcus albidus duo to AIDS. In addition, we give an overview of the literature of extra-dermal infection cases caused by C. albidus. In the 21 cases, HIV and organ transplantation were important risk factors especially in recent 20 years. Fungal culture or India ink preparations are the best way to demonstrate C. albidus in both serum and CSF. (Source: Medical Mycology Case Reports)
Acapsular Cryptococcus neoformans activates the NLRP3 inflammasome
Publication date: Available online 2 September 2014 Source:Microbes and Infection Author(s): Caiqin Guo , Mingkuan Chen , Zhenzong Fa , Ailing Lu , Wei Fang , Bing Sun , Changbin Chen , Wanqing Liao , Guangxun Meng Cryptococcus neoformans (C. neoformans) is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that mainly infects immunocompromised individuals such as AIDS patients. Although cell surface receptors for recognition of C. neoformans have been studies intensively, cytoplasmic recognition of this pathogen remains unclear. As an important detector of pathogen infection, inflammasome can sense and get activated by infection of various pathogens, including pathogenic fungi such as Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus. Our present study showed that acapsular C. neoformans (cap59?) activated the...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Identification of Mycobacterium avium genes expressed during in vivo infection and the role of the oligopeptide transporter OppA in virulence
Publication date: November 2014 Source:Microbial Pathogenesis, Volume 76 Author(s): Lia Danelishvili , Bernadette Stang , Luiz E. Bermudez Mycobacterium avium causes disseminated disease in patients with AIDS and other immunosuppressive conditions and pulmonary infections in individuals with chronic lung diseases. Much still need to be learn about the mechanisms of M. avium pathogenesis. Using a mouse model of disseminated M. avium disease, we applied an in vivo expression technology system and identified M. avium genes up-regulated in different organs of mice during early stage of infection. The M. avium oppA gene, involved in an active transport of oligopeptides across the cell membrane, was found highly expressed in lung, liver and spleen of mice. Mutation in the transport domain...
AIDS-related Gastric Kaposi's Sarcoma before and after Treatment with Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin
Publication date: April 2014 Source:Journal of Experimental &amp; Clinical Medicine, Volume 6, Issue 2 Author(s): Takashi Takahashi , Aikichi Iwamoto (Source: Journal of Experimental and Clinical Medicine)
Non AIDS Kaposi's Sarcoma Leading to Lower Extremities Wounds, Case Presentations and Discussion
Publication date: March 2012 Source:Journal of the American College of Clinical Wound Specialists, Volume 4, Issue 1 Author(s): Laemthong Phavixay , David Raynolds , Richard Simman Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a rare malignancy that with the onset of the AIDS epidemic suggests a link between the development of disease and a transmissible agent. It is a low-grade vascular tumor associated with infection with the human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8). The first case presents a non-HIV patient with Kaposi's sarcoma of the left foot and the second case is a kidney transplant patient on immunosuppressive medications with wounds on the right leg due to non-HIV Kaposi's sarcoma. (Source: Journal of the American College of Clinical Wound Specialists)
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy and JC Virus-related disease in modern neurology practice
Publication date: July 2014 Source:Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders, Volume 3, Issue 4 Author(s): Robert L. Carruthers , Joseph Berger The natural history and clinical import of Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy has changed enormously in the last thirty years. After a resurgence of PML during the HIV/AIDS epidemic, advances in the treatment of multiple sclerosis created another group of ?at risk? patients. With a focus on issues pertaining to the multiple sclerosis patient population, this review covers pathophysiology of the JC virus, causes of PML, mechanisms by which natalizumab increases the risk of PML, determinants of PML risk in natalizumab-treated patients, risks of natalizumab discontinuation, PML prevention and surveillance, PML imaging features, PML diagno...
Learning and empowerment: Designing a financial literacy tool to teach long-term investing to illiterate women in rural India
The objectives of this paper are two-fold. First, it aims to bring attention to the learning and educational needs of the almost one billion illiterate adults in the world who have little or no means for furthering their education in traditional settings. More than two-thirds of illiterate adults in the world are women and their education can have an immense impact on societal development. When we think of learning in its cultural context through social interaction, this population presents a unique vantage point to test and extend our theoretical ideas. Second, the paper presents an exploratory case study that demonstrates how research on learning can guide human empowerment by addressing everyday problems and how addressing these problems, in turn, can contribute to our understanding of ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
The 340B Discount Program: Outpatient Prescription Dispensing Patterns Through Contract Pharmacies In 2012 [Pharmaceuticals]
Section&nbsp;340B of the Public Health Service Act provides qualified organizations serving vulnerable populations with deep discounts for some outpatient medications. A 2010 regulatory change widely expanded the 340B program&rsquo;s reach, allowing these organizations to contract with retail pharmacies to dispense medications for eligible patients. Little is known about which medications are dispensed by contract pharmacies under the expanded program. We provide the first comparison of 340B prescriptions and all prescriptions dispensed in contract pharmacies. We used 2012 data from Walgreens, the national leader in 340B contract pharmacies. Medications used to treat chronic conditions such as diabetes, high cholesterol levels, asthma, and depression accounted for an overwhelming majority ...
Bridging The Gap: A Community Health Program Saved Lives, Then Closed Its Doors [Narrative Matters]
A program connecting community health workers with patients in Boston shows benefits but is shuttered after funds dry up. (Source: Health Affairs)
A multi-drug resistant HIV-1 protease is resistant to the dimerization inhibitory activity of TLF-PafF
In this study, an HIV-1 protease dimerization inhibitor (PDI)?TLF-PafF, was evaluated against MDR769 HIV-1 protease using X-ray crystallography. It was hypothesized that co-crystallization of MDR769 HIV-1 protease in complex with TLF-PafF would yield either a monomeric or a disrupted dimeric structure. However, crystal structure of MDR769 I10V HIV-1 protease co-crystallized with TLF-PafF revealed an undisrupted dimeric protease structure (PDB ID: 4NKK) that is comparable to the crystal structure of its corresponding apo-protease (PDB ID: 3PJ6). In order to understand the binding profile of TLF-PafF as a PDI, docking analysis was performed using monomeric protease (prepared from the dimeric crystal structure, PDB ID: 4NKK) as docking receptor. Docking analysis revealed that TLF-PafF binds...
Factors shaping the HIV-competence of two primary schools in rural Zimbabwe
We present multi-method case studies of two Zimbabwean primary schools ? one rural and one small-town. The rural school scored higher than the small-town school on measures of child well-being and school attendance by HIV-affected children. The small-town school had superior facilities, more teachers with higher morale, more specialist HIV/AIDS activities, and an explicit religious ethos. The relatively impoverished rural school was located in a more cohesive community with a more critically conscious, dynamic and networking headmaster. The current emphasis on HIV/AIDS-related teacher training and specialist school-based activities should be supplemented with greater attention to impacts of school leadership and the nature of the school-community interface on the HIV-competence of school...
Inviting Backchat: How schools and communities in Ghana, Swaziland and Kenya support children to contextualise knowledge and create agency through sexuality education
Publication date: Available online 11 July 2014 Source:International Journal of Educational Development Author(s): Colleen McLaughlin , Sharlene Swartz , Mary Cobbett , Susan Kiragu Education about sex, relationships and HIV and AIDS in African contexts is riddled with socio-cultural complexity. In this paper the authors argue that in extreme contexts education can lead change further by developing young people as significant actors in their own lives and in the lives of the community by bringing about change in attitudes in the community, as well as practices in schools. A qualitative study was undertaken in eight primary schools of the use of student knowledge and voice to change attitudes, impact upon socio cultural beliefs, adult?child dialogue and drive changes in practice in AIDS...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Tone identification in Mandarin-speaking children with profound hearing impairment
Little is known about the tone identification ability of Mandarin-speaking children with profound hearing impairment (HI) and fitted with hearing aids (HAs). The present study aimed to evaluate the Mandarin tone identification ability in children with profound HI and fitted with HAs, and explore the effects of hearing thresholds, the age of first HA fitting and the duration of HA use on Mandarin tone identification ability. (Source: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology)
TIA triage in emergency department using acute MRI (TIA?TEAM): A feasibility and safety study
ConclusionTIA triage in the ED using a protocol with neurological consultation and acute MRI is feasible and safe. The majority of patients were discharged without hospitalization and rates of recurrent stroke were not higher than predicted. (Source: International Journal of Stroke)
Ib-07 * histoplasmosis with cns involvement: case presentation with discussion and literature review
Histoplasma capsulatum is one of the most common fungal respiratory infections in the world. CNS histoplasmosis is rare and difficult to diagnose because it is often overlooked or mistaken for other pathologies due to its non-specific symptoms. Failure to quickly diagnose CNS histoplasmosis leads to a poor prognosis. A 32-year-old homosexual Hispanic male with advanced AIDS presented with an altered mental status and reported confusion for the past three months. He had a GSC scale of 12, repetitive non-fluent speech, and a disconjugate gaze with a right gaze preference. Lung-CT findings indicated a pulmonary histoplasmosis infection. An MRI of the brain revealed a ring-enhancing lesion in the left caudate nucleus. A CT guided left retroperitoneal node biopsy was performed and indicated a b...
Ni-53 * progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy mimicking high grade glioma in an immunocompetent patient: a case report
We present a case of biopsy-proven idiopathic PML in a presumed immunocompetent patient, with imaging characteristics suggestive of glioma. A 66-year-old white male with a history of cirrhosis presented with subacute onset of progressive deterioration of mental status, aphasia, and right hemiparesis. Laboratory and cerebrospinal fluid studies were unremarkable for any infection, autoimmune disease, and malignancy. MRI brain revealed a non-contrast enhancing lesion involving the left frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes with marked sparing of overlying cortex, characterized by increased T2/FLAIR hyperintensity, T1 hypointensity, and facilitated diffusion. MR spectroscopy of the lesion demonstrated elevated choline, with lactate peaks and decreased NAA. A high grade glioma was suspected and...
Black Toilet Seats and Hearing Aids
Contrasting toilet seats can help prevent falls in the elderly. Good! But why do we focus solely on visual aids and ignore the well-documented benefit of hearing aids? Even mild hearing loss results in a three-fold greater risk of falls in the elderly, and the numbers go up with age. read more (Source: Psychology Today Addiction Center)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
An eye movement analysis of highlighting and graphic organizer study aids for learning from expository text
This study uses eye tracking technology to examine how study aids such as highlighting and graphic organizers affect cognitive processing during learning. Participants were 130 college students randomly assigned to one of five experimental conditions. In the control group, students read a plain text; in two behaviorally passive conditions, students read a text with key words colored in red or read the same text along with a filled-in graphic organizer; and in two behaviorally active conditions, students either highlighted key words in a text or filled in an empty graphic organizer. Students took tests of rote memory (cloze test) and comprehension (summary test). Asking students to fill in a graphic organizer or providing a filled-in graphic organizer resulted in improvements in performance...
Community health nurses' HIV health promotion and education programmes: a qualitative study
Conclusions and implications for practiceFindings help to recognize the diversity, uniqueness and contributions of Thai community nurses regarding culturally appropriate health promotion and education programmes for people living with HIV and AIDS. Findings inform nurses and health officials in and outside of the country to complement innovation in future HIV health promotion and education programmes. LimitationsOur sample came from one province of Thailand. Findings might not be reflective of nurses elsewhere. Implications for health and nursing policyThree decades of collective experience in providing holistic and multifaceted HIV and AIDS nursing care, education and health promotion by community health nurses have the potential to effect new and existing policies and protocols on HIV co...
HIV/AIDS related deaths from three district hospitals of West Bengal: An observation
Publication date: 2014 Source:Journal of Acute Disease, Volume 3, Issue 2 Author(s): MK Bhattacharya , MK Saha , PS Chakraborty , A Sinha , A Bhattacharya , KK Dutta Data on HIV/AIDS incidence or deaths are limited in poor-resource country like India and non-existent in state of West Bengal. These data are essential for formulating policies for HIV intervention strategies to curb HIV epidemic. In present study, a descriptive analysis of all registered cases from three district hospitals (Maldah, North 24 Parganas and Darjeeling) during July 2006-December 2007 was conducted. HIV/AIDS related deaths were found to be higher in Darjeeling district compare to other two districts. A comprehensive and well-coordinated survey is needed to explore further HIV/AIDS mortality data in India for prov...
Frequent infection in vertically HIV-infected children in Vietnam
Objective: Chlamydophila pneumoniae (C. pneumoniae) is an intracellular pathogen and often cause fatal respiratory symptoms in HIV/AIDS patients. However, its frequency in children with vertical HIV infection is so far unknown. (Source: Journal of Reproductive Immunology)
Evaluation of Reading, Writing, and Watching TV Using the Dutch ICF Activity Inventory
ConclusionsIt seems reasonable to conclude that the decrease in perceived difficulty was an effect of rehabilitation. The D-AI goal scores for difficulty were less influenced by depression and may be more sensitive to measure change over time compared with the LVQOL. Importance scores may not be useful for evaluation purposes. (Source: Optometry and Vision Science)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Neuroendocrine Tumors: Beyond the Abdomen
AbstractSeveral classification systems for neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) exist, which use variable terminology and criteria for grading and staging. This variability in terminology can cause confusion and difficulty in recognizing which tumors are, in fact, members of this heterogeneous group of malignancies. The largest group of NETs, the gastroenteropancreatic NETs, has been well described and characterized; however, there are less-recognized extra-abdominal NETs that can arise from nearly any organ in the body. In this article, the clinical features and imaging appearances of the extra-abdominal NETs will be reviewed, compared, and contrasted. This diverse group consists of paragangliomas, Merkel cell carcinomas, esthesioneuroblastomas, NETs of the lung, and medullary thyroid carcinomas....
Ebola Outbreak Highlights Struggle for Science in Africa and Inequalities in Global Health Research
As authorities scramble to contain the spread of Ebola, it helps to take a step back and examine why the science has not kept pace. Despite some promising advances in immunotherapy, there remains a great deal we haven't learned about the virus. In part, the lack of research in "non-profitable" infectious diseases occurring in underprivileged countries has left threats like Ebola largely unaddressed. In addition, inequalities within the system of international scientific collaboration have hindered African researchers from leading the way against diseases ravaging their continent. Similar concerns were echoed by the director of the National Institutes of Health, Francis Collins, who acknowledged in a recent interview that the quest for an Ebola vaccine in the United States had been slowed ...
Value of D-dimer and alkaline phosphatase in the diagnosis of pleural effusion
Conclusion Measurement of pleural fluid D-dimer and ALP levels aids in the differentiation between exudative and transudative pleural effusions. Also, both pleural fluid D Dimer and ALP are significantly higher in tuberculous pleural effusions. (Source: Egyptian Journal of Chest Diseases and Tuberculosis)
Oxidant/antioxidant status in subjects with HIV infection in different clinical conditions
Publication date: July?September 2014 Source:Biomedicine &amp; Aging Pathology, Volume 4, Issue 3 Author(s): Ivón González-Blanco , Vianka Calás-Hechavarria , Rosario Gravier-Hernández , Daniel Pérez-Correa , Angélica Reyes-Pérez , Daymé Hernández-Requejo , Mariela Guevara-García , Viviana García-Mir , Lizette Gil-del Valle , Olga Sonia León-Fernández , L Jorge Pérez-Ávila Infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes persistent chronic inflammation with sustained reactive oxygen species generation. An increasing number of studies underline the impact of the pathogenetic role of high-grade local and systemic oxidative stress in the evolution of HIV infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the redox status in HIV individuals of different clinical c...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
The cost-effectiveness of patient decision aids: A systematic review
Publication date: Available online 3 October 2014 Source:Healthcare Author(s): Logan Trenaman , Stirling Bryan , Nick Bansback The Affordable Care Act includes provisions to encourage patient-centered care through the use of shared decision making (SDM) and patient decision aids (PtDA). PtDAs are tools that can help encourage SDM by providing information about competing treatment options and elucidating patients? values and preferences. Implementing PtDAs into routine practice may incur additional costs through training or increases in physician time. Prominent commentaries have proposed that these costs might be offset if patients choose less expensive options than their providers. However, the cost-effectiveness of PtDAs to date is unclear. The aim of this study was to review the econ...
Recent developments in animal models for human herpesvirus 6A and 6B
Publication date: December 2014 Source:Current Opinion in Virology, Volume 9 Author(s): Branka Horvat , Bradford K Berges , Paolo Lusso Progress in the identification of suitable animal models for human herpesvirus (HHV)-6A and HHV-6B infections has been slow. Recently, new models have been established, mainly for HHV-6A, which reproduce some pathological features seen in humans. Neuroinflammatory signs were observed in infected marmosets and CD46-transgenic mice; although viral replication was not prominent, persistence of viral DNA and specific immunologic responses were detected, suggesting an immune-mediated pathogenic mechanism. Pig-tailed macaques showed robust viral replication concomitant with acute-phase symptoms, and provided a model to study the effects of HHV-6A on AIDS progr...
Newly approved integrase inhibitors for clinical treatment of AIDS
In this study, the application of the three integrase inhibitors in clinical treatment and the findings of drug resistance to integrase inhibitors are summarized. (Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy)
Auditory and language skills of children using hearing aids
Conclusion The diagnosis of hearing loss and the clinical interventions occurred late, contributing to impairments in auditory and language development. (Source: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology)
Open fitting: performance verification of receiver in the ear and receiver in the aid
Conclusion Groups 1 and 2 were satisfied with the use of hearing aids and improved speech recognition in silent and noisy situations with hearing aids. (Source: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Hearing health network: a spatial analysis
Conclusion The use of geoprocessing techniques allowed the identification of the care flow as a function of the procedure performance frequency, population concentration, and territory distribution. All procedures offered by the Hearing Health Care Network are performed for users of all micro-regions of the state. (Source: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology)
The effect of using integrated signal processing hearing aids on the speech recognition abilities of hearing impaired Arabic-speaking children
In conclusion, results of the present study support the use of ISP HAs in children with moderate to severe hearing loss due to the significant improvement recorded in both subjective and objective measures. (Source: Egyptian Journal of Ear, Nose, Throat and Allied Sciences)
Use of the Client Oriented Scale of Improvement (COSI) and International outcome inventory of hearing aids (IOI-HA) as a clinical outcome measure in a rural community
This study was done in rural area of Vellore district. Hearing rehabilitative services were provided to the rural people and benefit of hearing aids was assessed using self benefit assessment measures Nal-COSI and IOI-HA. A total of 111 clients were followed up for a period of 6months. It was found that patients having moderately severe to severe hearing loss have more problems and are in need for hearing rehabilitative services. This model of self benefit assessment measures gives the client a realistic picture and also provides the caregiver the details of hearing aid usage. This model of provision of rehabilitation services of hearing loss can be applied in all developing countries. (Source: Egyptian Journal of Ear, Nose, Throat and Allied Sciences)
Psycholinguistic abilities in cochlear implant and hearing impaired children
Conclusion HI individuals have poor auditory short-term memory (A-STM) in comparison to normal hearing individuals. Also, HI individuals have visual short-term memory (V-STM) better than normal hearing individuals. So, multisensory training is needed both in therapy sessions and classrooms with more focus on visual stimuli. (Source: Egyptian Journal of Ear, Nose, Throat and Allied Sciences)
Metabolic syndrome in HIV-positive patients
Publication date: Available online 13 October 2014 Source:HIV &amp; AIDS Review Author(s): Justyna Drelichowska , Wies?awa Kwiatkowska , Brygida Knysz , Wojciech Witkiewicz A number of abnormalities related to chronic infection and antiretroviral treatment may be observed in a population of HIV-positive patients. A particular state of coexisting, interacting and interrelated disorders referred to as metabolic syndrome is observed in 7?45% of patients infected with HIV. Its presence is related to the abnormalities of adipose tissue distribution known under a common name of ART-related lipodystrophy syndrome. The most common features of metabolic syndrome observed in a course of HIV infection include hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL cholesterol concentration, while increased waist c...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Frequency of HFE gene variants in Polish HIV infected and HIV/HCV co-infected patients
Conclusion Presence of mutations in the HFE gene in the Polish HIV/HCV infected population is similar to those reported for other Caucasian populations. This applies both to the C282Y and H63D variants, although in the second case, recessive allele G appeared numerically more commonly than among other populations tested. (Source: HIV and AIDS Review)
Adverse drug reactions and quality of life in HIV/AIDS patients: Advocacy on valuation and role of pharmacovigilance in developing countries
Discussion Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are widely accepted as one of the most significant factors affecting the treatment outcomes which often pose negative impact on patients? quality of life. This becomes more evident in the treatment of chronic illnesses such as HIV &amp; AIDS, where ADRs are often accountable for issues like non-adherence, which may not only affect the patients? confidence on ARVs but can eventually affect the whole outcome of the treatment. There is no doubt about the effectiveness of interdisciplinary approach in managing chronic illnesses and a greater role of pharmacist is regarded as one of the key factors in optimizing drug treatment and handling issues related to drug therapy. However disparities among developed and developing health care system is pos...
On the role of HIV/AIDS support groups on combating new infections
Conclusion With regard to voluntary HIV counseling and support groups results in this study provide a frame work for designing cost-effective strategies for effective control of HIV in the absence of HIV therapy. (Source: HIV and AIDS Review)
Eviplera® as a switch option for HIV infected patients?Review of GS-US-264-106 (SPIRIT) and GS-US-264-0111 studies
Publication date: Available online 6 August 2014 Source:HIV &amp; AIDS Review Author(s): Kamila Wójcik The purpose of this paper is to present the safety and efficacy of Eviplera® in HIV-infected naïve- and treatment-experienced patients. This paper is the review of ECHO/THRIVE studies comparing rilpivirine with efavirenz in treatment-naïve patients and GS-US-264-106 (SPIRIT)/GS-US-264-0111 studies showing efficacy of switching to Eviplera® in virologically suppressed HIV-infected patients. Based on results obtained from these studies, Eviplera® is indicated not only for HIV-infected treatment-naïve patients with baseline viral load less than 100000copies/mL but it is also a switching option in patients who have achieved virologic control on another regimen. Eviplera® (RPV/FT...
Prevention, treatment and future challenges of HIV/AIDS: A decade of INDEPTH research
Conclusion INDEPTH member centres have tracked the course of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa. They have analysed how the virus is transmitted and how it impacts families, communities and economies. Prevention and treatment policies and technologies have also come under scrutiny, including prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, male circumcision, behaviour change polices, antiretroviral treatment and other key interventions. The robust and extensive data HDSSs have generated provide critical insights to policy-makers as the epidemic moves into its fourth decade. (Source: HIV and AIDS Review)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Skin cancer risk factor reduction in Africa: Assessment of use of antiretroviral therapy services by human immunodeficiency virus positive albinos
Conclusion Albinos make very poor use of free and available antiretroviral therapy services. They fear being easily identified and further stigmatized by members of the community. (Source: HIV and AIDS Review)
Is HIV/AIDS a disability? Stigma and discrimination of people living with HIV and AIDS in the Russian Federation
Publication date: Available online 23 July 2014 Source:HIV &amp; AIDS Review Author(s): Marina M. Shilovskaya The article focuses on the rights of HIV positive people in the Russian Federation. Taking into consideration the multilayered definition of disability, the author tries to examine various challenges people living with HIV/AIDS face like stigma within families, social and religious communities, in the workplace and in the health sector. This paper also presents the findings of a qualitative survey on disability and HIV in Russia. (Source: HIV and AIDS Review)
Kaposi's sarcoma in a treated and well-controlled HIV infected patient: Discussion on the role of immunosenescence
We report a case of recurrent Kaposi's Sarcoma in a patient that had presented an undetectable HIV viral load for over 12 years and had a CD4+ T-Lymphocytes count above 1000/mm3. In this patient, the immunosenescent phenotype was not found overrepresented among CD8+ T cells. We performed a review of the literature in order to discuss this case. (Source: HIV and AIDS Review)
Safety and effectiveness of lopinavir/ritonavir twice-daily in cART naïve patients with HIV-1 infection: Data from POLCA Study Group
Conclusion In POLCA cohort 24 months treatment with LPV/r-based regimen was safe and effective. Gastrointestinal side effects and lipids disorders were quite common but rarely led to treatment discontinuation. (Source: HIV and AIDS Review)
Stribild, as a novel option of integrase inhibitor based single tablet regimen for the treatment of HIV infection
Publication date: Available online 14 July 2014 Source:HIV &amp; AIDS Review Author(s): Mi?osz Parczewski Single tablet regimens (STR) have recently been expanded with the first integrase inhibitor based regimen containing elvitegravir, cobicistat, tenofovir and emtricitabine. This therapeutic option allows for the once daily treatment and has been proven to be a safe and effective therapeutic option for both antiretroviral treatment naive and experienced patients. It is characterized by rapid decrease of plasma viremia after introduction, high efficacy regardless the baseline HIV-1 viral load as well as favorable safety profile, including lipid parameters and infrequent CNS-related adverse events. As STRs eliminate the possibility of selective adherence, once daily dosing allows fo...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
A sequential approach to identify the offending medication in HIV sero-positive patients having hypersensitivity to fixed dose combination of HAART
Conclusion In a resource-limited setting, where we have to use fixed-dose combination of anti-retroviral agents, management of a patient with drug hypersensitivity is a problem. Our protocol of systematic de-challenge and re-challenge, as exemplified in these cases, can be of help where expensive facilities are not available. (Source: HIV and AIDS Review)
ABCC protein function and genetic variability in HIV infection
Publication date: 2014 Source:HIV &amp; AIDS Review, Volume 13, Issue 3 Author(s): Katarzyna Maciejewska , Mi?osz Parczewski ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABC) protein group is one of the most abundant protein family exhibiting diverse functions. Proteins of this group are present and expressed in virtually every tissue, with ABCC subfamily functional spectrum of ion transport, cell-surface signaling and toxin secretion. ABCC proteins are adenosine triphosphate (ATP) dependent with hydrolysis-derived energy used for the transport of substrates through the cellular membranes. Research data also confirm their role in the regulation of cellular homeostasis, including metabolism of xenobiotics or the intracellular signal transmission. ABCC protein also play regulatory role in the ag...
HIV infection among different population groups in India: A comprehensive review of seroprevalence and co-infection studies
Publication date: 2014 Source:HIV &amp; AIDS Review, Volume 13, Issue 3 Author(s): Tahziba Hussain A number of seroprevalence studies have been carried out by different authors in different regions of India. Most of these studies are hospital based and the authors have focused on high-risk group clients such as TB patients, patients attending STD clinics, FSWs, IDUs and MSMs. In this paper, studies carried out among different population groups, namely leprosy patients, TB patients (adult and children), Foreign students, STD patients, General and High-risk group clients namely FSWs and IDUs, attending an ICTC at Agra have been compared with those in other regions of the country. This review examines and summarizes the prevalence of HIV infection and other co-infections among different...
The history and impact of HIV&AIDS. A decade of INDEPTH research
Conclusion INDEPTH member centres have tracked the course of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa. They have analysed how the virus is transmitted, how and where it emerged, which groups are most affected, and how the virus impacts families, communities and economies. The robust and extensive data they have generated provide critical insights to policy-makers as the epidemic moves into its fourth decade. (Source: HIV and AIDS Review)
Resilience processes in women leading community based organizations providing HIV prevention services
Conclusions The results may be useful to understand and support with financial, human and technical resources different resilient organizational spaces led by women. Community based organizations play a fundamental role in the prevention of new infections and mitigation of the effects on people who are affected by the virus. (Source: HIV and AIDS Review)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Prevalence of HIV infection among pregnant women presenting to two hospitals in Ogun state, Nigeria
Conclusions The overall HIV prevalence rate of 7.7% observed among pregnant women in this study was higher than the national average of 4.1%. Furthermore, HIV prevention campaigns need to be tailored towards older women as done for the younger ones in Nigeria, since prevalence was higher in the former than the latter. (Source: HIV and AIDS Review)
Adherence to single-tablet versus multiple-tablet regimens in the treatment of HIV infection?A questionnaire-based survey on patients satisfaction
Conclusion The efficacy of antiretroviral treatment largely depends on the degree of patient adherence. The study has confirmed greater acceptance of the simplified single-tablet treatment regimen among the patients, which was associated with the greater ease of regularly taking medication and with higher quality of life. In the group of patients receiving multiple-tablet regimens, suboptimal suppression of HIV replication was observed more often, which may negatively affect remote treatment outcomes. Patients treated for HIV infection highly rate the convenience of simplified single-tablet regimens, which is associated with improved adherence and improved quality of life. The use of simplified single-tablet regimens may improve treatment efficacy. (Source: HIV and AIDS Review)
Molecular epidemiology of HIV in Asia
Publication date: 2014 Source:HIV &amp; AIDS Review, Volume 13, Issue 2 Author(s): Shuvra Kanti Dey , Nazneen Zahan , Sabrina Afrose , Tarequl Islam , Md Shajahan , Suchi Saha , Siraje Arif Mahmud , Ali Azam Talukder , Masashi Mizuguchi , Hiroshi Ushijima Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the worldwide disseminated causative agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). HIV is grouped in two types named HIV-1 and HIV-2. Asia is home to 60% of the world's population and to 19% of the men, women and children living with HIV in 2004. Close to a million of people has been infected and a half million people died of AIDS annually in Asia, becoming the second largest epicentre of global AIDS epidemic. Molecular epidemiology has been useful tool to track a course of HIV spread. In-...
Assessment of the usefulness of ?2-microglobulin and retinol binding protein for the purpose of testing kidney function in HIV-positive patients
Conclusion ?2M and RBP concentrations in urine may become useful in diagnosis of renal failure and are more sensitive than the standard determination of creatinine in plasma and eGFR in patients treated with tenofovir. The determination of the excretion of ?2M seems a better measurement of tenofovir nephrotoxicity than RBP. (Source: HIV and AIDS Review)
Viral hepatitis B, C and HIV coinfection: Evaluation of some immunological and epidemiological aspects
Conclusion It is important to initiate additional studies on the influence of hepatitis B and C in people infected with HIV on clinical progression of HIV for optimization of epidemiological surveillance measures, especially in endemic for viral hepatitis countries. (Source: HIV and AIDS Review)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Family dysfunction among depressed HIV/AIDS patients on HAART, in a secondary health institution, in north central Nigeria
Conclusion Depression is very prevalent among HIV/AID patient. They have low family APGAR score, because family dysfunction is a common problem among them. There was a significant association between depression and family dysfunction. This may partly be responsible for non-disclosure of their HIV/AID status to their family members. (Source: HIV and AIDS Review)
High CD4 cells count in a naïve HIV-infected patient with disseminated Kaposi sarcoma
In conclusion, KS should be taken into consideration in differential diagnosis even in patients with a high CD4 count. (Source: HIV and AIDS Review)
Two endocrine diseases in one case of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome
Publication date: 2014 Source:HIV &amp; AIDS Review, Volume 13, Issue 2 Author(s): Marta Almeida Ferreira , André Couto Carvalho , Sara Vieira Silva , Margarida França , Fátima Borges Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) reduces the incidence of opportunistic events and death in patients with HIV infection, but it may be associated with serious complications, like the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). This syndrome can include a wide group of infectious, autoimmune and immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. Endocrine autoimmune diseases are rarely diagnosed in patients with IRIS. The authors present a clinical case of a 36-year-old HIV infected Caucasian male who was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus and with Graves? disease 16 and 20 months after...
Distinct advancements and challenges in HIV 1 vaccine development and cure?A review
Publication date: 2014 Source:HIV &amp; AIDS Review, Volume 13, Issue 1 Author(s): Sandeep Raja Dangeti HIV vaccine development demands for two crucial needs to be successful; firstly, to identify immunologic vulnerabilities of HIV, and secondly, to develop a vaccine approach that safely and durably exploits such vulnerabilities. Rv144 vaccine trail has laid foundations for identification of HIV vulnerabilities and HIV broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies as an approach for the HIV vaccine development. Even though this trail failed, it provided a platform for the extensive research options and challenges faced in developing successful HIV 1 vaccine candidate. In this review, we are providing various research advancements and challenges faced. Recombinant Adenovirus serotype 26 ...
Epidemiological trends of cancers in AIDS patients
Publication date: 2014 Source:HIV &amp; AIDS Review, Volume 13, Issue 1 Author(s): Loveleena Agarwal , Amitabh Agarwal Since the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have seen a significant improvement in their morbidity, mortality and life expectancy. The incidence of AIDS-defining illnesses, including AIDS-defining malignancies, has been on the decline. However, deaths due to non-AIDS-defining illnesses have been on the rise. These so-called non-AIDS-defining cancers (NADCs) include cancers of the lung, liver, anus, and Hodgkin's lymphoma. The development of NADCs appears to be multifactorial. Risk factors include immunosuppressive effects of the HIV, higher rates of oncogenic viral coinfections and tradi...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Interpatient variability of darunavir concentrations in plasma during long-term antiretroviral monotherapy
Conclusions In the above presented results confirmed variability of DRV range concentration in plasma during long-term antiretroviral therapy. The presented HPLC method meets the requirements typical for analytical methods applied in TDM. (Source: HIV and AIDS Review)
Adverse drug reactions of antiretroviral therapy in patients receiving methadone substitution treatment
Conclusion A study found that co-administration of methadone may increase the incidence of adverse effects, which in turn has a significant impact on patient quality of life. This issue has not been fully explained and requires further studies in a larger group of patients. (Source: HIV and AIDS Review)
Vulnerability factors for malnutrition among people living with HIV under antiretroviral treatment in an outpatient clinic: Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo
Conclusions Determining factors underlying vulnerability to malnutrition may be helpful to health providers in poor income settings for more effectively target patient interventions. (Source: HIV and AIDS Review)
Risk perception, HIV/AIDS related knowledge, attitude and practice of the university community: The case of Ethiopian Civil Service College
Conclusions Positive changes in awareness and attitudes toward HIV/AIDS were noted, yet comprehensive knowledge is lacking. An improved strategy to promote comprehensive knowledge and behavioral change interventions is needed in ECSC. Implications from these finding suggest that other institutions may benefit from similar changes. (Source: HIV and AIDS Review)
Komentarz do rekomendacji PTN AIDS 2013 ? rozpoczynanie i monitorowanie leczenia antyretrowirusowego
Publication date: 2013 Source:HIV &amp; AIDS Review, Volume 12, Issue 4, Supplement Author(s): Piotr Pulik , Andrzej Horban (Source: HIV and AIDS Review)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
A potential influence of vitamin D on HIV infection and bone disease in HIV-positive patients
Publication date: 2013 Source:HIV &amp; AIDS Review, Volume 12, Issue 4 Author(s): Waldemar Misiorowski Vitamin D has long been recognized as essential to the skeletal system. Newer evidence suggests that it also protect against cancer, heart disease, fractures and falls, type 2 diabetes, and depression and play a major role regulating the immune system. Vitamin D polarizes the adaptive immune system away from Th-1 and toward Th-2 responses, and enhances innate immunity. Though vitamin D's anti-viral mechanism has not been fully established, it may be linked to vitamin D's ability to up-regulate the anti-microbial peptides. Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent among patients with HIV infection. An inverse association between 1,25(OH)2D concentrations and mortality has been reported, and...
Zmiana terapii antyretrowirusowej
Publication date: 2013 Source:HIV &amp; AIDS Review, Volume 12, Issue 4, Supplement Author(s): Tomasz Miku?a , Magdalena M. D?browska , Joanna Koz?owska , Alicja Wierci?ska-Drapa?o (Source: HIV and AIDS Review)
Zalecenia terapeutyczne dla dzieci zaka?onych HIV
Publication date: 2013 Source:HIV &amp; AIDS Review, Volume 12, Issue 4, Supplement Author(s): Magdalena Marczy?ska Dzieci z odmatczynym zaka?eniem HIV, ze wzgl?du na wysokie ryzyko rozwoju AIDS i zgonu przekraczaj?ce w 1. roku ?ycia 10%, powinny jak najszybciej ? w ci?gu pierwszych 3 miesi?cy - rozpocz?? leczenie antyretrowirusowe, nie czekaj?c na obni?enie liczby limfocytów CD4 ani na objawy kliniczne [1]. Szybkie zahamowanie replikacji wirusa i uzyskanie VL HIV poni?ej poziomu wykrywalno?ci (&lt; 50 kopii/ml) warunkuje skuteczno?? leczenia i zapobiega rozwojowi objawów zaka?enia. W pierwszym roku ?ycia najpowa?niejszymi konsekwencjami choroby s?: uszkodzenie OUN oraz zaka?enia oportunistyczne (najcz??ciej Pneumocystis jiroveci) [2]. (Source: HIV and A...
Rilpivirine in the light of the genotypic drug resistance data

Profilaktyka poekspozycyjna po nara?eniu na zaka?enie HIV, HBV, HCV ? rekomendacje Polskiego Towarzystwa Naukowego AIDS na 2013 r
Publication date: 2013 Source:HIV &amp; AIDS Review, Volume 12, Issue 4, Supplement Author(s): Weronika Rymer , Marek Beniowski , El?bieta Mularska An article presents polish recommendations for postexposure prophylaxis against HIV, HBV and HCV infection, after occupational and non-occupational exposures. It was drawn up by Polish AIDS Society for 2013. (Source: HIV and AIDS Review)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Subtype variability and phylogenetic analyses in HIV
Publication date: 2013 Source:HIV &amp; AIDS Review, Volume 12, Issue 4 Author(s): Mi?osz Parczewski Origin and spread of HIV infection has been modeled by an array of phylogenetic tools. The phylogenetic modeling has been used to calculate the time of transmission of HIV from primates to humans, trace the spread of HIV subtypes and calculate ancestries in the modern epidemics. These techniques are constantly used for the molecular surveillance of antiretroviral drug resistance especially from the perspective of transmitted mutations and spread of recombinant and mutated clades. Molecular clock based models allow to seek the index cases and trace the origin of the local epidemics, including nosocomial transmissions. It is also possible to design therapeutic interventions based on th...
Genomics and transcriptomics in HIV and HIV/HCV coinfection?Review of basic concepts and genome-wide association studies
Publication date: 2013 Source:HIV &amp; AIDS Review, Volume 12, Issue 4 Author(s): Mi?osz Parczewski Genomics and transcriptomics in HIV and HIV/HCV coinfection provide basis for understanding of the host?virus interactions leading to the development of novel antiviral approaches and therapeutics. With progress of this branch of the basic science background for the personalized medicine is provided. In this review basic concepts related to the intracellular control of HIV infection are presented, key genome wide association studies related to HIV and HIV/HCV, as well as basic information on microRNAs involved in the control of both infections. Further studies of the intracellular immunity mechanisms and the interplay between antiviral defense systems, viral proteins and strategies...
Ostra/wczesna choroba retrowirusowa
Publication date: 2013 Source:HIV &amp; AIDS Review, Volume 12, Issue 4, Supplement Author(s): Ma?gorzata Lema?ska , Maria Jankowska (Source: HIV and AIDS Review)
Hepatitis C virus co-infection among people living with HIV/AIDS in a Nigerian Teaching Hospital
Conclusion The prevalence of 23.2% for HCV among PLWHA reported for this community is alarming. More focus should be directed on management of HCV component of coinfection than it is done now. Further studies are recommended employing molecular techniques to determine subtypes of HCV that may be predominant and why this figure of co-infection is so high in the study location. (Source: HIV and AIDS Review)
Farmakogenetyka w praktyce klinicznej zaka?enia HIV
Publication date: 2013 Source:HIV &amp; AIDS Review, Volume 12, Issue 4, Supplement Author(s): Mi?osz Parczewski (Source: HIV and AIDS Review)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
The differential diagnosis of HIV related anaemia should include pure red cell aplasia
Publication date: 2013 Source:HIV &amp; AIDS Review, Volume 12, Issue 4 Author(s): P. Soma , S. Ellemdin , K.S. Mashoeshoe Hematologic abnormalities feature commonly in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. This includes anaemia and it occurs in 70?80% of patients. The causes of HIV-related anaemia are multifactorial. The possible mechanisms causing the anaemia are those which are directly related to HIV and include infection, malignancy, drugs, anaemia of chronic disease, haemolysis, blood loss and hypersplenism, whilst there are multiple causes not related to HIV. Features found in HIV-related anaemia can be ascribed to a disturbance of the bone marrow cytokine homeostasis. HIV is cytotoxic to T-helper lymphocytes which in turn retards growth of bone marrow ...
Acknowledgement of Reviewers
Publication date: 2013 Source:HIV &amp; AIDS Review, Volume 12, Issue 4 (Source: HIV and AIDS Review)
Human immunodeficiency viral infection in the Republic of South Sudan: A paradigm beyond normality
Conclusion The rate of HIV infection is on the increase in the Republic of South Sudan. This has been attributed to dismal poverty, illiteracy, lack of awareness programs, having multiple sexual partners and widow inheritance. (Source: HIV and AIDS Review)
A multi-dimensional assessment of quality of life among attendees of a West African HIV clinic and its use in tracking outcome
Conclusions The study observed varied degrees of impairment across specific domains of QOL. To ensure improved QOL, HIV care with relevant policies should target multidimensional aspects of health. Additionally, socio-economic problems like stigma with relationships issues and unemployment should be addressed by the government with institutions of human rights (such as right to equal opportunity, autonomy, privacy and health, safe working environment and information) for all PLWHA. Further research on QOL and tracking of HIV disease outcome with multi-dimensional approach are implied. (Source: HIV and AIDS Review)
Mycobacterium avium complex enteritis in HIV-infected patient
Publication date: 2014 Source:IDCases, Volume 1, Issue 2 Author(s): Masahiro Ishikane , Junko Tanuma Disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection is an important AIDS-defining opportunistic infection. The introduction of antimicrobial prophylaxis and antiretroviral therapy (ART) markedly reduced the incidence of disseminated MAC infection and improved the survival of affected individuals. However, it seems that patients with new or recurrent MAC infection are still encountered in clinical practice. Our images captured the characteristic endoscopic findings of MAC duodenitis. The gastrointestinal (GI) tract appears to be a common port of entry for MAC infection in patients with AIDS. Early recognition of GI MAC infection by endoscopy in HIV-infected patients and initiation of ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Extraction-based blood coagulation activity of marigold leaf: a comparative study
Abstract Marigold (Tagetes erecta), besides being an ornamental plant, has various medicinal properties?it is nematocidal, fungicidal, antibacterial and insecticidal and aids in wound healing. Our work is focused on the blood clotting activity of its leaf extracts. Extraction was done by conventional as well as the Soxhlet method, which was found to be much more efficient using a 1:1 ratio of ethanol to water as solvent. Blood clotting activity of the leaf extract was examined using prothrombin time test using the Owren method. For both extraction methods, the yield percentage and coagulation activity in terms of coagulation time were analysed. Marigold leaf extract obtained using the Soxhlet method has shown very good blood coagulation properties in lower quantities?in the r...
High?intensity cannabis use associated with lower plasma human immunodeficiency virus?1 RNA viral load among recently infected people who use injection drugs
ConclusionsConsistent with the findings from recent in vitro and in vivo studies, including one conducted among lentiviral?infected primates, we observed a strong association between cannabis use and lower pVL following seroconversion among illicit drug?using participants. Our findings support the further investigation of the immunomodulatory or antiviral effects of cannabinoids among individuals living with HIV/AIDS. [Milloy M?J, Marshall B, Kerr T, Richardson L, Hogg R, Guillemi S, Montaner JSG, Wood E. High?intensity cannabis use associated with lower plasma human immunodeficiency virus?1 RNA viral load among recently infected people who use injection drugs. Drug Alcohol Rev 2014] (Source: Drug and Alcohol Review)
[Review] Effect of HIV infection on the outcome of cancer therapy in children
Systematic studies comparing the outcomes of cancer treatment between children with and without HIV are scarce. The literature seems to suggest that, even with present therapeutic advances, prognosis is poor with HIV infection. The aim of this Review was to assess scientific publications from 1990 to present, addressing the difficulties associated with treatment of cancer in children with AIDS and the adaptive changes in therapy. Although much progress has been achieved, further research is needed about antiretroviral and cytotoxic drug interactions, the optimum use of supportive therapy including stem cells and bone marrow transplant, the timing of the initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy, and the optimum use of protease inhibitors. (Source: The Lancet Oncology)
Cognitive disorders in HIV-infected and AIDS patients in Guangxi, China
Abstract The purposes of this study were to assess cognitive disorders in HIV/AIDS patients, identify the prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), provide evidence that may be used for early diagnosis and treatment, and establish a baseline for follow-up studies. The setting for this study was Guangxi, a culturally and economically underdeveloped province located in southwestern China with a large minority community. Due to the specific geographic and cultural environment, Guangxi has the second highest HIV incidence in China. There have been no research or large epidemiologic studies exploring cognitive disorders in HIV/AIDS patients in Guangxi; therefore, the prevalence of HAND in patients is unknown. Thirteen tests from 12 reliable and valid neuropsychologi...
Use of Medication Reminders in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis
In this study we determined the characteristics of patients with RA who used these aids, and the association of reminder use with adherence. (Source: Value in Health)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Satisfaction of Hiv Patients with Pharmacy Services in South Eastern Nigerian Hospitals
The objective of this study was to assess HIV-infected patients? satisfaction with pharmacy services provided in South-Eastern Nigeria?s HIV/AIDS clinics. (Source: Value in Health)
Transitional Clinic Utilization and General Well Being of Ugandan Young Adults Living with HIV/AIDS
To determine the relationship between utilization of the HIV transition clinic utilization at the Infectious Diseases Institute (HTC-IDI) and general wellbeing of young adults living with HIV/AIDS (YALHA). (Source: Value in Health)
Pharmaceutical Developpement: Africa an Emergent Market
With population of more than 1 Billion, Africa is the world?s second largest continent. The transition that African countries are undergoing is a real challenge for health care authorities. 24% of the global disease burden is accounted in Africa. The diseases that prevailed in the 60s and 70s have not completely disappeared, tuberculosis is still endemic as well as transmissible diseases like HIV/AIDS and Hepatitis still remained as a major problem while some others, such as cancers, cardiovascular and metabolic disorders are dramatically increasing, requiring the implementation of effective health care programs and leading to an increasing demand for drugs treatment. (Source: Value in Health)
Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy (Art) Among Adult Hiv Positive Patients in Volta Regional Hospital, Ghana
This study sought to explore the level of adherence and also identify the factors contributing to non adherence to therapy among people living with the HIV/AIDS. (Source: Value in Health)
Spending on HIV and AIDS in Indonesia: The Role of Government and Other Public Source of Fund to Maintain Quality and Equity
This study is aiming at 1) tracking expenditure on HIVAIDS, 2)how the government contributed to one of the MDG priority programs in Indonesia and its sustainability for future financing since Indonesia is one country with growring number of new HIVAIDS infections. (Source: Value in Health)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
A Retrospective Cohort Study of Risk Factors for Death Among Humman Immunodeficiency Virus Infected Adult Patients
Globally, human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) reduces life expectancy by several years. Mortality is high among non-treated patients. However, the predictors of mortality have not been adequately studied. Hence, the main objective of the study was to determine predictors of mortality among HIV positive adults who are not on antiretroviral treatment, in a South Indian hospital. (Source: Value in Health)
Adverse Drug Reactions of Haart Therapy Among Hiv/Aids Patients Treated at Infectious Disease Clinic
Current study is aimed to explore and to observe adverse drug reactions occurrence of antiretroviral drugs among HIV/AIDS patients. (Source: Value in Health)
Impact of Cigarette and Alcohol Use on Adverse Drug Reactions of Haart Therapy Among HIV/AIDS Patients
The aim of the current study is to explore and to observe the impact of cigarette smoking and alcohol use on adverse drug reactions occurrence of antiretroviral drugs among HIV/AIDS patients. (Source: Value in Health)
Oral prevalence and clearance of oncogenic human papilloma virus in a rehabilitation community for substance abusers in Italy: a case of behavioral correction?
ConclusionsAt 1 year a complete HPV clearance was observed which could be related to adoption of healthier lifestyles of participants. New HPV infections were detected even in the absence of the recognized and declared risky behavioral factors, suggesting a re?expression from a latent infection. (Source: Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine)
Computational prediction of anti HIV?1 peptides and in vitro evaluation of anti HIV?1 activity of HIV?1 P24?derived peptides
The world is entering the third decade of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) pandemic. The primary cause of the disease has known to be human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV?1). Recently, peptides are shown to have high potency as drugs in the treatment of AIDS. Therefore, in the present study, we have developed a method to predict anti?HIV?1 peptides using support vector machine (SVM) as a powerful machine learning algorithm. Peptide descriptors were represented based on the concept of Chou's pseudo?amino acid composition (PseAAC). HIV?1 P24?derived peptides were examined to predict anti?HIV?1 activity among them. The efficacy of the prediction was then validated in vitro. The mutagenic effect of validated anti?HIV?1 peptides was further investigated by t...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
HIV: new drugs, new guidelines
Purpose of reviewThis review discusses recent changes in HIV treatment guidelines, focussing on the optimal time for starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) in chronic asymptomatic infection, and treatment options for ART-naïve patients. Recent findingsUnderstanding of HIV pathogenesis has progressed significantly, with a growing appreciation of the role of HIV replication in causing inflammation and promoting both AIDS and non-AIDS diseases. Early suppression of HIV replication with ART benefits the individual, and by reducing transmission and promoting engagement with care also brings public health benefits. For years, efavirenz-based ART was favoured by treatment guidelines, reflecting unsurpassed performance in clinical trials. New treatment options show high efficacy and safety and inc...
Africa: Johannes Hunger Appointed As Head of Strategic Information
[Global Fund]Geneva -The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria announced the appointment of Johannes Hunger, an expert on strategic and policy planning in global health, as Head of Strategic Information. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
What Couples Say about Their Recovery of Sexual Intimacy after Prostatectomy: Toward the Development of a Conceptual Model of Couples' Sexual Recovery after Surgery for Prostate Cancer
ConclusionsCouples' sexual recovery requires addressing sexual function, feelings about losses, and relationship simultaneously. Perioperative education should emphasize the roles of nerve damage in ED and grief and mourning in sexual recovery. Wittmann D, Carolan M, Given B, Skolarus TA, Crossley H, An L, Palapattu G, Clark P, and Montie JE. What couples say about their recovery of sexual intimacy after prostatectomy: Toward the development of a conceptual model of couples' sexual recovery after surgery for prostate cancer. J Sex Med **;**:**?**. (Source: The Journal of Sexual Medicine)
Zimbabwe: ARM Advocates With the Appropriate Facts So That They Can Drive Change in Their Own Countries
[What'sUpHIV]Maureen Milanga, a staffer at Health GAP in Keyna and an alumna of the AVAC Advocacy Fellows program, presented a poster demonstrating how advocates from Kenya, Zimbabwe and Nigeria were able to influence their countries by strategically raising their voices to increase demand for key interventions. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: A Reminder of Scientific Progress (Past, Present and Future)
[What'sUpHIV]A man caught my eye this week. It's somewhat fitting that a symbol of "human endeavour" (per the artist) is bearing witness to this week's HIV R4P Conference - itself a testimony to ongoing global efforts to push the boundaries of HIV prevention science. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Africa: So When Will the Next Big Thing Be Available for General Use?
[What'sUpHIV]The one question research scientists dread most - but one which journalists are obliged to ask - is, "So when will this be available for general use?" (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: HIV Self-Test Kit Coming Soon
[What'sUpHIV]If you like movies at all, by now you will have seen - many times - the scene in romantic comedies in which a woman walks into her bathroom to perform a simple test which will tell her (with a high degree of accuracy) whether or not she is pregnant. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Uganda: Poor Roads Disrupt HIV Patients' Access to Treatment
[Key Correspondents]Poor roads in Uganda, especially at landing sites at Kigugo Island, are making it difficult for HIV positive patients to access antiretroviral treatment at St Francis Hospital in Nkokonjeru. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Ebola virus disease ? Mali
On 23 October 2014, WHO was notified by Mali's Ministry of Health of a laboratory-confirmed case of infection with Ebola Virus Disease (EVD). This is the first EVD case in Mali. The case is a 2-year-old female who developed symptoms, presumably on 19 October 2014, while in Beuila, Guinea and then travelled across by road to Mali. On 20 October 2014, the patient was admitted to a healthcare facility in Kayes, Mali. On 21 October 2014, she was referred to the Fousseyni Daou Hospital in Kayes. On 22 October 2014, samples for EVD were taken and analysed at the Center for TB and AIDS Research in Mali. Samples came back positive for EVD. Confirmation of test results is being carried out at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta and at Institute Pasteur de Dakar Senegal. ...
Africa: How to Make Sure Your Research Centre Doesn't Get Burnt Down
[What'sUpHIV]Crossroads in Cape Town is your classic African "tough neighbourhood". It is a shanty town - a slum. So how do you go about getting volunteers from a place like that - a place in which all authority is usually viewed with doubt and suspicion - to participate in clinical trial which involves such potentially sensitive interventions as "vaginal rings", "vaginal gels" and "vaginal microbicides"? (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Africa: Focus on High Risk HIV Groups
[What'sUpHIV]Cape Town -Wednesday was key populations day at the HIVR4P conference. Key population is HIV jargon for groups that have disproportionately high rates of HIV infection ? so groups that might be more at risk for HIV infection. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: What We Talk About When We Talk About Women
[What'sUpHIV]Cape Town -Women are at the heart of the AIDS epidemic--and at the forefront of the search for successful solutions - as activists, educators, trial volunteers, nurses, care givers and so much more. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: The Uneasy Alliance Between Media and Scientists
[What'sUpHIV]The fight against AIDS requires a massive and continuing public health information campaign and the media is crucial to this. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Significant publications on infectious diseases pharmacotherapy in 2013.
CONCLUSION: Major topics explored in the top-ranked ID articles of 2013 include the use of cefepime for gram-negative infections due to AmpC or extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, optimizing antibiotic therapy through the use of extended- or continuous-infusion regimens, the use of the oral integrase inhibitor dolutegravir to combat HIV disease, and new approaches to treatment of Clostridium difficile infection and enterococcal endocarditis. PMID: 25349243 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy : AJHP)
Mozambique Tackles its Twin Burden of Cervical Cancer and HIV
The woman on bed 27 in Maputo Central Hospital?s oncology ward has no idea how lucky she is. In January, when abdominal pains racked her, a pharmacist suggested pain killers. For months, ?the pain would go and return,? she told IPS.  In April she went to the local clinic in Matola, 15kms from Mozambique?s capital, [&#8230;] (Source: IPS Inter Press Service - Health)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Futility of CD4+ monitoring in HIV-1 patients with CD4+ cell count above 350?cells/?l on suppressive antiretroviral therapy
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Maternal HIV disclosure to young HIV-uninfected children: an evaluation of a family-centred intervention in South Africa: Erratum
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Minor viral population with drug-resistant mutation and risk of persistent low-level viremia or ?blips? in HIV-1 subtype C
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
A case of iatrogenic adrenal suppression after co-administration of cobicistat and fluticasone nasal drops
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Pulmonary complications associated with pegylated interferon and ribavirin in HIV/hepatitis C virus coinfected patients
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Long-acting three-drug combination anti-HIV nanoparticles enhance drug exposure in primate plasma and cells within lymph nodes and blood
Insufficient HIV drug levels in lymph nodes have been linked to viral persistence. To overcome lymphatic drug insufficiency, we developed and evaluated in primates a lipid-drug nanoparticle containing lopinavir, ritonavir, and tenofovir. These nanoparticles produced over 50-fold higher intracellular lopinavir, ritonavir and tenofovir concentrations in lymph nodes compared to free drug. Plasma and intracellular drug levels in blood were enhanced and sustained for 7 days after a single subcutaneous dose, exceeding that achievable with current oral therapy. (Source: AIDS)
Effects of atorvastatin and pravastatin on immune activation and T-cell function in antiretroviral therapy-suppressed HIV-1-infected patients
This retrospective study was designed to assess statin effects on T-cell activation from HIV-infected individuals. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from antiretroviral therapy suppressed HIV-infected individuals receiving atorvastatin or pravastatin were evaluated for T-cell activation, exhaustion and function. Atorvastatin was associated with a significant reduction in CD8 T-cell activation (HLA-DR, CD38/HLA-DR) and exhaustion (TIM-3, TIM-3/PD-1) whereas pravastatin had no effect. In contrast, pravastatin increased antigen specific interferon ? production. These results suggest a differential effect of statins on immune activation and function. (Source: AIDS)
Antiretroviral nanoparticles: the future is now
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Selective acquisition of G190S in HIV-1 subtype A from Russia leading to efavirenz and nevirapine treatment failure
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Complications of cesarean deliveries among HIV-infected women in the United States
Conclusion:In the United States, rates of cesarean delivery complications decreased from 1995 to 2011. However, rates of infection, surgical trauma, hospital deaths, and prolonged hospitalization are still higher among HIV-infected women. Clinicians should remain alert to this persistently increased risk of cesarean delivery complications among HIV-infected women. (Source: AIDS)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Long-term cumulative detection of human papillomavirus among HIV seropositive women

Antiretroviral drugs for prevention of mother-to-child transmission: pharmacologic considerations for a public health approach
Conclusion:In order to prevent emergence of resistance, a tail of at least 2 weeks in duration may be required when discontinuing efavirenz in a regimen containing zidovudine and lamivudine. Studies are needed to characterize the risk of resistance among women who discontinue tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, lamivudine and efavirenz. (Source: AIDS)
Thrombocytopenia is associated with an increased risk of cancer during treated HIV disease
Conclusion:Patients with thrombocytopenia had increased incidence of AIDS-defining and non-AIDS-defining events, but the association with the latter, in particular cancer, was stronger. Future studies should investigate whether the pathophysiological processes underlying thrombocytopenia are associated with the development of cancer during treated HIV disease. (Source: AIDS)
Effect of CD4+ cell count and viral suppression on risk of ischemic stroke in HIV infection
Conclusion:Achieving viral suppression may reduce ischemic stroke risk, including risk of atherosclerotic strokes, in HIV-infected individuals. (Source: AIDS)
Prevalence, incidence and predictors of peripheral neuropathy in African adults with HIV infection within the DART trial
Conclusion:Current stavudine, didanosine or isoniazid use continue to increase peripheral neuropathy risks, as does older age and weight at ART initiation; however, we found no evidence of increased risk in women in contrast to previous studies. The incidence of peripheral neuropathy may now be lower in ART programmes, as stavudine and didanosine are no longer recommended. All patients receiving isoniazid, either as part of antituberculosis (TB) chemotherapy or TB-preventive therapy, should receive pyridoxine as recommended in national guidelines. (Source: AIDS)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Temporal trends in mortality among people who use drugs compared with the general Dutch population differ by hepatitis C virus and HIV infection status
Objectives:We aimed to identify temporal trends in all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates among people who use drugs (PWUD) compared with the general Dutch population and to determine whether mortality trends differed by hepatitis C virus (HCV)/HIV (co) infection status. Design:Longitudinal cohort study. Methods:Using data from the Amsterdam Cohort Studies among 1254 PWUD (1985?2012), all-cause and cause-specific standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated; SMRs were stratified by serological group (HCV/HIV-uninfected, HCV-monoinfected, and HCV/HIV-coinfected) and calendar period. Temporal trends were estimated using Poisson regression. Results:The overall all-cause SMR was 13.9 (95% confidence interval 12.6?15.3). The SMR significantly declined after 1996, especially du...
Genetic variation in Trex1 affects HIV-1 disease progression
Conclusion:Our data emphasize the important role of TREX1 in HIV-1 pathogenesis. The association of SNP rs3135941 with accelerated disease progression that we observed might be explained by the increased HIV-1 replication observed in PBMC positive for the minor allele of the SNP. (Source: AIDS)
Identification of antibody glycosylation structures that predict monoclonal antibody Fc-effector function
Conclusions:Our studies point to the specific Fc-glycan structures that can selectively promote Fc-effector functions independently of the antibody specificity. Furthermore, we demonstrated antibody glycan structures associated with enhanced ADCP activity, an emerging Fc-effector function that may aid in the control and clearance of HIV infection. (Source: AIDS)
Lower prevalence of drug resistance mutations at first-line virological failure to first-line therapy with atripla vs. tenofovir?+?emtricitabine/lamivudine?+?efavirenz administered on a multiple tablet therapy
Conclusions:Compared to patients receiving the STR-Atripla, those receiving the same components individually in a non-STR regimen have a statistically significantly increased risk of selecting for DRMs associated with their drugs on failure. (Source: AIDS)
Myocardial and microvascular inflammation/infection in patients with HIV-associated pulmonary artery hypertension
Conclusions:Inflammation/infection of myocardium and intramural vessels is detectable in patients with HIV-associated PAH. It may adversely affect right ventricular function and have a role in the compromised pulmonary circulation. (Source: AIDS)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
A uniquely prevalent nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance mutation in Russian subtype A HIV-1 viruses
Background:The subtype A variant in the Former Soviet Union (AFSU) causes most of Russia's HIV-1 infections. However, the spectrum of drug-resistance mutations (DRMs) in antiretroviral experienced patients with this variant has not been studied. Methods:Between 2010 and 2013, genotypic resistance testing was performed on plasma samples from 366 antiretroviral-experienced patients in Siberia. Results:Three-hundred patients (82%) had subtype AFSU and 55 (15%) had CRF02_AG viruses. The pattern of DRMs was consistent with patient antiretroviral history with one exception. G190S was the most common nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) resistance mutation, occurring in 55 (33%) subtype AFSU viruses from 167 NNRTI-experienced patients compared with none of 37 CRF02_AG viruses fro...
Optimizing parallel induction of HIV type 1-specific antibody and T-cell responses by multicomponent subunit vaccines
Conclusion:These results inform designs of initial human studies combining separately optimized T-cell and B-cell HIV-1 vaccines into a single regimen. (Source: AIDS)
Relationships of pulmonary function, inflammation, and T-cell activation and senescence in an HIV-infected cohort
Conclusion:Circulating T cells expressing markers of activation and inflammatory cytokine levels are independently correlated with PFT abnormalities in HIV-infected persons. Overall telomere shortening was also associated with pulmonary dysfunction. The paradoxical association of senescent CD8+ T cells and better PFT outcomes could suggest an unrecognized beneficial compensatory function of such cells or a redistribution of these cells from the circulation to local compartments. Further studies are needed to differentiate and characterize functional subsets of local pulmonary and circulating T-cell populations in HIV-associated pulmonary dysfunction. (Source: AIDS)
A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Brief Intervention to Reduce Alcohol Use Among Female Sex Workers in Mombasa, Kenya
Conclusions: We found that a brief alcohol intervention can reduce self-reported alcohol consumption among a nondependent and non?treatment-seeking population most at risk for HIV. More attention is needed to understand the pathway from drinking to sexual behavior and STI/HIV acquisition. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Raltegravir Pharmacokinetics During Pregnancy
Objective: We evaluated the pharmacokinetics (PK) of raltegravir in HIV-infected women during pregnancy and postpartum. Methods: International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials 1026s is an ongoing prospective study of antiretroviral PK during pregnancy (NCT00042289). Women receiving 400 mg raltegravir twice daily in combination antiretroviral therapy had intensive steady-state 12-hour PK profiles performed during pregnancy and at 6- to 12-week postpartum. Targets were trough concentration above 0.035 ?g/mL, the estimated 10th percentile in nonpregnant historical controls. Results: Median raltegravir area under the curve was 6.6 ?g·h/mL for second trimester (n = 16), 5.4 ?g·h/mL for third trimester (n = 41), and 11.6 ?g·h/mL postpartum (n = 38) (P = 0.03 postpartum v...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
CIG-P: Cicular Interaction Graph for Proteomics
Conclusions: CIG-P aids to present AP-MS data to a wider audience and we envision that the tool finds other applications too, e.g. kinase - substrate relationships as a function of perturbation. CIG-P is available under: (Source: BioMed Central)
Knowledge of HIV/AIDS and Attitude Toward Voluntary Counselling and Testing Among Antenatal Clinic Attendees at a Tertiary Care Hospital in India
Conclusion There exists a lack of adequate knowledge regarding HIV and preventive practices against MTCT. Health education and awareness campaigns on MTCT prevention and VCT promotion should target women in their antenatal period in order to increase acceptability and accessibility of these services. (Source: The Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of India)
Identification of Acute HIV Infection Using Fourth-Generation Testing in an Opt-Out Emergency Department Screening Program
Conclusion HIV testing with a fourth-generation antigen/antibody laboratory test producing rapid results is feasible in an ED. Unexpectedly, nearly one fourth of patients with undiagnosed HIV had acute infections, which would have been more difficult to detect with previous testing technology. (Source: Annals of Emergency Medicine)
Standing in Solidarity With Rosemary
Rosemary Namubiru, currently in prison in Uganda, is a professional nurse who made a terrible mistake. As she attempted to start an intravenous (IV) drip on an ill 2-year-old child, she accidentally scratched her finger. She paused, placed a dressing, and continued with what she considered to be an urgent task. After the IV was placed, the mother of the child asked if Rosemary had used the same cannula that had scratched her finger. Namubiru was not certain and admitted the possibility that she had erred. (Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)
Application of 16S rRNA metagenomics to analyze bacterial communities at a respiratory care centre in Taiwan.
This study is the first in Taiwan to demonstrate a high diversity of human-associated bacteria in the RCC via 16S rRNA metagenomics, which allows for new assessment of potential health risks in RCCs, aids in the evaluation of existing sanitation protocols, and furthers our understanding of the development of healthcare-associated infections. PMID: 25359480 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
CIG-P: Circular Interaction Graph for Proteomics
Conclusions: CIG-P aids to present AP-MS data to a wider audience and we envision that the tool finds other applications too, e.g. kinase ? substrate relationships as a function of perturbation. CIG-P is available under: (Source: BMC Bioinformatics)
Thoughts Concerning Aging and Personal Mobility
Human beings in the world today will all most likely experience some form of health issue or disability during their lifetimes; it is a part of being a person on Earth. I was born the picture of what many parents hope for, a healthy blue-eyed baby boy. It didn't take long for a health issue to appear in my life, one that far too many children today have to endure. The, 'health issue,' involved trauma due to the loss of a parent, but it was only the first. (Source: Disabled World)
What is a dog behavior problem? ? Recognising owner concerns aids veterinary intervention
For many dogs, the veterinary practice is visited in both sickness and in health throughout their lifetime. Veterinarians are ideally positioned to offer timely support for all aspects of welfare, including behavior. Understanding owners? concerns about their dog?s behavior would help veterinarians take a proactive approach to providing support before problems develop or become overt. We studied owners? experiences of a range of potentially problematic behaviors and asked how much of a problem they considered the behavior to be. (Source: Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research)
Immunomodulatory agents for the treatment of cachexia
This article covers the role of inflammatory response in cachexia, measurement of inflammatory response, mechanism and measurement of cachexia, immunomodulation in cancer, drugs targeting inflammatory cytokines, effect of exercise in cachexia, and treatment of cancer cachexia using immunomodulatory agents. SummaryUnderstanding the immune response associated with cachexia may improve future pharmacological modification of the cytokines. In addition, the multifactorial contributions to the mechanisms of cachexia indicate that a multimodal approach may be necessary to treat cachexia and its associated symptoms. (Source: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care)
HHS Awards $2.2 Billion in Grants for HIV/AIDS Care and Medications
Health and Human Services Secretary Sylvia M. Burwell has announced that more than $2.2 billion in grants was awarded in fiscal year (FY) 2014 to cities, states and local community-based organizations, funded through the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program. (Source:<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Africa: Changing the Status Quo - Investing in Communities to Beat TB
[GFO]The Global Fund mobilizes and invests some US$4 billion annually to support national responses to AIDS, TB and malaria in nearly 140 countries. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Kenya: HIV Threatens Turkana Future, Says First Lady As She Donates Sh14 Million Mobile Clinic
[Kenya Presidency]First Lady Margaret Kenyatta today donated a fully equipped mobile clinic to Turkana County to support efforts to increase the proportion of women who deliver in clean and safe facilities. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
South Africa: The Next Wave of Prevention - Ring-Fencing HIV
[Health-e]A range of new products, including vaginal rings and antiretroviral (ARV) injections, may soon be on offer to prevent HIV. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Russian Speaking Immigrants: Drug Use, Infectious Disease and Related Health Behavior
This article focuses on drug use, infectious disease and other factors comparing FSU males who became addicted before and after immigration to Israel. 810 drug users were surveyed in treatment centers from January 2002 to January 2012. The Addiction Severity Index and other data collection instruments were used. Those addicted before immigration have a higher level of infectious disease (i.e., HCV, HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis) and opiate use other than heroin. Those addicted after immigration reported higher rates of last 30 days sedative; cocaine and opiates other than heroin use. Injection drug use and ASI domain problem behavior were more prevalent among those addicted before immigration. Results evidence the impact of country of addiction origin on drug use patterns, infectious disease ...
Africa: Ebola, HIV & Ethics
[What'sUpHIV]Suppose that a research team of scientists came up with an AIDS vaccine that was 50% effective. What would you recommend that they do with it? (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Africa: Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis for a New Era
[What'sUpHIV]It was an exciting morning for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) using daily oral TDF/FTC (brand-name Truvada). In the morning plenary session, Chris Beyrer, of Johns Hopkins University and president of the International AIDS Society, spoke about HIV prevention in sex workers, gay men and other men who have sex with men. Beyrer pointed out that there is only one country implementing PrEP - the United States - at a national level. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Africa: The Inaugural Desmond Tutu Award Goes to... Archbishop Desmond Tutu
[What'sUpHIV]The inaugural Desmond Tutu Award for HIV Prevention Research and Human Rights has been awarded - to Archbishop Desmond Tutu. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
South Africa: Sex Workers - the Struggle Continues
[What'sUpHIV]Particularly in South Africa were sex work hasn't been legalised, sex workers are at risk of contracting the virus every day and those who have contracted it struggle to access treatment. Decriminalising sex work has been under discussion since 1994 but until this day, the struggle continues and so does the spread of HIV. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: Improvement of HIV/TB Prevention, Treatment and Care in Prisons
[GFO]At the global epicenter of the HIV epidemic, intravenous drug use and sharing of syringes, needles and drug use paraphernalia, unprotected sex, multiple sexual partners, and low and inconsistent condom use are among the drivers of the spread of the virus [1]. Equally, prisoners comprise a key vulnerable population contributing to the epidemic. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: Is Sustainable Domestic Financing of TB Response a Reality in EECA Region?
[GFO]In 2014 the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB and Malaria started implementing its new funding model (NFM). The NFM aims to re-allocate its resources away from middle-income countries towards those with the highest burdens of disease and the least ability to pay. For the countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia (EECA) - the single most-affected region in the world by the spread of multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB) - a loss of eligibility for Global Fund funding is bad news. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> MedWorm Search is coming back soon. <a href="" target="_blank">Watch this space...</a></p></div>
Transurethral Use of a Nephroscope Significantly Aids in the Surgical Management of an Intrauterine Device Eroding Into the Bladder
ConclusionsThe transurethral approach with the use of a nephroscope significantly aids in the removal of an IUD embedded into the bladder wall. (Source: Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery)
Etravirine in HIV-1-Infected Children and AdolescentsEtravirine in HIV-1-Infected Children and Adolescents
How safe and effective is etravirine in a treatment-experienced pediatric population? HIV Medicine (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
DOCSS: doctors on-call smartphone study
Conclusion Smartphone usage is widespread among our intern cohort. The introduction of hospital applications with local guidelines would be welcomed; however, this may require informed patient consent regarding their use. (Source: Irish Journal of Medical Science)
Uganda: HIV-Negative Partners Face Infection Risk
[Independent (Kampala)]If a couple is in a long term sexual relationship and one of them is HIV-positive and the other is negative, scientists refer to them as a 'discordant couple'. Dr Raymond Mwebaze, a general physician at St. Raphael of St. Francis Hospital Nsambya, says discordant couples are becoming quite common. "It is common that you will find HIV discordant couples some of which are discordant by choice," he says. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)



   Anti-HIV vaccine
By Johnson
 Anti-HIV vaccineThe vaccine is made from a patient's own dendrites cells and HIV isolated from the Read more...


  1)  Famous Holly Haydens 100% Natural Hemorrhoids Cure Program.
  Uncover a guaranteed, natural, and fast way to shrink and cure hemorrhoids forever.

  2)   Beat Eczema.
  Eliminate Your Eczema in as Little as 10 Days

  3)  SleepTracks Sleep Optimization Program.
  Number 1 Sleep And Insomnia Solution

  4)  Get Rid Of Tiredness & Sleep Less.
  1 In 10 Visits To The Family Doctor Is Due To Chronic Tiredness.

  5)  The Ultimate Rotator Cuff Training Guide.
  Physical therapist reveals how to fix rotator cuff pain and shoulder stiffness.

  6)  Beat Yeast Infections.
  You are about to discover a safe, 100% guaranteed, clinically researched system for eliminating yeast infections. This is a one of a kind, proven system that most people have never heard of.

  7) Millions Of Sufferers For This Solution.
  Angular Cheilitis Solution, the inflammation subsided and the rawness disappeared within 3 hours of applying the treatment.

  8) Asthma & Allergy Cure -drug Free.
  Natural Asthma Treatment Breakthrough Is 100% Safe, Effective, Proven & Guaranteed.

  9)  Home Remedies For Better Health.
  Offering The Complete Health Guide To Self Healing, Shows You How To Treat Any Disease, With Herbs, Herbal.

 10)  Yeast Infection Away
  Cure Your Yeast Infection In Only 12 Hours!

 11) Top Secret Fat Loss Secret
  World-Famous TV Lady Doctor comes forth and blows the lid off the conspiracy to keep you unhealthy, fat & just plain sick.

 12) Burn The Fat Feed The Muscle                 
  Diet & Weight Loss Secrets of The World's Best Bodybuilders and Fitness Models: Lose fat quickly and easily without supplements.

 13) Strip That Fat
  Strip That Fat will remove unwanted fat from your body and provide you with a new, healthier outlook on life. Use the Strip That Fat personal diet generator to build a diet plan based on foods you like to eat.

 14) No Nonsense Muscle Building
Skinny Guy Secrets To Insane Muscle Gain.

 15) 7 Minute Muscle
  Rebel Trainer Proves You Can Gain More Lean Muscle Mass And Dramatically Increase Your Health In Just 7 Minutes a Day...And He Guarantees It

 16) The Truth About Muscle Gain and Bodybuilding.
  Top muscle building program available. Learn about building muscle from a muscle gain bodybuilding expert. Information on how to build muscle and gain weight fast.

  Fat Loss for Busy People, #1 Sports Training Product.

18) Fat Burning Furnace 
  Unlock The Hidden Fat Burning Secret Already Inside Your Body.

19) Anxiety And Panic Attacks.
  Cure Panic Attacks instantly with the Panic Away method.

 20) 12 Hour Cure For Yeast Infection.
  Complete Relief from Yeast Infection in HOURS. Safe, 100% Natural and Drug Free.

 21) Famous 100% Natural Hemorrhoids Cure System.
  Uncover a guaranteed, natural, and fast way to shrink and cure hemorrhoids forever.... without hemorrhoidectomy surgery or costly creams or pills that don't ever work anyways!

 22) Best Premature Solution.
  Premature Ejac Product Is Converting Extremely Well. If You Are In This Niche You Need To Be Promoting This Product.

 23) Acne Free In 3 Days
  All Natural Cure for stopping acne in 3 days!

 24) Yeast Infection No More (tm): Cure Candida Holistically!
  Cure Your Yeast Infection Naturally & Permanently Using The Only Clinically Proven & Unique 5 Step Holistic Yeast Infection System.


Additional Related Resources      
HIV Viral Infection
By Botle
HIV Viral Infection Most people infected with the HIV virus show few, if any, symptoms for a few Read more...
HIV Medical Research
By John Hits
HIV Medical Research-David Washington The Salk Institute for Biological Studies and Burnham Read more...
The origin of AIDS and HIV
By Jestin Cons
The origin of AIDS and HIV -  The origin of AIDS and HIV has puzzled scientists ever since the Read more...
By A Jameela
AIDS-AIDS is an acronym for Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome it causes a destruction of the immune system. It Read more...



treatment of hiv 
sample of grant proposal for hiv
symptoms of hiv
hiv symptoms
tyrese gibson has aids hiv
causes of hiv
statistics of hiv
early symptoms of hiv
hiv and aids
hiv aids
hiv testing
is it likely to contract hiv from sleeping with someone once
hiv rash
what does hiv stand for
hiv test
what is hiv
first symptoms hiv
hiv virus
magic johnson hiv
hiv awareness month
hiv facts
earliest symptoms of hiv infection
ed-wolf and hiv
hiv asymptomatic
hiv infection
hiv signs
hiv skin
s annie lennox hiv positive
difficulties hiv positive employees

hiv video
hiv picture
hiv in usa
hiv com
hiv 1 and hiv 2
hiv 101
hiv photos
www hiv
information about hiv
hiv 1 hiv 2
hiv 1 2
hiv usa
how hiv is transmitted
chris brown hiv
pictures of hiv aids
hiv forums
hiv images
hiv forum
hiv definition
wright hiv
effects of hiv aids
hiv pics
hiv aids jobs
hiv data
tommy morrison hiv
how many people have hiv
preventing hiv
hiv database
hiv studies
hiv 2
statistics on hiv
hiv chat
aids africa
aids prevention
aids statistics
aids in africa
world aids day
number of hiv
aids testing
aids treatment
aids drugs
aids research
aids treatments
aids awareness
aids transmission
cure aids
aids test
aids symptoms
symptom hiv
aids facts
aids information
south africa
aids medication
aids patients
treatment for hiv aids
hiv aids treatment

hiv lipid organelle protein
hiv symptoms in women
hiv aids symptoms
hiv aids statistics
hiv cure
signs or symptoms of hiv
signs of hiv
hiv aids africa
hiv medications
hiv treatments
hiv statistics
hiv transmission
hiv be transmitted
hiv positive
hiv ribbon
how is hiv treated
ways that the hiv virus is transmitted
jenny mccarthy hiv positive
aids and hiv
early stage hiv symptoms
what is the difference between hiv and aids
5 phases of hiv infection
hiv infections
hiv symtoms
hiv treatment
cure for hiv
fact sheets for hiv
hiv prevention
aids and hiv treatment
hiv from sharing cigarette
hiv impact on population
hiv tanzania
hiv nigeria
aids epidemic
hiv outreach
hiv aids clinic
aids outreach
aids news
aids charity
hiv tuberculosis
people with
hiv service
symptoms of aids
aids tests
aids symptom
hiv condom
acute hiv
symptoms of hiv infection
condoms hiv
early hiv
hiv info
hiv early symptoms
hiv testing centers
about hiv aids
hiv tests
testing for hiv
hiv center
anonymous hiv testing
hiv rapid test
incubation period hiv
hiv botswana
hiv unaids
hiv zambia
hiv health
hiv community
hiv medication
tb hiv
hiv risk
infected hiv
hiv aids test
hiv aids education
hiv causes
hiv dating
hiv global
hiv youth
hiv impact
hiv aids policy
hiv stigma
african hiv
malaria hiv
living with aids
hiv zimbabwe
hiv countries
aids information and testing
aids orphans
hiv project
hiv aids awareness
hiv orphans
hiv funding
hiv and clinics in eastern texas
hiv home test
hiv window period
contracting hiv
feline hiv
hiv test dfw
no you cannot get hiv from sharing cigarette
hiv fingering
hiv pediatric programs for african american
hiv phone counseling
hiv positive cosmetology students
hiv programs for women and children
hiv stands for
how is hiv transmitted
james and lara roxx hiv positive
signs and symptoms of hiv
coexistence lupus hiv
hiv life cycle
hiv mouth sores
hiv paper cut
people with hiv
writing about your hiv experiences
aids and hiv history
history of hiv
hiv contraction heterosexual sex aids
hiv retroviral
hiv wasting
origin of hiv
aids hiv
attachment inhibitor hiv
heterosexual men getting hiv with condom
hiv aids treatments
hiv education
hiv information
hiv testing immediate results - los angeles
how is hiv diagnosed
im convinced i have hiv
women massage parlor hiv
living with hiv
hiv awareness
hiv africa
hiv research
hiv drugs
hiv disease
hiv aids prevention
hiv patients
hiv diagnosis
hiv drug
symptoms hiv
hiv std
hiv aids pictures
hiv news
hiv rates
hiv people
hiv or aids
hiv cases
hiv rate
hiv aid
hiv in india
hiv spread
hiv aids in africa
hiv united states
hiv prevalence
cdc hiv
hiv women
hiv in south africa
hiv population
hiv children
hiv epidemic
who hiv
kenya hiv
south africa hiv
thailand hiv
hiv vaccine
hiv policy
uganda hiv
hiv care
cure hiv
hiv support
hiv resources
treatment of hiv
hiv aids information
hiv aids testing
hiv life expectancy
hiv help
living with hiv aids


Your Email:
Your Name:
After submission you will be redirected to HELPCURE'S HIV Guide on browser which will include all the latest information about HIV and its latest treatment using holistic methods. -JOSEPH 



Your Email:
Your Name:



 Copy Right With G Associates- Singapore
All Rights Reserved.
Up date Duration- Daily. Accuracy 99%. Issued by G Associates. 

How To Cure HIV?- HIV Cure through Holistic HIV Treatment 

This website is made for public use with latest information on