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CD4 Cells
By Afsath Jameela

CD4 Cells
Treatment centers need consulting rooms, offices, waiting rooms and secure storage for valuable drugs. They also require basic facilities to test for anemia, pregnancy, renal function, white blood cell counts and other factors that may affect treatment.
In developed countries, decisions about when to start treatment are based on the results of clinical tests called the CD4 test and the viral load test. Ideally these tests should be used everywhere, but in many parts of the world they are currently unavailable, as they require expensive equipment, electricity and trained technicians. In theory, decisions about when to start treatment may be based on symptoms alone. However in practice some treatment programmers provide medication only to people who have had a CD4 count.
There are two primary types of T-cells.
1. CD4 Cells-These cells have molecules called CD4 on its surface. These "helper" cells initiate the body's response to invading micro-organisms such as viruses.
2.CD8 Cells-These types of T-cells have a molecule called CD8 on their surface. CD8 cells destroy cells that have been infected with foreign invading micro-organisms. CD8 cells also produce antiviral substances (antibodies) that help fight off the foreign invader.
3.Normal values-In a healthy adult, a normal CD4 count can vary a great deal but is typically 600 to 1200 cells per cubic millimeter of blood
Between 600 and 350- In an HIV+ person, this range is considered "very good".
HIV medications are typically not be indicated.
Between 350 and 200-The immune system is weakened and therefore the HIV+ person may be at increased risk for infection and illness.
Function of T helper cells: Antigen presenting cells present antigen on their Class II MHC molecules. Helper T cells recognize these, with the help of their expression of CD4 co-receptor. The activation of a resting helper T cell causes it to release cytokines and other stimulatory signals. The importance of CD4 T cells is demonstrated with infection.
It has been proposed that during the non-symptomatic phase of infection, the virus has a relatively low affinity towards T cells (and has a higher affinity for macrophages), resulting in a slow kill rate of CD4+ T cells by the immune system. This is initially compensated for via the production of new helper T cells from thymus. Once the virus becomes T-tropic, it begins to infect CD4+ T cells far more efficiently, and

Who will come to Balamani?s aid? - Hindu: News
G. Balamani is about 60-years-old. She is mentally ill. She is unable to recollect when she had her last meal and one can barely understand the words she utters.Balamani?s residence is righ...
China court raps clinic over 'gay conversion' therapy - Zee News : World
A Beijing court on Friday ordered a psychological clinic to pay compensation to a homosexual man for administering electric shocks in an attempt to make him heterosexual, an unprecedented ruling on so-called conversion therapy.
Commercial MNCs are checked, so why not religious MNCs? - Rediff: News
Anti-conversion laws are needed since thrusting the idea of a competitive battlefield of religion onto India's pluralistic traditions can only lead to greater communal conflict, says Sankrant Sanu
Workshop on handling mentally challenged children - New Kerala: India News
New Delhi, Dec 19 : To train staff in institutions which handle mentally challenged children, an NGO Friday organised a workshop here to prepare social workers to better help such children.
I am... Nisha C - Hindu: Cities
Occupation: Special Educator  ?As a child, I was petrified of the mentally-challenged and the hearing-impaired. I would never be part of gatherings where they were present. It...
Workshop on handling mentally challenged children - All News-IANS Stories
To train staff in institutions which handle mentally challenged children, an NGO Friday organised a workshop here to prepare social workers to better help such children.
Online Services for Patients - Govt of india: PIB
Pre-registration online service for Out Patient Department (OPD) has been started inAll India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi.Under this service, patient is required to fill all demographic details in an online electronic form and issued a pre-registration number which is used
Separate Dept for mentally challenged asked - Manipur: E-Pao
Separate Dept for mentally challenged asked
Why the party drug Meow Meow is so dangerous - Mid Day: National
Devendra Fadnavis Maharashtra Chief Minister We have written to the Central government requesting to include certain drugs (Mephedrone and Methamphetamine) and its formation in the Schedule II Category 1 of the NDPS Act. I will seek legal opinion on whether drug peddlers can be booked under Section 328. Also read: As sales spike destroys Mumbai's youth Meow Meow to be banned soon (This section reads: Causing hurt by means of poison, etc., with intent to commit an offence. Whoever administers to or causes to be taken by any person any poison or any stupefying, intoxicating or unwholesome drug, or other thing with intent to cause hurt to such person, or with intent to commit or to facilitate the commission of an offence or knowing it to be likely that he will thereby cause hurt, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.) Law Enforcement Authorities on Meow Meow K L Prasad Commissioner of Police, Navi Mumbai The ...
Cute li'l Santas spread cheer - The Telegraph : Jharkhand
Though baby Jesus will be born a week later, Santa Claus - make that some 70 cherubic Santa Clauses - paid a visit to Jeevan Jyoti School in Bekar Bandh, Dhanbad.
India-born mentally ill man sentenced in Britain - New Kerala: World News
London, Dec 18 : An India-born man residing in Britain has been sent to a mental hospital with a no-time limit restriction order under the Mental Health Act for killing his wife in 2009, media reported.
India-born mentally ill man sentenced in Britain - All News-IANS Stories
An India-born man residing in Britain has been sent to a mental hospital with a no-time limit restriction order under the Mental Health Act for killing his wife in 2009, media reported.
It haunts! - The Hindu: Today's Paper
It haunts!
Mumbai Diary: Thursday theme - Mid Day: National
Diva power A mid-week musical tribute to the Delhi rape victim in one of the city?s swish lounges witnessed a crowd that got more than their money?s worth, as they were treated to a heady performance by the talented all-woman band, Indiva. Comprising of Merlin D?Souza, Hamsika Iyer, Vivienne Pocha and Shruti Bhave, it made for a refreshing change to hear these multi-instrumentalists live, in this era of instant music and whatnot. The proceeds from the event went towards NGO, The Zonta Club that works to support women and girl children. The four-member band showcased their talent with multiple instruments and in several languages Kannada, Tamil, Bengali, Marathi, Konkani?we lost count after a point. An artist created a canvas while the band played, and this was was auctioned later along with a saree donated by designer Amy Billimoria, with the proceeds going to the same NGO. The high-energy evening ended with a trippy cover of the Portuguese hit, Magalenha. As the crowd called for an encore, we heard ...
Med bodies to focus on mental health - Deccan Herald - New Delhi
Doctors will now have to be more updated on mental health issues of patients. Medical bodies are set to implement new measures to upgrade doctors' knowledge on mental health issues, ethical and legal obligations of the fraternity. The measures come at a time when doctors have attracted flak for "unethical practices" from time to time. Several doctors recently have been accused of joining hands with pharmaceutical companies and also asking patients to go for unnecessary diagnostic services. The Indian Medical Association will soon instruct heads of associations of the 29 state branches and 1,700 local branches to reserve 10 per cent time of all lectures for medical professionals to touch upon counselling, ethical and legal aspects. In the remaining time, the issue pertaining to the lecture will be explored. Currently, doctors often overlook matters like patients' consent, maintaining conferentiality, feel experts. "This move is to ensure there is transparency in the system. There is often a tendency to ...
Special K: Raising hopes and fuelling concerns - Deccan Herald - Analysis
It is either the most exciting new treatment for depression in years or it is a hallucinogenic club drug that is wrongly being dispensed to desperate patients in a growing number of clinics around the country. It is called ketamine - or Special K, in street parlance. While it has been used as an anaesthetic for decades, small studies at prestigious medical centers like Yale, Mount Sinai and the National Institute of Mental Health suggest it can relieve depression in many people who are not helped by widely used conventional antidepressants like Prozac or Lexapro. But some psychiatrists say the drug has not been studied enough to be ready for use outside of clinical trials, and they are alarmed that clinics are springing up to offer ketamine treatments, charging hundreds of dollars for sessions that must be repeated many times. "We don't know what the long-term side effects of this are," said Dr Anthony J. Rothschild, a professor of psychiatry at the University of Massachusetts Medical School. On Tuesday, ...
Examination fear brings kids to counsellor?s doorstep - Kanpur - City - The Times of India
The fear of approaching examinations is giving sleepless nights to school children and their parents.
Google's 'year in search' reveals Robin Williams' death was top global trend in 2014 - New Kerala: Business India
Washington, Dec. 17 : Google's 'year in search' 2014 has revealed that the top global trending search was the story of Robin Williams' death, followed by the World Cup and Ebola.
Photo story: Sensorium unveils a fusion of films, music and literature - FirstPost: Bollywood
<p>Running in Sunaparanta, Goa Centre for the Arts, Sensorium is a series of photography exhibitions. In its inaugural edition Sensorium reflects on photography at its intersection with literature, cinema and music.</p> <p>The post <a rel="nofollow" href="http://www.firstpost.com/bollywood/photos-sensorium-1847001.html">Photo story: Sensorium unveils a fusion of films, music and literature</a> appeared first on <a rel="nofollow" href="http://www.firstpost.com">Firstpost</a>.</p>
Google's `year in search` reveals Robin Williams' death was top global trend in 2014 - Sify News
Google's `year in search` 2014 has revealed that the top global trending search was the story of Robin Williams' death, followed by the World Cup and Ebola.
Google's 'year in search' reveals Robin Williams' death was top global trend in 2014 - DNA: Mumbai
Google&apos;s &apos;year in search&apos; 2014 has revealed that the top global trending search was the story of Robin Williams&apos; death, followed by the World Cup and Ebola. It was also found that the searches for depression tests and mental health increased in the wake of Williams&apos; death, the Verge reported. While the lost Malaysian Airlines plane MH370 was one of the top searches, for example, Google was able to parse that &quot;mh370 found&quot; was searched far more often than &quot;mh370 lost.&quot; Among the global top 10, tech hardware, which made up a good portion in 2013&apos;s list, was for some reason missing in the 2014&apos;s search list. More of the year&apos;s biggest global searches included supremely viral hits; like the ALS Ice Bucket Challenge and Flappy Bird, as well as the biggest global news stories, like the Ebola outbreak in West Africa and the Winter Olympics in ...
Social media training boosts well-being of elders - The Hindu: Today's Paper
Social media training boosts well-being of elders
Mehdi’s parents arrive in city - The Hindu: Today's Paper
Mehdi’s parents arrive in city
Corporation to construct more night shelters - The Hindu: Today's Paper
Corporation to construct more night shelters
Britain pledges more support for children affected by Ebola - Zee News : World
Britain has pledged a 2.5 million pounds fund to help children affected by Ebola. The fund will go to the United Nations International Children`s Emergency Fund, according to the Department for International Development.

the immune system is overwhelmed.
At this point, functional CD4+ T cell levels begin to decrease, eventually to a point where the CD4+ T cell population is too small to recognize the full range antigens that could potentially be detected. The lack of full antigen cover results in the core symptoms of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).CD4 T cell depletion during AIDS allows various pathogens to escape T cell recognition, thus allowing opportunistic infections that would normally elicit a helper T cell response to bypass the immune system. While these complete bypass situations only occur when the helper T cell response is absolutely necessary for infection clearance, most infections increase in severity and/or duration because the immune system's helper T cells provide a weaker contribution to a less efficient immune response.
Two components of the immune system are particularly affected in AIDS, due to its CD4+ T cell dependency:
CD8+ T cells are not stimulated as effectively during the AIDS period of infection, making AIDS patients very susceptible to most viruses, including itself. This decline in killing of CD4+ T cells results in the virus being produced for a longer period (the infected CD4+ T cells are not killed as quickly), increasing the proliferation of the virus, and accelerating the development of the disease.
Antibody class switching declines significantly once helper T cell function fails. The immune system loses its ability to improve the affinity of their antibodies, and are unable to generate B cells that can produce antibody groups such as IgG and IgA. These effects are primarily due to the loss of any helper T cell that can interact with the B lymphocyte correctly. Another symptom of AIDS is the reduction in antibody levels due to a decrease in Th2 cytokines (and less interactions by helper T cells). All of these complications result in an increased susceptibility to aggressive bacterial infections, especially in areas of the body not accessible by IgM antibodies.
If the patient does not respond to Treatment they will succumb usually to either cancers or infections; the immune system finally reaches a point where it is no longer coordinated or stimulated enough to deal with the disease.

 Keywords:  HIV,AIDS,HIV Cure,HIV Treatment,HIV Infection,HIV Dating,HIV Positive,HIV Symptoms.


Afsath Jameela is a successful lady writer from Kairo. She right now living in UK.

Gambia: NRA, GFPA Ink D20.8 Millions HIV/Aids, Road Safety Deal
[Daily Observer]The National Roads Authority (NRA) and the Gambia Family Planning Association (GFPA) Tuesday signed a sensitisation contract agreement as part of the implementation of the Trans-Gambia Corridor Project, amounting to D20, 813, 936 (twenty million, eight hundred and thirteen thousand, nine hundred and thirty six dalasis). (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Zimbabwe: Govt to Create HIV Programme for Gays
[New Zimbabwe]THE government is going to create a specific HIV and AIDS programme targeting homosexuals and sex workers as a way of controlling the infection rate, a senior government official has revealed. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis - Thakkar MM, Sharma R, Sahota P.
Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used "over the counter" sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first... (Source: SafetyLit: All (Unduplicated))
Age-Related Eye Diseases and Recommendations for Low-Vision Aids
This article provides guidance on the most appropriate methods for communicating with patients who have limited vision. The 4 major causes of vision loss in this population are briefly reviewed. Low-vision aids are described and sources for these products are identified. (Source: Home Healthcare Nurse)
HIV Diagnoses, Prevalence and Outcomes in Nine Southern States
Abstract A group of nine states in the Southern United States, hereafter referred to as the targeted states, has experienced particularly high HIV diagnosis and case fatality rates. To provide additional information about the HIV burden in this region, we used CDC HIV surveillance data to examine characteristics of individuals diagnosed with HIV in the targeted states (2011), 5-year HIV and AIDS survival, and deaths among persons living with HIV (2010). We used multivariable analyses to explore the influence of residing in the targeted states at diagnosis on deaths among persons living with HIV after adjustment for demographics and transmission risk. In 2011, the targeted states had a higher HIV diagnosis rate (24.5/100,000 population) than the US overall (18.0/100,000) and hi...
FDA Approves Stribild Efficacy Supplement
"On December 17, [2014], the Indications and Usage section of the STRIBILD (elvitegravir 150 mg/cobicistat 150 mg/emtricitabine 200 mg/tenofovir 300mg) label was updated to include patients who are virologically-suppressed (HIV-1 RNA &lt;50 copies/mL) on a stable antiretroviral regimen for at least 6 months with no history of treatment failure in order to replace their current regimen. Patients should have no known substitutions associated with resistance to the individual components of STRIBILD." &nbsp; More information is available: &nbsp; FDA: Press release AIDSinfo: Patient fact sheet on Stribild (Source: AIDSinfo At-a-Glance: Offering Information on HIV/AIDS Treatment, Prevention, and Research, A Service of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS))
Foreign-Born Persons Diagnosed with HIV: Where are They From and Where Were They Infected?
Abstract We sought to calculate rates of HIV diagnoses by area of birth among foreign-born persons in a high-incidence US city with many immigrants, and determine probable place of HIV acquisition. Data from the New York City HIV surveillance registry and American Community Survey were used to calculate HIV diagnosis rates by area of birth and determine probable place of HIV acquisition among foreign-born diagnosed in 2006?2012. HIV diagnosis rates varied by area of birth and were highest among African-born persons; absolute numbers were highest among Caribbean-born persons. Probable place of acquisition was a foreign country for 23 % (from 9 % among Middle Easterners to 43 % among Africans), US for 61 % (from 34 % among Africans to 76 % among South Americans), and not pos...
How llamas' unusual antibodies might help in the fight against HIV/AIDS
Most vaccines work by inducing an immune response characterized by neutralizing antibodies against the respective pathogen. An effective HIV vaccine has remained elusive so far, but researchers have continued to make progress, often employing innovative methods. A new study reports that a combination of antibodies from llamas can neutralize a wide range of circulating HIV viruses. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Sex, drugs and healthcare utilization among HIV+ patients: The role of marijuana
This study assessed the impact of MJ use on health outcomes, health care utilization, and risk-transmission behaviors in PLWHA. (Source: Drug and Alcohol Dependence)
Impact of marijuana use on memory in patients with HIV/AIDS: A systematic review
Aims: The most robust neurocognitive effect of cannabis use is memory impairment. Memory deficits are also high among persons living with HIV/AIDS, and cannabis is the most commonly used drug in this population. Yet research examining neurocognitive outcomes resulting from co-occurring cannabis and HIV is virtually non-existent. Thus, the primary objectives of this systematic review are to: (1) examine the literature specific to memory functioning in HIV-infected individuals; (2) examine the literature specific to memory functioning in cannabis users; (3) synthesize findings to propose a theoretical model; and (4) discuss directions for future research. (Source: Drug and Alcohol Dependence)
Understanding the HIV Care Continuum
This fact sheet explains the various approaches and data used to develop the HIV care continuum, how it is used to improve outcomes for people living with HIV in the United States and how it helps guide the nation?s response to HIV. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
Ebola 3.0
By Susan J. Blumenthal, M.D., and Jennifer Sherwood, M.P.H. The doctors, nurses and other health care workers who responded to the Ebola epidemic in West Africa were recently named Time magazine's "Person of the Year." The courageous individuals who dedicate their careers and risk their lives to help in times of global public health emergencies such as Ebola deserve this recognition. A new report shows that health care workers have more than 100 times the risk of being infected with Ebola in Sierra Leone as the general public there. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 622 health care workers have acquired the virus and 346 of them have died in the affected countries. The recent death of a physician in the United States, who had been working in Sierra Leone and had tested ne...
Zimbabwe: Anti-Gay Legislation Could Defeat Goal to End Aids in Zimbabwe By 2015
[IPS]Harare -Despite a mandate to eradicate HIV/AIDS under the U.N. Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), Zimbabwe has done little or nothing to reduce the rate of infection among vulnerable gays and lesbians, say activists here. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Gambia: Gambia's HIV/Aids Percentage Stands At 1.9
[Daily Observer]The regional AIDS coordinator of the National Aids Secretariat (NAS) in the Lower River Region (LRR) has disclosed that the estimated number of people living with HIV/AIDS in The Gambia currently stands at 19,380, representing a percentage of 1.9. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Gambia: Kicking HIV/Aids Out
[Daily Observer]Stakeholders in our health service particularly those dealing in HIV/AIDS are still commemorating world AIDS which is often observed early in December. The day as we can recall is dedicated to raising money, increasing awareness, fighting prejudice and improving education. It s also important in reminding people that HIV has not gone away, and that there are many things still to be done and as well provides an opportunity for us all - individuals, communities and political leaders - to take action and ensu (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Nigeria: APIN Produces Clinical Manual on HIV/Aids
[This Day]In an effort to improve the quality of healthcare professionals in HIV/AIDS practice, and provide knowledge on the management of the virus, a non-governmental organisation, Aids Prevention Initiative in Nigeria (APIN) has produced a clinical pharmacy training manual. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Zambia: Condomize! Protects Vulnerable Populations From HIV
[UNFPA]Lusaka -"Today, stigma and discrimination against people living with HIV and key populations remain widespread," said UNFPA Executive Director Dr. Babatunde Osotimehin, in his statement commemorating World AIDS Day. "We must ensure that anyone at risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections has access to condoms." (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Botswana: HIV Infections Peak During Festive Season
[Botswana Daily News]Mahalapye -The Mahalapye Hospital public relations officer, Ms Pauline Bontle has expressed concern that HIV infections increase during the days leading to Christmas and New Year Holidays. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Zimbabwe: Teenage Pregnancies - the Sad Reality
[The Herald]More than 50 years ago, the mere mention of the word "sex" among teenagers would raise eyebrows and spark debate anywhere in Zimbabwe. Then, not even a single girl would indulge, or let alone fall pregnant. Today the mention of the same word, still cause as much anxiety, if not paranoia within the same age group. However, the increase in teenage pregnancies, unsafe abortions, sexually transmitted infections including HIV and Aids among teenagers' show that they have thrown caution to the wind and are indul (Source: AllAfrica News: Pregnancy and Childbirth)
Zimbabwe: Patients in Danger As ARVs Run Out
[New Zimbabwe]MORE than half a million people living with HIV and Aids are in danger as the public hospitals countrywide are experiencing shortages of the anti-retroviral (ARVs) drugs. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
How llamas' unusual antibodies might help in the fight against HIV/AIDS
(PLOS) Most vaccines work by inducing an immune response characterized by neutralizing antibodies against the respective pathogen. An effective HIV vaccine has remained elusive so far, but researchers have continued to make progress, often employing innovative methods. A study published on Dec. 18 in PLOS Pathogens reports that a combination of antibodies from llamas can neutralize a wide range of circulating HIV viruses. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)
Global Life Expectancy Continues to Climb
Women have slightly greater gains than men, study finds (Source: The Doctors Lounge - Oncology)
Tobacco brief intervention training for chiropractic, acupuncture, and massage practitioners: protocol for the CAM reach study
DiscussionCAM practitioners provide care to significant numbers of tobacco users. Their practice patterns and philosophical approaches to health and healing are well suited for providing BIs. The CAMR study is examining the impact of the CAMR intervention on practitioners' tobacco-related practice behaviors, CAM patient behaviors, and documenting factors important to the conduct of practice-based research in real-world CAM practices. (Source: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Osseointegration and its role in management of hearing loss
Publication date: December 2014 Source:Operative Techniques in Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Volume 25, Issue 4 Author(s): James H Clark , Charles M. Stewart Osseointegration is a biological process by which a structural connection is created between living bone and the surface of a load-carrying implant. This phenomenon has been used in a range of medical interventions. In 1977, Tjellstrom reported on osseointegrated bone-anchored hearing device as an alternative to conventional bone-conducting hearing aids, which were required to be worn on a headband or a pair of glasses. Since that time, there has been significant development in surgical technique and device technology for bone-anchored hearing devices. A review of the current literature was conducted to describe these advanc...
Liver?related deaths in HIV?infected patients between 1995 and 2010 in France: the Mortavic 2010 study in collaboration with the Agence Nationale de Recherche sur le SIDA (ANRS) EN 20 Mortalité 2010 survey
ConclusionsThe proportion of LRDs among causes of death in HIV?infected patients seems recently to have reached a plateau after a rapid increase during the decade 1995?2005. LRDs remain a leading cause of death in this population, mainly as a result of hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection, HCC representing almost half of liver?related causes of death. (Source: HIV Medicine)
Global, regional, and national age?sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990?2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013
Publication date: Available online 18 December 2014 Source:The Lancet Background Up-to-date evidence on levels and trends for age-sex-specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality is essential for the formation of global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) we estimated yearly deaths for 188 countries between 1990, and 2013. We used the results to assess whether there is epidemiological convergence across countries. Methods We estimated age-sex-specific all-cause mortality using the GBD 2010 methods with some refinements to improve accuracy applied to an updated database of vital registration, survey, and census data. We generally estimated cause of death as in the GBD 2010. Key improvements included the addition of more recent v...
Physicians? Obligations to Patients Infected with Ebola: Echoes of AIDS
Society has an obligation to properly train and equip physicians, and physicians have an obligation to render care to patients even when risk is involved. (Source: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology)
Comparative cost of illness analysis and assessment of health care burden of Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies in Germany
Conclusion: In conclusion, early assessments of economic aspects and the disease burden are essential to gain extensive knowledge of a distinct disease and above all play an important role in funding drug development programs for rare diseases. Therefore, our results may help to accelerate payer negotiations such as the pricing and reimbursement of new therapies, and will hopefully contribute to facilitating the efficient translation of innovations from clinical research over marketing authorization to patient access to a causative treatment. (Source: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Antibodies Predict Scleroderma Renal Crisis
(MedPage Today) -- Antibody test aids assessing risk for this potentially lethal complication. (Source: MedPage Today Primary Care)
HIV-related Stigma Among an Urban Sample of Persons Living With HIV at Risk for Dropping Out of HIV-oriented Primary Medical Care
HIV-related stigma is one of the greatest barriers to preventing and ending the HIV epidemic. The purpose of our study was to examine HIV-related stigma among urban adults voluntarily seeking HIV-oriented primary medical care and at risk for dropping out after enrolling. The baseline cross-sectional analysis of perceived HIV-related stigma upon enrolling in care examined the level of HIV-related stigma and its sub-domains: personalized, disclosure, negative self-image, and public attitudes. Our study also identified precursors of HIV-related stigma and associated outcomes. (Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)
The Context and Experience of Becoming HIV Infected for Zimbabwean Women: Unheard Voices Revealed
Zimbabwean women are at high risk for HIV infection but often are not the focus of inquiry unless they are participants in controlled trials. In this phenomenological study, we interviewed 17 women living with advanced HIV infection to better understand their experiences and the aftermath of being diagnosed with HIV. Open-ended interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, translated into English, and analyzed. Two themes (living with suspicion of HIV infection and sensing the engulfing anguish of being HIV infected) emerged and were found to reflect the essence of the phenomena. (Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)
Deconstructing HIV-Related Stigma: A Dialogue With a Multidisciplinary Group of Experts
Despite clinical advances in the care of persons living with HIV (PLWH), HIV-related stigma remains a persistent issue, and evidence that stigma negatively impacts health outcomes for PLWH continues to grow. Not only has HIV-related stigma been implicated as a barrier for care initiation for PLWH (Pollini, Blanco, Crump, & Zuniga, 2011), but findings from a meta-analysis examining health and demographic correlates of stigma toward PLWH has revealed that the association of high HIV-related stigma with poor mental and physical health outcomes is significant and consistent across studies (Logie & Gadalla, 2009). (Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)
Ending HIV-Related Stigma: Nursing's Opportunity to Lead
Throughout history, persons living with a communicable disease have been labeled as deviants, ostracized, shunned by society, and even quarantined. In her classic book, AIDS and Its Metaphors, Susan Sontag (1998) asserted that HIV ? ?whose charge of stigmatization, whose capacity to create a spoiled identity? (p. 16) is far greater than any disease before it. HIV has made clear, like many prior communicable diseases, the complex intersection of culture, law, ethics, and science that has shaped the pandemic we know today (Brandt, 1988). (Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Table of Contents
(Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)
Board of Directors
(Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)
Masthead
(Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)
Cover 1
(Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)
Editorial Board
(Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
New HIV Guideline Updates, Expands Prevention RecommendationsNew HIV Guideline Updates, Expands Prevention Recommendations
The CDC has published an updated and expanded guideline on preventing HIV transmission with adults and adolescents with HIV. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape ObGyn and Womens Health Headlines)
HIV/Hepatitis C Virus Coinfection ManagementHIV/Hepatitis C Virus Coinfection Management
The clinical guidelines are changing for the treatment of HIV/hepatitis C virus coinfection. HIV Medicine (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
Renal Function Among ART-Naive, HIV-Infected PatientsRenal Function Among ART-Naive, HIV-Infected Patients
What is the prevalence of abnormal renal function among ART-naive, HIV-infected patients in Southeast Nigeria? Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
Combining social media, behavioral psychology could lead to more HIV testing
Social media such as Twitter and Facebook, combined with behavioral psychology, could be a valuable tool in the fight against AIDS by prompting high-risk individuals to be tested, research shows. Though there have been many experimental HIV testing interventions in international settings, none have used social media technologies, said one investigator. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)
The Unbroken Chain: Three Decades of HIV/AIDS Nursing The Unbroken Chain: Three Decades of HIV/AIDS Nursing
Read about the trailblazers who brought HIV out of the shadows and into a compassionate and progressive system of care. (Source: Medscape Hiv-Aids Headlines)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation selected to receive up to $63 million from UNITAID
(Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation) The Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation is pleased to announce that it has been selected by the UNITAID Executive Board to receive up to $63 million in funding to improve early infant diagnosis of HIV programs in nine African countries. This investment will pave the way for universal access to HIV testing and enable a ten-fold increase in HIV treatment, thus transforming the effort to end AIDS in children worldwide. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Delirium Transitions in the Medical ICU: Exploring the Role of Sleep Quality and Other Factors*
Conclusions: We found no association between daily perceived sleep quality ratings and transition to delirium. Infusion of benzodiazepine and/or opioid medications was strongly associated with transition to delirium in the ICU in mechanically ventilated patients and is an important, modifiable risk factor for delirium in critically ill patients. (Source: Critical Care Medicine)
Nigeria: Combating HIV/Aids Stigmatisation
[Independent (Lagos)]Abuja -This year's celebration of World AIDS Day on December 1 provided another opportunity for people globally to lend their voices to the fight against HIV/ AIDS as well as show support for people living with HIV/AIDS. The day is also meant to remember those who died as a result of the virus (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Changing use of traditional healthcare amongst those dying of HIV related disease and TB in rural South Africa from 2003 - 2011: a retrospective cohort study
Conclusions: There were large decreases in reported traditional healthcare use and increases in the sole use of biomedical treatment amongst those dying of HIV/AIDS and TB. No associations between socio-economic position, age or gender and the likelihood of traditional healthcare use were seen. Further qualitative and quantitative studies are needed to assess whether these figures reflect trends in healthcare use amongst the entire population and the reasons for the temporal changes identified. (Source: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine)
Hispanic/Latino Individuals Lack Sufficient HIV Treatment
With 3 times more Hispanic or Latino individuals receiving an HIV diagnosis each year compared with non-Hispanic white individuals, greater levels of care targeted to this demographic group are needed to meet the goals of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy. (Source: JAMA)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Getting Ahead of Illness: Using Metaphors to Influence Medical Decision Making
Conclusions. Describing the flu virus metaphorically in decision aids or information campaigns could be a simple, cost-effective way to increase vaccinations against the flu. (Source: Medical Decision Making)
Does antiretroviral therapy for HIV reduce the risk of developing multiple sclerosis?
In 2011, a case was reported in which a patient with multiple sclerosis (MS) and HIV was treated with antiretroviral therapy (ART)&mdash;he did not experience MS-related deficits for over a decade.1 This prompted researchers in Denmark (Nex&oslash; et al) to examine the association between MS and HIV using population-based databases. Although they found a reduced incidence of MS in HIV-positive individuals compared with the general population, their study did not achieve a conventional level of statistical significance.2 I was recently asked to review the Gold et al study,3 which has answered the Danish researchers&rsquo; call for a larger study to investigate whether HIV, or its treatment, has a protective effect on the development of MS. Similar to the original Danish study, Gold et al u...
HIV and lower risk of multiple sclerosis: beginning to unravel a mystery using a record-linked database study
Conclusions HIV infection is associated with a significantly decreased risk of developing MS. Mechanisms of this observed possibly protective association may include immunosuppression induced by chronic HIV infection and antiretroviral medications. (Source: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry)
Cost?effectiveness of rapid hepatitis C virus (HCV) testing and simultaneous rapid HCV and HIV testing in substance abuse treatment programs
ConclusionsOn?site rapid hepatitis C virus and HIV testing in substance abuse treatment programs is cost?effective at a &lt;$100?000/quality?adjusted life year threshold. (Source: Addiction)
A Prognostic Clinicopathologic Classification of Pituitary Endocrine Tumors
Pituitary endocrine tumors are considered as benign. However, clinical and pathological data favor their consideration as more than an endocrinological disease. Using data from a retrospective case-control study of 410 patients, with 8 years of follow-up, the authors have validated a new clinicopathologic classification of pituitary tumors. This classification is based on tumor size, immunohistochemical type, and grade based on the assessment of invasion and proliferation, and it provides a prognostic value for predicting postoperative disease-free outcome or recurrence/progression status. This classification aids the identification of patients presenting with pituitary tumors that have a high risk of recurrence and enable construction of personalized therapies. (Source: Endocrinology and ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Inter? and intrarater reliability of the Chicago Classification in pediatric high?resolution esophageal manometry recordings
Conclusions & InferencesInter? and intrarater reliability of software?based CC diagnosis of pediatric HRM recordings was high overall. However, experience was a factor influencing the diagnosis of some motility disorders, particularly DES and achalasia. Automated software?based Chicago Classification (CC) aids in the diagnosis of pediatric esophageal motility disorders with high inter? and intrarater reliability. However, the clinical diagnosis of achalasia and distal esophageal spasm is less reliable. (Source: Neurogastroenterology and Motility)
Syphilis on the Rise Among Gay, Bisexual Men: CDC
Rates of chlamydia dip for the first time in 30 years (Source: Fertility News - Doctors Lounge)
Dyslipidemia in HIV AIDS patients
Husain NE, Ahmed MH (Source: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management)
Increasing the use of second-line therapy is a cost-effective approach to prevent the spread of drug-resistant HIV: a mathematical modelling study.
Conclusions : While earlier treatment initiation will result in a predicted increase in the proportion of patients infected with drug-resistant HIV, the absolute numbers of patients infected with drug-resistant HIV is predicted to decrease. Increasing use of second-line treatment to all patients with confirmed failure on first-line therapy is a cost-effective approach to reduce TDR. Improving access to second-line ART is therefore a major priority. PMID: 25491351 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
The Most Exciting Health Stories Of 2014
While 2014 will forever be known as the year of the world's biggest Ebola outbreak -- and the first cases of Ebola contracted in the United States -- the virus is just one of several impactful changes in our medical and personal health landscape. From cancer research breakthroughs to innovative food policies to strides in the search for an HIV vaccine, we're quite a bit further in our understanding of medicine than we were last year. Thanks to research in 2014... Your Fitness Tracker Data Could Lead To The Next Big Medical Discovery Your FitBit, Jawbone and other personal tracking devices and apps are logging every step you take, every bite you eat and every hour you sleep. All of that data is a potential treasure trove for health researchers, which is why University of California,...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Combining social media and behavioral psychology could lead to more HIV testing
This study was conducted in greater Lima, which reflects the low- and middle-income countries where low-cost interventions such as HOPE could help stem the spread of AIDS. Previous research by Young and colleagues demonstrated that the HOPE intervention increased participants? requests for testing, but was too small to determine the rates of actual testing. ?That pilot study was a good enough start showing the potential of using the HOPE intervention to change testing behavior,? he said. This study builds on the prior research by increasing the number of participants by about five times ? 556 participants compared to  112 ? and it was designed with a verifiable and observable endpoint allowing the researchers to gauge the rates at which participants followed through with reques...
Nigeria: Struggling to Care for Adolescents Living With HIV
[IPS]Lagos, Nigeria -HIV among teenagers is devastating families in Nigeria and elsewhere in Africa, where AIDS has become the No. 1 killer of adolescents. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Evidence for the Expansion of Pediatric Cochlear Implant Candidacy
ConclusionNon-traditional pediatric implant recipients derive significant benefit from cochlear implantation. A large-scale reassessment of pediatric cochlear implant candidacy, including less severe hearing losses and higher preoperative speech recognition, is warranted to allow more children access to the benefits of cochlear implantation. (Source: Otology and Neurotology)
Nigeria: Hiccups in Fight Against Malaria
[Guardian]DESPITE huge investments towards elimination of malaria in Nigeria by the Federal Government, the Roll Back Malaria (RBM) partners and Global Fund for AIDS TB and Malaria, say the country accounts for the bulk of the global deaths and new infections. (Source: AllAfrica News: Malaria)
Tanzania: Playing Down Extent of Aids Devastation 'In Favour' of Outbreaks
[Daily News]DESPITE recent proliferation of diseases like the Ebola virus in West Africa, the plague in Madagascar, the dengue fever in Tanzania and other parts of the world, HIV/AIDS still remains a great threat to mankind. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
An Integrated Tiered Service Delivery Model (ITSDM) Based on Local CD4 Testing Demands Can Improve Turn-Around Times and Save Costs whilst Ensuring Accessible and Scalable CD4 Services across a National Programme.
CONCLUSION: The ITSDM offers improved local TAT by extending CD4 services into rural/remote areas with new Tier-3 or Tier-2/POC-Hub services installed in existing community laboratories, most with developed infrastructure. The advantage of lower laboratory CD4 costs and use of existing infrastructure enables subsidization of delivery of more expensive POC services, into hard-to-reach districts without reasonable access to a local CD4 laboratory. Full ITSDM implementation across 5 service tiers (as opposed to widespread implementation of POC testing to extend service) can facilitate sustainable 'full service coverage' across South Africa, and save&gt;than R125 million in HIV/AIDS programmatic costs. ITSDM hierarchical parental-support also assures laboratory/POC management, equipment mainte...
More than 70 per cent of HIV-AIDS patients not diagnosed
An HIV AIDS affected person can live 10 years to 25 years after he is diagnosed to have the disease and is properly treated. (Source: The Economic Times)
Rwanda: One Couple's Joy At Overcoming HIV Stigma
[New Times]Josee nyiraneza was just in her prime, at the age 22, when she got the worst news of her healthlife: was diagnosed with HIV. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Multiple human papillomavirus infections are highly prevalent in the anal canal of human immunodeficiency virus-positive men who have sex with men
Conclusions: HIV+ MSM show a very high rate of HPV infections in the anal canal and those with type 16 exhibited a multiplicity of associated types. This study emphasizes the need for an early detection of HPV infections among HIV+ MSM in order to establish its utility to prevent anal neoplasia and cancer. (Source: BMC Infectious Diseases)
Epidemiology of exposure to HIV/AIDS risky conditions in healthcare settings: the case of health facilities in Gondar City, North West Ethiopia
Conclusion: This study found quite high prevalence of health care workers exposure to HIV/AIDS risky conditions in the health care settings in Gondar city. Therefore, effective and goal oriented educational programmes targeting at health care workers and establishment of surveillance systems for registering, reporting and management of occupational exposures in health care settings are quite important. (Source: Epidemiologic Perspectives and Innovations)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Immuno-virological and clinical impacts of treating cancer in patients living with HIV
Conclusions In PLHIV, cancer treatment increased the risk for prolonged CD4+ depletion and virological failure but had no impact on AIDS-related events when appropriate prophylaxes were implemented. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)
Children affected by maternal HIV/AIDS: Feasibility and acceptability trial of the Children United with Buddies (CUB) intervention
Past research has shown that young children affected by maternal HIV present with elevated stress/anxiety and negative well-being. This pilot intervention for children aged 7&ndash;14 affected by maternal HIV targeted improving positive child&ndash;mother communication, improving HIV/AIDS knowledge and reducing anxiety (especially related to transmission), and lessening feelings of stigma. Each of the three child intervention sessions included behavioral skills training and a themed craft exercise; mothers attended an open discussion group while the children attended their sessions. Study participants were 37 child&ndash;mother pairs. The study design was a randomized two-group pretest-posttest experimental design. The intervention sessions were audiotaped for transcription. Results showed...
A stromal cell free culture system generates mouse pro?T cells that can reconstitute T?cell compartments in vivo
T?cell lymphopenia following BM transplantation or diseases such as AIDS result in immunodeficiency. Novel approaches to ameliorate this situation are urgently required. Herein, we describe a novel stromal cell free culture system in which Lineage?Sca1+c?kit+ BM hematopoietic progenitors very efficiently differentiate into pro?T cells. This culture system consists of plate?bound Delta?like 4 Notch ligand and the cytokines SCF and IL?7. The pro?T cells developing in these cultures express CD25, CD117, and partially CD44; express cytoplasmic CD3?; and have their TCR? locus partially D?J rearranged. They could be expanded for over 3 months and used to reconstitute the T?cell compartments of sublethally irradiated T?cell?deficient CD3??/? mice or lethally irradia...
Molecular diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis in cerebrospinal fluid: comparison of primer sets for Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii species complex
Conclusions These data suggest that the CN4/CN5 primer set was highly sensitive for the identification of C. neoformans/C. gattii species complex in cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with clinical suspicion of cryptococcal meningitis. (Source: The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases)
On optimal treatment regimes selection for mean survival time
In clinical studies with time?to?event as a primary endpoint, one main interest is to find the best treatment strategy to maximize patients' mean survival time. Due to patient's heterogeneity in response to treatments, great efforts have been devoted to developing optimal treatment regimes by integrating individuals' clinical and genetic information. A main challenge arises in the selection of important variables that can help to build reliable and interpretable optimal treatment regimes as the dimension of predictors may be high. In this paper, we propose a robust loss?based estimation framework that can be easily coupled with shrinkage penalties for both estimation of optimal treatment regimes and variable selection. The asymptotic properties of the proposed estimators are studied....<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Scientists' unique system of oral vaccine delivery to address global health threats
Scientists have succeeded in describing and validating a unique system of oral vaccine delivery using a common bacteria found in the mouth. According to the World Health Organization, nine million people were diagnosed with tuberculosis in 2013, the latest year in which data is available, and 1.5 million people died from the disease. It is second only to HIV/AIDS in prevalence. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)
Infrequent HIV Testing and Late Diagnosis Among Black MSMInfrequent HIV Testing and Late Diagnosis Among Black MSM
Sexually active black men who have sex with men are not being tested for HIV according to the CDC guidelines. JAIDS: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
Africa: UNAIDS Board Underlines Ending the Aids Epidemic By 2030 As Central to the Post-2015 Development Agenda
[UNAIDS]Geneva -The 35th meeting of the UNAIDS Programme Coordinating Board reaffirmed its commitment to ending AIDS as a public health threat by 2030 and encouraged United Nations Member States to push for this goal to be fully reflected in the final agreement on the post-2015 development agenda. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Zambia: Global Fund Move to Save U.S $100 Million
[Times of Zambia]THE Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria is putting into place a new agreement for purchasing HIV medication that will save close to US$100 million over two years, money that can be reinvested in lifesaving drugs and programmes all over the world. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Kenya: High Diarrhoea Cases in Mombasa - Ministry
[The Star]Pneumonia, diarrhoea and HIV-Aids are the leading causes of deaths in Mombasa, according to a situational analysis by the Health ministry. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Rwanda: Why Rwandan Men Are Rushing to Be Circumcised
[News of Rwanda]Emille Nzabahimana, a bar tender in Kigali, Rwanda's capital, is obsessed with spontaneous sexual adventures and over-drinking. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Zimbabwe: Matabeleland Tops in New HIV Infections
[The Herald]At least half of all new HIV infections in the country are from Matabeleland, a National Aids Council official has said. In an interview recently, NAC operations director Mr Raymond Yekeye said Bulawayo had the highest new HIV infections that accounted for 20,4 percent of the total infections while Matabeleland South and Matabeleland North provinces recorded 18,6 and 15,6 percent respectively. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Zimbabwe: Government Neglects HIV+ Infected Children, Report
[New Zimbabwe]WHILE Zimbabwe has made headway in the fight against HIV and AIDS the government has been found wanting when it comes to HIV infected children. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Kenya: Mobile Phones for Sex Workers - Blessing or Curse?
[The Star]More and more sex workers these days use mobile phones to reach clients. This means prostitutes aren't stuck in brothels any more. Is the latest technology a boon or a curse? (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Toxoplasmosis in immunocompromised patients in Iran: a systematic review and meta-analysis
This study included a systematic review and meta-analysis to comprehensively assess the seroprevalence rate of Toxoplasma infection in immunocompromised patients in Iran. Electronic English and Persian databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, Scopus, Magiran, Scientific Information Database [SID], IranMedex, and IranDoc), parasitology congresses, and projects and theses of Iranian medical universities, were systematically searched from 1997 to 2013 (published or unpublished data). In this paper, several studies that used serological methods for diagnosis of toxoplasmosis were selected. Analysis of seroprevalence estimates was pooled using a random-effects meta-analysis. Twenty-two studies, comprising 2,805 individuals, were included in the meta-analysis. Overall seroprevalence rat...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
3 indispensable digestive aids for the holiday season
(NaturalNews) As a society we tend to overeat and drink too much, often in the form of grains, sugar, dairy, and alcohol. This practice seems to be magnified during the holiday season, with family and work gatherings picking up and the pressure to create a buffet that impresses the... (Source: NaturalNews.com)
Occasional heroin use may worsen HIV infection
(Yale University) Researchers at Yale and Boston University and their Russian collaborators have found that occasional heroin use by HIV-positive patients may be particularly harmful to the immune system and worsens HIV disease, compared to persistent or no heroin use. The findings are published in the journal AIDS and Behavior. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Nigeria: Achieving an HIV/Aids-Free Generation
The objective is to provide a platform for the world to unite in the fight against HIV/AIDS. Part of the aim is also to ensure that governments and policy makers meet the HIV targets they set, stand by the commitments they made and mobilize the necessary resources for a world where people do not die of AIDS related ailments. For each World AIDS Day from 2005 to 2010, the theme was "Stop AIDS". The 2014 theme fo (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Rwanda: Youth Warned Off Early Sex
[New Times]YOUTH have been urged to avoid vices that could endanger their lives, including abusing drugs and engaging in early or unprotected sex. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Evidence?based HIV pilot program for Chinese college students: Differences by gender
This study explored gender differences in the effectiveness of the translated VOICES (Video Opportunities for Condom Education and Safer Sex) intervention on the condom use intention, perceived benefits and barriers to condom use, condom use self?efficacy, and HIV/AIDS knowledge among Chinese students in a US university. We utilized a pretest/post?test quasi?experimental design and recruited 67 Chinese students at the local university. Participants viewed a 20?min video with Chinese subtitles, attended one 25?min small group discussion and condom interactive educational activity. Female participants showed significantly greater mean scores of perceived benefits and condom use self?efficacy, in comparison with male participants. Female participants also reported significantly hi...
Assessment of neonatal care in clinical training facilities in Kenya
Conclusions Basic resources are generally available, but there are deficiencies in key areas. Poor documentation limits the use of routine data for quality improvement. Significant opportunities exist for improvement in service delivery and adherence to guidelines in hospitals providing professional training. (Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood)
Electronic cigarettes: patterns of use, health effects, use in smoking cessation and regulatory issues
Conclusions: The cytotoxicity and long term health effects of e-cigarettes are unknown. Nevertheless the e-cigarette market continues to expand, largely driven by middle-aged smokers who claim to be using e-cigarettes in an attempt to reduce or quit smoking. E-cigarettes may have some potential as smoking cessation aids and, in the researchers' view, should therefore be subject to further research and regulation similar to other nicotine replacement therapies. (Source: Tobacco Induced Diseases)
Use of visual aids in presenting study results
SK Raina, V ChanderJournal of Postgraduate Medicine 2015 61(1):56-57 (Source: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine)
Using Provider Performance Incentives to Increase HIV Testing and Counseling Services in Rwanda
Publication date: Available online 12 December 2014 Source:Journal of Health Economics Author(s): Damien de Walque , Paul J. Gertler , Sergio Bautista-Arredondo , Ada Kwan , Christel Vermeersch , Jean de Dieu Bizimana , Agnès Binagwaho , Jeanine Condo Paying for performance provides financial rewards to medical care providers for improvements in performance measured by utilization and quality of care indicators. In 2006, Rwanda began a pay for performance scheme to improve health services delivery, including HIV/AIDS services. Using a prospective quasi-experimental design, this study examines the scheme's impact on individual and couples HIV testing. We find a positive impact of pay for performance on HIV testing among married individuals (10.2 percentage points increase). Paying for pe...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Will a quadruple multiplexed point-of-care screening strategy for HIV-related co-infections be feasible and impact detection of new co-infections in at-risk populations? Results from cross-sectional studies
Conclusions A quad multiplex POC strategy for HIV and co-infections was feasible to operationalise and preferred by patients in both settings. Many new infections were identified in Mumbai and accuracy improved with version 2 of the assay. Such a strategy will help expedite screening for co-infections, particularly where baseline screening is low. These findings are valuable to practitioners, researchers, policymakers and funders involved in initiatives for all four diseases with implications for scale-up. (Source: BMJ Open)
Effect of rapid HIV testing on HIV incidence and services in populations at high risk for HIV exposure: an equity-focused systematic review
Conclusions Rapid VCT in health facilities and communities was associated with a large increase in HIV-testing uptake and receipt of results. This has implications for WHO guidelines. The routine use of rapid VCT may also help avoid human rights violations among marginalised populations where testing may occur without informed consent and where existing stigma may create barriers to testing. (Source: BMJ Open)
Mediators of a smoking cessation intervention for persons living with HIV/AIDS
Cigarette smoking among persons living with HIV (PLWH) is a profound cause of morbidity and mortality (Lifson and Lando, 2012). Compared to the general population, PLWH are far more likely to be current smokers (Browning et al., 2013) and, subsequently, are confronted with numerous tobacco- and HIV-related health risks (Feldman and Anderson, 2013; Palella and Phair, 2011; Smith et al., 2010). In fact, PLWH who smoke cigarettes are at higher risk for acute bronchitis, bacterial pneumonia, pulmonary disease, non-AIDS and AIDS-defining cancers, and overall mortality (Burke et al., 2004; Crothers et al., 2005; Engels et al., 2006; Lifson et al., 2010). (Source: Drug and Alcohol Dependence)
Malawi: Gertrude Mutharika's Beam Evokes International Attention
[Malawi24]As controversy still surrounds the revelations that Beautify Malawi Trust, run by Malawi's First Lady, Gertrude Mutharika got money from the National Aids Commission (NAC), international organisations have joined the calls for BEAM to return the money. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
A systematic review on skin complications of bone-anchored hearing aids in relation to surgical techniques
Abstract A systematic review to study the skin complications associated with the bone-anchored hearing aid in relation to surgical techniques. The following databases have been searched: MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library , Google scholar and the PubMed. The literature search date was from January 1977 until November 2013. Randomised controlled trials and retrospective studies were included. Initial search identified 420 publications. Thirty articles met the inclusion criteria of this review. The most common surgical techniques identified were full-thickness skin graft, Dermatome and linear incision techniques. The result shows that dermatome technique is associated with higher rate of skin complications when compared to linear incision and skin graft techniques. Based on t...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Africa: Aids Response Is Leaving African Men Behind
[IPS]Nairobi -Mention gender inequality in AIDS and the fact that more women than men live with HIV pops up. But another, rarely spoken about gendered difference is proving lethal to men with HIV. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Zimbabwe: UNAIDS Goals Too Ambitious for Zimbabwe
[Zimbabwe Independent]AS Zimbabwe observed World Aids Day (December 1) the just- released UNAids set of global Aids treatment and prevention goals to be reached by 2030 have been described as an ambitious target difficult to meet for the country because of a deep resource gap at the global level. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Spike in Tiny Number of Gay Men on PrEP Abandoning Condoms Hardly Represents 'All' Gay Men
A Dec. 8 blog post in the San Francisco Business Times has sparked another furor over gay men using the HIV drug Truvada to prevent infection with the deadly virus. "San Francisco men shed condoms in favor of Gilead's HIV prevention pill," alleges the title of SFBT reporter Ron Leuty's opinion piece. Leuty reported on a survey of men in a Kaiser Permanente AIDS-prevention program. More than 500 are taking Truvada once a day as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Leuty called the 45-percent increase among men in the study not using condoms "eye-popping" -- which it is. Clearly these men aren't heeding the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's recommendation to use condoms in addition to taking the drug. But it's a serious stretch to project the behavior of about 90 men on PrEP in this...
Individualized Texting for Adherence Building (iTAB): Improving Antiretroviral Dose Timing Among HIV-Infected Persons with Co-occurring Bipolar Disorder
Abstract HIV+ persons with co-occurring bipolar disorder (HIV+/BD+) have elevated rates of medication nonadherence. We conducted a 30-day randomized controlled trial of a two-way, text messaging system, iTAB (n = 25), compared to an active comparison (CTRL) (n = 25) to improve antiretroviral (ARV) and psychotropic (PSY) adherence and dose timing. Both groups received medication adherence psychoeducation and daily texts assessing mood. The iTAB group additionally received personalized medication reminder texts. Participants responded to over 90 % of the mood and adherence text messages. Mean adherence, as assessed via electronic monitoring caps, was high and comparable between groups for both ARV (iTAB 86.2 % vs. CTRL 84.8 %; p = 0.95, Cliff?s d = 0.01) and PSY (iTAB 7...
Scientific/Clinical Member Nominations Are Now Being Accepted for the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Panel on Antiretroviral Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents
The HHS Panel on Antiretroviral Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents (or the Panel) is accepting nominations for new scientific/clinical members with expertise in HIV medicine.The Panel is seeking candidates with expertise in HIV clinical research and clinical care. Panel members critically evaluate new information and prepare guidelines revisions. The candidates should be recognized experts in their areas of interest. The successful candidates will serve a 4-year term beginning April 2015, with potential for reappointment for an additional term. The Panel is a Working Group of the Office of AIDS Research Advisory Council of the National Institutes of Health. The Panel is composed of over 40 members who are clinicians, researchers, academicians, HHS representatives, and community repres...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Community Member Nominations Are Now Being Accepted for the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Panel on Antiretroviral Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents
The HHS Panel on Antiretroviral Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents (or the Panel) is accepting nominations for new community members who represent the demographic diversity of the HIV epidemic in the United States. Selected candidates may assist the Panel in identifying and addressing aspects of HIV treatment that are unique to their constituencies. The candidate shall have knowledge and involvement in issues related to management of HIV-infected adults and adolescents, as evidenced by experience in HIV treatment education/advocacy or clinical/public policy initiatives related to HIV treatment. The successful candidates will serve a 4-year term beginning April 2015, with potential for reappointment for one additional term. &nbsp; The Panel is a Working Group of the Office of AIDS Rese...
CDC Releases Recommendations for HIV Prevention with Adults and Adolescents with HIV in the United States, 2014
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the American Academy of HIV Medicine, the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care, the National Minority AIDS Council, and the Urban Coalition for HIV/AIDS Prevention Services issued&nbsp;Recommendations for HIV Prevention with Adults and Adolescents with HIV in the United States, 2014. This guideline updates and expands on Recommendations for Incorporating HIV Prevention into the Medical Care of Persons Living with HIV &nbsp;which was published in 2003 by CDC, HRSA, NIH, and the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. &nbsp; The new guideline compiles new a...
A decade of researching the social aspects of HIV and AIDS
Publication date: 13?19 December 2014 Source:The Lancet, Volume 384, Issue 9960 Author(s): Lesley Doyal (Source: The Lancet)
Diurnal profiles of pedometer-determined physical activity in chronically ill and mobility-limited older adults: a cross-sectional study
Conclusions: This is the first study to explore pedometer-determined diurnal profiles of physical activity in chronically ill and mobility-limited older adults. Prolonging periods of elevated physical activity in the afternoon while respecting individual daily routine and commitments could be one option for facilitating the integration of physical activity and for making it a habit in older adults' daily lives. The use of a walking aid seems to be an indicator for a quite low activity plateau during the second half of the day. People who use walking aids should be motivated to increase their physical activity during afternoon; this might help to increase the overall low physical activity level of this vulnerable subgroup of older adults. (Source: BMC Public Health)
HIV Positive and Pregnant
According to journalist Heather Boerner, author of Positively Negative: Love, Pregnancy, and Science?s Surprising Victory Over HIV, the options for creating a healthy family keep growing and now include both pregnancy and adoption.read more (Source: Psychology Today Parenting Center)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Twenty Years Later: Ebola, AIDS, BSE and NCDs&#8212;What Have We Learned?
(Source: Journal of Health Communication)
Survey Leads to More Study of CA HIV-Prevention Drug UsersSurvey Leads to More Study of CA HIV-Prevention Drug Users
Some men report having more sex without condoms after starting on a daily pill to prevent HIV, according to an unpublished survey of 90 patients from one California healthcare provider. Reuters Health Information (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)
Establishment of Normal Reference Intervals for CD3(+), CD4(+), CD8(+), and CD4(+) to CD8(+) Ratio of T Lymphocytes in HIV Negative Adults from University of Gondar Hospital, North West Ethiopia.
Conclusion. The overall CD3(+) T lymphocytes reference interval in the current study was wide; low CD4(+) T lymphocytes, CD4 to CD8 ratio, and high CD8(+) T lymphocytes values were observed. PMID: 25485147 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Liberia: 'HIV, Ebola Threaten Liberia's Growth'
[NEWS]The National AIDS Commission says challenges being posed by HIV and Ebola are serious threats to the country's growth. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
[Perspectives] A decade of researching the social aspects of HIV and AIDS
My active involvement with HIV research began in 2005, after Professor Jane Anderson invited me to talk about gender to health workers involved in HIV services in the UK. Over coffee afterwards she discussed her desire to find out more about the lives of the African women for whom she was providing clinical care. I was keen to help, using my knowledge of qualitative research in the sociology of health. We, therefore, planned a collaborative study of the experiences of African women living with HIV who were receiving health care in a London hospital. (Source: LANCET)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
[Comment] Ebola and human rights in west Africa
The fear caused by the Ebola outbreak in west Africa, which is projected to infect some 20?000 people, is understandable. However, the disproportionate measures recently adopted in some of the affected countries are a cause for concern. Some 25 years ago, Jonathan Mann, then Director of WHO's Global Programme on AIDS, warned world leaders alarmed at the relentless spread of HIV: (Source: LANCET)
Changes in Metabolic Syndrome Status After Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy
Conclusions: One in 5 ART-naive subjects met criteria for MetS at ART initiation. Although more than half of these individuals continued to have MetS after 96 weeks of ART, 37% with MetS at ART initiation no longer met criteria for MetS; this decrease was driven largely by increases in HDL cholesterol. (Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes)
Rwanda: Leverage Infrastructure for HIV/Aids Prevention and Care to Combat Cancer
[New Times]On December 1, Rwanda, like the rest of the world, marked the World Aids Day and the country hosted the 2014 International HIV Research Conference in the same week. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Southern Africa: Adolescents Born With HIV Must Be Told Their Status
[Key Correspondents]"I think it was a miracle that I lost my sight because after that I realised there is more in my body than being blind." (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: UNAIDS Advocates More Domestic Funding to Tackle HIV/Aids in Nigeria
[Guardian]DR BILALI Camara, UNAIDS Country Director, has said that Nigeria needs more domestic funding to effectively tackle HIV/AIDS epidemic in the country. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Africa: Global Fund News Flash
[Global Fund]Speaking Up for Sex Workers (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: New Approach On Buying HIV Drugs Will Save U.S.$100 Million
[Global Fund]Geneva -The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria is putting into place a new agreement for purchasing HIV medication that will save close to US$100 million over two years, money that can be reinvested in lifesaving drugs and programs all over the world. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Central African Republic: Red Cross Launches Country-Wide Mosquito Net Distribution Campaign to Tackle Malaria
[IFRC]Bangui/Geneva -A nationwide campaign to distribute 2.2 million mosquito nets in Central African Republic has been launched by the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC), with support from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. (Source: AllAfrica News: Malaria)
Zimbabwe: Young Zimbabwean Spreads the Word On Living Positively
[Key Correspondents]Life for Kelvin Makura has been a tale of two challenges to which he has adapted in a positive way: living with both HIV and a physical disability resulting from stunted growth. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Uh Oh, It's Flu Season! What You Need to Know About Flu Vaccination
Media reports from just about every corner of the country are cautioning that Americans could be in for a particularly intense flu season this year, with many medical experts encouraging folks not to delay getting their flu shots. The flu season is not only here -- it could last until as late as May of next year according to the CDC. With this in mind, it is helpful to review a few basics that could help keep you, your family and your friends and neighbors feeling at their best during this winter's seasonal outbreaks of the flu. Who's at Risk? The flu is a respiratory infection that can cause serious, sometimes life-threatening complications for older adults, children and people with weakened immune systems. Getting a flu shot is one of the best ways to protect from serious flu-related ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
La cryptococcose : une étiologie potentielle d?ulcération faciale
Discussion La cryptococcose devrait être considérée comme une étiologie potentielle d?une ulcération faciale chronique chez un patient atteint de sida. La recherche d?autres localisations de la cryptococcose telles que celles du système nerveux central est impérative. Les examens mycologiques sont d?un grand intérêt pour le diagnostic dans les conditions de ressources limitées. Cutaneous cryptococcosis is an uncommon aetiology of chronic facial ulceration but which may be associated to a potentially lethal focus of cryptococcosis. Observation A 35-year-old AIDS patient under antiretroviral therapy, presented with a chronic facial ulceration. Histopathological examination of a biopsy of the facial ulceration showed an inflammatory granuloma and masses of yeasts. Mycologica...
Degloved foot sole successfully reconstructed with split thickness skin grafts
Conclusion This case-report illustrates that the reconstruction of a degloved foot sole with split-thickness skin grafts can be successful; a silicon inner sole was used to prevent stress lesions. (Source: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports)
HIV Protease Inhibitor Use During Pregnancy Is Associated With Decreased Progesterone Levels, Suggesting a Potential Mechanism Contributing to Fetal Growth Restriction
Conclusions.&nbsp;Our data suggest that PI use in pregnancy may lead to lower progesterone levels that could contribute to adverse birth outcomes. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Intestinal Microbiota, Microbial Translocation, and Systemic Inflammation in Chronic HIV Infection
Conclusions.&nbsp;Patients who have chronic HIV infection and are receiving suppressive ART display intestinal dysbiosis associated with increased microbial translocation and significant associations between specific taxa and markers of microbial translocation and systemic inflammation. This was an exploratory study, the findings of which need to be confirmed. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Epigenetic Repression of Interleukin 2 Expression in Senescent CD4+ T Cells During Chronic HIV Type 1 Infection
The molecular mechanisms for IL2 gene&ndash;specific dysregulation during chronic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection are unknown. Here, we investigated the role of DNA methylation in suppressing interleukin 2 (IL-2) expression in memory CD4+ T cells during chronic HIV-1 infection. We observed that CpG sites in the IL2 promoter of CD4+ T cells were fully methylated in naive CD4+ T cells and significantly demethylated in the memory populations. Interestingly, we found that the memory cells that had a terminally differentiated phenotype and expressed CD57 had increased IL2 promoter methylation relative to less differentiated memory cells in healthy individuals. Importantly, early effector memory subsets from HIV-1&ndash;infected subjects expressed high levels of CD57 and we...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
CD8+ T Cells Maintain Suppression of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus in the Central Nervous System
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) accesses the brain early in infection and can lead to neurocognitive disorders. The brain can also serve as a viral reservoir, but how virus is controlled in the brain is unknown. To examine this, CD8-depleting monoclonal antibody was injected into the cerebrospinal fluid of rhesus monkeys with chronic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection. This treatment led to the rapid increase of SIV in the brain. Virus in the brain is maintained by active suppression from the host immune system. This dynamic interaction can be manipulated in efforts to control and eradicate virus from the brain and other reservoirs. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Enhanced In Vitro Transcytosis of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Mediated by Vaccine-Induced Antibody Predicts Transmitted/Founder Strain Number After Rectal Challenge
Conclusions.&nbsp;Vaccine-induced antibody capable of enhancing transcytosis in vitro via FcRn may play a role in determining transmitted/founder strain number and infection outcomes following in vivo challenge. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
High Rates of Retention and Viral Suppression in the US HIV Safety Net System: HIV Care Continuum in the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, 2011
Conclusions.&nbsp;The RWHAP provides HIV medical care and support services for more than half a million poor and underinsured individuals living with HIV in the United States. Rates of retention and viral suppression are relatively high compared with other national estimates but demonstrate room for improvement, especially among youth and racial minorities. Additional improvements in retention and viral suppression will contribute to achieving the goals of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy and improve individual and public health. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Editorial Commentary: Fixing a Hole in the HIV Safety Net
(Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Acute HIV Infection Is Beneficial for Controlling Chronic Hepatitis B
Conclusions.&nbsp;These data suggest that the early effects of HIV infection improve the immune response against HBV. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Effect of Deworming on Disease Progression Markers in HIV-1-Infected Pregnant Women on Antiretroviral Therapy: A Longitudinal Observational Study From Rwanda
Conclusions.&nbsp;Antihelminthic therapy reduces detectable viral load, and increases CD4 counts and hemoglobin levels in pregnant HIV-infected women with helminth coinfections receiving ART. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Increased Virological Failure in Naive HIV-1-Infected Patients Taking Lamivudine Compared With Emtricitabine in Combination With Tenofovir and Efavirenz or Nevirapine in the Dutch Nationwide ATHENA Cohort
Conclusions.&nbsp;The use of emtricitabine instead of lamivudine as part of cART was associated with better virological responses. These findings are relevant for settings with extensive use of lamivudine and for settings where generic lamivudine will be available. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Editorial Commentary: Comparative Efficacy of Lamivudine and Emtricitabine: Comparing the Results of Randomized Trials and Cohorts
(Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Epidemiologic Features of AIDS in China, 2004-2013
(Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Launching a virtual decision lab: development and field-testing of a web-based patient decision support research platform
Background: Over 100 trials show that patient decision aids effectively improve patients? information comprehension and values-based decision making. However, gaps remain in our understanding of several fundamental and applied questions, particularly related to the design of interactive, personalized decision aids. This paper describes an interdisciplinary development process for, and early field testing of, a web-based patient decision support research platform, or virtual decision lab, to address these questions. Methods: An interdisciplinary stakeholder panel designed the web-based research platform with three components: a) an introduction to shared decision making, b) a web-based patient decision aid, and c) interactive data collection items. Iterative focus groups provided feedback o...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
The 12 Microresolutions of Christmas
We stand on the brink of the holiday season, a time when we generally eat, drink, and spend to excess. By New Year's Day we are so fed up (literally!) that we fervently resolve to change our ways. Why wait for the new year? Offered below are 12 easy microresolutions designed to promote holiday joy and reduce New Year's Day remorse. Pick two to practice until New Year's Day and you'll find that big benefits often come in small packages. Better to give than to receive; keep spending in check by making a microresolution not to buy gifts for yourself while shopping for others. If you've been too merry too often during past holidays, make your microresolution to drink a glass of water for every glass of alcohol to keep spirits high and hangovers (and weight gain) low. Holiday partying with...
Time's 'Person of the Year' Spotlights the Crucial Role of Ebola Survivors
This article was co-authored with Drs. Zena Stein, Jack Tocco, and Joanne Mantell of the HIV Center for Clinical and Behavioral Studies at Columbia University and the New York State Psychiatric Institute. (Source: Science - The Huffington Post)
Geospatial study identifies hotspots in deaths from HIV/AIDS, hepatitis C in Massachusetts
A new retrospective study by epidemiologists finds significant geographic disparities in HIV and hepatitis C related mortality in Massachusetts from 2002-2011. The study used geospatial techniques to identify hotspots and coldspots in the state. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)
Measuring the Success of Sustainable Development Indices in Terms of Reporting by the Global Press
Abstract A variety of indices have been applied to the performance of nation states, both for research and as aids to help guide policy and intervention. While the literature on indices is extensive, the focus to date has been almost entirely on technical issues of index creation. However the success of an index is arguably related at least in part to the use of that index by policy makers and managers. While cause-effect can be difficult to determine, one approach is to measure ?success? in terms of the reporting of indices by an intermediary group such as the media, and this paper assesses the reporting of 24 indices by newspapers worldwide until 2012. The results suggest that index success is influenced by a number of factors, including the time it has existed, its focus, e...
Africa: Public-Private Partnership Restores Hope for Aids-Free Generation
[State Department]Deborah L. Birx -This commentary by U.S. Global AIDS Coordinator Deborah L. Birx originally appeared on the Huffington Post website on December 9. There are no republication restrictions. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
A sneak peek behind the scenes of Boston Ballet?s ?The Nutcracker?
?I?m trying to decide whether Drosselmeyer?s mustache is real or fake. It?s too neat to be real, but it doesn?t look fake,? says 10-year-old Ellie Pohlig, who earned a coveted spot as a page in Boston Ballet?s 2014 &#8220;The Nutcracker.&#8221; A successful audition is an accomplishment for any dancer, but especially so for Ellie, who has high-frequency hearing loss. This type of partial deafness means Ellie has trouble hearing some consonants and sounds at higher octaves, like a woman?s voice. ?This was my third year trying out for The Nutcracker.&#8221; I was nervous at the auditions, but they went well,? says Ellie, who auditioned in a group of 50 dancers. Because Ellie is tall for a 10-year-old and Boston Ballet groups students according to height, there were fewer ...
Updated Fact Sheet: HIV Among African Americans
This fact sheet provides an overview of how HIV affects the African American population in the U.S. It has been updated with information from the 2012 Surveillance Report, as well as the 2012 Monitoring report. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
Updated Spanish Language Fact Sheet: HIV Among African Americans
This fact sheet in Spanish provides an overview of how HIV affects the African American population in the U.S. It has been updated with information from the 2012 Surveillance Report, as well as the 2012 Monitoring report. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
Updated HIV Among African American Gay and Bisexual Men
This fact sheet provides an overview of how HIV affects the African American Gay and Bisexual Men population in the U.S. It has been updated with information from the 2012 Surveillance Report, as well as the 2012 Monitoring report. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
Updated Spanish Language Fact Sheet: HIV Among African American Gay and Bisexual Men
This fact sheet in Spanish provides an overview of how HIV affects the African American Gay and Bisexual Men population in the U.S. It has been updated with information from the 2012 Surveillance Report, as well as the 2012 Monitoring report. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Updated Fact Sheet: HIV Among Latinos
This fact sheet provides an overview of how HIV affects the Hispanic/Latino population in the U.S. It has been updated with information from the 2012 Surveillance Report, as well as the 2012 Monitoring report. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
Updated Spanish Language Fact Sheet: HIV Among Latinos
This fact sheet in Spanish provides an overview of how HIV affects the Hispanic/Latino population in the U.S. It has been updated with information from the 2012 Surveillance Report, as well as the 2012 Monitoring report. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
Updated Fact Sheet: HIV among Gay and Bisexual Men
This fact sheet provides an overview of how HIV affects the Gay and Bisexual Men population in the U.S. It has been updated with information from the 2012 Surveillance Report, as well as the 2012 Monitoring report (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
Updated Fact Sheet in Spanish: HIV among Gay and Bisexual Men
This fact sheet in Spanish provides an overview of how HIV affects the Gay and Bisexual Men population in the U.S. It has been updated with information from the 2012 Surveillance Report, as well as the 2012 Monitoring report. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
Updated Fact Sheet: HIV Among African Americans
This fact sheet provides an overview of how HIV affects the African American population in the U.S. It has been updated with information from the 2012 Surveillance Report, as well as the 2012 Monitoring report. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Updated Spanish Language Fact Sheet: HIV Among African Americans
This fact sheet in Spanish provides an overview of how HIV affects the African American population in the U.S. It has been updated with information from the 2012 Surveillance Report, as well as the 2012 Monitoring report. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
Updated HIV Among African American Gay and Bisexual Men
This fact sheet provides an overview of how HIV affects the African American Gay and Bisexual Men population in the U.S. It has been updated with information from the 2012 Surveillance Report, as well as the 2012 Monitoring report. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
Updated Spanish Language Fact Sheet: HIV Among African American Gay and Bisexual Men
This fact sheet in Spanish provides an overview of how HIV affects the African American Gay and Bisexual Men population in the U.S. It has been updated with information from the 2012 Surveillance Report, as well as the 2012 Monitoring report. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
Updated Fact Sheet: HIV Among Latinos
This fact sheet provides an overview of how HIV affects the Hispanic/Latino population in the U.S. It has been updated with information from the 2012 Surveillance Report, as well as the 2012 Monitoring report. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
Updated Spanish Language Fact Sheet: HIV Among Latinos
This fact sheet in Spanish provides an overview of how HIV affects the Hispanic/Latino population in the U.S. It has been updated with information from the 2012 Surveillance Report, as well as the 2012 Monitoring report. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Updated Fact Sheet: HIV among Gay and Bisexual Men
This fact sheet provides an overview of how HIV affects the Gay and Bisexual Men population in the U.S. It has been updated with information from the 2012 Surveillance Report, as well as the 2012 Monitoring report (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
Updated Fact Sheet in Spanish: HIV among Gay and Bisexual Men
This fact sheet in Spanish provides an overview of how HIV affects the Gay and Bisexual Men population in the U.S. It has been updated with information from the 2012 Surveillance Report, as well as the 2012 Monitoring report. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
The Recommendations for HIV Prevention with Adults and Adolescents with HIV in the United States, 2014
This guideline updates the 2003 guideline, "Incorporating HIV Prevention into the Medical Care of Persons Living with HIV: Recommendations of CDC, HRSA, NIH, and the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America." It compiles numerous recommendations about biomedical, behavioral, and structural interventions to reduce HIV transmission from persons with HIV. The guideline is accompanied by three Summaries that list recommendations for each of the guideline?s audiences: clinical providers, nonclinical providers, and health department staff. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
Role of csp genes in NaCl, pH, and ethanol stress response and motility in Clostridium botulinum ATCC 3502.
Authors: Derman Y, Söderholm H, Lindström M, Korkeala H Abstract Clostridium botulinum is a notable food pathogen and responsible for botulism due to production of botulinum neurotoxin. Strains of C. botulinum can adapt to and survive in stress conditions and food processing. The cold shock protein coding genes (csp) are involved in growth at low temperature, but they may also possess other functions. In this mutational analysis we show that cspB and cspC, but not cspA, are important for NaCl, pH and ethanol stress responses and for motility of C. botulinum ATCC 3502. In all NaCl concentrations tested, the cspB mutant had lower maximum growth rate and, together with the cspC mutant, a longer lag phase compared to the wild-type strain. At low pH, the cspB and cspC mutants showed...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Transition from control to elimination: impact of the 10-year global fund project on malaria control and elimination in china.
Authors: Wang RB, Zhang QF, Zheng B, Xia ZG, Zhou SS, Tang LH, Gao Q, Wang LY, Wang RR Abstract The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) supported a project on the control and elimination of malaria in People's Republic of China which was one of the biggest-scale international cooperation programmes to control malaria in the country during the past 10 years. The project promoted the effective implementation of the Chinese national malaria control programme. On the basis of epidemiologic data, an overview of the project activities and key performance indicators, the overall impact of the GFATM project was evaluated. We also reviewed relevant programme features including technological and management approaches, with a focus on best practice, innovations in imp...
On A Mission To Track The Flu And Other Infectious Diseases With A Thermometer
Inder Singh couldn&rsquo;t shake off a temperature of 103.8 degrees for one week during the summer of 2011. His doctor, an infectious disease specialist, was stumped. Desperate, Singh searched online for possible signs of a contagious illness in his New York area. There were none. Singh had worked in places like Uganda, Kenya, and India, haggling over the price of AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis drugs with pharmaceutical companies, as an executive with the Clinton Health Access Initiative. &ldquo;I thought, &lsquo;wouldn&rsquo;t it be great to know what&rsquo;s going around?&rsquo;&rdquo; he says. The most recent flu reports from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are for the week ending November 29. Google Flu Trends are based on searches which sometimes overestimate the num...
On A Mission To Detect The Flu And Other Infectious Diseases With A Thermometer
Inder Singh couldn&rsquo;t shake off a temperature of 103.8 degrees for one week during the summer of 2011. His doctor, an infectious disease specialist, was stumped. Desperate, Singh searched online for possible signs of a contagious illness in his New York area. There were none. Singh had worked in places like Uganda, Kenya, and India, haggling over the price of AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis drugs with pharmaceutical companies, as an executive with the Clinton Health Access Initiative. &ldquo;I thought, &lsquo;wouldn&rsquo;t it be great to know what&rsquo;s going around?&rsquo;&rdquo; he says. The most recent flu reports from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are for the week ending November 29. Google Flu Trends are based on searches which sometimes overestimate the num...
Nigeria: Many Challenges of Living With HIV in Nigeria (II)
[Guardian]"IN same vein I am strongly convinced and appreciative of the heavy investment the American people and government had put in our country's national HIV response. This is in no small measure of appreciation. I am also pained to see my country perform very poor in meeting agreements with partners. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: HIV/Aids - New Presidential Plan Will Help
[This Day]Abuja -The Director of SURE-P HIV/AIDS Intervention, Dr Sabestine Wakdok has said Nigeria now stands a better chance to eliminate HIV/AIDS pandemic given the commitment of President Goodluck Jonathan through the President's Comprehensive Response Plan (PCRP). He stated this in Abuja at a forum to appraise the performance of the ongoing SURE-P projects around the country. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
What makes orphans in Kigali, Rwanda, non-adherent to antiretroviral therapy? Perspectives of their caregivers.
CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge of orphan status is essential to elucidate the factors influencing ART adherence among HIV-positive children. In this qualitative study, we identified the orphan-related contextual factors that influenced ART adherence. Understanding the social context is important in dealing with the challenges to ART adherence among HIV-positive children. PMID: 25477050 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Nigeria: Governor Orji Inaugurates HIV/Aids Management Team in Abia
[This Day]Abia State Governor Theodore Orji has inaugurated a 24-man Team for the management of HIV\AIDS in the state. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: Lugbe Has Highest HIV Prevalence in Abuja - NACA
[Premium Times]Lugbe, a suburb of Abuja, has the highest prevalence of HIV/AIDS in Abuja, the Capacity Development Officer for SURE-P, Jummai Danuk, has said. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Kenya: Mtwapa Gay Numbers Drop
[The Star]THE number of homosexuals living in Mtwapa town, Kilifi county has drastically gone down, as many fear being victimised. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Kenya: First Lady Meets Yvonne Chaka Chaka
[Kenya Presidency]First Lady Margaret Kenyatta today met South African singer Yvonne Chaka Chaka and they agreed to work together to fight the HIV/AIDS stigma. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Geospatial study identifies hotspots in deaths from HIV/AIDS and Hepatitis C in Massachusetts
(Tufts University, Health Sciences Campus) A new retrospective study by epidemiologists at Tufts finds significant geographic disparities in HIV and hepatitis C related mortality in Massachusetts from 2002-2011. The study, published in PLOS ONE, used geospatial techniques to identify hotspots and coldspots in the state. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Nasopharyngeal Burkitt lymphoma as an early AIDS manifestation
Publication date: November?December 2014 Source:Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology, Volume 80, Issue 6 Author(s): Juliana Gama Mascarenhas , Francisco Araújo Júnior , Thiago Villela Bolzan , Luis Carlos Gregório , Eduardo Macoto Kosugi (Source: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology)
HIV Risk, Health, and Social Characteristics of Sexual Minority Female Injection Drug Users in Baltimore
Abstract Female injection drug users (IDU) who report sex with women are at increased risk for HIV and social instability, but it is important to assess whether these disparities also exist according to sexual minority identity rather than behaviorally defined categories. Within a sample of current IDU in Baltimore, about 17 % of female study participants (n = 307) identified as gay/lesbian/bisexual. In controlled models, sexual minorities were three times as likely to report sex exchange behavior and four times as likely to report a recent STI. Injection risk did not differ significantly, but sexual minority women reported higher prevalence of socio-economic instability, negative health indicators, and fewer network financial, material, and health support resources. There is a...
Partner-based adherence intervention for second-line antiretroviral therapy (ACTG A5234): a multinational randomised trial
Publication date: Available online 11 December 2014 Source:The Lancet HIV Author(s): Robert Gross , Lu Zheng , Alberto La Rosa , Xin Sun , Susan L Rosenkranz , Sandra Wagner Cardoso , Francis Ssali , Rob Camp , Catherine Godfrey , Susan E Cohn , Gregory K Robbins , Anthony Chisada , Carole L Wallis , Nancy R Reynolds , Darlene Lu , Steven A Safren , Lara Hosey , Patrice Severe , Ann C Collier Background Adherence is key to the success of antiretroviral therapy. Enhanced partner support might benefit patients with previous treatment failure. We aimed to assess whether an enhanced partner-based support intervention with modified directly observed therapy would improve outcomes with second-line therapy in HIV-infected patients for whom first-line therapy had failed. Methods We did a multic...
Health survey for England 2013
Since 2011, the survey has included questions about social care and these have been expanded in the 2013 survey, providing additional detail on patterns of care, payment, and aids and equipment used. (Source: NHS Networks)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Integration of community home based care programmes within national primary health care revitalisation strategies in Ethiopia, Malawi, South-Africa and Zambia: a comparative assessment
Conclusions: Countries may differ in the means to integrate and co-ordinate government and civil society agencies but the net result is expanded PHC capacity. In a context of changing health care demands, CHBC programmes are a vital mechanism for the delivery of primary health and social welfare services. (Source: Globalization and Health)
Understanding HIV infection for the design of a therapeutic vaccine. Part I: Epidemiology and pathogenesis of HIV infection.
Authors: de Goede AL, Vulto AG, Osterhaus AD, Gruters RA Abstract HIV infection leads to a gradual loss CD4(+) T lymphocytes comprising immune competence and progression to AIDS. Effective treatment with combined antiretroviral drugs (cART) decreases viral load below detectable levels but is not able to eliminate the virus from the body. The success of cART is frustrated by the requirement of expensive life-long adherence, accumulating drug toxicities and chronic immune activation resulting in increased risk of several non-AIDS disorders, even when viral replication is suppressed. Therefore there is a strong need for therapeutic strategies as an alternative to cART. Immunotherapy, or therapeutic vaccination, aims to increase existing immune responses against HIV or induce de novo i...
Stealth Anti-CD4 conjugated immunoliposomes with Dual Antiretroviral Drugs - Modern Trojan Horses to Combat HIV.
Authors: Ramana LN, Sharma S, Sethuraman S, Ranga U, Krishnan UM Abstract Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is the currently employed therapeutic intervention against AIDS where a drug combination is used to reduce the viral load. The present work envisages the development of a stealth Anti-CD4 conjugated immunoliposomes containing two anti-retroviral drugs (nevirapine and saquinavir) that can selectively home into HIV infected cells through the CD4 receptor. The nanocarrier was characterized using transmission electron microscopy, FTIR, differential scanning calorimetry, particle size and zeta potential. The cell uptake was also evaluated qualitatively using confocal microscopy and quantitatively by flow cytometry. The drug to lipid composition was optimized for maximum...
Kenya: HIV+ Women Claim They Were Sterilized By Govt
[Capital FM]Nairobi -Five HIV positive women have sued the Cabinet Secretary for Health, the county executive in charge of health in Nairobi and various health facilities for what they say was forced and coerced sterilisation. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Burundi: Discriminatory Laws Hinder Burundi's Response to HIV
[Key Correspondents]On Human Rights Day (10 December), Jean Claude Kamwenbusa reports on how the criminalisation of same sex relationships in Burundi is putting people's health and lives at risk. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Africa: UNAIDS and Global Fund Sign Cooperation Agreement
[Global Fund]Geneva -UNAIDS and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria signalled their strong partnership with a renewed cooperation agreement to help countries achieve Fast-Track targets to end the AIDS epidemic as a global health threat by 2030. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
South Africa: Unions Should Rescue TAC, Says Achmat
[GroundUp]Former Treatment Action Campaign (TAC) leader, Zackie Achmat, has called on the trade unions to come to the rescue of TAC which has been mired in financial difficulties. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Botswana: Reproductive Health Team Exchange Ideas
[Botswana Daily News]Gaborone -Members of the regional project steering committee for the Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights (SRHR) and HIV met in Botswana to review progress on the project. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: Strengthening the Office of the Inspector General
[Global Fund]The Global Fund's independent assurance structure, the Office of the Inspector General, is enhancing its work to support efforts to ensure that health products and services reach the people who need them most. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: New Campaign to End Mum-to-Baby HIV Spread
[CAJ News]Lagos -A leading beverage maker and global health group have invited Nigerians to join efforts to help end mother-to-child transmission of HIV. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
South Africa: Medicine Shortages Addressed in Gauteng
[SAnews.gov.za]Pretoria -The Gauteng Health Department has put measures in place to address the shortage of medicines in some of the hospitals and clinics in the province. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: Swaan Seeks Indigenous Commitment to HIV/Aids Advocacy
[Vanguard]The Society for Women andAIDS in Africa Nigeria, SWAAN, has urged indigenous companies and individuals to be committed in supporting government in the fight against HIV/AIDs in the country. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Rwanda: May Be HIV-Positive but Our Ability to Work Remains Sound
[New Times]When she was diagonised with HIV about four years ago, Agnes Mukantabana thought it was the end of the road. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Zambia: Young People Needed to Tackle HIV in Zambia
[Key Correspondents]Around 72 new HIV infections are recorded every day among Zambian youths and adolescents, which translates to three per hour, according to UNICEF. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
The Responsiveness, Content Validity, and Convergent Validity of the Measure Yourself Concerns and Wellbeing (MYCaW) Patient-Reported Outcome Measure
Conclusions. MYCaW scores were highly responsive to change, allowing personalized patient outcomes to be quantified; the qualitative coding framework appears generalizable across different integrative oncology settings and has broader coverage of patient-identified concerns compared with existing cancer-related patient-reported outcome measures. (Source: Integrative Cancer Therapies)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Multi-compartment compliance aids (MCAs): Application to the geriatric community
Publication date: Available online 19 October 2014 Source:European Geriatric Medicine Author(s): S. Edirisinghe , B.T. Raimi-Abraham , J.F.-M. Gilmartin , M. Orlu-Gul The high prevalence of co-morbidities in older people gives rise to an increasing number of prescribed medicine increasing the complexity of medicine management. Multi-compartment compliance aids and dispensing systems have the potential to organize the daily life of an older person. Various features of currently available compliance aids (such as multi-compartment design or an automated reminder function) have proved successful in assisting older patients to take their medication. This in turn enables them to manage their own often-complex drug regimens. Further investigations and collaborations between healthcare professi...
Factors Associated with Missed Psychiatry Visits in an Urban HIV Clinic
Abstract Psychiatric co-management is often required in HIV primary care. While rates and clinical impact of linkage and retention in HIV are well explored, fewer investigations focus specifically on linkage to psychiatry. In this investigation, we evaluate factors associated with linkage to psychiatric services using a retrospective cohort study of HIV-infected patients during a two-year observation period. Descriptive statistics depict patient characteristics, and logistic regression models were fit to evaluate factors associated with failure to establish care at the co-located psychiatry clinic following referral from HIV provider. Of 370 referred, 23 % did not attend a scheduled psychiatry appointment within 6 months of initial referral. In multivariable analysis, Non-white ...
Relationships between attitudes toward sexuality, sexual behaviors, and contraceptive practices among Chinese medical and nursing undergraduates
In this study, we investigated attitudes toward sexuality, the prevalence of sexual behaviors and contraceptive use among Chinese medical and nursing undergraduates, and relationships between attitudes toward sexuality and sexual and contraceptive practices among these participants. This was a descriptive, cross?sectional study carried out by using a Personal Attitude toward Sexuality Scale and Sexual and Contraceptive Questionnaire. The participants were recruited in the researcher's lectures. A total of 158 participants joined this study. Overall, Chinese medical and nursing undergraduates in this study held relatively conservative attitudes toward sexuality. The prevalence of sexually?active students was relatively low, and the percentage of contraceptive use among those sexually?...
Immunopatho-mechansims of liver fibrosis: targeting chemokine CCL2 mediated HIV:HCV nexus
Even in the era of successful combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), co-infection of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) remains one of the leading causes of non-AIDS-related mortality and morbidity among HIV-positive individuals as a consequence of accelerated liver fibrosis and end-stage liver disease (ESLD). The perturbed liver microenvironment and induction of host pro-inflammatory mediators in response to HIV and HCV infections, play a pivotal role in orchestrating the disease pathogenesis and clinical outcomes. How these viruses communicate each other via chemokine CCL2 and exploit the liver specific cellular environment to exacerbate liver fibrosis in HIV/HCV co-infection setting is a topic of intense discussion. Herein, we provide recent views and insights on potential mechanisms of CCL2 m...
AIDS at 30: A History By Victoria A. Harden
(Source: American Journal of Epidemiology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Life and Death on Your Terms
There comes a time when, despite your own and your family's wishes, beliefs or hope, death stares you in the face. A defining moment comes when you, as a family member, realize you are no longer prolonging a loved one's life but prolonging your loved one's dying process. I have learned that no one can tell you when that time is; it is a point that one must reach on their own. The decision to let go is usually made after endless hours at your loved one's bedside and recognizing the pain and suffering your loved one has endured. I have watched countless doctors and nurses attempt to convey the need to make a decision to a family, but the advice is usually offered in vain. The timing is personal to every family. Families can make various choices at the end of life. Different agencies can as...
Erratum to: Toward the Development of Preventive Interventions to Reduce HRSB, HIV/AIDS, and Multiple Problem Behaviors
(Source: Prevention Science)
Gambia: International World Aids Day HIV/Aids Among Children Decline By 40 Percent, 1.1 Million New Cases Prevented
[The Point]The United Nations International Children's Education Fund (UNICEF) has released a report that shows that the fight over HIV/AIDS among children is being won by the day; the agency reports that the incidence of HIV/AIDS among children has reduced by 40%, and to this end, about 1.1 million children have been prevented from contracting the disease between 2009 and 2013. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
The Year in HIV: Prevention, Treatment, Complications, CureThe Year in HIV: Prevention, Treatment, Complications, Cure
Dr Paul Sax reviews the top stories in HIV medicine in 2014, with a focus on practice-changing clinical trial results. Medscape HIV/AIDS (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
Namibia: 'How Alcohol Abuse Led Me to Getting HIV-Aids'
[New Era]Mariental -When sober, Paul Witbooi would not be able to talk to women. But a sip of alcohol would give him courage to propose to women. Witbooi's predicament was so known among his community that people started calling him an "old virgin". He found solace in alcohol, which he however abused to get involved with women. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Gambia: Aids Secretariat Receives Over U.S.$18 Million for PLHIV
[Daily Observer]The regional advisor, HIV/Nutrition at World Food Programme (WFP) Regional Bureau for West Africa based in Dakar, Senegal has disclosed that through the Global Fund, Round 8 (HIV), the National AIDS Secretariat of The Gambia has received a total funding of US$ 18,620,155 to accelerate access to prevention, treatment, care and support services which included nutritional assistance to PLHIV. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: Sokoto Rewards HIV/Aids Workers
[Daily Trust]Sokoto -Thirty-two volunteers in the fight against HIV/AIDS in Sokoto State were yesterday honoured by the state government. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: FG Launches Revised Workplace Policy On HIV/Aids
[This Day]By Linda Eroke The federal government has launched the revised National Workplace Policy and National Action Plan on Human Immune-deficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in the country. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Botswana: Invest in HIV Interventions - Murphy
[Botswana Daily News]Maun -It is imperative to continue to invest in relevant interventions to achieve HIV control, says acting United States (US) Ambassador Chargé d'Affaires, Mr Michael Murphy. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Picture of HIV/AIDS
Title: Picture of HIV/AIDSCategory: ImagesCreated: 10/13/2010 2:19:00 PMLast Editorial Review: 12/9/2014 12:00:00 AM (Source: MedicineNet HIV General)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
South Africa: Life-Saving Aids Medicine Out of Stock in Gauteng
[GroundUp]Hospitals throughout Gauteng ran out of essential medicines in recent weeks, including a life-saving drug for people with AIDS called amphotericin B. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Botswana: Reikeletseng Appreciates Efforts to Combat HIV/Aids
[Botswana Daily News]Gaborone -Botswana is under threat as the country continues to lose energetic people who should be the building blocks of the nation, Itekanele Health scheme managing director, Mr Solly Reikeletseng has said. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Is Grindr an Unprotected Anal Sex Finder?
Many Grindr users have unprotected anal sex increasing their risk for HIV.read more (Source: Psychology Today Sex Center)
Grindr: An Unprotected Sex Finder?
Many Grindr users have unprotected anal sex increasing their risk for HIV.read more (Source: Psychology Today Relationships Center)
The changing pattern of ano-rectal cancer, squamous cell carcinoma of the eye, and Hodgkin's lymphoma as non-AIDS-defining cancers, by HIV status, in Tanzania over 11 years (2002-2012): a retrospective case-report study
Conclusions: The frequency and proportions of these three NADCs in Tanzania have increased over the past 11 years, as has the prevalence of HIV positivity amongst these NADC patients. The current and possibly increasing burden of NADCs in Tanzania and other low- and middle-income countries with high HIV rates should be a focus for future cancer prevention and control and HIV therapy programs. (Source: Infectious Agents and Cancer)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
HIV-1 Tat induces DNMT over-expression through microRNA dysregulation in HIV-related non Hodgkin lymphomas
Conclusions: Our findings demonstrated that the ectopic expression of Tat was per se sufficient to determine DNMT up-regulation, based on microRNA down-regulation, and that this results in aberrant hypermethylation of target genes and microRNAs.These results point at a direct role for Tat in participating in uninfected B-cell lymphomagenesis, through dysregulation of the epigenetical control of gene expression. (Source: Infectious Agents and Cancer)
Long-term focus and prosocial?antisocial tendencies interact to predict belief in just world
Publication date: March 2015 Source:Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 75 Author(s): Carolyn L. Hafer , Alicia N. Rubel According to justice motive theory, individuals need to believe that the world is a just place where people generally get what they deserve (Lerner, 1977). Individuals are thought to need belief in a just world (BJW) in part because it gives them the confidence required to invest in long-term goals. However, BJW can only provide confidence that individuals will reap the rewards of their investments if they invest in their goals through prosocial means (e.g., Hafer, 2000). The current study provides evidence for this argument. Specifically, we examined individual differences in BJW, long-term goal focus, and prosocial?antisocial tendencies to test the hypot...
Latent and manifest empiricism in Q'eqchi' Maya healing: A case study of HIV/AIDS
Publication date: February 2015 Source:Social Science &amp; Medicine, Volume 126 Author(s): James B. Waldram , Andrew R. Hatala This paper presents a case study of the traditional treatment of a Q'eqchi' Maya man in southern Belize in 2011 who is suffering from AIDS-related sickness. The purpose is to detail the empirical nature of Q'eqchi' Maya medicine, distinguishing between manifest and latent empiricism, as evidenced in the healers evolving attempts to treat the patient in the absence of knowledge of his biomedical diagnosis. The paper argues for a more complete understanding of the empirical nature of much Indigenous healing, which parallels aspects of scientific medicine, and for better collaboration among traditional healers and biomedical practitioners in strongly Indigenous...
Portraying Mental Illness and Drug Addiction as Treatable Health Conditions: Effects of a Randomized Experiment on Stigma and Discrimination
Publication date: Available online 5 December 2014 Source:Social Science &amp; Medicine Author(s): Emma E. McGinty , Howard H. Goldman , Bernice Pescosolido , Colleen L. Barry Despite significant advances in treatment, stigma and discrimination toward persons with mental illness and drug addiction have remained constant in past decades. Prior work suggests that portraying other stigmatized health conditions (i.e., HIV/AIDS) as treatable can improve public attitudes toward those affected. Our study compared the effects of vignettes portraying persons with untreated and symptomatic versus successfully treated and asymptomatic mental illness and drug addiction on several dimensions of public attitudes about these conditions. We conducted a survey-embedded randomized experiment using a n...
Improving rates of cotrimoxazole prophylaxis in resource-limited settings: implementation of a quality improvement approach
Conclusions Quality management offers a data-driven method to improve the quality of HIV care in low resource countries. Application of improvement principles has been shown to be effective to increase the rates of CTX prophylaxis in national HIV programs in multiple countries. (Source: International Journal for Quality in Health Care)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Latinos in the United States on the HIV/AIDS care continuum by birth country/region: a systematic review of the literature
Twenty percent of Latinos with HIV in the US are unaware of their HIV status, 33% are linked to care late, and 74% do not reach viral suppression. Disparities along this HIV/AIDS care continuum may be present between various ethnic groups historically categorised as Latino. To identify differences along the HIV/AIDS care continuum between US Latinos of varying birth countries/regions a systematic review of articles published in English between 2002 and 2013 was conducted using MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Web of Science. Studies that reported on one or more steps of the HIV/AIDS care continuum and reported results by birth country/region for Latinos were included. Latinos born in Mexico and Central America were found to be at increased risk of late diagnosis compared with US-born Latinos. No stu...
A qualitative analysis of barriers to accessing HIV/AIDS-related services among newly diagnosed HIV-positive men who have sex with men in China
In China, specific HIV/AIDS-related services have been in place since 2004. However, utilisation of these services remains limited among people living with HIV. We explored barriers to accessing HIV/AIDS-related services from the perspective of newly diagnosed HIV-positive men who have sex with men. We conducted repeated in-depth interviews with 31 newly diagnosed HIV-positive men who have sex with men, using the socio-ecological framework and thematic content analysis. Multiple barriers for utilisation of HIV/AIDS-related services were identified, including perceptions of subjective health and poor quality of services, mental and emotional health problems, lack of trust and understanding of the services on offer, low economic status, lack of insurance, and high medical fees, being refused...
Awareness and utilization of HIV services of an AIDS community-based organization in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
In Malaysia, homosexuality is illegal; little is known about access to HIV prevention services among Malaysian men who have sex with men (MSM). We analysed PT Foundation outreach data to describe the profiles among MSM who accessed PT Foundation services and to examine factors associated with being aware of PT Foundation and having visited the organization. A survey was administered during weekly outreach throughout Kuala Lumpur from March&ndash;December 2012. Pearson's Chi square tests were used to compare demographic and behavioural characteristics of participants who were and were not aware of the PT Foundation. Binary logistic regression was used to identify correlates of MSM visiting the PT Foundation among those who had heard of the organization. Of 614 MSM, this study found signific...
Discordant prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis in asymptomatic couples screened by two screening approaches
This study was carried out to observe the effect of screening both members of an asymptomatic couple for Chlamydia trachomatis. First void urine samples were collected from 105 women and their male sex partners. Women were recruited for screening at a sexual health clinical setting (age 16&ndash;25 years), and home sampling screening options were used for men. Using PCR we detected seven positive C. trachomatis samples in women (6.6%) and five in men (4.6%). The concordant infection rate was 33% (3/9 couples). Routine urine screening of the female partner might result in substantial underestimation of the C. trachomatis prevalence within the couple, where perhaps 56% of the couples where at least one partner tested positive would remain undiagnosed. Screening both partners compared with wo...
Predictors of return rate for an HIV-positive result in a French Voluntary Counseling and Testing centre
This study proposed, in this centre, to describe the HIV newly-diagnosed patients over an 8-year period and to determinate risk factors for failure to return for a positive result. Higher risk for failure to return was found among the heterosexual subjects regardless of their socio-economic background. (Source: International Journal of STD and AIDS)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
"Do you think your main partner has other sex partners?" A simple question provides insight into sexual risk in Jamaica
To estimate the association between a simple measure of sexual partner concurrency and sexually transmitted infection (STI) we conducted a cross-sectional population-based household survey (n = 1795) and targeted surveys of people at venues where people meet sexual partners (n = 1580) to ask about sexual behaviour. Persons interviewed at venues were tested for HIV, gonorrhoea, chlamydia, and trichomoniasis. We compared the association between STI and reporting a partner had other partners. More women than men reported their main partner had other partners. Thirteen percent of all women in the population-based survey and 14.4% in the targeted survey reported having one partner in the past 12 months and that partner had additional partners. STI prevalence was significantly associated with re...
Patients who return to care after tracking remain at high risk of attrition: experience from a large HIV clinic, Uganda
We determined the retention rate of patients infected with HIV who resumed care after being tracked at the Infectious Diseases Clinic (IDC) in Kampala, Uganda. Between April 2011 and September 2013, patients who missed their clinic appointment for 8&ndash;90 days were tracked, and those who returned to the clinic within 120 days were followed up. The proportion of patients retained among tracked patients, and those who resumed care before tracking started was compared. At 18 months of follow up, 33 (39%) of the tracked patients and 72 (61%) of those who had resumed care before tracking started were retained in care. The most important cause of attrition among the traceable was self-transfer to another clinic (38 [73%] patients), whereas among those who resumed care before tracking was loss...
Social-structural indices and between-nation differences in HIV prevalence
This study examined how social, economic, and political contexts that may represent the confluence of individual capabilities and environmental affordances or constraints are associated with national HIV prevalence. Based on social-ecological perspectives, we examined social-structural dimensions in relation to national HIV prevalence. The study identified six publicly available nation-level social, political, and economic indices and examined their associations with national 2009 HIV prevalence across 225 nations. National indices, (a) education expenditures, (b) unemployment rate, (c) homicide rate, (d) freedom of religion, and (e) women's social rights, altogether explained 43% of the variability in national HIV prevalence. Education expenditures, homicide rate, and freedom of religion ...
Sexual history taking in general practice: managing sexually transmitted infections for female sex workers by doctors and assistant doctors in Vietnam
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Vietnam have been increasing. Control of STIs among female sex workers (FSWs) is important in controlling the epidemic. Effective STI control requires that physicians are skilful in taking sexual history for FSW patients. Three hundred and seventy-one physicians responded to a survey conducted in three provinces in Vietnam. The respondents were asked whether they asked FSW patients about their sexual history and information asked during sexual history taking. The respondents were also asked about their barriers for taking sexual history. Over one-fourth (27%) respondents always, over half (54%) respondents sometimes and 19% respondents never obtained a sexual history from FSW patients. Multivariable analysis revealed that factors associated with al...
Value of repeat testing using Cepheid GeneXpert CT/NG for indeterminate PCR results when diagnosing Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are the most sensitive method for diagnosing chlamydia and gonorrhoea. We use the COBAS 4800 CT/NG combined assay (Roche Molecular Diagnostics, CA, USA), and whilst the majority of samples yield definitive results, a small proportion are reported as indeterminate. In these instances, it is usual practice to request repeat samples which delays diagnosis. This audit was twofold: first to establish the proportion of indeterminate results with current NAAT testing requiring re-sampling. Second, to determine whether a second NAAT such as Cepheid GeneXpert CT/NG assay (Cepheid, CA, USA) could be used on initial indeterminate samples to resolve indeterminate results, therefore reducing need for repeat sampling. During 2012, 144/21,931 (0.66%) samples were ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Extreme elevation of ferritin and creatine kinase in primary infection with HIV-1
We report an atypical case of primary HIV-1 infection with HIV-1 subtype C in a 61-year old Caucasian man who presented with extreme hyperferritinaemia without iron overload and marked elevation of serum creatine kinase without rhabdomyolysis. In view of his symptomatic seroconversion and low baseline CD4+ T-lymphocyte count, the patient was treated promptly with combination antiretroviral therapy. Subsequently, he made good clinical improvement on treatment and no opportunistic infections were diagnosed at presentation or as part of a later immune reconstitution syndrome. This novel case highlights the importance of clinical suspicion of HIV and suggests that primary HIV-1 infection should be considered in patients presenting with severe hyperferritinaemia or markedly elevated creatine ki...
Genital ulcers: it is not always simplex ...
We report the first case of influenza B virus and adenovirus infections associated with this presentation. (Source: International Journal of STD and AIDS)
IJERPH, Vol. 11, Pages 12726-12738: Assessment of Sex-Related Behaviours, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Knowledge and Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) among Men of Reproductive Age in Cameroon
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), are among the major public health challenges in Cameroon. This paper determined the effect of men?s sex-related behaviors and HIV knowledge on reported STIs. The data came from the 2012 Cameroon?s Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) that were collected from 7191 respondents in 2012. Descriptive and logistic regression methods were used for data analysis. Results showed that majority of the respondents were aware of STIs and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), while 3.96% reported STIs. Also, 49.45% of the men had no wife, while 75.58% and 84.58% noted that condoms and keeping of one partner could be used to prevent HIV transmission, respectively. Wrong impressions that mosquito bites and shari...
In silico analysis of autoimmune diseases and genetic relationships to vaccination against infectious diseases
Conclusions: Results showing unique and common gene sets, pathways, immune system categories and functional clusters of genes in four autoimmune diseases suggest it is possible to develop molecular classifications of autoimmune and inflammatory events. Combining this information with cellular and other disease responses should greatly aid in the assessment of potential immune-mediated adverse events following vaccination. (Source: BMC Immunology)
A concept in flux: questioning accountability in the context of global health cooperation
DiscussionAccountability is frequently reduced to one set of actors holding another to account. Changes in the global health landscape and in relations between actors have however made the practice of accountability more complex and contested. Currently undergoing a reframing process, participation and transparency have become core elements of a new accountability agenda alongside evaluation and redress or enforcement mechanisms. However, while accountability is about holding actors responsible for their actions, the mechanisms through which this might be done vary substantially and are far from politically neutral.Accountability in global health cooperation involves multipolar relationships between a large number of stakeholders with varying degrees of power and influence, where not all i...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
It's Time to Allow Gay Men to Donate Blood
Gay men face obstacles to donating blood in more than 50 countries, including Brazil. It's time to change that. About 50 countries preclude gay men from donating blood, regardless of their health at the time of donation and their sexual habits, according to a report published by El País. Even countries with advanced views on the issue of gay rights, such as Germany, France, the Netherlands and Denmark, among others, bar gays from donating blood. The United States and Israel are also on the list. On the other hand, Russia, a notoriously homophobic country with a law prohibiting "distribution of homosexual propaganda," does not impose restrictions on blood donation by gay men, and neither do Chile, Spain, Italy, Mexico, Poland, Portugal or South Africa, according to El País' survey. In...
Developing a Decision Aid to Support Informed Choices for Newly Diagnosed Patients With Localized Prostate Cancer
Conclusions:We developed a Spanish DA with a strong quality score to help patients make an informed choice regarding their prostate cancer treatment. Future research will assess the impact of the DA and its association with improved decision making. Implications for Practice:This tool provides information about the risks and benefits of different treatment options and helps patients to understand the importance of their own values for informing treatment choices. (Source: Cancer Nursing)
Association of Chronic HCV With T-Cell Phenotypes in HIVAssociation of Chronic HCV With T-Cell Phenotypes in HIV
How does HIV status affect HCV viremia? JAIDS: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)
ART for Prevention of Mother-to-Child TransmissionART for Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission
ART is recommended to HIV+ women for prevention of perinatal transmission of HIV. Are these women at risk of resistance after stopping the ART regimen? AIDS (Source: Medscape PublicHealth Headlines)
Food Insecurity and Its Relation to Psychological Well-Being Among South Indian People Living with HIV
Abstract Food insecurity (FI) and its link with depression and quality of life (QOL) among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in India are not well-documented. We analyzed cohort data from 243 male and 129 female PLHIV from Bengaluru, and found 19 % of men and 26 % of women reported moderate or severe FI over a 6-month period. Women reported higher mean depression than men, and lower mean QOL. In multivariate analyses adjusting for HIV stigma and demographic covariates, both male and female PLHIV with moderate to severe FI showed lower mean QOL than those reporting mild to no FI. Male but not female food insecure participants also had higher depression scores in adjusted regression analyses. As ART has improved the physical health of PLHIV, more effort is being invested in improvin...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Sexual Behavior and Risk Practices of HIV Positive and HIV Negative Rwandan Women
We describe factors influencing current sexual practices of Rwandan women living with or without HIV/AIDS. By design, 75 % of participants were HIV positive and ~50 % reported having experienced genocidal rape. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were fit to describe demographic and clinical characteristics that influenced sexual behavior in the previous 6 months, condom use, history of transactional sex, and prior infection with a non-HIV sexually transmitted disease. Respondents? age, where they lived, whether or not they lived with a husband or partner, experience of sexual trauma, CD4 count, CES-D and PTSD scores were strongly associated with risky sexual behavior and infection with non-HIV STI. HIV positive women with a history of sexual violence in the context...
Communication About Microbicide Use Between Couples in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
Abstract The ways in which couples communicate about microbicides is likely to influence microbicide uptake and usage. We collected quantitative data about whether women in a microbicide trial discussed microbicides with their partners and explored communication about microbicides during 79 in-depth-interviews with women enrolled in the trial and 17 focus-group discussions with community members. After 4 weeks in the trial, 60 % of 1092 women had discussed microbicides with their partners; in multivariate analysis, this was associated with younger age, clinic of enrolment and not living in households that owned cattle. After 52 weeks, 84 % of women had discussed microbicides; in multivariate analysis, this was associated with not living in households that owned cattle, not liv...
Refined Software for Readers with Vision Disabilities
Two key refinements that improve the experience of people who are blind or have low vision who use iPads as touch-based reading devices have been developed by Francis Quek, Texas A&M professor of visualization, and Yasmine N. El-Glaly, assistant professor of computer science at Port Said University in Egypt. (Source: Disabled World)
Uganda: Steps Towards an HIV-Free Generation in Uganda
[Key Correspondents]Worldwide an increasing number of children who contracted HIV as babies are surviving into adolescence, even without medication, but many are dying before treatment can be initiated or be effective. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: HIV/Aids Spread Attributed to Gender Violence
[Daily Trust]Gender-based violence has been identified as a contributing factor to the spread of the HIV/AIDS in Nigeria. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Africa: World Aids Day Statement 2014
[Commonwealth]Statement by: Commonwealth Secretary-General Kamalesh Sharma (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Namibia: Veronica Kalambi Living a Positive Life With HIV
[New Era]Windhoek -"I have been living with HIV for 12 years now and to tell you the truth initially it was not easy for me," said Veronica Kalambi an HIV activist with the Namibia Women's Health Network (NWHN). (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Rwanda: HIV/Aids Fight: We Have a Long Way to Go
[New Times]The Rwanda Aids Indicator Survey (RAIS) has revealed that many Rwandans are still ignorant about basic information in the fight against HIV/Aids. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Zimbabwe: Mapeza Named Ambassador
[The Herald]FC Platinum coach Norman Mapeza has been appointed brand ambassador for the National Aids Council here. Speaking at World AIDS Day District commemorations at Mandava, Winston Chitando, the Mimosa executive chairman, announced to thousands of people that Mapeza was now carrying the torch. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Rwanda: First Lady Helps Raise Funds to Fight Aids
[New Times]Parents and communities need to care for the young and talk to children about HIV/Aids to prevent future generations from the scourge, the First Lady has urged. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Kenya: An HIV Test Is Worth Your While
[The Star]It was World Aids Day on Monday, the first of December, and I had dinner on that night with a couple who have been together for decades. The lady was telling us about a guy who is suing his doctor for a false HIV positive that ended up costing him his family, his mental health and eventually his job. It took years for him to get another test that showed he was never HIV positive, but by then his wife had left him and taken the kids with her. This led to a conversation about HIV and Aids and how it doesn't (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Ethiopia: Building On Our HIV/Aids Successes in Ethiopia
[Reporter]On World AIDS Day, commemorated on December 1 every year, we pay tribute to the millions who are infected and affected by HIV/AIDS worldwide. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Kenya: More Education Is Needed On HIV-Aids
[The Star]There was a point in time when being HIV positive was considered a death sentence and not just for the patient, but anyone who dared to associate with the infected. The level of stigma surrounding HIV-Aids was so high that no one even dared shake hands with a HIV-positive person. Back then, some people believed the disease was spread through handshakes. If a man lost too much weight within a relatively short time, he had HIV; if a man left his wife she had HIV; if someone was taking more than two pills, th (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: Taraba Emerges Second HIV/Aids Ravaged State
[Guardian]THE continued rise in the prevalence rate of HIV/AIDS in Taraba State, pegged at 10.5 per cent, has placed the state in the position of the second most HIV/AIDS ravaged state in the country. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: Hope for Those Living With HIV and Killer Parasitic Disease
[Key Correspondents]The search for new treatment for patients co-infected with HIV and kala-azar is in its early stages, but researchers are certain a drug to treat the condition could be found in 2015. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Namibia: 20 Years and Still Counting - Aids Activist Recounts Struggles
[Namibian]FIFTY-FIVE-YEAR-OLD Anita Isaacks was diagnosed with full-blown AIDS about 12 years ago, and has been living with the virus for the past 20 years. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Kenya: Busia Unveils Plans to Fight HIV and Stigma
[The Star]BUSIA county has unveiled a plan to eliminate stigmatisation and discrimination of teachers living with HIV-Aids. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
South Africa: Cosatu Northern Cape Statement On the Mortality Statistics
[COSATU]The Congress of South African Trade Unions in the Northern Cape is deeply shocked to learn that HIV/AIDS is the leading cause of death in our province at 8.7%. These shocking statistics emerge against the backdrop of the celebration of the World AIDS Day which was celebrated in John Taolo Gaetsewe region on 01 December 2014. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Zambia: World Aids Day - Focus On Adolescents
[Times of Zambia]On World AIDS Day, I received the following message from the International Aids Alliance (IAA): This World AIDS Day (December 1, 2014) we are warning of the urgent need to prioritise HIV and sexual and reproductive health services for adolescents, particularly in the global south where they are slipping through the cracks when it comes to healthcare. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Rwanda: First Lady Calls for Innovation in Aids Fight
[New Times]The First Lady, Jeannette Kagame, has called for innovation in the fight against HIV/Aids as an additional mechanism in the prevention and treatment of the virus. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Ethiopia: Ethiopia Conducts Mass HIV Testing As Part of World Record Bid
[Ethiopia Government]To mark World AIDS Day this week, Ethiopia conducted a mass HIV testing campaign in an attempt to set a new world record for the most number of people HIV tested in single venue in an eight-hour period. Rahel Gettu, UNAIDS country community mobilisation and networking advisor in Ethiopia, said on Wednesday (December 3) that a total of 3,383 people had been tested for HIV status during the campaign held in Gambella Stadium. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Rwanda: More Sensitisation Needed in HIV/Aids Fight - survey
[New Times]At least 32 per cent of Rwandans still believe HIV/Aids can be transmitted through mosquito bites, according to the Rwanda Aids Indicator Survey (RAIS) report. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Eritrea: Low Prevalence of HIV/Aids Expressed Indication for Growing Awareness of the Public
[Shabait]Barentu -At a meeting the members of Bidiho National Association in Gash Barka region conducted, they expressed that the low prevalence of HIV/AIDS is an indication of the growing awareness of the public. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
How A New Funding Model Will Shift Allocations From The Global Fund To Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, And Malaria [Web First]
We examined the Global Fund&rsquo;s historical HIV allocations and its predicted allocations under a new funding model that creates an explicit allocation methodology. We found that under the new funding model, substantial shifts in the Global Fund&rsquo;s portfolio are likely to result from concentrating resources in countries with more HIV cases and lower per capita incomes. For example, South Africa, which had 15.8&nbsp;percent of global HIV cases in 2009, could see its Global Fund HIV funding more than triple, from historic levels that averaged 3.0&nbsp;percent to 9.7&nbsp;percent of total Global Fund allocations. The new funding model methodology is expected, but not guaranteed, to improve the efficiency of Global Fund allocations in comparison to historical practice. We conclude with...
Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy in the pancreatic duct provides direct visualization of ductal structures and aids in clinical management
Confocal endomicroscopy provides real-time evaluation of various sites and has been used to provide detailed endomicroscopic imaging of the biliary tree. We aimed to evaluate the feasibility and utility of probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy of the pancreatic duct as compared to cytologic and histologic results in patients with indeterminate pancreatic duct strictures. (Source: Digestive and Liver Disease)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Perspectives of linkage to care among people diagnosed with HIV
Timely linkage to HIV care and treatment has led to improved individual and population benefits; however, 25%-31% of people diagnosed with HIV do not engage in care. Most linkage to care research has focused on larger metropolitan areas, but smaller metropolitan and rural areas encounter unique challenges to linkage to care. Our purpose was to examine factors influencing the decision to seek care by 27 people infected with HIV living in smaller metropolitan and rural areas of Florida. We used grounded theory methods to develop a theoretical model describing the decision-making process and participant recommendations within the context of stigma. (Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)
Death from AIDS is preventable, so why are people still dying of AIDS in Europe?
Authors: Delpech V, Lundgren J PMID: 25443033 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Euro Surveill)
Call Center Technology for Employees with Vision Disability
Optimized to work with Job Access With Speech (JAWS) assistive technology, Platform 3 VocalVision enables call center agents with vision disabilities to effectively navigate Platform 3.0, TCN?s cloud-based contact center suite, helping to improve agent productivity while also creating new employment opportunities for people with vision disabilities. (Source: Disabled World)
Angola: Health Officials Concerned About New HIV/Aids Cases in Namibe
[ANGOP]Namibe -Health officials in the south-west Namibe province have expressed concern about the new cases of HIV/ AIDS reported from January to November this year. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Assessment of Prevalence and Determinants of Occupational Exposure to HIV Infection among Healthcare Workers in Selected Health Institutions in Debre Berhan Town, North Shoa Zone, Amhara Region, Ethiopia, 2014.
Conclusion. In this study majority (88.6%) of the health care workers had a risky occupational hazard that exposed them to human immunodeficiency virus infection during the past 12 months. The statistically significant determinant factors were professional status, working room, and time of personal protective equipment usage. PMID: 25478213 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Peer Education in Improving HIV Knowledge, Attitude, and Sexual Behaviours among In-School Adolescents in Osun State, Nigeria.
Conclusion. The study showed that peer education is effective in improving knowledge, attitude, and some preventive practices towards HIV/AIDS among in-school adolescents. Educational programmes about HIV/AIDS should therefore be designed to target this age group putting into consideration their unique characteristics. PMID: 25478212 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
MicroRNA-34a regulates WNT/TCF7 signaling and inhibits bone metastasis in Ras-activated prostate cancer.
Authors: Chen WY, Liu SY, Chang YS, Yin JJ, Yeh HL, Mouhieddine TH, Hadadeh O, Abou-Kheir W, Liu YN Abstract Aberrant activation of Ras and WNT signaling are key events that have been shown to be up-regulated in prostate cancer that has metastasized to the bone. However, the regulatory mechanism of combinatorial Ras and WNT signaling in advanced prostate cancer is still unclear. TCF7, a WNT signaling-related gene, has been implicated as a critical factor in bone metastasis, and here we show that TCF7 is a direct target of miR-34a. In samples of prostate cancer patients, miR-34a levels are inversely correlated with TCF7 expression and a WNT dependent gene signature. Ectopic miR-34a expression inhibited bone metastasis and reduced cancer cell proliferation in a Ras-dependent xenograf...
A review of drug policy in the Golden Crescent: Towards the development of more effective solutions.
Authors: Talpur A, George TP Abstract There is a high prevalence of drug trafficking and misuse in Asia. Drugs grown in Afghanistan are trafficked through Iran and Pakistan to the rest of the world. This has led to an increase in the prevalence of drug use disorders in these regions, especially heroin. This has in turn led to an increase in the use of syringes and syringe sharing which has resulted in the exponential spread of blood borne diseases such as HIV/AIDS. A lack of awareness of the detrimental use of heroin, syringe sharing and the concept of HIV has been revealed. The literature reviewed provides evidence for a change in policy with an increase in epidemiological and clinical research in these regions as well as an increase in public awareness. PMID: 25440559 [PubMed...
Chronic Postoperative Pain After Primary and Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty
This study aimed to investigate the difference in pain, mobility, and quality of life (QoL) in patients after revision TKA compared with patients after primary TKA. Methods:A total of 99 OA patients after revision TKA surgery and 215 patients after primary TKA surgery were investigated in a cross-sectional study using: a pain description of current pain (non-existent, mild, moderate, severe, or unbearable), the pain intensity visual analogue scale, the Knee Society Score, and the Osteoarthritis Research Society International questionnaire. Results:Nineteen percent after primary TKA surgery and 47% after revision TKA surgery experienced severe to unbearable chronic postoperative pain. After revision TKA surgery patients reported higher pain intensities during rest (P=0.039), while walking (...
Experiences and Correlates of HIV Self-Testing Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Jiangsu Province, China
We describe experiences and identify correlates of self-testing among Chinese MSM. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among MSM in Jiangsu from November 2013 to January 2014. Participants were recruited through time-location sampling and from online. Participants were asked a series of questions about HIV self-testing uptake and associated experiences. Logistic regression was used to identify correlates of having ever self-tested for HIV. Of 522 participants, 26.2 % had ever self-tested. Finger stick was the most common self-testing modality (86.1 %). A majority of participants reported that it was ?very easy? (43.1 %) or ?somewhat easy? (34.3 %) to perform self-testing while lower proportions reported ?very confident? (24.1 %) or ?somewhat confident? (36.5 %) in ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Key Populations in Sub-Saharan Africa: Population Size Estimates and High Risk Behaviors
(Source: AIDS and Behavior)
Designing a System for Patients Controlling Providers? Access to their Electronic Health Records: Organizational and Technical Challenges
CONCLUSIONS Assessing patients? preferences for access to their EHRs and applying them in clinical practice requires wide-ranging technical, clinical, and bioethical expertise, to make tough choices to overcome significant technical and organization challenges. (Source: Journal of General Internal Medicine)
Provider Responses to Patients Controlling Access to their Electronic Health Records: A Prospective Cohort Study in Primary Care
CONCLUSIONS Patients frequently preferred restricting provider access to their EHRs. Providers infrequently overrode patients? preferences to view hidden data. Providers believed that restricting EHR access would adversely impact patient care. Applying Fair Information Practice principles to EHRs will require balancing patient preferences, providers? needs, and health care quality. (Source: Journal of General Internal Medicine)
[Aniridia syndrome : Clinical findings, problematic courses and suggestions for optimization of care ("aniridia guide").]
We present a group of 130 patients with congenital aniridia to enhance awareness of the complexity of the disease. Different to other congenital visual impairments aniridia is characterized by many ocular complications arising during the lifetime which may lead to total blindness (e.g. cataract, aniridic keratopathy and secondary glaucoma). Furthermore, there is a specific surgical risk entity: aniridia fibrosis syndrome and anterior segment fibrosis syndrome (ASFS) which lead to a non-infectious fibrous scarring and membrane formation of the anterior segment, often followed by hypotonia and phthisis. Aniridic glaucoma presents yet another severe complication which is often diagnosed late due to diagnostic problems and which may lead to irreversible optic nerve damage. DISCUSSION: The ...
This Week In Science: Seeing Infrared, Earth's Shield, and a Bug Smorgasbord
Seven days; lots of science in the news. Here's our roundup of this week's most notable and quotable items: Illustration by Sarah Peavey The first test flight of the Orion capsule -- NASA's Apollo-like module designed to be the next thing in manned space exploration -- was beset by weather-related delays and glitches. Zig-zag marks scratched into a shell about 500,000 years ago, likely by a member of Homo erectus, may be the earliest example of hominid carving. You can probably see infrared light, to some degree. Geckos still stick to surfaces after they die. Playing just a single season of high school football was found to cause changes in the brain -- more so in heavy hitters -- even if kids don't suffer concussions. The 3D printer on the International Space Station spat out its firs...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
HIV and Ebola: similarities and differences.
Authors: Wainberg MA, Kippax S, Bras M, Sow PS PMID: 25466882 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Africa: Most Africans Happy With Govt Action on Aids
[Afrobarometer]Most Africans say their governments are doing a good job in the fight against HIV/AIDS, a new Afrobarometer analysis shows. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Nigeria: FUTO Renews Battle Against HIV/Aids
[Independent (Lagos)]Owerri -Worried by the increasing cases of HIV/aids syndrome, the Centre for Women, Gender and Development Studies (CWGDS), Federal University of Technology, Owerri (FUTO), has indicated its intention to partner the youths to reduce incidence of HIV infections and discrimination against HIV patients. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Tanzania: Moshi Residents Shun Aids Scare - Claim
[Daily News]Moshi -Moshi residents are typically laissez-faire when it comes to HIV/AIDS matters as many are unresponsive to voluntary testing and Counselling (VCT) services, soothing themselves with data that show HIV prevalence declined from 2.3% last year to 2.1% September this year. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
[Correspondence] Appeal to global donors to save the Treatment Action Campaign
Fulfilling the right to health depends on common purpose between researchers, clinicians, and activists. On the eve of World AIDS Day 2014 (Dec 1), we write this letter as scientists and academics who are concerned about the possible closure of the Treatment Action Campaign (TAC) in South Africa as a consequence of serious funding difficulties. (Source: LANCET)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
[Comment] NCDs and an outcome-based approach to global health
A decade ago, HIV/AIDS transformed global health. The epidemic affected wealthy nations first, but did most of its damage in low-income and middle-income countries, where HIV/AIDS caused large numbers of premature adult deaths and shook governments. The international community responded by developing life-saving treatments and expanding their availability in poorer countries. That global response saved millions of lives and encouraged international support to address other public health challenges, including malaria, family planning, and maternal and child health. (Source: LANCET)
Namibia: Stigma a Hurdle in HIV-Aids Mitigation Efforts
[New Era]Windhoek -The only way to reduce HIV infections is when people stop discriminating against those who are infected with the incurable virus, activists said yesterday. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
South Africa: Grassroot Soccer - Moving the Goalposts in the Fight Against HIV/Aids
[Daily Maverick]This week, HIV/Aids has undoubtedly received more media attention than it ordinarily would have. But for the men and women working at Grassroot Soccer, World Aids Day is not much different to any other: it is simply one of the 365 they spend per year, fighting the disease through a language most of us speak - sport. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Zambia: Nac Decries Low Condom Use
[Times of Zambia]THE National AIDS Council (NAC) has bemoaned the low condom use by women compared to their male counterparts. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: The Downside of Improved HIV Care
[SciDev.Net]"We have bent the trajectory of the epidemic. Now we have five years to break it for good or risk it rebounding out of control," said UNAIDS executive director Michel Sidibé last month as the agency announced plans to increase antiretroviral drug availability. [1] (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Uganda: Fake HIV Results Trial Starts
[Observer]Court in Mukono has started hearing the case where a woman is facing charges of negligence and bribery, after she allegedly falsified HIV results of an undercover intending 'bride'. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Eritrea: Call Made for Stepped-Up Efforts Towards Combating New HIV Infection
[Shabait]Barentu -A call has been made for exerting stepped-up efforts towards combating new HIV infection and reducing its consequences on the basis of highly organized promotional activities. The call was made in connection with the commemoration of World AIDS Day in Barenru town at national level. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Ethiopia: First IGAD International Scientific Conference Opened in Addis Ababa
[Ethiopia Government]Dr. Kesete-Berhan Admasu, Ethiopia's Minister of Health, and Engineer Mahboub Maalim, the Executive Secretary of IGAD, officially opened the first IGAD International Scientific Conference on Health with special emphasis on pastoralists and cross-border mobile populations. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Uganda: Outcry Over Museveni's Aids Remarks
[Independent (Kampala)]Civil Society activists against HIV/AIDS have demanded an apology from President Yoweri Museveni over some of the remarks he made during the commemoration of World AIDS Day in Fort Portal on Dec.1. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: Ondo, Global Help Move to Prevent HIV/Aids Transmission
[Independent (Lagos)]In continuation of the fight against HIV/AIDS and arrest of the spread of the disease, the Ondo State government, through the Ondo State Agency for the Control of AIDS (ODSACA), in collaboration with Global Help Trust Foundation (gloHELP), a non-governmental organisation, has carried out a minimum prevention session among pregnant women in the state, to bring an end to mother-to-child transmission of HIV/AIDS. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Global Fund investments in human resources for health: innovation and missed opportunities for health systems strengthening
Conclusion The narrow disease focus and lack of co-ordination with national governments call into question the efficiency of funding and sustainability of Global Fund investments in HRH and their effectiveness in strengthening recipient countries&rsquo; health systems. The lessons that emerge from this analysis can be used by both the Global Fund and other donors to improve co-ordination of investments and the effectiveness of programmes in recipient countries. (Source: Health Policy and Planning)
Development of a patient?centred, patient?reported outcome measure (PROM) for post?stroke cognitive rehabilitation: qualitative interviews with stroke survivors to inform design and content
ConclusionsThe results support the development of a PROM specifically designed to address the impact of cognitive problems. It should: include items addressing a comprehensive range of cognitive skills; ask questions about mood, self?identity and social participation; use accessible wording that respondents understand and endorse; measure impact rather than frequency; and explore perceived impact on carers. (Source: Health Expectations)
Comparative study of lithium bis(oxalato)borate and lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide on lithium manganese oxide spinel lithium-ion batteries
Publication date: 5 March 2015 Source:Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 624 Author(s): Renheng Wang , Xinhai Li , Zhixing Wang , Huajun Guo , Mingru Su , Tao Hou The comparative study of lithium bis(oxalato)borate (LiBOB) and lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (LiFSI) used as an additive in the performance of lithium manganese oxide spinel (LiMn2O4) cathode was systematically investigated at elevated temperature. The results indicated that a solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) film on cathode produced by the oxidation of the LiFSI additive is more robust and stable against Mn dissolution problem during cycling at 55°C compared with the SEI formed by the oxidation of the Blank and the LiBOB-added electrolyte. LiFSI aids in stabilizing the electrolyte by trapping the PF5, i.e., sequest...
AIDSinfo Releases Drug App for iOS and Android Devices
AIDSinfo is pleased to announce the release of the AIDSinfo Drug App. Using data from the AIDSinfo Drug Database, the drug app provides information on more than 100 HIV-related approved and investigational drugs. The information, offered in English and Spanish, is tailored to meet the needs of both health care providers and consumers. The app is designed to automatically refresh when the user is connected to a wireless or cellular data network. The auto update feature eliminates the need to manually update the app to view the most current drug information. In addition, the app works offline, ensuring that health care providers and consumers can access vital drug information anywhere&mdash;even in health care facilities that may not have an Internet connection. &nbsp; Health care providers ...
Recent HIV/AIDS News
December 1, 2014: From NIH: Sophisticated HIV Diagnostics Adapted for Remote Areas November 25, 2014: From CDC: Only 3 in 10 Americans with HIV Have Virus in Check November 24, 2014: From NIAID: Starting Treatment Soon After HIV Infection Improves Immune Health, Study Finds (Source: AIDSinfo At-a-Glance: Offering Information on HIV/AIDS Treatment, Prevention, and Research, A Service of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS))<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Ebola ? the best and the worst within nursing?and maybe us all
?Epidemics bring out the worst and the best elements of humanity? ? a remark made by a Royal College of Nursing colleague of mine in 1988. He was, of course, referring to HIV/AIDS as we were then in the midst of HIV?s emergence within Europe. At that time the panic and anxiety was palpable, the media was full of hysteria and misinformation and this was also having an effect on the nursing and medical profession. Refusals to care for people with AIDS were common and the stigmatisation of people with HIV was widespread. (Source: Nursing Outlook)
Spontaneous control of HIV-1 viremia in a subject with protective HLA-B plus HLA-C alleles and HLA-C associated single nucleotide polymorphisms
Conclusions: CASE1 has controlled her HIV-1 viremia below the limit of detection in the absence of antiretroviral therapy for more than 14?years and has not shown any sign of immunologic deterioration or disease progression. Co-expression of multiple protective HLA alleles, HLA-C SNPs and strong T cell responses against HIV-1 proteins are the most likely explanation of this very benign case of spontaneous control of HIV-1 disease progression. (Source: Journal of Translational Medicine)
The influence of different hydroponic conditions on thorium uptake by Brassica juncea var. foliosa.
Authors: Wang D, Zhou S, Liu L, Du L, Wang J, Huang Z, Ma L, Ding S, Zhang D, Wang R, Jin Y, Xia C Abstract The effects of different hydroponic conditions (such as concentration of thorium (Th), pH, carbonate, phosphate, organic acids, and cations) on thorium uptake by Brassica juncea var. foliosa were evaluated. The results showed that acidic cultivation solutions enhanced thorium accumulation in the plants. Phosphate and carbonate inhibited thorium accumulation in plants, possibly due to the formation of Th(HPO4)(2+), Th(HPO4)2, or Th(OH)3CO3 (-) with Th(4+), which was disadvantageous for thorium uptake in the plants. Organic aids (citric acid, oxalic acid, lactic acid) inhibited thorium accumulation in roots and increased thorium content in the shoots, which suggested that the t...
Nigeria: Nigerian Gov't Urged to Close PMTCT Gaps
[Independent (Lagos)]The government of Nigeria has been asked to allocate adequate resources into Prevention of Mother-To-Child transmission of HIV (PTMCT) and maternal health care prevent more women and children from dying. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
South Africa: Getting to Zero - Commemorating World Aids Day 2014
[U.S. Embassy Pretoria]Getting to Zero: Focus, Partner and Achieve towards an AIDS-free Generation was the theme of this year's World Aids Day commemoration at the United States Embassy in Pretoria on December 2. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Nigeria: FG Revises Workplace Policy on HIV/Aids
[Daily Trust]The federal government has reiterated its commitment to upholding the rights and dignity of all Nigerian workers, irrespective of their HIV/AIDS status, pledging to end stigmatisation and discrimination against infected workers. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: 'Over 700,000 Infected With HIV/Aids Annually'
[Daily Trust]Nigeria records over 700,000 HIV/AIDS cases annually, Chairman, House of Representatives Committee on HIV/AIDS, Malaria, Tuberculosis and Leprosy, Dr. Joseph Haruna Kigbu, said yesterday. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Africa: Global Fund Will Need to Re-Allocate U.S.$1.3 Billion in Resources by End-2017
[GFO]The Global Fund will need to re-allocate an estimated $1.3 billion to ensure continuity of services through 2017, due to the decision to allow some countries to shorten the length of grants approved under the new funding model - assets that will likely be found from other countries' inability to absorb all of the funds they've been allocated. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
South Africa: HIV Patients Miss Out On Crucial Test
[Health-e]One test may mean the difference between life and death for people with HIV on antiretroviral (ARV) treatment, but the Treatment Action Campaign (TAC) says many patients are not getting viral load testing. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
South Africa: Treatment Action Campaign Pickets Mpumalanga Clinic
[Health-e]To mark World AIDS Day, the Treatment Action Campaign's (TAC) Mpumalanga branch picketed outside a local clinic as the AIDS lobby continues to complain about poor service delivery. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
South Africa: Guide - HIV in Our Lives
[Health-e]In the latest updated version of its well known HIV treatment literacy guide, the Treatment Action Campaign explains the science behind HIV. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Botswana: Workplace Policies for HIV-Aids Critical
[Botswana Daily News]Selibe Phikwe -Batswana have been urged to go for voluntary counseling and testing to know their HIV status and lead a positive lifestyle. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Kenya: Youth Want Law On HIV Medicine
[The Star]The Youth in Uasin Gishu county yesterday urged the government to make laws that will guide the use of contraceptives. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
New Designated AIDS Center director ready to help state end AIDS epidemic
New York wants to decrease new HIV infections to 750 from 3,000. Reddy says more outreach and significant increases in HIV testing can put the goal within reach. (Source: SUNY Upstate Medical)
Tanzania: Demystifying HIV/Aids Key to Winning War Against Pandemic
[Daily News]TANZANIA this week joined the rest of the world in marking the World Aids Day where humanity got the chance to remember those who succumbed to the disease, while at the same time looking at successes and failures in trying to mitigate the social anomaly. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Botswana: Botswana Fails Guiness World Record
[Botswana Daily News]Maun -Botswana has failed to reach the set target of testing 6 000 people for HIV in eight hours to beat the Guinness World Record of "Most HIV Tests Given in One City in Multiple Venues in 8 hours in One Day." (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
How can we better identify early HIV infections?
We describe markers of EHI, diagnostic strategies for detecting these markers, and ways to incorporate these strategies into diagnostic and HIV incidence algorithms. Recent findings: For individual diagnosis in the USA and Europe, laboratory-based diagnostic algorithms increasingly incorporate fourth-generation HIV antigen tests, allowing for earlier detection. In some sub-Saharan African settings, symptom-based screening is being explored to identify subsets of persons at high risk for AHI. Point-of-care diagnostics designed for AHI detection are in the pipeline and, if validated, represent an opportunity for real-time AHI diagnosis. At the population level, multiassay algorithms are promising new strategies for estimating HIV incidence on the basis of several assays applied to cross-sect...
Implementing early diagnosis and treatment: programmatic considerations
Purpose of review: To benefit very early treatment for an HIV cure, HIV infection must be diagnosed immediately after infection. We review potential strategies for expansion of HIV testing in preparation for a potential HIV cure in the distant future. Recent findings: Very early antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiated during acute or early HIV infection may result in long-term viral control. Such strategies will require programmatic systems for very early diagnosis and very early ART. Yet, most HIV-infected individuals start treatment late and presumably are diagnosed late. Operational issues will have to address the treatment cascade much earlier starting from HIV testing, test result notification, posttest counseling, immunological and clinical assessment and ultimately starting treatment...
Review: influence of ART on HIV genetics
Purpose of review: HIV genetic diversity poses major challenges for the prevention, control, and cure of infection. Characterizing the diversity and evolution of HIV populations within the host provides insights into the mechanisms of HIV persistence during antiretroviral therapy (ART). This review describes the HIV diversity within patients, how it is affected by suppressive ART, and makes a case for early treatment after HIV infection. Recent findings: HIV evolution is effectively halted by ART. However, cells that were infected prior to initiating therapy can proliferate to very high numbers both before and during treatment. Such clonal expansions result in the persistence of integrated proviruses despite therapy. These expanding proviruses have been shown to be a source for residual vi...
Preserving HIV-specific T cell responses: does timing of antiretroviral therapy help?
Purpose of review: HIV-specific T cell responses are likely to have an important role in HIV cure strategies that aim for long-lasting viral control without antiretroviral therapy (ART). An important issue in enhancing virus-specific T cell responses is whether timing of ART can influence their magnitude and breadth. Recent findings: Early ART is associated with lower T cell activation, preservation of T cell numbers, smaller DNA and RNA reservoir size, and, in a single study (VISCONTI), control of plasma viremia after treatment interruption. The prevention of T cell destruction by early ART is associated with relatively low anti-HIV CD8+ T cell responses but stronger CD4+ T helper function. The relatively lower CD8+T cell response, which is presumably due to rapid lowering of HIV antigen ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Posttreatment controllers: what do they tell us?
Purpose of review: The posttreatment controllers (PTCs), as described for the Viro-Immunological Sustained COntrol after Treatment Interruption patients, are able to maintain durable HIV control after interruption of early antiretroviral therapy (ART). They are different from spontaneous HIV controllers who achieve HIV control without prior ART. PTCs provide proof-of-concept that prolonged ART-free remission is possible. Recent findings: PTCs support the idea that early treatment could be especially beneficial. They show that a stable equilibrium between a small HIV reservoir and HIV-1-specific immune responses can be achieved. PTCs occur at a frequency of 5 and 15% of patients with early combination ART interruption, which might be considered too infrequent to support early combination AR...
Impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) timing on chronic immune activation/inflammation and end-organ damage
Purpose of review: The purpose of this review was to summarize recent studies on the effect of early antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected patients on markers of immune activation/inflammation, viral persistence and serious non-AIDS events. Recent findings: Early ART, initiated within days to months of HIV infection, was associated with marked reduction in T-cell activation often reaching levels observed in HIV-uninfected individuals. However, the impact of early ART on markers of innate immune activation, microbial translocation and inflammation/coagulation was less clear. Early ART has also been associated with a significant reduction in the frequency of latently infected cells, which was greater if ART was initiated within days to weeks rather than months following infection. How...
Changes in HIV reservoirs during long-term antiretroviral therapy
Purpose of review: To review current knowledge about the impact of long-term combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) on HIV reservoirs. Recent findings: The number of HIV-infected cells that persist during long-term antiretroviral therapy is associated with the stage of HIV infection at the time of treatment initiation. Initiation of cART reduces the number of infected cells over the first 4 years of therapy, but thereafter there is no further decline despite long-term effective cART. The remarkable stability of infected cell numbers is likely due to a balance among homeostatic or antigen-driven proliferation of infected memory T-cells subsets, clonal expansion of a subset of infected cells as a consequence of specific retroviral integration sites, and death of other infected cells. At p...
Impact of earlier combination antiretroviral therapy on outcomes in children
Purpose of review: Early initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) in infants below 12 weeks of age reduces morbidity and mortality. A recent report of transient HIV remission in a child beginning ART from the second day of life has focused attention on very early therapy in the first days of life. Recent findings: In the randomized children with HIV, early antiretroviral limited ART beginning at a median of 7.4 weeks of age lowered mortality and disease progression significantly compared with deferred ART beginning at a median of 21 weeks on study. In high-burden settings, infants initiating ART appear sicker than in children with HIV early antiretroviral and start at a later age. Many could be diagnosed on the first day of life. There are still programmatic obstacles to earl...
How does the timing of antiretroviral therapy initiation in acute infection affect HIV reservoirs?
Purpose of review: The long-lived viral reservoir is a major obstacle to achieving a cure for HIV. Therapeutic strategies, such as early antiretroviral therapy (ART), may be a prerequisite to achieving long-term control of viral replication upon ART withdrawal. Recent findings: HIV persistence is established early in acute HIV infection (AHI) with infection in long-lived memory CD4+ T cells. Studies conducted in nonhuman primates have suggested that this could occur as early as 3 days postinfection; however, the timing in humans is uncertain. ART during AHI significantly restricts the HIV reservoirs as compared with later treatment. Early ART, particularly prior to the detection of HIV immunoglobulin M, may also reduce the contribution of the long-lived central memory CD4+ T cells to the t...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS)
A cure for HIV: what will it take?
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS)
Very early combination antiretroviral therapy in infants: prospects for cure
This article covers the rationale and feasibility of VET to achieve sustained virologic remission in perinatal infection. Recent studies highlighting the effects of VET on biomarkers of HIV persistence in perinatal HIV infection are reviewed as well as implications and challenges for cure research in pediatric populations. (Source: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS)
Rwanda: Woes of Living With HIV As a Woman
[New Times]World Aids Day is marked globally on December 1. This is a day that brings bad memories for many women living with HIV/Aids. For many it reminds them of the agony and pain they went through after contracting HIV at the hands of their unfaithful spouses or rape during the 1994 Genocide against the Tutsi. That is the story 36-year-old Daphrose Mushimiyimana relates to with deep pain. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
People with mental illness more likely to be tested for HIV, Penn Medicine study finds
(University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine) People with mental illness are more likely to have been tested for HIV than those without mental illness, according to a new study from a team of researchers at Penn Medicine and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention published online this week in AIDS Patient Care and STDs. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Enhancing the Benefits of Antiretroviral Therapy in Vietnam: Towards Ending AIDS
Abstract Vietnam has a concentrated HIV epidemic, with the highest HIV prevalence being observed among people who inject drugs (PWID). Based on its experience scaling-up robust HIV interventions, Vietnam aims to further strengthen its response by harnessing the preventive benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Mathematical modelling suggests that prioritizing key populations for earlier access to ART, combined with other prevention interventions, may have significant impact on the epidemic, cost-effectively reducing new HIV infections and deaths. Pilot studies are being conducted to assess feasibility and acceptability of expansion of HIV testing and counselling (HTC) and early ART among key populations and to demonstrate innovative service delivery models to address challenges...
AIDS: transforming global health
Publication date: 29 November?5 December 2014 Source:The Lancet, Volume 384, Issue 9958 Author(s): Robin Gorna (Source: The Lancet)
Ritonavir-boosted darunavir combined with raltegravir or tenofovir?emtricitabine in antiretroviral-naive adults infected with HIV-1: 96 week results from the NEAT001/ANRS143 randomised non-inferiority trial
Publication date: 29 November?5 December 2014 Source:The Lancet, Volume 384, Issue 9958 Author(s): François Raffi , Abdel G Babiker , Laura Richert , Jean-Michel Molina , Elizabeth C George , Andrea Antinori , Jose R Arribas , Jesper Grarup , Fleur Hudson , Christine Schwimmer , Juliette Saillard , Cédrick Wallet , Per O Jansson , Clotilde Allavena , Remko Van Leeuwen , Jean-François Delfraissy , Stefano Vella , Geneviève Chêne , Anton Pozniak Background Standard first-line antiretroviral therapy for HIV-1 infection includes two nucleoside or nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NtRTIs), but these drugs have limitations. We assessed the 96 week efficacy and safety of an NtRTI-sparing regimen. Methods Between August, 2010, and September, 2011, we enrolled treatment-naive a...
FDA Advisors Not Sold on Lifting Ban on Gay Men Giving Blood
But American Red Cross, other groups urge easing restrictions due to better blood screening (Source: Fertility News - Doctors Lounge)
Risk factors associated with prevalent and incident syphilis among an HIV-infected cohort in Northeast China
Background: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) increase HIV infectivity through local inflammatory processes. Prevalent and incident STIs among people who live with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) are indicators of high-risk sexual behaviors and imply potential spread of HIV. Little is known about the prevalence and incidence of concurrent syphilis and associated risk behaviors among PLWHA in China. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted among PLWHA who attended the outpatient clinic of a designated AIDS treatment hospital in Shenyang, China, between March 2009 and May 2013. Physical examinations and syphilis serology were conducted at each visit. A questionnaire on demographic characteristics was also collected. Results: A total of 1010 PLWHA were enrolled, of whom 77.0% were men who ha...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Stigmatizing attitudes towards people living with HIV/AIDS: validation of a measurement scale
Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that the SAT-PLWHA-S is a reliable and valid tool for measuring stigmatizing attitudes toward PLHIV and that it can contribute to a deeper understanding of HIV stigma. (Source: BMC Public Health)
E5564 inhibits immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10 induction promoted by HIV-1 Tat protein
Conclusion: This study provides compelling data showing for the first time that the TLR4 antagonist E5564 inhibits the immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10 production by primary human monocytes and macrophages incubated in the presence of HIV-1 Tat protein. (Source: Virology Journal)
Genetic Barrier to Resistance for Dolutegravir.
Authors: Llibre JM, Pulido F, García F, García Deltoro M, Blanco JL, Delgado R Abstract Dolutegravir is a novel integrase strand-transfer inhibitor that displays potent in vitro activity and a remarkably different resistance profile. Its robust pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic properties - long plasma t1/2, high plasma inhibition quotient, and slow dissociation rate from the integrase complex - suggest it should present a high barrier to resistance development. This has been confirmed in pivotal phase III studies of initial therapy, with none out of 1,118 treated individuals selecting resistance-associated mutations at the integrase or reverse transcriptase. In integrase-naive subjects with virological failure, a rescue intervention with dolutegravir has shown significantly higher...
Lipid Metabolism and Lipodystrophy in HIV-1-Infected Patients: The Role Played by Nonnucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors.
Authors: Sension M, Deckx H Abstract Dyslipidemia and lipodystrophy represent significant healthcare concerns in HIV-infected patients due to their association with diabetes mellitus and increased cardiovascular disease risk. Since the lipid effects of the nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors are not well characterized, we systematically summarized the effects of nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor treatment on dyslipidemia and lipodystrophy in HIV-1 infection. As with other classes of antiretroviral agents, the nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors are associated with lipid changes, although individual agents exhibit differing effects on lipid profiles. Comparative trials have shown that the risk for hypertriglyceridemia is lower with efavirenz than wi...
Risk Factors for Acquisition and Clearance of Oral Human Papillomavirus Infection Among HIV-Infected and HIV-Uninfected Adults.
Authors: Beachler DC, Sugar EA, Margolick JB, Weber KM, Strickler HD, Wiley DJ, Cranston RD, Burk RD, Minkoff H, Reddy S, Xiao W, Guo Y, Gillison ML, D'Souza G Abstract Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes the majority of oropharyngeal cancers in the United States, yet the risk factors for and natural history of oral HPV infection are largely unknown. In 2010-2011, a US-based longitudinal cohort study of 761 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and 469 at-risk HIV-uninfected participants from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study and the Women's Interagency HIV Study was initiated. Semiannually collected oral rinses were evaluated for 37 HPV genotypes using the Roche LINEAR ARRAY HPV Genotyping Test (Roche Molecular Systems, Pleasanton, California), and factors associated with oral...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
8 Animal Plagues Wreaking Havoc Right Now
This article originally appeared on World Science Festival. (Source: TIME.com: Top Science and Health Stories)
Uganda: Why We Should All Get Tested for HIV in 2014
[Key Correspondents]Two days after World AIDS Day (1 December), I'm sure many people will have put the issue of HIV out of their mind, but it's not an issue we can afford to think about just once a year. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Kenya: Pepfar Announces Latest Results in U.S. Government's Contribution to the HIV/Aids Response
[U.S. Embassy Nairobi]Washington, DC -Each year on World AIDS Day, The U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) announces its latest results. Since 2013, PEPFAR support in key program areas has expanded, including an increase in the number of people receiving live-saving antiretroviral treatment, pregnant woman receiving testing and counseling, and voluntary medical male circumcisions performed for HIV risk reduction. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Kenya: Migori Reduces Rate of Mother to Child HIV Transmission From 5 to 3 Per Cent
[The Star]THE Migori government has reduced mother-to-child HIV transmission from more than five per cent last year to almost three per cent. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Kenya: Get Tested, Oparanya to Residents
[The Star]A total of 57,952 people in Kakamega county were living with HIV-Aids by the end of last year, a new report shows. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Kenya: Stigma Has Denied Children Treatment, Says Nyagarama
[The Star]ONLY 38 per cent of children living with HIV-Aids in Nyamira county are on antiretroviral treatment, Governor John Nyagarama has said. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Kenya: Scourge Afflicts More Busia Women Than Men - Report
[The Star]MORE women than men are infected with HIV-Aids in Busia county, a report shows. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Kenya: Deliver in Hospital to Curb Virus Spread, Women Told
[The Star]Eighty-one per cent of children living with HIV-Aids in Kisii do not have access to antiretroviral therapy, county director of health Geoffrey Otomu said on Monday. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Kenya: New Aids Infections in Kisumu Increase
[The Star]THE Kisumu government has raised the red flag over an increase in new HIV-Aids infections. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Kenya: Migori Fights Mother-to-Child HIV Spread
[The Star]TRANSMISSION of HIV-Aids from mother to child has fallen from five to three per cent in Migori county, Governor Okoth Obado said on Monday. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Kenya: County Plan On New Infections
[The Star]The county government on Monday unveiled new strategies to stop new HIV-Aids infections. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Kenya: Support Syringe Project for Drug Users, Says NGO
[The Star]There are more than 4,000 Injection Drug Users living with HIV at the Coast, a study has shown. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Kenya: Kajiado Women Blame Men for HIV Infection
[The Star]Some Kajiado women have blamed their men for the spread of HIV-Aids. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Tanzania: Avoid Unsafe Sex to Avert HIV Infection Risk - RC
[Daily News]Tabora -TABORA Regional Commissioner, Mr Ludovick Mwananzila, has urged residents in the region to avoid engaging in unprotected sex to avert risks of increasing new HIV infections. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: Tenth Anniversary of Friends of the Global Fight
[Global Fund]Ten years ago, the late Jack Valenti, longtime head of the Motion Picture Association of America, joined philanthropist Ed Scott in founding Friends of the Global Fight to help promote U.S. investments in the fight against AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria, and to give the Global Fund a voice in Washington, D.C. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Nigeria: 'Presidential Assent Can Stop HIV Stigma'
[Daily Trust]The National Agency for Control of AIDS (NACA) insists a presidential assent to an anti-stigma law can help the country's response to the virus. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Gambia: Health Minister Declares Gov't's Support to All HIV Infected Persons
[Daily Observer]The Health and Social Welfare minister, Omar Sey, has once again declared the government of The Gambia's support for all those who live with or are affected by HIV. He said the government has undertaken a lot of initiatives in providing more awareness as well as closing the gap between people who have access to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support services and those that are being left behind. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: Southern Africa - The fight to end GBV and HIV & AIDS
[Gender Links]Maputo -According to the 2014 SADC Gender Protocol Barometer, HIV and AIDS prevalence has decreased consistently over the past decade as fewer people are becoming infected. New infections among adults have decreased by over 50% in Botswana, Malawi, Namibia, Zambia and Zimbabwe. New infections among adults have decreased by over 25% in Mozambique, South Africa and Swaziland. Despite this progress, Sub-Saharan Africa continues to be the most affected area in the world. SADC accounts for 55% of all people living with (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
South Africa: Tuberculosis Remains Leading Cause of Death
[SA Info]Tuberculosis remains the leading cause of death among South Africans, according to data released by Statistics South Africa (Stats SA) on Tuesday. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Sierra Leone: Ebola Overshadows Fight Against HIV/Aids
[IPS]Freetown -The outbreak of the deadly Ebola epidemic in Sierra Leone has dwarfed the campaign against HIV/AIDS, to the extent that patients no longer go to hospitals and treatment centres out of fear of contracting the Ebola virus. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Liberia: Same Sex Data Released
[NEWS]A fact sheet released Monday, December 1, 2014 at celebration of this year's World AIDS Day has indicated that an estimated 711 cases of men having sex with men (MSM). (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Gambia: Gambia Celebrates World Aids Day Today
[Foroyaa]Gambia is celebrating World Aids Day today, Monday, 1st December, at Brikama, West Coast Region, as announced at a press briefing organised by the National Aids Secretariat (NAS) on Tuesday, 27 November 2014, at its office on t Kairaba Avenue. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Kenya: Bamzigi Helps Out Drug Addicts
[The Star]Producer and rapper Bamzigi has joined the fight to keep drug addicts from contracting HIV from sharing needles. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Kenya: HIV Patients Skip Drugs, Says Council
[The Star]THERE are fears that more than 200 people living with HIV/Aids in Baringo county have defaulted in taking anti-retroviral drugs due to lack of constant reminders. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Kenya: Nyandarua Aims to Cut HIV-Aids Infections By 25 Percent - Health Boss
[The Star]THE Nyandarua government has urged residents to get tested for HIV-Aids for the county to achieve its target of reducing infections by 25 per cent. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
HIV positive woman finally has the family she always longed for
Johanna Satekge, 39, was diagnosed with HIV two months into her first pregnancy. Too afraid to admit to having the disease, her eldest children both fell victim to AIDS. (Source: the Mail online | Health)
Kenya: Upsurge in HIV\aids Cases Among Mother to Child
[The Star]THEIR is an increase in mother-to-child transmission of HIV-Aids cases this year. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Rwanda: Universities Should Have Clear Policies On HIV/Aids
[New Times]TODAY Rwanda will officially mark World Aids Day. The Day was globally commemorated on December 1. Globally about 34 million people are living with HIV, while more than 35 million people have died from Aids. UNICEF also reveals that at least 40 million people are infected with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa with the bulk of new cases among young people, aged 15-25. This is the age bracket where the majority of students in higher institutions of learning fall. Education Times assessed how universities in Rwanda (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Zimbabwe: HIV Testing Overnight Clinic Opens in Gutu
[The Herald]Médecins Sans Frontières has introduced an overnight clinic in Gutu to provide HIV testing and counselling for men who shun the services during the day. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: 'Ending HIV, Aids Is Africa's Priority'
[The Herald]The African Union on Monday marked the World Aids Day in Victoria Falls where representatives of 47 African countries attended. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Nigeria: Total Nationwide Campaign On Eradication of HIV/Aids in Nigeria Arrives Cross River
[Independent (Lagos)]Total companies in Nigeria led by Mrs. Elizabeth Proust, the Chief Executive Officer of Total Upstream of Nigeria and Mr. .Alexis Vovk, the Managing Director of Total Nigeria Plc, in order to maintain and sustain Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) where oil and gas business is done in Nigeria, have commenced nationwide campaign to eradicate the scourge of HIV/ADIS and other related illnesses, such as tuberculosis, hepatitis-B and malaria. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Dummy
Click here to watch Team Haraa give us a hip hop low-down on their work: Hip Hip Haraa! 6 weeks in Haraa, it&#8217;s been real great Our team so safi, each other we don&#8217;t even hate We feel so karibu here, it&#8217;s home in our heart Hate to say baadae to our mamas and babas as we depart. We&#8217;ve been teaching in the school, the field, store fronts, to anyone who will listen 5 fluids, 4 doors, and 3 ways of transmission On testing day the people came out and our goals we bested, For the only way to know your status is to get tested People dragged out their friends, the whole event was quite grand, The future of Haraa was in their hand Supporting each other even when results were feared, Tuko Pamoja Kuushinda UKIMWI, together we cheered! We taught a bunch, but learned even more, ...
Priapism: comorbid factors and treatment outcomes in a contemporary series.
Conclusions. We describe the characteristics and outcomes of a large group of patients with priapism. Our experience at a tertiary care center indicates that mental illness, including substance abuse disorders, is a highly prevalent comorbid condition in men who experience priapism. Consistent with previous reports, erectile dysfunction is the most common complication from priapism and its treatment, occurring in the majority of men. PMID: 22811705 [PubMed] (Source: Advances in Urology)
Circumcision cited as defense against HIV in proposed CDC guidelines
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has released proposed guidance on circumcision that says the surgical procedure would help straight men in the United States reduce their risk of becoming infected with HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. (Source: Los Angeles Times - Science)
HIV evolving to weaker form, study says
Medical intervention and the natural course of evolution may be dealing a double blow to the human immunodeficiency virus, HIV-1, weakening its ability to replicate and to cause AIDS, according to a new study. (Source: Los Angeles Times - Science)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
CDC: Advise Hetero Men, Boys, on HIV Benefit of CircumcisionCDC: Advise Hetero Men, Boys, on HIV Benefit of Circumcision
Proposed guidance for clinicians states that the procedure evidently reduces the risk for HIV infection in heterosexual males, but not for men having sex with men. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Infectious Diseases Headlines)
More Testing, Treatment Needed to Achieve National HIV Targets
Efforts to prevent and treat HIV have to be intensified among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) to meet the goals of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy. Men who have sex with men carry the highest burden of HIV infection; among those newly infected in 2010, 63% were MSM, a group that also comprised 52% of people living with HIV. By 2015, the National HIV/AIDS Strategy calls for 85% of MSM diagnosed with HIV to be linked with clinical care within 3 months of diagnosis, 80% to be receiving care, and the proportion with an undetectable viral load to be increased by 20%. (Source: JAMA)
World AIDS Day 2014
Since 1987 people around the world have marked Dec. 1 as a day to raise awareness of HIV/AIDS (Source: Health News: CBSNews.com)
Circumcision Benefits Outweigh Risks, Says New CDC Guidelines
NEW YORK (AP) ? U.S. health officials on Tuesday released a draft of long-awaited federal guidelines on circumcision, saying medical evidence supports having the procedure done and health insurers should pay for it. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines stop short of telling parent to get their newborn sons circumcised. That is a personal decision that may involve religious or cultural preferences, said the CDC's Dr. Jonathan Mermin. But "the scientific evidence is clear that the benefits outweigh the risks," added Mermin, who oversees the agency's programs on HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. These are the first federal guidelines on circumcision, a brief medical procedure that involves cutting away the foreskin around the tip of the penis. Germs can gro...
Individual- and community-level influences on the timing of sexual debut among youth in Nyanza, Kenya.
CONCLUSION: Community-level variables are frequently associated with sexual debut and should be included in future research. PMID: 25051578 [PubMed - in process] (Source: International Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Understanding global trends in maternal mortality.
CONCLUSIONS: Although the estimated annual rate of decline in the global MMR in 1990-2008 (2.3%) fell short of the level needed to meet the MDG 5 target, it was much faster than had been thought previously. Targeted efforts to improve access to quality maternal health care, as well as efforts to decrease unintended pregnancies through family planning, are necessary to further reduce the global burden of maternal mortality. PMID: 23584466 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: International Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health)
Maternal health care utilization among HIV-positive female adolescents in Kenya.
CONCLUSION: Pregnant, HIV-positive adolescents need maternal health care services--including PMTCT care--that take into account parity, paternity dynamics and regional variations in use. PMID: 21988790 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: International Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health)
STI treatment-seeking behaviors among youth in Nigeria: are there gender differences?
CONCLUSION: Programs and policies that aim to increase treatment of STIs among young people in Nigeria need to target males and females differently. PMID: 20663743 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: International Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health)
CDC Endorses Circumcision for Health Reasons
Says benefits, including reduced chances of sexually transmitted diseases, outweigh risksSource: HealthDay Related MedlinePlus Pages: Circumcision, HIV/AIDS, Sexually Transmitted Diseases (Source: MedlinePlus Health News)
UCLA study: To stop spread of HIV, African governments should target hot zones
David Gerberry Efficiency of reducing transmission of HIV in South African provinces, from red (best) to orange (moderate) to green (worst). Blue and pink bars show prevalence of HIV for men and women, respectively. While Ebola has attracted much of the world?s attention recently, a severe HIV epidemic rages on around the world and in sub-Saharan Africa in particular. Globally, more than 34 million people are infected with HIV; in sub-Saharan Africa alone, 3 million new infections occur annually. In an attempt to stop the spread of HIV, governments in the region are considering providing antiretroviral drugs to people who do not have the virus but are at risk for becoming infected. Such drugs are known as pre-exposure prophylaxis, or PrEP. Although the conventional strategy ? attempti...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
NIH statement on World AIDS Day 2014
Remarkable progress has been made in the fight against HIV/AIDS since the first annual World AIDS Day was commemorated 26 years ago. Yet, we are still far from achieving our goal of a world without AIDS.   Statement by  Anthony S. Fauci, M.D. Director, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Jack Whitescarver, Ph.D., Director, NIH Office of AIDS Research Francis S. Collins, M.D., Ph.D, NIH Director (Source: NIAAA News)
Gambia: Close the Gap This World Aids Day
[The Point]The Gambia joined the rest of the world on Monday 1st December to commemorate World AIDS Day. World AIDS Day offers an opportunity to harness the power of social change to put people first and close the gap. According to UNAIDS, ending the AIDS epidemic by 2030 is possible, but only by closing the gap between people who have access to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support services and people who are being left behind. The theme for this year's commemoration is Close the Gap. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
NIH statement on World AIDS Day 2014
Remarkable progress has been made in the fight against HIV/AIDS since the first annual World AIDS Day was commemorated 26 years ago. (Source: National Institutes of Health (NIH) News Releases)
South Africa: Should HIV Testing Become a Standard Medical Procedure?
[The Daily Vox]Knowing your status is the key to ending the Aids pandemic but still too few South Africans take the step to get tested for HIV. A report in the Mail & Guardian this week less than a third of the country's 35-million sexually active people get tested for HIV annually. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Recommendations for Providers Counseling Male Patients and Parents Regarding Elective Male Circumcision and the Prevention of HIV Infection, STIs, and Other Health Outcomes.
CDC Announces Public Comment Period On Draft Provider Counseling Recommendations For Male Circumcision (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Lesotho: Want to Know Prince Harry's Secret As He Campaigns On Aids?
[Thomson Reuters Foundation]London -Britain's Prince Harry revealed one of his biggest fears on Monday - public speaking - as he coaxed other celebrities to speak out about their secret anxieties as part of an online campaign to reduce stigma associated with HIV/AIDS. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Africa: Lack of Access to Clean Water Hampers Fight Against Aids
[Thomson Reuters Foundation]London -Lack of access to clean water and basic sanitation in southern Africa hampers the fight against HIV/AIDS by reducing the effectiveness of life-saving drugs, according to a study marking World AIDS Day. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Africa: Global Fund Reports Results - 2014
[Global Fund]Geneva -The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria today announced new results that show acceleration in efforts to end the AIDS epidemic. In the past year, an additional 1.3 million people began treatment for HIV in programs supported by the Global Fund, a 20 percent increase, bringing the total to 7.3 million people. (Source: AllAfrica News: Malaria)
Algeria: Algeria, a Model Country in Fight Against HIV/Aids
[Algerie Presse Service]Oran -United Nations Resident Coordinator in Algeria Cristina Amaral said Monday in Oran that Algeria is a model country in fight and prevention against HIV/AIDS. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
The regulation of inflammatory pathways and infectious disease of the cervix by seminal fluid.
Authors: Adefuye A, Katz AA, Sales KJ Abstract The connection between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and the consequent sequelae which establishes cervical neoplastic transformation and invasive cervical cancer has redefined many aspects of cervical cancer research. However there is still much that we do not know. In particular, the impact of external factors, like seminal fluid in sexually active women, on pathways that regulate cervical inflammation and tumorigenesis, have yet to be fully understood. HPV infection is regarded as the initiating noninflammatory cause of the disease; however emerging evidence points to resident HPV infections as drivers of inflammatory pathways that play important roles in tumorigenesis as well as in the susceptibility to other infections such...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Mycobacterium genavense Infections in a Tertiary Hospital and Reviewed Cases in Non-HIV Patients.
We describe clinical and laboratory features and response to therapy in 7 patients, three of them with HIV infection and four non-HIV-three organ transplant recipients and one with hyper-IgE syndrome-in Valencia, Spain, in a ten years period. We then summarize the published cases of M. avium complex infection, with invasion of peripheral blood, liver, spleen, bone marrow, lymph nodes, and lungs. In clinical samples a large number of acid-fast bacilli were observed. M. genavense grew only from liquid media and after a prolonged incubation period. Its identification was accomplished through molecular methods. Patients were treated with prolonged combinations of antimicrobial agents. There was clinical favourable outcome in 4 patients. PMID: 24693456 [PubMed] (Source: Pathology Research ...
Neuroinflammation as the proximate cause of signature pathogenic pattern progression in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, AIDS, and multiple sclerosis.
Authors: Agius LM Abstract The realization of injury to large motor neurons is embedded within contextual reference to the parallel pathways of apoptosis and necrosis of system-patterned evolution. A widespread loss of cell components occurs intracellularly and involves a reactive participation to a neuroinflammation that potentially is immunologically definable. In such terms, sporadic and hereditary forms of amyotrophic sclerosis are paralleled by the components of a reactive nature that involve the aggregation of proteins and conformational misfolding on the one hand and a powerful oxidative degradation that overwhelms the proteasome clearance mechanisms. In such terms, global participation is only one aspect of a disorder realization that induces the development of the defining...
False-Negative Results of Endoscopic Biopsy in the Diagnosis of Gastrointestinal Kaposi's Sarcoma in HIV-Infected Patients.
In conclusion, FNRs were found in 35.3% of GI-KS lesions and were especially related to the site of the esophagus and endoscopic early stage (small size or patch appearance). An SMT with ulceration may be relatively easy to diagnose on endoscopic biopsy. Caution should be exercised when performing endoscopic biopsy of these lesions in AIDS patients and evaluating the histological features. PMID: 23227427 [PubMed] (Source: Pathology Research International)
AIDS-Related Pathology.
Authors: Pantanowitz L, Carbone A, Stebbing J PMID: 21845208 [PubMed] (Source: Pathology Research International)
The emerging case for shared decision making in orthopaedics.
Authors: Youm J, Chenok KE, Belkora J, Chiu V, Bozic KJ Abstract The Institute of Medicine outlined a standard for patient-centered care, which has become the centerpiece of healthcare reform in the United States. Shared decision-making interventions, which include decision and communication aids, are formal embodiment of this philosophy. Although the concept of shared decision making has been shown to be an effective tool, and its relevance to orthopaedic medicine has been well documented, it has not been widely adopted by orthopaedic surgeons. It is helpful to examine the benefits of shared decision making, along with incentives to encourage adoption and implementation of this important philosophy. PMID: 23395061 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Instructional Course Le...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
HIV evolving into less deadly form
ConclusionThis study shows that HIV adapts to a person?s immune system, and that some of these adaptations may reduce the virulence of the virus. It appears that over time, the virulence of HIV in Botswana has decreased compared with HIV in South Africa, because of such adaptations and the use of HIV drugs. Specific HLA proteins present in adults in Botswana have, over time, forced the virus to change into less virulent forms, allowing it to survive, replicate and spread.This is consistent with a broader theory that epidemic viruses get less virulent over time, due to natural selection. The most severe viruses kill their hosts too early to be passed on. Hence, eventually, the very severe strains die out or mutate into milder forms. This study furthers our understanding of the evolution o...
Children's catching performance when the demands on the postural system is altered.
Authors: Angelakopoulos GT, Tsorbatzoudis H, Grouios G Abstract In many dynamic interceptive actions performers need to integrate activity of manual and postural subsystems for successful performance. Groups of different skill level (poor and good catchers), (mean age = 9.1 and 9.4 respectively) were required to perform one-handed catches under different postural constraints: standing; standing in contact with a postural support aid by their side (PSAS) or to the left of their trunk (PSAF); Tandem; and sitting (control). Results revealed that, for poor catchers, the number of successful catches increased and grasp errors decreased significantly when sitting and with both postural aids in comparison with standing alone and Tandem conditions. Kinematic analyses showed that the postur...
VIDEO: Tackling HIV in Myanmar
As access to Myanmar increases, is the country left more vulnerable to diseases such as HIV/Aids? Nick Wood reports. (Source: BBC News | Health | UK Edition)
HIV and AIDS surveillance.
Authors: PMID: 23841191 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report)
WHO Simplifies Advice on HIV Post-Exposure Prophylaxis WHO Simplifies Advice on HIV Post-Exposure Prophylaxis
After any kind of exposure to the virus, the UN agency recommends a cocktail of three antiretrovirals, the same basic regimen for treating individuals infected with HIV. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)
Recommendations for Providers Counseling Male Patients and Parents Regarding Elective Male Circumcision and the Prevention of HIV Infection, STIs, and Other Health Outcomes.
CDC Announces Public Comment Period On Draft Provider Counseling Recommendations For Male Circumcision (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
Rwanda: Experts - No Room for Complacency in Aids Fight
[New Times]There shouldn't be room for complacency if the fight to eliminate HIV/Aids is to ever achieve victory. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
South Africa: HIV, TAC and the Struggle for Life
[Daily Maverick]To mark World Aids Day, the Treatment Action Campaign (TAC) held a reunion on Monday to honour how far we've come in the fight against HIV/AIDS and remind how far there is to go. In this struggle, the enemy might not be as clear but the fight for life continues and TAC is an integral voice. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Rwanda: 300 Expectant Mothers Receive 'Mama Kits'
[New Times]A total of 300 expectant mothers from Association Impore are set to benefit from 'mama kits' donated by Airtel Rwanda in an effort to help reduce mother-to-child HIV transmission. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Nigeria: 30,000 People Receiving HIV/Aids Treatment in Taraba
[Daily Trust]Jalingo -About 30,000 people of the estimated 150,000 persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Taraba State are currently on treatment. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: NACA Demands N15 Billion to Put More HIV Positive Persons On Treatment
[Guardian]WITH 152,000 more Nigerians and 2.3 million people globally accessing treatment for Human Immuno-deficiency Virus (HIV)/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in the last one year, and fewer persons, from 2.2 million in 2012 to 2.1 million in 2013, getting infected with the virus, the world is closer than ever to the end of the pandemic. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Kenya: More Women HIV-Positive
[The Star]THE HIV prevalence among women in Mombasa is higher than that of men. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Auricular involvement of a multifocal non-AIDS Kaposi's sarcoma: a case report.
Authors: Busi M, Altieri E, Ciorba A, Aimoni C Abstract Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a multicentric, malignant neoplastic vascular disease, mainly involving skin and mucosae, characterised by the proliferation of endothelial cells. The aetiology of KS still is unknown. Nonetheless, it has been reported that several epidemiological and environmental factors may play a role in its pathogenesis. Viral factors (i.e. human herpes virus 8, HHV-8) have also been claimed to play a role in the onset of KS. Four main clinical presentations of KS have been described: classic (sporadic), African (endemic), iatrogenic (immunosuppression-associated) and AIDS-associated (epidemic). The authors present a case of KS involving the external ear of a HIVnegative patient with a history of non-Hodgkin lymph...
Quantitative enhancement of speech in noise through a wireless equipped hearing aid.
Authors: Ciorba A, Zattara S, Loroni G, Prosser S Abstract The development of new hearing aid technology can improve speech understanding in complex listening environments. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the benefit offered by the use of wireless technology applied to hearing aids. Participants were fit with binaural hearing instruments and underwent speech-in-noise tests. The signal was transmitted either by a speaker or wirelessly directly to the hearing aid. In our experience, hearing aids with wireless systems have an advantage in two particular conditions. The first can be achieved while listening wirelessly with microphones excluded (recommended when listening in noisy environments), while the second is in conditions of asymmetric listening; the wireless signal perc...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Hearing loss: The worrying rise and rise of hidden hearing loss
More than ten million Britons ? one in six ? are thought to have some hearing loss, yet many wait years before seeking help. Jackie Hunt, 44, was shocked to find out she needed two hearing aids. (Source: the Mail online | Health)
Advantages of binaural amplification to acceptable noise level of directional hearing aid users.
CONCLUSION: Binaural directional microphone processing allowed hearing aid users to accept a greater amount of background noise, which may in turn improve listeners' hearing aid success. Informational masking substantially influenced background noise acceptance. Given a significant association between ANLs and duration of hearing aid usage, ANL measurement can be useful for clinical counseling of binaural hearing aid candidates or unsuccessful users. PMID: 24917904 [PubMed] (Source: Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology)
AIDS pandemic has finally reached 'the beginning of the end' after 30 years, campaigners say
But the ONE campaign, an advocacy group working to end poverty and preventable disease in Africa, warned this milestone didn't mean the end was imminent. (Source: the Mail online | Health)
Serum interleukin-22 (IL-22) is increased in the early stage of Hashimoto's thyroiditis compared to non-autoimmune thyroid disease and healthy controls.
CONCLUSIONS: Serum IL-22 is increased in newly diagnosed, untreated HT patients, as compared to thyroid autoimmune disease-free individuals. Our data suggest that IL-22 could play some role in the development of HT. PMID: 25079457 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Hormones)
Design and pharmaceutical evaluation of a nano-enabled crosslinked multipolymeric scaffold for prolonged intracranial release of Zidovudine.
CONCLUSIONS: The crosslinked multipolymeric scaffold loaded with alginate nanoparticles and treated with 1% HCl showed the potential for prolonged delivery of zidovudine over a period of 30 days and therefore may be a potential candidate for use as an implantable device in treating Aids Dementia Complex. PMID: 24021294 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Kenya: First Lady - Beyond Zero Initiative Will Help Combat HIV/Aids
[Capital FM]Kilifi -The 'Beyond Zero' initiative will be used to combat HIV/AIDS besides reducing maternal and child mortality, First Lady Margaret Kenyatta has said. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Ghana: Ensure a Free HIV Generation
[Ghana Govt.]The Deputy Eastern Regional Minister, Madam Mavis Frempong, has called on Ghanaians to check their HIV status on regular basis to enable Ghana attain its goal of a free HIV generation. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Flax and flaxseed oil (Linum usitatissimum): a review by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the scientific evidence on flaxseed, including expert opinion, folkloric precedent, history, pharmacology, kinetics/dynamics, interactions, adverse effects, toxicology, and dosing. Electronic searches were conducted in 9 databases, 20 additional journals (not indexed in common databases), and bibliographies from 50 selected secondary references. No restrictions were placed on the language or quality of the publications. All literature collected pertained to efficacy in humans, dosing, precautions, adverse effects, use in pregnancy/lactation, interactions, alteration of laboratory assays, and mechanisms of action. Standardized inclusion/exclusion criteria are used for selection. Grades were assigned using an evidence-based grading rationale. A rev...
Associations between public health indicators and injecting prescription opioids by prescription opioid abusers in substance abuse treatment.
CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates an approach to measure the potential impact of injecting prescription opioids on public health indicators. Findings indicate a positive association between injection of prescription opioids and public health indicators suggesting a need for prescription opioid formulations that may inhibit injection of these medications. PMID: 23709299 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Journal of Opioid Management)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
HIV is turning into AIDS more slowly, study finds
Thor BensonLONDON, Dec. 1 (UPI) -- As HIV evolves as a virus and adapts to the human immune system, a new study finds it becomes less deadly and takes longer to turn into AIDS. (Source: Health News - UPI.com)
Culture Shock: 27 World AIDS Days and Counting
(MedPage Today) -- But an ambitious program aims to eliminate the HIV/AIDS pandemic. (Source: MedPage Today Public Health)
HIV's ability to cause AIDS is weakening over time, study finds
Rapid evolution of HIV, the human immunodeficiency virus, is slowing its ability to cause AIDS, according to a study of more than 2,000 women in Africa. (Source: the Mail online | Health)
On the Efficacy and Mediation of a One-on-One HIV Risk-Reduction Intervention for African American Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Randomized Controlled Trial
In conclusion, although BRO increased several theoretical constructs, most of those constructs did not predict consistent condom use; hence, the intervention did not increase it. Theoretical constructs that interventions should target to increase African American MSM?s condom use are discussed. (Source: AIDS and Behavior)
Colitis cystica profunda indefinite for dysplasia in Crohn disease: A potential diagnostic pitfall
We present a challenging case of CCP in the setting of Crohn disease (CD) containing foci of atypical epithelium. A right hemicolectomy from a 46-year-old woman contained a stricture associated with a proximal multilocular cystic lesion containing mucin-filled glands dissecting through the colonic wall. These glands had lobulated architecture with smooth contours surrounded by lamina propria and lacking desmoplastic stroma. The epithelium had focal nuclear crowding, enlargement, and hyperchromasia, with increased nucleus to cytoplasm ratio, but overall preserved polarity. Atypical cells were focally positive for CK7 and p53, with increased MIB-1 staining. These findings were interpreted as indefinite for dysplasia. Chronic transmural inflammation and mucosal regeneration probably facilitat...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Risk and Protective Factors for Physical and Sexual Abuse of Children and Adolescents in Africa: A Review and Implications for Practice
There is now conclusive evidence of the major and long-lasting negative effects of physical and sexual abuse on children. Within Africa, studies consistently report high rates of child abuse, with prevalence as high as 64%. However, to date, there has been no review of factors associated with physical and sexual child abuse and polyvictimization in Africa. This review identified 23 quantitative studies, all of which showed high levels of child abuse in varying samples of children and adults. Although studies were very heterogeneous, a range of correlates of abuse at different levels of the Model of Ecologic Development were identified. These included community-level factors (exposure to bullying, sexual violence, and rural/urban location), household-level factors (poverty, household violen...
CDC Endorses Circumcision for Health Reasons
Says benefits, including reduced chances of sexually transmitted diseases, outweigh risks (Source: Fertility News - Doctors Lounge)
Identification and Characterization of Non-Tuberculous Mycobacteria Isolated from Tuberculosis Suspects in Southern-Central China
This study revealed the distribution and characteristics of non-tuberculous AFB pathogen infection occurred in Southern-central China, and suggested that physicians should be alert of the emerging of NTM and non-mycobacteria infection in AFB positive cases and take caution when choosing chemotherapy for tuberculosis-like pulmonary infections. Generally, this study may help with the development of new strategy for the diagnosis and treatment of mycobacterial infection. (Source: PLoS One)
Plausible Role of Acute HIV Infection Mediated Immune Activation in Causing Renal Allograft Rejection: A Case Report
In this report, we describe a 32-year-old African-American male patient who underwent a second live donor renal transplant, following which he developed acute allograft rejection coincident with newly acquired HIV seropositivity.[...]Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Article in Thieme eJournals:Table of contents  |  Abstract  |  Full text (Source: International Journal of Angiology)
Investment aids development of metal membrane technology
Publication date: November 2014 Source:Membrane Technology, Volume 2014, Issue 11 In Germany, early-stage venture capital investors High-Tech Gründerfonds (HTGF) of Bonn and Innovationsstarter Fonds of Hamburg have joined start-up company i3 Membrane GmbH. (Source: Membrane Technology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Cardiac Morbidity in an HIV-1 Lipodystrophy Patient Cohort Expressing the TNF-?-238 G/A Single Nucleotide Gene Polymorphism.
Authors: Mahajan SD, Gaekwad A, Pawar J, Tripathy S, Ghate M, Bhattacharya J, Singh HO, Schwartz SA, Paranjape R, Gangakhedkar R Abstract In the current study we investigated the prevalence of the TNF-? 238G/A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the TNF-? gene in the development of lipodystrophy among HIV-1 infected individuals who had been receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the immunodeficiency clinics of the National AIDS Research Institute (NARI) at Pune, India. We assessed the association of this SNP with the development of lipoatrophy/dyslipidemia and insulin resistance in these patients and measured carotid intima thickening which is a surrogate marker for chronic cardiac morbidity. Our results show that the incidence of the TNF-? 238G/A SNP is ~ two fold higher...
Prince Harry shares a secret for World AIDS Day
The royal son and AIDS advocate wants to help break the stigma associated with the disease by revealing something personal for his #FeelNoShame campaign (Source: Health News: CBSNews.com)
A comparison of nested PCR assay with conventional techniques for diagnosis of intestinal cryptosporidiosis in AIDS cases from northern India.
Authors: Uppal B, Singh O, Chadha S, Jha AK Abstract Cryptosporidiosis is a very important opportunistic infection and is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in HIV/AIDS patients. Although current laboratory methods are generally considered adequate to detect high concentrations of oocysts, they fail to detect cases of cryptosporidiosis in many immunocompromised patients. The present study was done to determine the diagnostic efficacy of modified Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN), antigen detection ELISA, and a nested PCR assay for detection of Cryptosporidium in 58 adult AIDS cases with diarrhea from the ART clinic of Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi. Cryptosporidium was detected in 17 (29.4%), 39 (67.3%), and 45 (77.5%) cases by modified ZN staining, antigen ELISA, and nested PCR a...
4 Tips To Get Over The Panic Of Speaking in Public
By Vicki Salemi for KnowMore.tv Have you ever gotten that sinking deer-in-headlights feeling in front of a podium? Or, have you tried to picture an entire audience in their underwear? You're not alone with glossophobia, also known as the fear of public speaking, which apparently affects 75 percent of the population. Let's explore how you can overcome this common phobia. 1. Visit the location ahead of time Even if you're familiar with the conference room, visit it when it's empty and test the equipment. Envision yourself at the podium commanding the room. Imagine a successful presentation; positive thoughts will decrease speaking anxiety. 2. Organize your material inside and out How are you delivering the content? What props, audio or visual aids do you need? What is the goal of the pr...
Optimizing HIV therapy. A consensus project on differences between cytidine analogues and regime compactness.
CONCLUSIONS: The Delphi method proved useful to focus on and gauge the relevance of issues such differences between the two cytidine analogues (FTC and 3TC) and the overall compactness of HAART combinations in HIV/ AIDS therapy. PMID: 25180844 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: New Microbiologica)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Temporal trend and characteristics of recent HIV-1 infections: application of an algorithm for the identification of recently acquired HIV-1 infections among newly diagnosed individuals over a 10-year period.
Authors: Orchi N, Sias C, Vlassi C, Navarra A, Angeletti C, Puro V, Sciarrone MR, Capobianchi MR, Girardi E Abstract Identification of recent infections (RI) may contribute to improve the quality of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) surveillance, monitoring ongoing transmission and planning and evaluating prevention programs. Our study applied an algorithm combining clinical and serological information to identify RI in individuals newly diagnosed with HIV in Rome, during the years 1999-2008, in order to describe the trend and characteristics of recently infected individuals. RI were documented seroconverters, or people with an HIV avidity index (AI)&lt;0.80. Individuals with advanced infection (CD4 count &lt;200 cells/?L or AIDS-defining illness) or with AI ?0.80 were considered ...
Tim Lahey: Top 10 Trends in HIV This Year
This year we have seen palpable progress in the fight against AIDS, and also some astonishing hucksterism. In celebration of World AIDS Day 2014, here are 10 of the most influential trends in HIV this year. (Source: News at Dartmouth Medical School)
AmfAR Chairman Kenneth Cole: We're 'Dead Set' On Finding A Cure For AIDS By 2020
You probably have heard Kenneth Cole's name in conjunction with his eponymous shoe brand, but the designer has another impressive title on his resume: chairman of amfAR, the foundation for AIDS research. In honor of World AIDS day, Cole spoke to HuffPost Live about the organization's determination to find a cure for this life-threatening virus. "There are still 5000 Americans who continue to die everyday of AIDS-related causes, and around the world it's over two million, so we have to continue to stay focused, and amfAR is dead set on finding a cure by the year 2020," he told host Caroline Modarressy-Tehrani in a Monday interview. "We started an initiative called 'Countdown To A Cure,'" he continued. "It's clearly ambitious -- and at the end of the day when I tell you we will unequvioca...
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation partners with Obama, Nike Foundation to fight HIV
Today is World AIDS Day, which means organizations from all around the globe are announcing their support for people battling the disease and the HIV virus that causes it. In the Pacific Northwest, two powerhouse organizations are joining the fight. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation is partnering with the Nike Foundation, based in Beaverton, Ore., and the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, or PEPFAR, on a $210 million initiative to reduce new HIV infections in adolescent girls and? (Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Hospitals headlines)
Is HIV Becoming Less Contagious?
Study from Africa suggests virus is evolving Source: HealthDay Related MedlinePlus Pages: HIV/AIDS, Viral Infections (Source: MedlinePlus Health News)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Improved Survival with Co-Trimoxazole Prophylaxis among People Living with HIV/AIDS Who Initiated Antiretroviral Treatment in Henan Province, China.
CONCLUSION: CTX prophylaxis together with ART reduced mortality of adult HIV patients during the first 12 months of ART in Henan Province, China. The effect was highest in the first 3 months of ART. CTX should be prescribed to all HIV-infected adults who initiate ART. PMID: 25426939 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Current HIV Research)
HIV's ability to cause AIDS is weakening over time, study finds
LONDON, Dec 1 (Reuters) - Rapid evolution of HIV, the human immunodeficiency virus, is slowing its ability to cause AIDS, according to a study of more than 2,000 women in Africa. (Source: Reuters: Health)
HIV evolves into less deadly form
A form of HIV which first hit Botswana in the 1980s now shows signs of being slower and less aggressive, suggesting that the disease may be evolving to be less fatal (Source: New Scientist - HIV and AIDS)
World AIDS Day Report Finds Fragile Progress
The Tipping Point in the Global AIDS Fight Reached, But Progress is Fragile, Says One Campaign. (Source: ABC News: Health)
A simple, rapid, economical, and practical method for the determination of efavirenz in plasma of Chinese AIDS patients by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detector.
In conclusion, the method had advantages of convenience, rapidity, necessary accuracy and precision, high practicality and met the needs for therapeutic drug monitoring and the pharmacokinetic study of efavirenz, especially in underdeveloped countries. For Chinese AIDS patients, it was beneficial to use efavirenz under the guidance of therapeutic drug monitoring. PMID: 25224629 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BioScience Trends)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Why are some HIV/AIDS patients reluctant to receive antiviral therapy as soon as possible in China?
Authors: Sun Y, Lu H Abstract In more than 20 years of medical practice, a surprising phenomenon has often occurred: some patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) decide not to go to the hospital and they do not let others know that they are suffering from the disease unless they believe that they are dieing. Zhang Shan (a pseudonym) is one such patient with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS who was reluctant to receive antiviral therapy as soon as possible, and this paper shares Zhang's story as he related it. Clearly, there are numerous views as to why patients in China behave as Zhang did. Presented here are several reasons, including society, history, morality and ideology, family, and education. Although all of these reasons do play a role, the patient's m...
Clinical epidemiology of HIV/AIDS in China from 2004-2011.
This study retrospectively analyzed Chinese publicly reported data on Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS). The HIV/AIDS morbidity (1/100,000) and mortality (1/100,000) rates in China continually increased from 0.23 and 0.06 in 2004 to 1.53 and 0.69 in 2011, respectively. The AIDS case fatality rate decreased yearly from 53.57% in 2008 to 45.11% in 2011, and the fatality rate in rural areas (0.25-0.42%) was higher than that in cities (0.13-0.22%). The number of HIV/AIDS patients discharged from city-level hospitals increased from 329 in 2004 to 7,266 in 2011, and this number was higher than the number of similar patients discharged from county-level (rural) hospitals (the number of HIV/AIDS patients increased from 252 in 2004 to 5,957 in 2011). The fa...
Pathogenesis and prognostication in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Authors: Zuckerman T, Rowe JM Abstract The process of lymphoid maturation is tightly controlled by the hierarchical activation of transcription factors and selection through functional signal transduction. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) represents a group of B/T-precursor-stage lymphoid cell malignancies arising from genetic alterations that block lymphoid differentiation and drive aberrant cell proliferation and survival. With recent advances in next-generation sequencing, we are discovering new mutations affecting normal lymphopoiesis and the significance of cooperating mutations, as well as epigenetic alterations. The data obtained in this way aids in the evaluation of prognosis in the individual patient but, importantly, also in incorporating targeted therapy appropriate fo...
Developments in HIV-1 immunotherapy and therapeutic vaccination.
Authors: Smith PL, Tanner H, Dalgleish A Abstract Since the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) pandemic began, few prophylactic vaccines have reached phase III trials. Only one has shown partial efficacy in preventing HIV-1 infection. The introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has had considerable success in controlling infection and reducing transmission but in so doing has changed the nature of HIV-1 infection for those with access to ART. Access, compliance, and toxicity alongside the emergence of serious non-AIDS morbidity and the sometimes poor immune reconstitution in ART-treated patients have emphasized the need for additional therapies. Such therapy is intended to contribute to control of HIV-1 infection, permit structured treatment interruptions, or even establish ...
Things You Can Do for World AIDS Day
Learn how you can support World AIDS Day 2014. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Oil, migration, and the political economy of HIV/AIDS prevention in Nigeria's Niger Delta.
This article seeks to identify and analyze potential barriers to HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment from oil pollution and other environmental stressors in Nigeria's Niger Delta. We develop a conceptual framework to understand how oil politics and economic systems affect HIV risks in Nigeria. We then evaluate evidence of how environmental exposures can amplify risks. Using 10 semi-structured interviews, with 85 focus group participants, we test the argument that HIV transmission in the Niger Delta is related to a manipulative "divide and rule" power dynamic that characterizes multinational oil companies' role in shaping conflict contours in oil communities. Oil exploration destroys livelihoods, institutions, and values and forces impoverished and illiterate girls and women to migrate or be ...
On World AIDS Day, Larsen & Toubro opens new anti-retroviral therapy centre
The centre, owned by the Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGM), has been built by L&T, which will also operate it. (Source: The Economic Times)
4 Things Working With HIV Can Teach Us About Fighting Ebola
(RNS) Every year on Dec. 1, World AIDS Day focuses attention on the disease that last year infected another 2.1 million people and took more than 1.5 million lives, according to UNAIDS. After 26 years of World AIDS Days, the death toll stands at a staggering 39 million. And yet, within the HIV/AIDS community there is optimism. Many believe new infections can be stopped completely, and the annual death toll has been cut in half. Meanwhile, the world?s attention has turned to Ebola, a disease that has claimed nearly 5,500 lives, primarily in West Africa. For those who remember the early days of the HIV/AIDS crisis in Africa, some of the stories about the Ebola crisis are uncomfortably familiar. The belief in myths and rumors over facts, the desire to hide one?s illness until it has pr...
Liberia: Nat'l HIV Response to Be Re-Launched Today
[Inquirer]Liberia joins the world today in observing World AIDS Day under the global theme, "Close the gaps" with special programs scheduled to take place in Monrovia where the National HIV Response is expected to be re-launched. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
AIDS Campaigners Say Pandemic Has Finally Reached Tipping PointAIDS Campaigners Say Pandemic Has Finally Reached Tipping Point
The world has finally reached 'the beginning of the end' of the AIDS pandemic that has infected and killed millions in the past 30 years, according to a leading campaign group fighting HIV. Reuters Health Information (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)
World Mayors Sign Paris Declaration to End AIDS Epidemic
In signing the 2014 Paris Declaration, the mayors commit to putting cities on the Fast-Track to ending the AIDS epidemic through a set of commitments. Those commitments include achieving the UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets, which will result in 90% of people living with HIV knowing their HIV status, 90% of people who know their HIV-positive status on antiretroviral treatment and 90% of people on treatment with suppressed viral loads, keeping them healthy and reducing the risk of HIV transmission. (Source: Disabled World)
South Africa: South Africa Attempts to Set New HIV Testing World Record
[Health-e]Tshwane health services set an ambitious goal to test more than 10,000 people in one day ahead of World AIDS Day and break the international world record. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
The Most Celebrated, Mistrusted Little Pill in the World Two Old Friends Debate The Daily Drug That Could Revolutionize HIV Prevention
Longtime friends Peter Staley, left, and Sean Strub pose for a portrait in Strub's home in Milford, Pennsylvania. Truvada, the HIV preventive drug, sits on the table before them. (Photo by Damon Dahlen) Downtown Milford, population 1,021, is a picturesque street surrounded by forested hills. In the fall, sheafs of dried autumn corn decorate the lampposts; pumpkins sit outside shops with wooden signs. Prominent AIDS activist Sean Strub first came to the Pennsylvania town in 1996, looking for a quiet place to recoup from his long and brutal illness. He'd begun a recently approved regimen of 16 pills a day -- the most effective treatment for HIV ever discovered to that point. He acclimated nicely to Milford, planning for a future he hadn?t always thought he?d live to see. He helped sta...
Mozambique: Guebuza Calls for Protecting Girls Against HIV
[AIM]Maputo -Mozambican President Armando Guebuza on Monday urged citizens to redouble their efforts against HIV/AIDS, and particularly against the high rates of HIV prevalence among girls. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Algeria: Prevention and Fight Against HIV/Aids - Algeria Made Undeniable Progress
[Algerie Presse Service]Oran -Algeria has made undeniable progress in the prevention and the fight against HIV/AIDS, "thanks to its multi-sectoral response to this disease," said Minister of Health, Population and Hospital Reform, Abdelmalek Boudiaf said Monday in Oran, in a speech, delivered in Oran on the occasion of the celebration in Oran of World AIDS Day. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
North Africa: North Africa HIV Figures on the Rise
[IRIN]Louise Redvers -Rates of new HIV infections and AIDS-related deaths are rising faster in the Middle East and North Africa than anywhere else globally. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Ghana: Aidspan Releases First-Ever Documentary, "I Didn't Want to Bring Shame On My Family" - Growing Up Gay in Ghana
[GFO]Aidspan, the independent watchdog of The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB and Malaria, is pleased to announce the release of its first-ever documentary film, "I didn't want to bring shame on my family": growing up gay in Ghana. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Prince Harry confesses: I have a secret fear of public speaking
PRINCE HARRY has shared a big secret to support World AIDS Day. (Source: Daily Express - Health)
World AIDS Day
December 1 is World AIDS Day. Check out the MedlinePlus HIV/AIDS topic page. Learn more about World AIDS Day 2014 from AIDS.gov. (Source: What's New on MedlinePlus)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Africa: 'We Must Leave No One Behind' to End Aids By 2030, Ban Declares On World Day
[UN News]Ending the AIDS epidemic by 2030 requires a comprehensive approach that includes social justice, the democratization of science, gender equity, and a people-centred approach to health, said United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon on World AIDS Day, as he spotlighted the gap in prevention and treatment that persist among regions and people. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
9,637 people found to be HIV positive in Mizoram
At least 9,637 people in Mizoram have been found to be HIV-positive while 587 AIDS patients died in the state in the last 24 years, according to Mizoram State AIDS Control Society. (Source: The Economic Times)
Africa: Mayors From Around the World Sign Paris Declaration to End the Aids Epidemic
[UNAIDS]Paris/Geneva -On World AIDS Day, mayors meet in Paris as UNAIDS releases a new report on the huge potential of fast-tracking the AIDS response in cities (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: Increased Access to Diagnosis and Treatment of HIV-Vl Co-Infection Is Imperative for Eliminating Kala Azar
[MSF]Nairobi, New Delhi -Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) calls for a fast-tracked development of integrated Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) or kala azar and HIV guidelines to ensure a multidisciplinary approach towards treating those affected by this coinfection. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Are we on the road to an HIV vaccine?
There were 2.1 million new AIDS infections worldwide in 2013. A vaccine remains essential to controlling the epidemic, and one scientist says "the field is energized." (Source: CNN.com - Health)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Africa: Global Fund Backs Plan to End Aids By 2030
[Global Fund]Geneva -On World AIDS Day, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria declared its strong support for a new roadmap developed by UNAIDS, Fast Track: Ending the AIDS Epidemic by 2030. UNAIDS argues that the pace of responding to HIV in the next five years will be fundamental to ending the epidemic. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
South Africa: 'The Stigma Is Thing That Kills People, Not the Virus'
[The Daily Vox]In one of Knysna's poorest communities, a small organisation is using unconventional methods to teach kids about HIV and AIDS. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
South Africa: 'I Knew Exactly WHO Infected Me. It Was My Ex-Boyfriend.'
[The Daily Vox]HIV/ AIDS has is an on-going health problem in South Africa which has the highest percentage of HIV-infected people world; 12% of its population are HIV positive. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Nigeria: World Aids Day - Jonathan to Sign HIV Anti-Discriminatory Bill Soon
[This Day]As Nigeria celebrate the World AIDS Day Monday, there are expectations that President Goodluck Jonathan will soon sign into law the HIV anti-discrimination bill. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Africa: 1.1 Million HIV Infections in Children Averted - Unicef
[Unicef]New York -An estimated 1.1 million HIV infections among children under 15 have been averted, as new cases declined by over 50 per cent between 2005 and 2013, according to data released by UNICEF today ahead of World AIDS Day. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Africa: WFP Food Assistance Supports Successful Treatment of People Living With HIV
[WFP]Rome -We believe that food is life, and this World AIDS Day (1 December) the United Nations World Food Programme (WFP) is celebrating the work we do with our partners around the world to bring food assistance to more than 1.3 million people living with and affected by HIV and tuberculosis in 31 countries. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
South Africa: NUM On World Aids Day
[COSATU]The National Union of Mineworkers (NUM) joins millions of South Africans and the world in celebrating World Aids Day tomorrow 1st of December 2014. The NUM is highly impressed by the commitment, dedication and progress made by the government in fighting against the pandemic head-on. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Watch: Celebrities reveal secrets for Prince Harry's HIV charity on World Aids Day
What scares Ricky Hatton and what has Gemma Arterton never done? Celebrities share some of their deepest secrets to help Prince Harry's HIV charity Sentebale on World Aids Day 2014 (Source: Telegraph Health)
South Africa: HIV Lobbyists to Boycott Official World Aids Day Events
[Health-e]The Treatment Action Campaign (TAC) will boycott official World AIDS Day proceedings for the second consecutive year as the group alleges that the millions of rands used to host this year's event in the Free State would be better spent strengthening the health system. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
VIDEO: Charlize Theron on World Aids Day
Hollywood actress Charlize Theron has said the international community cannot "sit back and wait on a cure" for HIV/Aids and must focus on changing human behaviour. (Source: BBC News | Health | UK Edition)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Tanzania: Mathematics and Aids - Easiest Learning Trick
[Daily News]"GRADUATE with A's not AIDS". These are words which appear on notice boards of many higher learning institutions in Tanzania. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Rwanda: "Focus, Partner, Achieve - an Aids-Free Generation."
[New Times]World AIDS Day is an opportunity to reflect on the many successes and challenges faced by the global community in the fight against HIV and AIDS. We remember the lives lost, celebrate the lives saved, and pay tribute to the individuals and organizations working tirelessly to bring an end to HIV/AIDS. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: HIV/Aids - Stigmatisation, Discrimination Remain Greatest Challenge
[Leadership]WINIFRED OGBEBO writes that tackling the issue of stigmatisation and discrimination against HIV positive persons is crucial to halting the spread and eventually eliminating the disease in the country. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Tanzania: Getting to Zero - Helping More Mothers Deliver HIV Free Babies
[Daily News]As the world prepares to commemorate World AIDS Day tomorrow, December 1, it must be remembered that by last year, AIDS killed more than 36 million people worldwide (1981-2012) and an estimated 35.3 million people are living with HIV, making it one of the most important global public health issues in recorded history. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Novel Technique for Retraction of the Gastroesophageal Junction in Laparoscopic Antireflux Surgery
We describe a novel and cost-effective technique that aids in mobilization and retraction of the gastroesophageal junction before repair of the diaphragmatic crural defect. After hiatal dissection and creation of a posterior gastric wrap, an index suture (2-0 ethibond) is placed across the wrap. This is used to retract the gastroesophageal junction and expose the crura for repair and ?required facilitate fixation of fundus to the crura (fundopexy).? This technique negates the requirement for further instruments thus reducing operative expenditure and offers minimal disruption to the tissue. We have performed over 350 operative procedures using this technique and recommend it as an alternative choice that is cost effective for retraction of the esophagogastric junction in antireflux sur...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Board #105 - Research Abstract Handoff Performance Across Varying Levels of Expertise (Submission #9561).
Conclusion: As expected, the results indicated that handoff scores decreased with lower levels of expertise. Thus, having extensive medical experience facilitates the retention of information about patients. A possible explanation for this observation is that experts have a developed mental model, or schema, for different diseases that aids their ability to recall clinical information. An interesting observation from the data was that for all groups, the mean handoff scores were lower for the partial recall scenarios compared to the whole handoff scenarios. This result shows that when asked to recall a subset of items all participants, even the experts, included more irrelevant items to the detriment of their overall handoff scores. Future work should focus on training initiatives to impro...
Board #223 - Program Innovation The Project of Pediatric Emergency and Critical Care Training in Chinese Remote Areas (Submission #9146).
Conclusion: This program promoted spreading the knowledge and skills of pediatric emergency and critical care in remote areas in China, instilled in them new ideas and training methods. Most of the trainees were benefit from the training, were very satisfied with the training methods and contents. In the future, we will establish to set fixed training point, let the pediatric medical stuff in different areas and different levels of hospitals to gain the same quality of training. Disclosures: None (C) 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc. (Source: Simulation in Healthcare: The Journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare)
Board #308 - Technology Innovation A Multimodal Interactive System to Support Team Situational Awareness in Acute Care (Submission #9429).
Conclusion: We found a significant increase in the recall of completed tasks by teams using our shared display (M = 2.05, S.E. = 0.33) in comparison to those using non-shared forms of reference (M = 4.9, S.E. = 0.79), t(25.355) = 3.33, p (Source: Simulation in Healthcare: The Journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare)
Association of Pyoderma Gangrenosum, Acne, and Suppurative Hidradenitis (PASH) Shares Genetic and Cytokine Profiles With Other Autoinflammatory Diseases
In conclusion, overexpression of cytokines/chemokines and molecules amplifying the inflammatory network, along with the genetic changes, supports the view that PASH syndrome is autoinflammatory in origin. (Source: Medicine)
Kenya: NACC's 30 Years HIV/Aids Art Exhibition
[The Star]The National Aids Control Council in Kenya organised a dinner event at the Kenya National Museums to launch the 30 Years of HIV/Aids in Kenya art exhibition. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Tanzania: HIV/Aids Spread Increase in Bukoba Municipality
[Daily News]HIV/AIDS infections in Bukoba Municipality have increased from 7.4 per cent in 2013 to 9.6 per cent this year, HIV/AIDS Co-ordinator in Bukoba Municipality, Ms Diana Jasson said. She said that HIV infection rate was quite alarming calling for concerted effort to stop further spread of the disease. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
&#39We must leave no one behind&#39 to end AIDS by 2030, Ban declares on World Day
Ending the AIDS epidemic by 2030 requires a comprehensive approach that includes social justice, the democratization of science, gender equity, and a people-centred approach to health, said United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon on World AIDS Day, as he spotlighted the gap in prevention and treatment that persist among regions and people. (Source: UN News Centre - Health, Poverty, Food Security)
Research suggests ability of HIV to cause AIDS is slowing
(Wellcome Trust) The rapid evolution of HIV, which has allowed the virus to develop resistance to patients' natural immunity, is at the same time slowing the virus's ability to cause AIDS, according to new research funded by the Wellcome Trust. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)
World AIDS Day: UN, urban leaders endorse ?fast track? to ending epidemic by 2030
Ending the AIDS epidemic by 2030 requires a comprehensive approach that includes social justice, the democratization of science, gender equity, and a people-centred approach to health, said United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon on World AIDS Day as he spotlighted the gap in prevention and treatment that persist among regions and people. (Source: UN News Centre - Health, Poverty, Food Security)
VIDEO: Where did Aids come from?
World Aids day is being marked by a series of events across the globe. The virus which causes Aids - HIV - was first identified by scientists more than 30 years ago. (Source: BBC News | Health | UK Edition)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
AbbVie adds children's AIDS drugs to shared patent pool
LONDON (Reuters) - U.S. drugmaker AbbVie has added two HIV medicines for children to a shared patent pool in an initiative that should speed the development of cheap new pediatric formulations for use in poor countries. (Source: Reuters: Health)
AIDS campaigners say pandemic has finally reached tipping point
LONDON (Reuters) - The world has finally reached "the beginning of the end" of the AIDS pandemic that has infected and killed millions in the past 30 years, according to a leading campaign group fighting HIV. (Source: Reuters: Health)
AIDS-Fight Advocates Say Pandemic Has Finally Reached Tipping Point
The world has finally reached &quot;the beginning of the end&quot; of the AIDS pandemic that has infected and killed millions in the past 30 years, according to a leading campaign group fighting HIV -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com (Source: Scientific American - Official RSS Feed)
Prince Harry to reveal secret for campaign to help beat stigma of HIV
Prince Harry is to reveal a secret as part of a charity campaign to help beat the stigma of HIV (Source: Telegraph Health)
Treating drug-resistant tuberculosis in a low-intensity chronic conflict setting in India
Conclusion: Managing DR-TB in a primary health care programme is feasible in a low-conflict setting with an appropriate treatment model. Ambulatory strategies and standardised treatment regimens should be considered to further simplify treatment delivery and allow for scale-up when needed. (Source: Conflict and Health)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Shared decision making and the use of a patient decision aid in advanced serious illness: provider and patient perspectives
ConclusionPhysicians? concerns were rooted in deeper concerns about palliative care and a death?denying culture. Patients were more open to using the PtDA than physicians, suggesting ?it's never too early?. Practice ImplicationsPtDAs for serious illness can maximize early opportunities for goals of care conversations and shared decision making. (Source: Health Expectations)
Self-Reported Body Fat Change in HIV-Infected Men Is a Marker of Decline in Physical Health-Related Quality of Life with Aging, Independent of Co-Morbidity
by Kristine M. Erlandson, Sandra M. Reynolds, Christopher Cox, Frank J. Palella, Mallory D. Witt, Lawrence A. Kingsley, Todd T. Brown, Michael Plankey Objective Self-perception of changes in body fat among HIV+ persons is associated with decreased health related quality of life in cross-sectional studies. The longitudinal impact of body fat changes on health related quality of life, while accounting for comorbidity and anatomic location or severity of body fat changes, is unknown. Design This was a longitudinal analysis of HIV+ and HIV- Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) participants who completed questionnaires assessing self-perceived body fat changes (baseline visit) and a health related quality of life (Short Form-36) at baseline and then ?5 years later. Methods Relationships betwe...
World AIDS Day: Five minutes with Dr. Philip Berger
(Source: St. Michael's Hospital News and Media)
Influence of Age at Virologic Control on Peripheral Blood Human Immunodeficiency Virus Reservoir Size and Serostatus in Perinatally Infected Adolescents
ImportanceCombination antiretroviral therapy initiated within several weeks of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in adults limits proviral reservoirs that preclude HIV cure. Biomarkers of restricted proviral reservoirs may aid in the monitoring of HIV remission or cure.ObjectivesTo quantify peripheral blood proviral reservoir size in perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV+) adolescents and to identify correlates of limited proviral reservoirs.Design, Setting, and ParticipantsA cross-sectional study including 144 PHIV+ youths (median age, 14.3 years) enrolled in the United States?based Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study and receiving durable (median duration, 10.2 years) combination antiretroviral therapy, stratified by age at virologic control.Main Outcomes and MeasuresThe primary end po...
Investments in blood safety improve the availability of blood to underserved areas in a sub?Saharan African country
ConclusionInvestments in blood safety and a policy decision to emphasize distribution of blood to underserved regions improved blood availability in remote rural areas and increased the proportion of units distributed as components. However, disparities persist in the distribution of blood between Namibia's urban and rural regions. (Source: ISBT Science Series)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Cobicistat-boosted darunavir in HIV-1-infected adults: week 48 results of a Phase IIIb, open-label single-arm trial
Background: Cobicistat is an alternative pharmacoenhancer to ritonavir. In healthy volunteers, darunavir exposure was comparable when darunavir 800 mg once-daily was co-administered with cobicistat 150 mg once-daily (as single agents or a fixed-dose combination) vs. with ritonavir 100 mg once daily. Methods: This 48-week, Phase IIIb, single-arm, US multicenter study (NCT01440569) evaluated safety, efficacy and pharmacokinetics of darunavir/cobicistat 800/150 mg once daily (as single agents) plus two investigator-selected nucleoside/tide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (N[t]RTIs) in HIV-1-infected adults. Patients had no darunavir resistance-associated mutations (RAMs), plasma viral load (VL) >=1000 HIV-1 RNA copies/ml, eGFR >=80 ml/min and genotypic sensitivity to the two N[t]RTIs. The pr...
Evaluation of Oral Stereognostic Ability After Rehabilitating Patients with Complete Dentures: In Vivo Study
Abstract Stereognosis has been defined as the appreciation of the form of objects by palpation. Whilst this definition holds good for the manual exploration of objects, it is possible for the shape of objects to be explored intra orally referred to as oral stereognosis. To better understand patients? relative satisfaction with complete dentures, differences in oral stereognostic perception, based on the identification of 6 edible objects was analyzed in a group of 30 edentulous individuals at 3 stages, namely, just before (pre-treatment), 30 min after (30 min post-treatment) and 1 month after (1 month post-treatment) the insertion of new dentures. The time required to identify each object was recorded and the correctness of identification of each object was scored using ora...
Today is World AIDS Day
AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) is a chronic, potentially life-threatening condition caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). By damaging your immune system, HIV interferes with your body's ability to fight the organisms that cause disease.   Learn more about HIV/AIDS and the Mayo Clinic HIV Research Laboratory. (Source: News from Mayo Clinic)
Geriatric and physically oriented rehabilitation improves the ability of independent living and physical rehabilitation reduces mortality: A randomised comparison of 538 patients.
CONCLUSIONS: Physical rehabilitation reduced mortality. Physical and geriatric rehabilitation significantly improved the ability of independent living after 4 months especially among the femoral neck fracture patients but this effect could not be seen after 12 months. PMID: 25452632 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Clinical Rehabilitation)
Palliative HIV Care: Opportunities for Biomedical and Behavioral Change
Abstract Advances in treatment are contributing to substantial increases in life expectancy for individuals living with HIV, prompting a need to develop care models for the effective management of HIV as a chronic illness. With many individuals continuing to experience symptoms and complications that add to the disease burden across the spectrum of HIV disease, the discussion herein explores the complementary role that early palliative care can play in HIV primary care as a strategy for enhancing long-term quality of life. After first defining the concept of early palliative care, its scope in the context of current clinical realities in HIV treatment and implications for HIV care models is described. After reviewing the emerging extant research literature on HIV palliative care ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Plasma and Intracellular Antiretroviral Concentrations in HIV-Infected Patients under Short Cycles of Antiretroviral Therapy.
Authors: Zehnacker L, Abe E, Mathez D, Alvarez JC, Leibowitch J, Azoulay S Abstract Study of plasma and intracellular concentrations of atazanavir, lopinavir, nevirapine, and efavirenz was conducted on 48 patients under short cycles of antiretroviral therapy. Intracellular concentrations (IC) were still measurable for all drugs after 85?h or 110?h drug intake despite the absence of drug in plasma for atazanavir and lopinavir. A linear relationship between plasma and intracellular efavirenz was observed. Further studies to fully understand the impact of IC in the intermittent antiviral treatment are required. PMID: 25431661 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Latent Toxoplasma gondii Infection and Associated Risk Factors among HIV-Infected Individuals at Arba Minch Hospital, South Ethiopia.
This study revealed high prevalence of latent T. gondii infection, similar to other studies. Monitoring of the patients to prevent reactivation of the latent T. gondii infection is recommended. PMID: 25431660 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
How Memory Links the Presidency, Ferguson and the Cosby Mess
Here&#8217;s a difficult one, history buffs: Who was Harry Truman? I know, I know, I told you it would be tough, but think hard: Some famous general? Maybe a physicist? If you guessed U.S. president, good for you! And if you also knew that Truman was the one who came right after Roosevelt (Franklin, that is) and right before Eisenhower, go to the head of the class. OK, so maybe remembering Truman isn&#8217;t such a big deal. But here&#8217;s the thing: By 2040, according to a new study just published in Science, only 26% of college students will remember to include his name if they are asked to make a list of all U.S. Presidents, regardless of order. That finding, which is less a function of historical illiteracy than of the mysterious ways the human brain works, reveals a lot about the pe...
Zambia: Towards 2 Million Mark
[Times of Zambia]THE World AIDS Day is here once again and to commemorate this day which falls tomorrow, Zambia has set a target of reaching at least two million people during the week preceding the day. The local theme for this year is "Zambia @ 50, Towards Zero Stigma." (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Zambia: Ending Street Misery... Stakeholders Gather to Chart Way Forward
[Times of Zambia]THERE is little dispute, if any, that despite several efforts by the Government, the number of street children in Lusaka and other urban centres has continued to rise. The environment in which they live has become volatile and deteriorating. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Nigeria: HIV/Aids - Health Workers Hindering Efforts Through Stigmatisation - Soyinka
[Independent (Lagos)]Abeokuta -As the world marks the HIV/AIDS Day on Monday, Commissioner for Health in Ogun State, Olaokun Soyinka, has identified stigmatisation by health workers as the greatest challenge facing the fight against the disease in Nigeria. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Atorvastatin reduces T?cell activation and exhaustion among HIV?infected cART?treated suboptimal immune responders in Uganda: A Randomized cross?over placebo controlled trial
ConclusionAtorvastatin reduced T?cell immune activation and exhaustion among cART?treated adults in a Ugandan cohort. Atorvastatin adjunct therapy should be explored as a strategy to improve HIV treatment outcomes among people living with HIV in sub?Saharan Africa.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Tropical Medicine and International Health)
An official systematic review of the European Respiratory Society/American Thoracic Society: measurement properties of field walking tests in chronic respiratory disease
This systematic review examined the measurement properties of the 6-min walk test (6MWT), incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT) and endurance shuttle walk test (ESWT) in adults with chronic respiratory disease. Studies that report the evaluation or use of the 6MWT, ISWT or ESWT were included. We searched electronic databases for studies published between January 2000 and September 2013. The 6-min walking distance (6MWD) is a reliable measure (intra-class correlation coefficients ranged from 0.82 to 0.99 in seven studies). There is a learning effect, with greater distance walked on the second test (pooled mean improvement of 26 m in 13 studies). Reliability was similar for ISWT and ESWT, with a learning effect also evident for ISWT (pooled mean improvement of 20 m in six studies). The 6MWD c...
Substance use and sexual behaviour among female students in Nigerian universities - Oye-Adeniran BA, Aina OF, Gbadegesin A, Ekanem EE.
Substance use continues to constitute social and health problems, more so among adolescents and young adults. One consequence is risky sexual behavior, a major problem in sub-Saharan Africa already facing the synergistic problems of poverty and HIV/AIDS. T... (Source: SafetyLit: All (Unduplicated))
"Fooling fido"-chemical and behavioral studies of pseudo-explosive canine training aids - Kranz WD, Strange NA, Goodpaster JV.
Genuine explosive materials are traditionally employed in the training and testing of explosive-detecting canines so that they will respond reliably to these substances. However, challenges arising from the acquisition, storage, handling, and transportatio... (Source: SafetyLit: All (Unduplicated))<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Kenya: First Lady Applauds Efforts Against HIV/Aids in Mombasa
[Capital FM]Mombasa -First Lady Margaret Kenyatta has commended the county government of Mombasa for scaling up efforts against HIV/AIDS. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Measuring adherence to antiretroviral therapy in children and adolescents in western Kenya.
CONCLUSIONS: Non-adherence in the form of missed and late doses, treatment interruptions of more than 48 hours and sub-therapeutic drug levels were common in this cohort. Adherence varied significantly by adherence measure, suggesting that additional validation of adherence measures is needed. Few factors were consistently associated with non-adherence or treatment interruptions. PMID: 25427633 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Universal children's day - let's improve current interventions to reduce vertical transmission of HIV now.
Authors: Cotton MF, Rabie H PMID: 25416416 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
The transient HIV remission in the Mississippi baby: why is this good news?
Authors: Ananworanich J, Robb ML PMID: 25416415 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Progression to AIDS in SIV-Infected Rhesus Macaques is Associated with Distinct KIR and MHC class I Polymorphisms and NK Cell Dysfunction
Christina Albrecht, Dörthe Malzahn, Markus Brameier, Meike Hermes, Aftab A Ansari and Lutz Walter (Source: Frontiers in Immunology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Renal and Metabolic Toxicities Following Initiation of HIV-1 Treatment Regimen in a Diverse, Multinational Setting: A Focused Safety Analysis of ACTG PEARLS (A5175)
Conclusions: TDF is associated with lower serious metabolic toxicities but not higher risk of RAs, serious renal events, or worsening CrCl over time compared to ZDV in this randomized multinational study. Content Type Journal ArticleCategory Original ArticlePages 246-260DOI 10.1310/hct1506-246Authors F. Touzard Romo, The Miriam Hospital, Providence, Rhode Island, USAL. M. Smeaton, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USAT. B. Campbell, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, Colorado, USAC. Riviere, Institut Nacional de Laboratoire et Recherches, Port-au-Prince, HaitiR. Mngqibisa, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South AfricaM. Nyirenda, College of Medicine ? Johns Hopkins Research Project, Blantyre, MalawiK. Supparatpinyo, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thai...
The information experience and learning needs of couples living with HIV in Malawi
Abstract In this feature, guest writer Kondwani Wella presents an overview of his PhD ? a study which investigated the information experience of serodiscordant couples with HIV and AIDS in Malawi. In particular, for this article, he considers the information behaviour of people who need HIV? and AIDS?specific information and the role of the librarian in helping to deliver what is needed to support engagement in relevant learning. H.S. (Source: Health Information and Libraries Journal)
Integration of the Interaction Model of Client Health Behavior and Transactional Model of Stress and Coping as a tool for understanding retention in HIV care across the lifespan
Retaining people living with HIV (PLWH) in care over the lifespan is critical to quality and longevity of life. Individual health behavior decisions that affect care retention are complicated and multifactorial. Current health behavior theories are inadequate in isolation to guide retention in care research. Two existing models, Cox?s Interaction Model of Client Health Behavior, and Lazarus and Folkman?s Transactional Model of Stress and Coping have both guided research with PLWH, although not related to retention in care. (Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)
Enablers and barriers to using patient decision aids in early stage breast cancer consultations: a qualitative study of surgeons¿ views
Conclusions: Surgeons in this study valued systematic communication with patients. Several surgeons changed their practice to include formal or informal PtDAs provided they perceived there was a clear benefit to themselves or to patients. However, high surgeon confidence in their personal communications skills coupled with beliefs that patients understand conveyed information may be key barriers to PtDA uptake once surgeons have established communication routines. (Source: Implementation Science)
Assessment of upper extremity function in multiple sclerosis: review and opinion.
Authors: Kraft GH, Amtmann D, Susan E B, Finlayson M, Sutliff MH, Tullman M, Sidovar M, Rabinowicz AL Abstract Upper extremity (UE) dysfunction may be present in up to ~80% of individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS), although its importance may be under-recognized relative to walking impairment, which is the hallmark symptom of MS. Upper extremity dysfunction affects independence and can impact the ability to use walking aids. Under-recognition of UE dysfunction may result in part from limited availability of performance-based and patient self-report measures that are validated for use in MS and that can be readily incorporated into clinical practice for screening and regularly scheduled assessments. In addition to the 9-Hole Peg Test, which is part of the Multiple Sclerosis Funct...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Africa: Ahead of World Aids Day, UN Children's Agency Urges More Investment, Access to Treatment
[UN News]An estimated 1.1 million HIV infections among children under 15 have been averted, but disparity in access to treatment is hampering progress towards reaching a global goal of reducing new infections in children by 90 per cent, the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) said today ahead of World AIDS Day. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
"Fooling fido"-chemical and behavioral studies of pseudo-explosive canine training aids.
"Fooling fido"-chemical and behavioral studies of pseudo-explosive canine training aids. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2014 Dec;406(30):7817-25 Authors: Kranz WD, Strange NA, Goodpaster JV Abstract Genuine explosive materials are traditionally employed in the training and testing of explosive-detecting canines so that they will respond reliably to these substances. However, challenges arising from the acquisition, storage, handling, and transportation of explosives have given rise to the development of "pseudo-explosive" training aids. These products attempt to emulate the odor of real explosives while remaining inert. Therefore, a canine trained on a pseudo-explosive should respond to its real-life analog. Similarly, a canine trained on an actual explosive should respond to the ...
[Comment] AIDS: transforming global health
I remember the first World AIDS Day in 1988: the sudden burst of interest, the welcome work to mobilise media attention and community action. It was, however, World AIDS Day in 1990 that was closest to my heart with its theme of women and AIDS. By then I'd worked with people who had been living with HIV for several years, and my colleagues and I had developed sexual health campaigns for young women and men that linked HIV with sexual health. The theme of the 2014 World AIDS Day on Dec 1 is ?Focus, Partner, Achieve: an AIDS-free Generation?, which shows the distance travelled in the past three decades. (Source: LANCET)
10 (More) Art Therapy Techniques To Help You De-Stress This Holiday Season
The holidays are just around the corner which means family, food and, for many of us, stress on stress. Whether you're dreading those endless conversations with your great aunt Judith or getting anxious over the prospect of this year's New Year's resolutions, may we humbly suggest you let your creative side serve as a sort of internal massage. Art therapy is a form of therapy predicated on the belief that artistic expression has the power to help us in healing, in self-esteem or simply in chilling out. It's unique in that most other forms of therapy rely on language as the foremost mode of communication, whereas art requires something different, something harder to define. We're not art therapists, and the techniques below are only suggestions based on practices familiar to the art the...
Nigeria: HIV/Aids - U.S. Not Withdrawing Funds - -Envoy
[Daily Trust]The United States has said it is not considering withdrawing or reducing the over N88.4 billion meant to assist Nigeria in the implementation of its national HIV response. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Africa: HIV/Aids - Community Models of Care Explained
[MSF]Patients want community models of care that make it easier for them to access antiretroviral drugs (ARVs). In resource-poor countries it often takes a lot of time, effort and money to collect the necessary drugs. This discourages many from continuing to take their life-long treatment. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Kenya: Makueni Residents Benefit From Free HIV Testing
[The Star]AN NGO has rolled out plans to test 15,000 Makueni residents for HIV. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
South Africa: More People Are Getting Infected With HIV Every Year Than Passing Matric - Sanac
[Health-e]More people are getting infected with HIV every year than passing matric, and the SA National AIDS Council (SANAC) says progress to reduce new infections is "disappointingly slow". (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Kenya: Nine Out 10 Prostitutes Insist On Condoms
[The Star]A typical Koinange Street girl will most likely ask clients to wear a condom. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Ahead of World AIDS Day, UN children&#39s agency urges more investment, access to treatment
An estimated 1.1 million HIV infections among children under 15 have been averted, but disparity in access to treatment is hampering progress towards reaching a global goal of reducing new infections in children by 90 per cent, the United Nations Children&#39s Fund (UNICEF) said today ahead of World AIDS Day. (Source: UN News Centre - Women, Children, Population)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Nigeria: U.S. Denies Withdrawing N88.4 Billion From HIV/Aids Fund for Nigeria
[Independent (Lagos)]Abuja -The United States (U.S.) has denied contemplating withdrawing or reducing N88.4 billion budgeted for implementation of Nigeria's National HIV response. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
"Only your blood can tell the story" - a qualitative research study using semi- structured interviews to explore the hepatitis B related knowledge, perceptions and experiences of remote dwelling Indigenous Australians and their health care providers in northern Australia
Conclusions: Having an educational tool in Indigenous patient's first language is crucial in developing treatment partnerships for Indigenous patients with hepatitis B. Using a culturally appropriate worldview as the foundation for development should help to reduce disempowerment and improve health literacy. (Source: Epidemiologic Perspectives and Innovations)
Provision of Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV-Positive TB Patients - 19 Countries, Sub-Saharan Africa, 2009-2013.
Authors: Dokubo EK, Baddeley A, Pathmanathan I, Coggin W, Firth J, Getahun H, Kaplan J, Date A Abstract Considerable progress has been made in the provision of life-saving antiretroviral therapy (ART) for persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection worldwide, resulting in an overall decrease in HIV incidence and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related mortality. In the strategic scale-up of HIV care and treatment programs, persons with HIV and tuberculosis (TB) are a priority population for receiving ART. TB is the leading cause of death among persons living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa and remains a potential risk to the estimated 35 million persons living with HIV globally. Of the 9 million new cases of TB disease globally in 2013, an estimated 1.1 milli...
Effectiveness of an integrated intimate partner violence and HIV prevention intervention in Rakai, Uganda: analysis of an intervention in an existing cluster randomised cohort
This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02050763. Findings Between Feb 15, 2005, and June 30, 2006, we enrolled 11?448 individuals aged 15?49 years. 5337 individuals (in four intervention clusters) were allocated into the SHARE plus HIV services group and 6111 individuals (in seven control clusters) were allocated into the HIV services only group. Compared with control groups, individuals in the SHARE intervention groups had fewer self-reports of past-year physical IPV (346 [16%] of 2127 responders in control groups vs 217 [12%] of 1812 responders in intervention groups; aPRR 0·79, 95% CI 0·67?0·92) and sexual IPV (261 [13%] of 2038 vs 167 [10%] of 1737; 0·80, 0·67?0·97). Incidence of emotional IPV did not differ (409 [20%] of 2039 vs 311 [18%] of 1737; ...
Activated carbon efficient atomistic model construction that depicts experimentally-determined characteristics
Publication date: March 2015 Source:Carbon, Volume 83 Author(s): Yang Huang , Fred S. Cannon , Justin K. Watson , B. Reznik , Jonathan P. Mathews Construction of large-scale atomistic representations of activated carbon aids exploration of structure?property relationships. The construction approaches for existing structures are limited in the control over the distribution of structural features. Here, an initial atomistic representation of a lignite-based activated carbon was constructed using a construction strategy that allows control over the distributions of stacking, degree of orientation, and pore size. Fringe3D was used to produce a collection of 42 molecules within 25 stacks comprised of graphene sheets with control over their length, orientation, and stack height. Vol3D popula...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Relationship between Otolaryngologic Complaints and Systemic Comorbidities Observed in a Group of Hearing Aid Users
Conclusion?The incidence of systemic and audiological complaints is high in this population. These patients should be evaluated thoroughly, as resolutions of these complaints can contribute to improving the quality of life and assist in the process of hearing aid fitting.[...]Thieme Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, BrazilArticle in Thieme eJournals:Table of contents  |  Abstract  |  open access Full text (Source: International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology)
The Meaning and Perceived Value of Mind-Body Practices for People Living with HIV: A Qualitative Synthesis
Mind-body practices (MBPs) are a subset of complementary medicine that represents a selection of self-care activities that may promote the health of people living with HIV (PLWH). No synthesis of qualitative research in this context, which might inform service provision and research priorities, has yet been published. A systematic search of electronic databases was conducted, identifying papers exploring the experience of MBPs in PLWH. During thematic synthesis, all text under the headings ?results? or ?findings? was scanned line-by-line and discrete, meaningful units of text were extracted as data items. (Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)
Influence of residential segregation on survival after AIDS diagnosis among non-Hispanic blacks
Non-Hispanic blacks (NHBs) are disproportionately affected by the AIDS epidemic. With the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), survival after AIDS diagnosis has increased dramatically, yet survival among NHBs is shorter compared to non-Hispanic whites. Racial residential segregation may be an important factor influencing observed racial disparities in survival. (Source: Annals of Epidemiology)
Time for a systematic look at inactivated HIV vaccines
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
HIV inactivation: time for a second look
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Different expression of Blimp-1 in HIV infection may be used to monitor disease progression and provide a clue to reduce immune activation and viral reservoirs
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
The elephant and the blind men: making sense of the seemingly multifaceted role of blimp-1 in HIV-1 infection
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Cardiac effects of in-utero exposure to antiretroviral therapy in HIV-uninfected children born to HIV-infected mothers
Conclusion:There was no evidence of significant cardiac toxicity of perinatal combination antiretroviral therapy exposure in HEU children. Subclinical differences in left ventricular structure and function with specific in-utero antiretroviral exposures indicate the need for a longitudinal cardiac study in HEU children to assess long-term cardiac risk and cardiac monitoring recommendations. (Source: AIDS)
Age-specific and sex-specific weight gain norms to monitor antiretroviral therapy in children in low-income and middle-income countries
Background:Viral load and CD4% are often not available in resource-limited settings for monitoring children's responses to antiretroviral therapy (ART). We aimed to construct normative curves for weight gain at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months following initiation of ART in children, and to assess the association between poor weight gain and subsequent responses to ART. Design:Analysis of data from HIV-infected children younger than 10 years old from African and Asian clinics participating in the International epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS. Methods:The generalized additive model for location, scale, and shape was used to construct normative percentile curves for weight gain at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months following ART initiation. Cox proportional models were used to assess the association ...
Growth patterns in the first year of life differ in infants born to perinatally vs. nonperinatally HIV-infected women
Objective:To compare the growth patterns in the first year of life between children born to perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV) vs. nonperinatally HIV-infected (NPHIV) women in the United States. Design:Retrospective cohort study of HIV-infected pregnant women who received care and delivered a live-born at two urban tertiary centers from January 2004 to March 2012. Methods:We collected data via chart review on demographics, behavioral risk factors, HIV clinical markers, combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), mode of HIV acquisition, pregnancy outcomes, and infant anthropometrics on study participants. Mixed-effects models were used to assess the association between maternal mode of HIV acquisition and weight-for-age z-score (WAZ), length-for-age z-score (LAZ), and weight-for-length z-score...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Dramatic decline in substance use by HIV-infected pregnant women in the United States from 1990 to 2012
Objective:We aimed to describe temporal changes in substance use among HIV-infected pregnant women in the United States from 1990 to 2012. Design:Data came from two prospective cohort studies (Women and Infants Transmission Study and Surveillance Monitoring for Antiretroviral Therapy Toxicities Study). Methods:Women were classified as using a substance during pregnancy if they self-reported use or had a positive biological sample. To account for correlation between repeated pregnancies by the same woman, generalized estimating equation models were used to test for temporal trends and evaluate predictors of substance use. Results:Over the 23-year period, substance use among the 5451 HIV-infected pregnant women sharply declined; 82% of women reported substance use during pregnancy in 1990, c...
Combination antiretroviral therapy reduces the detection risk of cervical human papilloma virus infection in women living with HIV
Conclusion:cART significantly reduced cervical HPV infection. This effect was dependent on the duration of exposure to cART and is the mechanism by which cART may improve the outcome of dysplasia in HIV-infected women. (Source: AIDS)
Trends in and correlates of CD4+ cell count at antiretroviral therapy initiation after changes in national ART guidelines in Rwanda
This study was conducted to better understand barriers and enablers to timely ART initiation in Rwanda where ART coverage is high and national ART eligibility guidelines first expanded in 2007?2008. Methods:Using data on 6326 patients (?15 years) at five Rwandan clinics, we assessed trends and correlates of CD4+ cell count at ART initiation and the proportion initiating ART with advanced HIV disease (CD4+ (Source: AIDS)
Testosterone replacement therapy among HIV-infected men in the CFAR Network of Integrated Clinical Systems
The objectives of this study were to determine the rate of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) initiation, TRT predictors and associated monitoring in HIV-infected men. Design:A multisite cohort study. Methods:We examined TRT initiation rates and monitoring among adult HIV-infected men in routine care at seven sites in the Centers for AIDS Research (CFAR) Network of Integrated Clinical Systems (CNICS) from 1996 to 2011. We determined TRT predictors using Cox regression modelling. Results:Of 14?454 men meeting inclusion criteria, TRT was initiated in 1482 (10%) with an initiation rate of 19.7/1000 person-years [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 18.7?20.7]. In the multivariable model, TRT was significantly associated with age at least 35 years, white race, diagnosis of AIDS wasting, he...
Persistent HIV-related stigma in rural Uganda during a period of increasing HIV incidence despite treatment expansion
Conclusion:Internalized stigma has increased over time among PLHIV in the setting of worsening anticipated stigma in the general population. Further study is needed to better understand the reasons for increasing HIV-related stigma in Uganda and its impact on HIV prevention efforts. (Source: AIDS)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Design of a highly potent HIV-1 fusion inhibitor targeting the gp41 pocket
Conclusion:Our studies delivered an ideal HIV-1 fusion inhibitor that specifically targeted the highly conserved gp41 pocket and possessed potent binding and antiviral activity. Furthermore, HP23 can serve as a critical tool to explore the mechanisms of HIV-1 fusion and inhibition. (Source: AIDS)
Broad and persistent Gag-specific CD8+ T-cell responses are associated with viral control but rarely drive viral escape during primary HIV-1 infection
Conclusions:These data underscore the importance of HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, particularly to the Gag protein, in the maintenance of low viral load levels during primary infection, and show that these responses are initially poorly elicited by natural infection. These data have implications for vaccine design strategies. (Source: AIDS)
Mx2 expression is associated with reduced susceptibility to HIV infection in highly exposed HIV seronegative Kenyan sex workers
Introduction:Recent studies have identified Mx2 as a novel HIV-1 innate restriction factor that inhibits proviral integration. A pilot proteomic study of immune cells from highly exposed HIV-seronegative (HESN) individuals enrolled in the Pumwani sex worker cohort identified Mx1 as potential correlate of HIV protection. A detailed population level analysis of Mx1 and Mx2 expression and their role in reduced susceptibility to HIV infection in HESN women was conducted. Methods:Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated from 102 HESN women and 100 high-risk negative controls enrolled in a Nairobi-based sex worker cohort. Whole-cell lysates were prepared and analyzed for Mx1 and Mx2 expression by commercial ELISA. Bivariate and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to...
Gut epithelial barrier and systemic inflammation during chronic HIV infection
Objective:Microbial translocation and innate immune action characterize HIV infection. Continued gut mucosal dysfunction during treatment and its relationship to CD4+ T-cell recovery has not been well described. Design:A cross-sectional study was performed of antiretroviral therapy (ART)-suppressed (immunologic responders with CD4+ >?500?cells/?l and immunologic nonresponders with CD4+ (Source: AIDS)
Therapy with boceprevir or telaprevir in HIV/hepatitis C virus co-infected patients to treat recurrence of hepatitis C virus infection after liver transplantation
Conclusion:Our data suggest that in HIV/HCV co-infected patients, triple anti-HCV therapy with telaprevir greatly improved efficacy despite poor tolerability. Significant decreases in cyclosporine or tacrolimus doses are necessary prior to introduction of boceprevir or telaprevir. Close monitoring is essential to prevent drug?drug interactions among antiretroviral therapy, immunosuppressive agents and anti-HCV therapy. (Source: AIDS)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
The contrasting cultures of HIV and tuberculosis care
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Mitochondrial disturbances in HIV pregnancies
Background:Mitochondrial consequences from foetal exposure to HIV infection and antiretrovirals could be further investigated. Objective:The main objective of this study was to evaluate maternofoetal mitochondrial disturbances in HIV infection and antiretroviral administration in human pregnancies as the aetiopathogenic basis of suboptimal perinatal-clinical features. Design:Cross-sectional, prospective, observational, exploratory and controlled study. Methods:Clinical/epidemiological data of 35 HIV-infected pregnant women and 17 controls were collected. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and RNA (mtRNA) content (real time-PCR), enzymatic activities and content (spectrophotometry) were measured in leucocytes. Genetic-functional, maternofoetal and molecular-clinical correlations were assessed. Resul...
World AIDS Day ? December 1, 2014
(Source: CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report)
Liberia: Ebola Hampers Nat'l HIV Response
[Inquirer]The National AIDS Commission (NAC) has revealed that people living with HIV and AIDS who should be on treatment are only 25 percent receiving treatment in Liberia. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Gambia: 'Positive Behavioural Practices, Critical in Halting, Reversing HIV'
[Daily Observer]The president of the Republic and chairman of the National Aids Council (NAC) has reiterated that positive behavioral practices are very critical in halting and reversing HIV in the country. He revealed that recent studies indicate that Lower River Region (LRR) is the hardest hit in terms of HIV prevalence, followed by West Coast Region (WCR). (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Liberia: 'Ebola Outbreak Stalls HIV Response'
[NEWS]The Chairman of the National AIDS Commission of Liberia, Dr. Ivan F. Camanor has disclosed that Ebola has negatively impacted the national HIV response. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Europe and Central Asia failing to curb spread of HIV: WHO
LONDON (Reuters) - Despite major advances in treating and preventing HIV, Europe and Central Asia have failed to tackle the epidemic, with some 136,000 people becoming newly infected with the incurable AIDS virus last year, health officials said on Thursday. (Source: Reuters: Health)
Zimbabwe: Government Urges Zimbabweans to Know Their Status
[Key Correspondents]Zimbabwe's Ministry of Health and Child Care is stepping up its efforts to promote voluntary counselling and testing for HIV, amid concerns that the current uptake of these services is too low. The government launched a new HIV testing and counselling campaign and new national guidelines on 20 November. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: U.S. Votes U.S.$500 Million to Fight HIV/Aids in Nigeria
[Guardian]Abuja -As part of United States President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), the United States Government yesterday earmarked an extra $500 million to support the fight against HIV/AIDS in Nigeria. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Liberia: 'Ebola Outbreak Undermines HIV Response'
[Observer]The Chairman of the National AIDS Commission of Liberia, Dr. Ivan F. Camanor, has disclosed that the Ebola virus disease outbreak has negatively affected the national HIV response in the country. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Nutritional Management in HIV/AIDS Infection.
Authors: van Graan AE PMID: 25418402 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics)
Nigeria: U.S. Commits Over U.S.$3.5 Billion to Nigeria HIV/Aids Response
[Leadership]The Embassy of the United States of America yesterday revealed that its government has committed more than $3.5 billion, about N580 billion, to Nigeria's HIV/AIDS response since 2004. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Tanzania: Dar Seeks Funds for Anti-Retroviral Care
[Daily News]Dodoma -THE government is looking for funds to implement World Health Organization (WHO) guidance of placing HIV/Aids positive people with CD4 count of 500 on Antiretroviral (ARV) therapy. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Use of Sargassum fusiforme Extract and its Bioactive Molecules to inhibit HIV Infection: Bridging Two Paradigms between Eastern and Western Medicine
Publication date: November 2014 Source:Chinese Herbal Medicines, Volume 6, Issue 4 Author(s): Hui-jun Guo , Yan-ze Liu , Elena E. Paskaleva , Manoj Arra , Jeffrey S. Kennedy , Alexander Shekhtman , Mario Canki AIDS is a global pandemic that has seen the development of novel and effective treatments to improve the quality of life of those infected and reduction in the spread of the disease. While great advancements have been made in HIV/AIDS therapeutics, there is still no cure or viable vaccine in development. The high rate of HIV-1 mutation contributing to virus immune escape, combined with increase in sexual transmission and the significant clinical therapeutics side effects of the currently available treatments highlights the need for novel therapeutics with broad anti-viral activity ...
Death from AIDS is preventable, so why are people still dying of AIDS in Europe?
(Source: Eurosurveillance)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Report of filamentous forms in a mating type VNI clinical sequential isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans from an HIV virus-infected patient
We reported a cryptococcal meningitis Aids-patient infected with a mating type VNI isolate showing filamentous cells in direct examination of cerebrospinal fluid. Clinical data, outcome, treatment features and microbiological findings were discussed. (Source: Medical Mycology Case Reports)
Protective efficacy of prolonged co-trimoxazole prophylaxis in HIV-exposed children up to age 4 years for the prevention of malaria in Uganda: a randomised controlled open-label trial
This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00527800. Findings 203 HIV-exposed infants were enrolled between Aug 10, 2007, and March 28, 2008. After breastfeeding ended, 185 children were not infected with HIV and were randomly assigned to stop (n=87) or continue (n=98) co-trimoxazole up to age 2 years. At age 2 years, 91 HIV-exposed children who had remained on co-trimoxazole prophylaxis were randomly assigned to discontinue (n=46) or continue (n=45) co-trimoxazole from age 2 years to age 4 years. We recorded 243 malaria episodes (2·91 per person-years) in the 45 HIV-exposed children assigned to continue co-trimoxazole until age 4 years compared with 503 episodes (5·60 per person-years) in the 46 children assigned to stop co-trimoxazole at age 2 years (incidence rate ra...
A Unique Hexokinase in Cryptosporidium parvum, an Apicomplexan Pathogen Lacking the Krebs Cycle and Oxidative Phosphorylation
Publication date: September 2014 Source:Protist, Volume 165, Issue 5 Author(s): Yonglan Yu , Haili Zhang , Fengguang Guo , Mingfei Sun , Guan Zhu Cryptosporidium parvum may cause virtually untreatable infections in AIDS patients, and is recently identified as one of the top four diarrheal pathogens in children in developing countries. Cryptosporidium differs from other apicomplexans (e.g., Plasmodium and Toxoplasma) by lacking many metabolic pathways including the Krebs cycle and cytochrome-based respiratory chain, thus relying mainly on glycolysis for ATP production. Here we report the molecular and biochemical characterizations of a hexokinase in C. parvum (CpHK). Our phylogenetic reconstructions indicated that apicomplexan hexokinases including CpHK were highly divergent from those of...
Outcomes of cytomegalovirus retinitis-related retinal detachment surgery in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients in an Asian population
Conclusions: Surgery for CMVR-related RD is associated with good anatomical outcomes with most eyes maintaining or having improved vision. CMVR lesion size of (Source: BMC Ophthalmology)
[Functional and structural changes of endothelium during HIV infection: pilot study.]
CONCLUSIONS: Endothelial dysfunction is frequent in patients with HIV infection. In general, none of the analysed factors influence on endothelial function. However, cART has negative effect on arterial stiffness. PMID: 25428814 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Polish Heart Journal)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Effects of Tobacco Smoking on HIV-Infected Individuals.
This article reviews the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying health problems attributable to tobacco in HIV patients, and how these mechanisms may interact with those of HIV infection. Tobacco smoking exerts a greater health impact on HIV-infected patients than on uninfected smokers. Components of tobacco smoke and HIV infection induce complex interrelated pathophysiological changes through different pathways, affecting various organ systems with a cumulative or synergistic effect. This review supports the contention that HIV infection may confer an increased susceptibility to the harmful effects of smoking. Tobacco-related harm in the setting of HIV infection is still underestimated. A better understanding of the pathophysiological interaction between tobacco smoking and HIV will hel...
Update on HIV-1 Acquired and Transmitted Drug Resistance in Africa.
Authors: Ssemwanga D, Lihana RW, Ugoji C, Abimiku A, Nkengasong J, Dakum P, Ndembi N Abstract The last ten years have witnessed a significant scale-up and access to antiretroviral therapy in Africa, which has improved patient quality of life and survival. One major challenge associated with increased access to antiretroviral therapy is the development of antiretroviral resistance due to inconsistent drug supply and/or poor patient adherence. We review the current state of both acquired and transmitted drug resistance in Africa over the past ten years (2001-2011) to identify drug resistance associated with the different drug regimens used on the continent and to help guide affordable strategies for drug resistance surveillance. A total of 161 references (153 articles, six reports an...
Holiday Survival 101
Now that Halloween is in the rear view mirror, we're speeding towards the holidays and if we're not careful, to the destination of burnout. Foods we don't usually eat, later nights than usual, holiday expectations, family dynamics and the financial stress of gift buying can send even the strongest person right over the edge. It's no surprise so many of us start the new year feeling exhausted and sick. How to skip symptoms of burnout? I've got five easy ways to carve out a little sanity amongst the chaos. Holiday Survival 101. 1. Remember time-outs when you were a kid? Back then you probably considered them punishment but today they will save you from punishing yourself. Taking small breaks throughout the day for me-time isn't self indulgent, it's necessary during the holidays. How t...
DIGIGLASSES Headsets for People with Vision Disabilities
The DIGIGLASSES project, which kicked off in 2012, set out to develop a marketable digital tool for the visually impaired using stereoscopic vision, corrected and customised for the specific symptoms of the user?s eye disease. The project?s latest video (see below) announces the opening of product lines for participating SMEs. The project hopes it can be on market at the end of 2015. (Source: Disabled World)
Swaziland: Nutrition Advice Helps Farmer Win Battle Against Aids
[WFP]Diagnosed as HIV positive in 2011, Sabelo became badly malnourished as he struggled to keep his farm going and feed his family. He seemed to be on a downward spiral. But a combination of antiretrovirals, food assistance and nutrition advice turned things around. Today, he grows enough vegetables to keep himself healthy and earn an income on the local market. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Liberia: Monrovia Medical Unit Aids Health Care Workers in Ebola Fight
[State Department]The United States has been engaged in fighting the Ebola outbreak since the first cases were reported in March and on November 5, as part of our whole-of-government response to the Ebola crisis, we opened the Monrovia Medical Unit, which will provide care to any health care workers who become infected with Ebola while treating patients. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Africa: Global Fund Analysis of Audits and Investigations
[Global Fund]At the 32nd Board meeting of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, held 20-21 November, the Board was informed of an analysis of audits and investigations, reaffirming a policy of zero tolerance for corruption and a commitment to a high degree of transparency. The Global Fund reports all cases of misused funds, publishing audits and investigations reports on its website. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Zimbabwe: STI Cases On the Rise
[The Herald]The number of people treated for sexually transmitted infections continues to increase in Harare in contrast to the declining trend in new HIV infections. This was revealed by the Harare City Health Director Dr Prosper Chonzi, who said in 2013 Harare reported an increase of 17 percent, up from 15 percent the previous year. Dr Chonzi attributed the increase to people's laxity in using protection during sex. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Liberia: World Aids Day Program Earmarked
[NEWS]The National AIDS Commission (NAC) and partners have planned series of programs to mark the commemoration of this year's World AIDS Day in Liberia. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Kenya: Gender-Based Violence Against Sex Workers and Its Implications On HIV and Aids
[The Star]This is the second part of our series to mark 16 Days of Activism Against Gender-Based Violence (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Zimbabwe: World Day Aids Day Theme Song Launched
[The Herald]Aids remains one of the killer diseases in Zimbabwe with many people succumbing to the disease each year. It is against this background that local musicians have joined hands and launched an HIV and AIDS awareness theme song for the coming World Aids Day to be commemorated in Victoria Falls on December 1. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Zambia: U.S. Launches U.S.$25Million HIV/Aids Project
[Times of Zambia]THE United States Government has launched a US$25million project towards HIV/AIDS prevention in Zambia. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Kenya: First Lady's Speech During the Handing Over of 13th Mobile Clinic to Kisii County
[Kenya Presidency]Distinguished Guests, (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Paragangliomas Arising in the Head and Neck
Seventy percent of parasympathetic paragangliomas arise in the head and neck and are nonsecretory. Awareness of the differential diagnosis based on location, overlapping morphology, and immunohistochemical profiles aids in the correct diagnosis, particularly on limited tissue samples. Moreover, 30% to 40% of head and neck paragangliomas are known to be associated with hereditary syndromes, with the succinate dehydrogenase enzyme family comprising the most frequent association. The pathologist?s role is becoming increasing critical for facilitating optimal patient care beyond the initial tissue diagnosis of paraganglioma to include screening and documenting potential hereditary tumors requiring further patient counseling and testing. (Source: Surgical Pathology Clinics)
Application of the analytic hierarchy process to a risk assessment of emerging infectious diseases in shaoxing city in southern china.
This study aimed to assess the likelihood of an outbreak or epidemic of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) in Shaoxing city, China, and its resulting impact to provide decision makers with quantitative, directive results. Factors related to the risk of EIDs were selected through meeting with experts and were arranged in a hierarchical structure. These evaluation factors were also weighted to allow the use of a point system for evaluation. As a result, 14 evaluation factors comprising a 3-layer hierarchy were generated. The riskiest top 10 EIDs were HIV/AIDS (consistency index [CI] = 3.206), cholera (CI = 3.103), SARS (CI = 2.804), acute schistosomiasis (CI = 2.784), malaria (CI = 2.777), legionellosis (CI = 2.743), avian influenza A/H5N1 (CI = 2.734), dengue fever (CI = 2.702), Escherichi...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Botswana: NACA Continues Fight Against HIV/Aids Fights
[Botswana Daily News]Serowe -Botswana remains committed to ending HIV/AIDS via intensified efforts to achieve universal access to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support, deputy coordinator with National AIDS Coordinating Agency (NACA), Mr Fraiser Tlhoiwe has said. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Updated Fact Sheet: HIV in the United States
Overview of HIV in the United States, including new HIV infections, AIDS, and deaths. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
Updated Basic Statistics
A basic overview of HIV and AIDS statistics in the United States. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
New Testing Poster and Social Media Badge
Posters and social media badges highlighting the fact that 1 in 7 people living with HIV are unaware of their infection. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
HIV Surveillance Supplemental Report: Monitoring Selected National HIV Prevention and Care Objectives by Using HIV Surveillance Data ? United States and 6 Dependent Areas ? 2012
This surveillance supplemental report complements the 2012 HIV Surveillance Report and presents the results of focused analyses of NHSS and MMP data to measure progress toward achieving selected objectives of the NHAS and the DHAP Strategic Plan. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Vital Signs: HIV Care Saves Lives
Vital Signs shows, among the 1.2 million Americans living with HIV in 2011, less than a third had their virus under control through effective care and treatment. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
Hiv/aids
The last issue of the Infectious Disease Clinics of North America devoted specifically to HIV/AIDS was published in 1988. Edited by Merle Sande and Paul Volberding, that landmark issue provided a state-of the-art snapshot of the newly defined epidemic, its epidemiology, and the basic principles of treatment and care. Much has happened since then. In 2012, the number of persons living with HIV infection worldwide reached an all-time high of 35.3 million. The medical, social, and economic consequences of this global disaster have reached all continents, presenting society with a health-related challenge unlike any other. (Source: Infectious Diseases Clinics of North America)
Evaluation of a Red Cell Leukofilter Performance and Effect of Buffy Coat Removal on Filtration Efficiency and Post Filtration Storage
This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of Imugard III-RC 4P in removing the leukocyte from packed red cells and the storage effects thereafter. The effects of buffy coat removal on the efficiency of leukofiltration, storage parameters of leukofiltered packed red blood cells and feasibility of prestorage leukofiltration were also assessed. Sixteen units each of buffy coat-depleted (LP) and nondepleted (NLP) PRBC were taken. Every unit was divided into two equal halves, one leukofiltered and other, non-leukofiltered. Cell counts, volume, hematocrit and hemoglobin were measured before and after filtration. Levels of K+, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and hemolysis were assessed in all the units weekly, post leukofiltration. Post leukofiltration, red cell and volume loss was withi...
Improving the Two Ends of the HIV Care CascadeImproving the Two Ends of the HIV Care Cascade
Dr Benjamin Young reviews two recently published studies on testing and treating HIV patients within the context of the UNAIDS recently announced 90-90-90 treatment targets. Medscape HIV/AIDS (Source: Medscape Hiv-Aids Headlines)
Only 3 in 10 Americans With HIV Have Virus Suppressed: CDCOnly 3 in 10 Americans With HIV Have Virus Suppressed: CDC
Most of the 1.2 million Americans living with HIV infection have not achieved viral suppression. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
UCLA and House Clinic sign letter of intent to expand patients? access to specialty ear care
The UCLA department of head and neck surgery and House Clinic announced today that they have signed a letter of intent to pursue and finalize a clinical partnership. The alliance would create the nation?s leader in patient care, research and education for hearing and ear disorders. ?We are thrilled to invite the House Clinic?s world-class group of physicians to the internationally recognized UCLA Health and David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA,? said Dr. David Feinberg, president of the UCLA Health System, CEO of the UCLA Hospital System and associate vice chancellor of the Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA. ?Our partnership will enable patients from Los Angeles and throughout the world to be treated by House doctors as part of the UCLA network.? The move would preserve eac...
Sound Transfer of Active Middle Ear Implants
This article attempts to summarize the current knowledge concerning the mechanical interaction between active middle ear implants (AMEIs) and the normal or reconstructed middle ear. Some basic characteristics of the different AMEIs are provided in conjunction with the middle ear mechanics. The interaction of AMEIs and middle ear and the influence of various boundary conditions are discussed in more detail. (Source: Otolaryngologic clinics of North America)
Awareness, Knowledge and Misconceptions about Some Reproductive Health Issues among the Married Couples in High-risk States of India
The objective of this article is to study awareness, knowledge and misconception regarding RTI/STI and HIV/AIDS among the married couples in high-risk states of India. Data for this paper have been obtained from the Rapid Household Survey under Reproductive and Child Health Survey, Round II, during 2002&ndash;04. The states of Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Manipur, Nagaland and Tamil Nadu were purposively selected for the analysis; except Gujarat all these states were in the category of high risk. A total of 82,596 married couples were considered for the study. A bi-variate technique was used for the analysis. In addition, a knowledge index was computed as a summary measure of knowledge and misconception. It was categorized into Low, Medium and High Knowledge. The analys...
Viruses, Vol. 6, Pages 4800-4810: Genotypic Analysis of Kaposi?s Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus from Patients with Kaposi?s Sarcoma in Xinjiang, China
Kaposi?s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the causal agent of all forms of Kaposi?s sarcoma (KS), including AIDS-KS, endemic KS, classic KS and iatrogenic KS. Based on Open reading frame (ORF) K1 sequence analysis, KSHV has been classified into seven major molecular subtypes (A, B, C, D, E, F and Z). The distribution of KSHV strains varies according to geography and ethnicity. Xinjiang is a unique region where the seroprevalence of KSHV is significantly higher than other parts of China. The genotyping of KSHV strains in this region has not been thoroughly studied. The present study aimed to evaluate the frequency of KSHV genotypes isolated from KS tissues in Classical KS and AIDS KS patients from Xinjiang, China. ORF-K1 of KSHV from tissue samples of 28 KS patients was amplifie...
Blood component use in a sub-Saharan African country: Results of a four-year evaluation of diagnoses associated with transfusion orders in Namibia
National blood use patterns in sub-Saharan Africa are poorly described. While malaria and maternal hemorrhage remain important drivers of blood demand across Africa, economic growth and changes in malaria, HIV/AIDS, and non-communicable disease epidemiology may contribute to changes in blood demand. We evaluated indications for blood utilization in Namibia, a country in southern Africa, using a nationally representative sample and discuss implications for the region. Clinical and demographic data related to the issuance of blood component units in Namibia were reviewed for a four year period (August 1, 2007 - July 31, 2011). (Source: Transfusion Medicine Reviews)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Successful coping in urban, community dwelling older adults with HIV
By 2015, 50% of HIV-infected individuals in the United States will be 50 years of age and older. Examining successful coping in older adults with HIV could expand existing coping toolkits, enhance disease management, and improve overall outcomes. We explored how urban, community-dwelling older adults (N = 40) coped with HIV infection, co-morbidities, and related stressors. Participants completed an individual or focus group interview session using open-ended questions formulated from extended participant observation. (Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)
Meniscal Root Tears: Significance, Diagnosis, and Treatment
This article presents a review of the clinically relevant anatomic, biomechanical, and functional descriptions of the meniscus root attachments, as well as current strategies for accurate diagnosis and treatment of common injuries to these meniscus root attachments. (Source: The American Journal of Sports Medicine)
Less blame and less shame means less HIV.
Authors: Warriner J Abstract Every year on December 1, World AIDS Day helps raise awareness. Since 2011 and up to next year, the World Health Organization (WHO) is promoting 'Getting to zero: zero new HIV infections: zero discrimination and zero AIDS-related deaths'. PMID: 25424094 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Nursing Standard)
Factors associated with therapeutic success in HIV?positive individuals in southern Brazil
The objective of this study was to evaluate factors associated with therapeutic success in adult patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in a specialized centre for HIV?AIDS in southern Brazil, being defined therapeutic success as achieving and maintaining undetectable viral load, stable immune status (CD4+ T lymphocyte count ?200 cells/mm3) and adherence to HAART ? 95%. MethodsWe conducted a historical cohort study nested in the PC?HIV randomized clinical trial of PC?HIV. We included adults who were on HAART at Pelotas HIV/AIDS Assistance Service between June 2006 and July 2007 and for whom information on treatment adherence, viral load and CD4+ cell count was available. Pregnant women were excluded. We obtained clinical data from medical records and socio?de...
Most Americans with HIV Don't Have Virus Under Control, CDC Says
U.S. experts cite indifference, lack of access to care Source: HealthDay Related MedlinePlus Pages: HIV/AIDS, Health Disparities, Infection Control (Source: MedlinePlus Health News)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Beyond the Rhetoric: Implement Proven Community Strategies to Fight HIV/AIDS
Press releaseBeyond the Rhetoric: Implement Proven Community Strategies to Fight HIV/AIDS November 24, 2014 JOHANNESBURG/NEW YORK?The recent call by UNAIDS to ?close the gap?around access to HIV services will not be met unless the delivery of antiretroviral treatment (ARV) is radically reshaped into community-led approaches that adapt to the realities of those living with HIV, said the international medical humanitarian organization Doctors Without Borders/Médecins sans Frontières (MSF) ahead of World Aids Day, December 1. (Source: MSF News)
Vital Signs: HIV Care Saves Lives
Vital Signs shows, among the 1.2 million Americans living with HIV in 2011, less than a third had their virus under control through effective care and treatment. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
HIV Surveillance Supplemental Report: Monitoring Selected National HIV Prevention and Care Objectives by Using HIV Surveillance Data ? United States and 6 Dependent Areas ? 2012
This surveillance supplemental report complements the 2012 HIV Surveillance Report and presents the results of focused analyses of NHSS and MMP data to measure progress toward achieving selected objectives of the NHAS and the DHAP Strategic Plan. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
Updated Fact Sheet: HIV in the United States
Overview of HIV in the United States, including new HIV infections, AIDS, and deaths. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
Updated Basic Statistics
A basic overview of HIV and AIDS statistics in the United States. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
New Testing Poster and Social Media Badge
Posters and social media badges highlighting the fact that 1 in 7 people living with HIV are unaware of their infection. (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
Africa: African First Ladies Unite to Ensure That All Children Are Born HIV-Free
[UNAIDS]Geneva -The First Ladies of Africa call on governments and communities to ensure that all babies in Africa are born and stay free of HIV. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Q&A: David Gere and the fight to end AIDS
Through the UCLA Art and Global Health Center he created, visionary director and professor David Gere of the Department of World Arts and Cultures has used art and a network of artists to communicate his message about ending the AIDS epidemic around the world. On Tuesday, Nov. 18, before World AIDS Day 2014 (Dec. 1), Michel Sidibé, the executive director of the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), came to Glorya Kaufman Hall to announce a plan to accomplish just that by 2030. South African and American actress Charlize Theron, the founder of an Africa outreach project and a designated UN Messenger of Peace, also talked about the progress that's being made in Africa. More than 100 people, from UCLA students to longtime researchers associated with the UCLA AIDS Institute, we...
Kenya: Campaign Seeks One Million Men to End Gender Based Violence
[Key Correspondents]Today (25 November), as around the world 16 days of activism against gender based violence begins, many Kenyans are asking if the campaign is likely to help eliminate this issue that contributes highly to new HIV infections. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Mali: Top UN Health Officials Take Joint Mission to Mali in Support of Ebola Response
[UN News]The Executive Director of Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), Michel Sidibé and the Director-General of the World Health Organization, Dr. Margaret Chan, have visited Mali in a joint mission to support the country in its efforts to curb the spread of Ebola, as authorities there announced one new case and that two more suspected patients were being tested. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Africa: Aids Is No. 1 Killer of African Teenagers
[IPS]Lagos -Two years ago, Shola* was kicked out of the family house in Abeokuta, in southwestern Nigeria, after testing HIV-positive at age 13. He was living with his father, his stepmother and their seven children. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
HIV: Earlier Therapy May Be BetterHIV: Earlier Therapy May Be Better
Initiating antiretroviral therapy for patients with HIV on the basis of time, rather than CD4+ counts, could help more patients achieve immunologic normalization. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Infectious Diseases Headlines)
South Africa: SAP Africa Commits Funds for Global Aids Summit
[CAJ News]Abuja -SYSTEMS Applications Products (SAP) Africa has allocated $150, 000 (about R1,65 million) as support for next year's 21st International AIDS Conference. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Pandemic obesity and the contagion of nutritional nonsense.
Authors: Katz DL Abstract The United States is the epicenter of an obesity pandemic. As more countries acculturate to a Western lifestyle, rates of obesity and its sequelae are rising steadily in both adults and children. In response, a variety of weight-loss diets emphasizing alternative distributions of macronutrient classes have been promoted with considerable success. Among the most popular is the so-called "Atkins Diet," in which carbohydrate restriction is touted as the key to weight loss. Despite claims, however, evidence that weight loss is enhanced by means other than caloric restriction is lacking. Also lacking is evidence that fad diets produce sustainable weight loss. Most important, fad diets generally ignore or refute what is known about fundamental associations betwe...
Long-term ventilation of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy: experiences at the Neuromuscular Centre Ulm.
Authors: Wollinsky KH, Kutter B, Geiger PM Abstract The various measures used to treat the symptoms of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), i.e. medication with steroids, early operation on contractures and spine deformities as well as cardiac diagnostics and therapy, should always be accompanied by careful monitoring of the patient's respiratory status. Therapy for respiratory failure, in particular long-term ventilation, is now generally accepted as essential for DMD patients. The provision of assisted ventilation has made a decisive contribution to the quality of life for older patients and the stigma hitherto attached to it as being merely a means of keeping a patient comfortable towards the end of life has now been dispelled. Even outside the hospital, assisted ventilation has b...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
The impact of permanent muscle weakness on quality of life in periodic paralysis: a survey of 66 patients.
Authors: Cavel-Greant D, Lehmann-Horn F, Jurkat-Rott K Abstract The periodic paralyses are hereditary muscle diseases which cause both episodic and permanent weakness. Permanent weakness may include both reversible and fixed components, the latter caused by fibrosis and fatty replacement. To determine the degree of handicap and impact of permanent weakness on daily life, we conducted a 68-question online survey of 66 patients over 41 years (mean age, 60 ± 14 years). Permanent weakness occurred in 68%, muscle pain in 82% and muscle fatigue in 89%. Eighty-three percent of patients reported themselves as moderately to very active between ages 18-35. At the time of the survey only 14% reported themselves as moderately to very active. Contrary to the literature, only 21% of patients re...
Evaluating New Definitions of Acute and Early HIV Infection from HIV Surveillance Data.
CONCLUSION: MSM with known AHI were not identified by proposed definitions of AHI and early infection. These known AHI cases were frequently missed by HIV surveillance because concurrent negative antibody tests were not reported. Successful implementation of the revisions to the HIV staging system will require more comprehensive reporting. PMID: 25317222 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
Male Circumcision and HIV Transmission; What Do We Know?
Authors: Jayathunge PH, McBride WJ, MacLaren D, Kaldor J, Vallely A, Turville S Abstract Male circumcision (MC) has been shown to be protective against heterosexual HIV transmission and is being explored in some parts of the world as a means of combating the epidemic. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that MC be considered as an important component of HIV prevention in high prevalence settings. We review evidence that demonstrates that the inner foreskin is likely to be the main portal of entry for the HIV virus in males. Whether removal of the inner foreskin accounts for all the protection afforded by circumcision is yet to be established. The proposed mechanisms of protection range from inherent immunohistological factors of foreskin such as difference in thickness o...
Prevalence of Anogenital Warts in Men with HIV/AIDS and Associated Factors.
CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrate that anogenital warts occur in almost one-third of the male population infected with HIV and factors associated with a higher risk of being diagnosed with anogenital warts were irregular cART use and co-infection with HSV, other variables could not be associated. PMID: 25317220 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
Fcgbp - A Potential Viral Trap in RV144.
Authors: Schwartz JL Abstract Years of extensive research have yielded much knowledge in many aspects of HIV-1 infection, treatments, and education. However, without a vaccine, the number of people infected worldwide continues to grow. The partial success of the Thai RV144 vaccine trial provides hope that a method of protection is indeed possible. Understanding the mechanism behind the protection is critical if we hope to achieve our goal of inhibiting new infections of HIV-1. We hypothesize that the Fc of IgG binding protein (Fcgbp) is associated with the protection observed in the RV144 vaccine trial. It has the ability to trap viral-antibody complexes in the mucosa by binding the Fc of IgG to Fcgbp. This property could be used in the form of a microbicide containing antibodies t...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Understanding STI Risk and Condom Use Patterns by Partner Type Among Female Sex Workers in Peru.
This study compared high risk behaviors among 120 Peruvian FSW from government regulated brothels with both clients and non-commercial partners. Our study found that 12% of FSW reported unprotected vaginal sex with clients (compared to 75% with non-commercial partners), and 42% reported unprotected anal sex with clients (compared to 87% with non-commercial partners). Group differences were observed in the expectation to have oral sex (32% for partners vs 60% for clients; p&lt;0.01), and a history of anal sex (65% for partners vs 32% for clients; p&lt;0.01) and both vaginal and anal sex with the same partners (46% for partners vs 25% for clients; p&lt;0.001). These findings suggest that FSW constitute an important bridge population for STI/HIV transmission in Peru. PMID: 24949112 [PubM...
Factors Associated with Uptake of HIV Test Results in a Nationally Representative Population-Based AIDS Indicator Survey.
Authors: Mwangi M, Kellogg TA, Dadabhai SS, Bunnell R, Baltazar G, Ngare C, K'opiyo G, Mburu M, Kim AA Abstract Population-based surveys with HIV testing in settings with low testing coverage provide opportunities for participants to learn their HIV status. Survey participants (15-64 years) in a 2007 nationally representative population-based HIV serologic survey in Kenya received a voucher to collect HIV test results at health facilities 6 weeks after blood draw. Logistic regression models were fitted to identify predictors of individual and couple collection of results. Of 15,853 adults consenting to blood draw, 7,222 (46.7%) collected HIV test results (46.5% men, 46.8% women). A third (39.5%) of HIV-infected adults who were unaware of their infection and 48.2% of those who had n...
Modulation of Regulatory T-Cell Subsets in Very Long-Term Treated Aviremic HIV(+) Patients and Untreated Viremic Patients.
Authors: Serana F, Chiarini M, Quiros-Roldan E, Gotti D, Zanotti C, Sottini A, Bertoli D, Caimi L, Imberti L Abstract Naïve, central- and effector-like memory regulatory T cells (Tregs) were evaluated in untreated and long-term antiretroviral-treated HIV(+) patients that showed comparable CD4(+) cell levels, while being, respectively, viremic and aviremic. In the untreated patients, the percentage of naïve-like Tregs was significantly increased to the detriment of central memory regulatory T cells. This redistribution of regulatory Treg subsets may contribute to explain the partially preserved CD4(+) cell counts seen in these patients despite the ongoing viremia. On the contrary, in the long-term treated patients, the percentages of Treg subsets were similar to those of healthy d...
Cervical HPV Infection in Female Sex Workers: A Global Perspective.
CONCLUSIONS: Female sex workers have an overall high prevalence of HPV infection of high-risk types as evident through various testing methods. FSWs are thought to be at increased risk of cervical cancer because of high HPV exposure. This highlights the need for HPV and cervical prevention campaigns tailored to FSWs. PMID: 24511334 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
Older Adults with HIV/AIDS in Rural China.
Authors: Zhang Y, Fuller-Thomson E, Anne Mitchell C, Zhang X Abstract Although the number of older people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) has increased substantially, few studies have focused on older PLWHA in developing countries. Based on a sample of 866 rural PLWHA in Henan, Anhui and Yunnan provinces in China, this study compares the characteristics of PLWHA aged 50 or older (n=185) with younger PLWHA (n=681). Most of the older PLWHA were female (n=112), illiterate, married and at the clinical stage of HIV. Over 90% of older people with HIV/AIDS lived in Henan and Anhui provinces. The severe epidemic in Henan and Anhui provinces was caused by commercial blood and plasma donation. Older PLWHA were less educated, received less social support and were more likely to live alone than y...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
The Higher Frequency of Blood Group B in a Brazilian Population with HIV Infection.
CONCLUSIONS: A more restricted antigen recognition capacity of anti-Gal?1-3Gal in blood groups AB and B and a weaker antigen-binding capacity of anti-A antibodies may contribute to a higher frequency of HIV infection in blood group B. PMID: 24222813 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
An Ecological View of Internet Health Information Seeking Behavior Predictors: Findings from the CHAIN Study.
CONCLUSIONS: The benefits of accessing the Internet may influence health behavior and may be considered a target for interventions that aim to increase access to health related information online. Coupled with increased access, is the need for increased patient education interventions, and creative managed care approaches to ensure that information gleaned from online sources is interpretable and accurate in order to benefit the lives of those living with HIV/AIDS. PMID: 24222812 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
mHealth for HIV Treatment & Prevention: A Systematic Review of the Literature.
Authors: Catalani C, Philbrick W, Fraser H, Mechael P, Israelski DM Abstract This systematic review assesses the published literature to describe the landscape of mobile health technology (mHealth) for HIV/AIDS and the evidence supporting the use of these tools to address the HIV prevention, care, and treatment cascade. The speed of innovation, broad range of initiatives and tools, and heterogeneity in reporting have made it difficult to uncover and synthesize knowledge on how mHealth tools might be effective in addressing the HIV pandemic. To do address this gap, a team of reviewers collected literature on the use of mobile technology for HIV/AIDS among health, engineering, and social science literature databases and analyzed a final set of 62 articles. Articles were systematicall...
Do Men who have Sex with Men (MSM) in the United States Understand that HIV Serodiscordance is Possible?
CONCLUSIONS: A large proportion of young, internet-using MSM in the United States may not understand that HIV serodiscordance is possible within sexual partnerships. Based on these results, we recommend that CVCT provided to male couples in the United States should include education on HIV serodiscordance. PMID: 24133557 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
Delay in Seeking Care for Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Young Men and Women Attending a Public STD Clinic.
CONCLUSIONS: Many young persons delay seeking care for STDs for a number of reasons. Strategies to improve STD care-seeking include encouragement of symptomatic persons to seek medical care more rapidly, reduction of social stigmas, and improved access to testing options. PMID: 24078858 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Short Text Messages to Motivate HIV Testing Among Men Who have Sex with Men: A Qualitative Study in Lima, Peru.
CONCLUSION: Text messages can be used to promote HIV testing among Peruvian MSM. It is important to consider adequate frequency, message content and cost when delivering messages to promote HIV testing in this population. PMID: 23802032 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
Comparative Evaluation of HIV-1 Neutralization in External Secretions and Sera of HIV-1-Infected Women.
CONCLUSIONS: Results demonstrate that HIV-1-specific neutralizing antibodies are almost exclusively of the IgG isotype in serum/plasma and CVL samples. HIV-1-specific binding antibodies detected in RL are not responsible for neutralization activity, suggesting that the antibody-mediated virus neutralization in external secretions should be verified by means of a selective depletion of Ig. PMID: 23346267 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
Association of Nevirapine Levels with Rash or Hepatotoxicity Among HIV-Infected Thai Women.
CONCLUSIONS: We cannot conclude definitively that nevirapine concentrations at two weeks of therapy are associated with rash or hepatotoxicity. It is unlikely that therapeutic drug monitoring at that time will improve identification of patients at risk for rash or hepatotoxicity. PMID: 23304252 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
The Influence of HIV-1 Subtype in the Response to Therapeutic Dendritic Cell Vaccine.
Authors: Ferreira V, Moura P, Crovella S, Sobhie Diaz R, Castelo Filho A, Ximenes R, Arraes LC Abstract In the present study, we investigated the influence of HIV-1 subtype in the response to the dendritic cell (DC) therapeutic vaccine for HIV. HIV-1 viral load and TCD8+/TCD4+ cell counts for up to 48 weeks after vaccination. Out of 19 immunized subjects, 13 were infected by subtype B, 5 by subtype F, and 1 by subtype D. Overall, 42.1% (8/19) achieved a viral load decline of ? 1 log(10) sustained up to 48 weeks after immunization. Such magnitude of viral load drop was seen in 80% (4/5) of subtype F infected patients, and in 23.0% (3/13) of the subtype B infected ones (p=0.08). Moreover, mean viral load decline was 1.32 log(10), for subtype F infected individuals compared to 0.5 l...
HIV-1 Vaccine Trials: Evolving Concepts and Designs.
Authors: Sanou MP, De Groot AS, Murphey-Corb M, Levy JA, Yamamoto JK Abstract An effective prophylactic HIV-1 vaccine is needed to eradicate the HIV/AIDS pandemic but designing such a vaccine is a challenge. Despite many advances in vaccine technology and approaches to generate both humoral and cellular immune responses, major phase-II and -III vaccine trials against HIV/AIDS have resulted in only moderate successes. The modest achievement of the phase-III RV144 prime-boost trial in Thailand re-emphasized the importance of generating robust humoral and cellular responses against HIV. While antibody-directed approaches are being pursued by some groups, others are attempting to develop vaccines targeting cell-mediated immunity, since evidence show CTLs to be important for the control...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
The Burden of Orphans and Vulnerable Children Due to HIV/AIDS in Cameroon.
The objective of this study was to assess the burden of orphans and vulnerable children due to HIV/AIDS in Cameroon. A structured search to identify publications on orphans and other children made vulnerable by AIDS was carried out. A traditional literature search on google, PubMed and Medline using the keywords: orphans, vulnerable children, HIV/AIDS and Cameroon was conducted to identify potential AIDS orphans publications, we included papers on HIV prevalence in Cameroon, institutional versus integrated care of orphans, burden of children orphaned by AIDS and projections, impact of AIDS orphans on Cameroon, AIDS orphans assisted through the integrated care approach, and comparism of the policies of orphans care in the central African sub-region. We also used our participatory approach w...
HIV/AIDS-Related Knowledge and Behaviors Among Most-at-Risk Populations in Vietnam.
Authors: Vian T, Semrau K, Hamer DH, Loan le TT, Sabin LL Abstract The U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) has supported the Vietnamese Ministry of Health (MOH) in implementing behavior change strategies to slow the HIV epidemic. These programs target commercial sex workers (CSW), injection drug users (IDU), and men who have sex with men (MSM). Using data from a program evaluation to assess effectiveness of the PEPFAR intervention, we conducted a sub-analysis of HIV/AIDS knowledge, sexual behaviors, and injection drug risk behaviors among 2,199 Vietnamese respondents, including those reporting recent contact with an outreach worker and those who did not report contact. We found overall high levels of HIV/AIDS knowledge, low rates of needle sharing, and moderate...
Expression of CCR5, CXCR4 and DC-SIGN in Cervix of HIV-1 Heterosexually Infected Mexican Women.
CONCLUSION: Levels of expression of the tested chemokine receptors in the cervix are different from each other and alsovary from woman to woman, and seem to support the suggestion that chemokine receptor expression in genital tissues may be playing a role in the HIV transmission. PMID: 23115608 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
Factors Associated with Lifetime HIV Testing in Texas by Race/Ethnicity.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings have important implications for future research into racial/ethnic disparities between lifetime HIV testing, and can help guide practitioners who work with populations at risk for HIV/AIDS in Texas. PMID: 23115607 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
Developing a Web-Based HIV Behavioral Surveillance Pilot Project Among Men Who Have Sex with Men.
CONCLUSIONS: Only the DM method achieved a substantial number of complete MSM surveys. Successful implementation of an internet-based systematic sampling method may be problematic, but a convenience sample of MSM using banner advertisements is feasible and may produce useful and timely behavioral information from a large number of MSM. PMID: 23091580 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Use of and Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy in a Large U.S. Sample of HIV-infected Adults in Care, 2007-2008.
CONCLUSION: Our results support the measurement of multiple dimensions of medication-taking behavior in order to avoid overestimating adherence to ART. PMID: 23056163 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
Risk Factor Detection as a Metric of STARHS Performance for HIV Incidence Surveillance Among Female Sex Workers in Kigali, Rwanda.
CONCLUSIONS: Differences in risk factor estimates by each method could reflect true differences in risk factors between the prevalent, recently, or newly infected populations, the effect of study interventions (among those followed prospectively), or assay misclassification. Similar investigations in other populations/settings are needed to further establish the epidemiologic utility of STARHS for identifying risk factors, in addition to incidence rate estimation. PMID: 23056162 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
Enhanced Collection of Laboratory Data in HIV Surveillance Among 5 States with Confidential Name-based HIV Infection Reporting, 2005-2006.
Authors: Gray KM, Kajese T, Crandell-Alden E, Anderson BJ, Wendell D, Crutchfield A, Jackson T, Hall HI Abstract Laboratory data reported through HIV surveillance can provide information about disease severity and linkage to care; however these measures are only as accurate as the quality and completeness of data reported. Using data from five states that implemented enhanced collection of laboratory data in HIV surveillance from 2005-2006, we determined completeness of reporting, stage of disease at diagnosis, the most common opportunistic illnesses (OI) at diagnosis, and linkage to medical care. Methods to enhance laboratory reporting included increasing active surveillance efforts, identifying laboratories not reporting to HIV surveillance, increasing electronic reporting, and u...
Risk behaviors and STI prevalence among people with HIV in El Salvador.
Authors: Paz-Bailey G, Shah N, Creswell J, Guardado ME, Nieto AI, Estrada MC, Cedillos R, Pascale JM, Monterroso E Abstract To date, there are no studies from El Salvador among people with HIV to inform prevention programs. We conducted a study in El Salvador in 2008 among people with HIV using audio computer-assisted interviews on risk behaviors and access to health care. Blood was tested for syphilis and herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2). Active syphilis was defined as RPR titer ?1:8. Genital specimens were tested for other sexually transmitted infections (STI) by PCR. We evaluated factors associated with unprotected sex with last stable partner of HIV-negative or unknown status among those reporting a stable partner. A total of 811 HIV-positive individuals participated: 413 men an...
Repeat Western blot testing after receiving an HIV diagnosis and its association with engagement in care.
DISCUSSION: Having repeat positive WB tests may be a marker of engaging HIV care. However, given the limited resources available for care, it is important that healthcare reform policy and clinical recommendations promote improvements in communications about previous test results. PMID: 23049670 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Regional differences among HIV patients in care: California medical monitoring project sites, 2007-2008.
DISCUSSION: The majority of MMP respondents reported standard of care CD4 and viral load monitoring, high treatment use, undetectable HIV viral loads and CD4 counts indicative of good immune function and treatment efficacy. Information from MMP can be used by planning councils, policymakers, and HIV care providers to improve access to care and prevention. Identifying regional differences can facilitate sharing of best practices among health jurisdictions. PMID: 23049669 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
Prevalence of and viral outcomes associated with primary HIV-1 drug resistance.
We examined HIV surveillance data, including both patient demographic characteristics and laboratory data, combined with HIV genotypic test results to evaluate the comprehensiveness of drug resistance surveillance, prevalence of primary drug resistance, and impact, if any, of primary resistance on population-based virological outcomes. The King County, WA Variant, Atypical, and Resistant HIV Surveillance (VARHS) system increased coverage of eligible genotypic testing - within three months of an HIV diagnosis among antiretroviral naïve individuals -- from - 15% in 2003 to 69% in 2010. VARHS under-represented females, Blacks, Native Americans, and injection drug users. Primary drug resistance was more common among males, individuals aged 20 - 29 years, men who had sex with men, and individu...
Population-based study of risk factors for coronary heart disease among HIV-infected persons.
We describe CHD risk factors from the 2007-2008 Oregon Medical Monitoring Project, a population-based survey of HIV-infected persons receiving care that included both patient interview and medical record review. Among the 539 HIV-infected patients interviewed, the mean age was 45.5 years. Diagnoses from the medical record associated with CHD risk included preexisting CHD (5%), diabetes (11%), and hypertension (28%). Current smoking was reported by 46%; college graduates were less likely to smoke compared with those with lesser education (21% versus 53%, respectively; P &lt;.0001). Obesity was present among 17%. Among the 65% of the survey group with lipid values available, 55% had high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) &lt;40 mg/dL and 42% had triglycerides ? 200 mg/dL. Among the 15%...
Piloting a system for behavioral surveillance among heterosexuals at increased risk of HIV in the United States.
CONCLUSIONS: Results from the NHBS pilot study underscore the key role of social factors as determinants of HIV infection risk among U.S. heterosexuals, and low SES was incorporated into the definition of a heterosexual at increased risk for HIV in NHBS-HET cycles. Future cycles of NHBS-HET will help tailor prevention programs for those populations most at risk of HIV in the US. PMID: 23049666 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
Describing the Chinese HIV surveillance system and the influences of political structures and social stigma.
Authors: Zhang L, Chow EP, Zhang J, Jing J, Wilson DP Abstract China's public health surveillance system for HIV was established in late 1980s and has evolved significantly during the past three decades. With the gradually changing mode of HIV transmission from sharing of intravenous injecting equipment to sexual exposure and the rapid spread of HIV infection among Chinese homosexual men in recent years, an efficient and comprehensive population-level surveillance system for describing epidemics trends and risk behaviours associated with HIV acquisition are essential for effective public health interventions for HIV. The current review describes the overall strength of the Chinese HIV surveillance system and its structural weaknesses from a political and social perspective. The HIV...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Comparison of HIV/AIDS rates between U.S.-born Blacks and African-born Blacks in Utah, 2000 - 2009.
Authors: Ashton C, Bernhardt SA, Lowe M, Mietchen M, Johnston J Abstract The Utah Department of Health currently groups African-born blacks with U.S.-born blacks when reporting HIV/AIDS surveillance data. Studies suggest that categorizing HIV/AIDS cases in this manner may mask important epidemiological trends, and the distinct differences between these two populations warrant disaggregating data prior to reporting. The purpose of this study was to characterize the HIV/AIDS positive populations in U.S. and African-born blacks in Utah and evaluate the need for disaggregating the two groups. A total of 1,111 cases were identified through the statewide electronic HIV/AIDS Reporting System from 2000 - 2009. Data were analyzed for prevalence of HIV diagnosis for African-born blacks, U.S....
Auditing national HIV guidelines and policies: The United Kingdom CD4 Surveillance Scheme.
Authors: Brown AE, Kall MM, Smith RD, Yin Z, Hunter A, Hunter A, Delpech VC Abstract The United Kingdom's CD4 surveillance scheme monitors CD4 cell counts among HIV patients and is a national resource for HIV surveillance. It has driven public health policy and allowed auditing of national HIV testing, treatment and care guidelines. WE DEMONSTRATE ITS UTILITY THROUGH FOUR EXAMPLE OUTPUTS: median CD4 count at HIV diagnosis; late HIV diagnosis and short-term mortality; the timing of first CD4 count to indicate entry into HIV care; and the proportion of patients with CD4 counts &lt;350 cells/mm3 receiving anti-retroviral therapy (ARV). In 2009, 95% (61,502/64,420) of adults living with diagnosed HIV infection had CD4 counts available. The median CD4 count at diagnosis increased from 2...
Anal intercourse and HIV risk among low-income heterosexual women: findings from Chicago HIV behavioral surveillance.
CONCLUSION: AI was associated with multiple high risk behaviors including a greater number of sexual partners, STI diagnosis, and earlier age at first sex. The combination of risk factors found to be associated with AI call for new HIV prevention services tailored to the needs of women and young girls living in poverty. PMID: 23049662 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
Using HIV surveillance data to monitor missed opportunities for linkage and engagement in HIV medical care.
Authors: Bertolli J, Shouse RL, Beer L, Valverde E, Fagan J, Jenness SM, Wogayehu A, Johnson C, Neaigus A, Hillman D, Courogen M, Brady KA, Bolden B Abstract Monitoring delayed entry to HIV medical care is needed because it signifies that opportunities to prevent HIV transmission and mitigate disease progression have been missed. A central question for population-level monitoring is whether to consider a person linked to care after receipt of one CD4 or VL test. Using HIV surveillance data, we explored two definitions for estimating the number of HIV-diagnosed persons not linked to HIV medical care. We used receipt of at least one CD4 or VL test (definition 1) and two or more CD4 or VL tests (definition 2) to define linkage to care within 12 months and within 42 months of HIV diagn...
Use of HIV case surveillance system to design and evaluate site-randomized interventions in an HIV prevention study: HPTN 065.
CONCLUSIONS: In a novel use of site-aggregated surveillance data, baseline data was used to design and evaluate site randomized studies for both HIV test and HIV care sites. Surveillance data have the potential to inform and monitor sitelevel health outcomes in HIV-infected patients. PMID: 23049660 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Is back-projection methodology still relevant for estimating HIV incidence from national surveillance data?
Authors: Mallitt KA, Wilson DP, McDonald A, Wand H Abstract Accurate estimates of HIV incidence are crucial to understand the extent of transmission of the infection, evaluate intervention strategies and effectively plan new public health control measures. HIV/AIDS surveillance systems in numerous industrialised countries record the number of known new HIV and/or AIDS diagnoses, which are often used as a surrogate marker for HIV incidence. HIV/AIDS diagnosis data have been used to reconstruct historical HIV incidence trends using modified back-projection methods. Estimates of HIV incidence are most robust when reliable data on the number of incident infections, a subset of all diagnoses, is widely available, and surveillance systems should prioritize the collection of these data. B...
Estimating the population size of men who have sex with men in the United States to obtain HIV and syphilis rates.
CONCLUSIONS: Estimating the population size for MSM allowed us to calculate rates for disease metrics and to develop rate ratios showing dramatically higher rates among MSM than among other men or women. These data greatly improve our understanding of the disproportionate impact of these diseases among MSM in the U.S. and help with prevention planning. PMID: 23049658 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
Internet-based methods may reach higher-risk men who have sex with men not reached through venue-based sampling.
CONCLUSIONS: Many MSM recruited online also attended physical venues, but attendance varied by sub-group. Participants in WHBS and NHBS differed, and WHBS may represent a group of MSM at higher risk of HIV infection. These findings suggest that an internet-based method may be a useful supplement to NHBS. PMID: 23049657 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
Assessing the assumptions of respondent-driven sampling in the national HIV Behavioral Surveillance System among injecting drug users.
Authors: Lansky A, Drake A, Wejnert C, Pham H, Cribbin M, Heckathorn DD Abstract Several assumptions determine whether respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is an appropriate sampling method to use with a particular group, including the population being recruited must know one another as members of the group (i.e., injection drug users [IDUs] must know each other as IDUs) and be networked and that the sample size is small relative to the overall size of the group. To assess these three assumptions, we analyzed city-specific data collected using RDS through the US National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System among IDUs in 23 cities. Overall, 5% of non-seed participants reported that their recruiter was "a stranger." 20 cities with multiple field sites had ?1 cross-recruitment, a proxy f...
A probability sample for monitoring the HIV-infected population in care in the U.S. and in selected states.
We describe a three-stage probability sampling method that provides both nationally and state-level representative estimates.In stage-I, 20 states, which included 6 separately funded cities/counties, were selected using probability proportional to size (PPS) sampling. PPS sampling was also used in stage-II to select facilities for participation in each of the 26 funded areas. In stage-III, patients were randomly selected from sampled facilities in a manner that maximized the possibility of having overall equal selection probabilities for every patient in the state or city/county. The sampling methods for MMP could be adapted to other research projects at national or sub-national levels to monitor populations of interest or evaluate outcomes and care for a range of specific diseases or cond...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
HIV Surveillance: The conscience of the epidemic.
Authors: Sullivan PS, Delpech V PMID: 23049654 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
Prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases and hepatitis C in a survey of female sex workers in the north-East of Italy.
Authors: Zermiani M, Mengoli C, Rimondo C, Galvan U, Cruciani M, Serpelloni G Abstract A key issue in the prevention and control of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) is to provide access to health centres, and in diagnosing and treating STD. The present study is aimed to assess the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) in a population of immigrant female sex workers (FSWs). We conducted a cross sectional survey of FSWs working in Verona, North-eastern Italy. Screening test included serology for STDs [including Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), syphilis and Hepatitis B virus (HBV)] and hepatitis C virus (HCV).Sixteen out of 345 (4.6%) street FSWs screened during 1999-2007 resulted positive for HIV, 12 (3.5%) were positive for HBsAg, 7 (2....
Differences and Similarities in HIV Testing Among Men Who have Sex with Men and Women (MSMW) and Men Who Have Sex with Men Only (MSMO).
Authors: Maulsby C, Sifakis F, German D, Flynn CP, Holtgrave D Abstract The study examined differences in HIV testing between men who have sex with men only (MSMO) (n=300) and men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) (n=105) and assessed associations with HIV testing among MSMW. A venue-based cross-sectional HIV surveillance study in 2008 (BESURE-MSM2) was examined. Prevalence of HIV testing was similar for MSMO and MSMW. One-on-one counseling (excluding counseling that is part of HIV testing) and having seen a health care provider in the past twelve months were associated with HIV testing in the past six months among MSMW in multivariate analyses. One-on-one counseling interventions may increase rates of HIV testing among MSMW. PMID: 22833774 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Jour...
Mean Corpuscular Volume as a Marker for Adherence to Zidovudine-Containing Therapy in HIV-Infected Adults.
CONCLUSION: In low-income countries, where HIV RNA may be unavailable, 12-weekly MCV measurements may be useful in monitoring adherence to AZT-containing regimens. PMID: 22715353 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
Very early anthropometric changes after antiretroviral therapy predict subsequent survival, in karonga, Malawi.
CONCLUSIONS: Very early anthropometric changes, after 2 and 6 weeks on ART, are strong predictors of survival, independent of baseline characteristics. This should help identify patients requiring more detailed assessment where facilities are limited. MUAC is particularly valuable, requiring the simplest equipment and being appropriate for patients who have problems standing. PMID: 22670166 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Cardiovascular Disease in Blacks with HIV/AIDS in the United States: A Systematic Review of the Literature.
CONCLUSIONS: Few studies have addressed the issue of Black race, HIV/AIDS, and CVD, highlighting the need for future research in this area. PMID: 22563364 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
HIV Transmission Rates in the United States, 2006-2008.
Authors: Holtgrave DR, Hall HI, Prejean J Abstract National HIV incidence for a given year x [I(x)] equals prevalence [P(x)] times the transmission rate [T(x)]. Or, simply rearranging the terms, T(x) = [I(x)/P(x)]*100 (where T(x) is the number of HIV transmissions per 100 persons living with HIV in a given year). The transmission rate is an underutilized measure of the speed at which the epidemic is spreading. Here, we utilize recently updated information about HIV incidence and prevalence in the U.S. to estimate the national HIV transmission rate for 2006 through 2008, and present a novel method to express the level of uncertainty in these estimates. Transmission rate estimates for 2006 through 2008 are as follows (respectively): 4.39 (4.01 to 4.73); 4.90 (4.49 to 5.28); and 4.06 ...
Immune Reconstitution During the First Year of Antiretroviral Therapy of HIV-1-Infected Adults in Rural Burkina Faso.
Authors: Tiba F, Nauwelaers F, Traoré S, Coulibaly B, Ouedraogo T, Compaoré A, Kräusslich HG, Böhler T Abstract There are no data on the outcome of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-infected adults in rural Burkina Faso. We therefore assessed CD4(+) T-cell counts and HIV-1 plasma viral load (VL), the proportion of naive T-cells (co-expressing CCR7 and CD45RA) and T-cell activation (expression of CD95 or CD38) in 61 previously untreated adult patients from Nouna, Burkina Faso, at baseline and 2 weeks, 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after starting therapy. Median CD4(+) T-cell counts increased from 174 (10(th)-90(th) percentile: 33-314) cells/µl at baseline to 300 (114- 505) cells/µl after 3 months and 360 (169-562) cells/µl after 12 months of HAART. Median VL decr...
Partner Referral by HIV-Infected Persons to Partner Counseling and Referral Services (PCRS) - Results from a Demonstration Project.
CONCLUSION: Success in obtaining partner information varied by the PCRS approach used and effectiveness in locating and notifying partners varied by the referral approach selected. These results provide valuable insights for enhancing partner services. PMID: 22408699 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
A County-Level Examination of the Relationship Between HIV and Social Determinants of Health: 40 States, 2006-2008.
CONCLUSIONS/IMPLICATIONS: Overall, HIV diagnosis rates increased as income inequality and the proportion unmarried increased, and rates decreased as proportion of whites increased. The data reflect the higher HIV prevalence among non-whites. Although statistical correlations were moderate, identifying and understanding these social determinants of health variables can help target prevention efforts to aid in reducing HIV diagnosis rates. Future analyses need to determine whether the higher proportion of singles reflects higher populations of gay and bisexual men. PMID: 22408698 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Correlates of HIV Infection Among Sexually Active Adults in Kenya: A National Population-Based Survey.
CONCLUSION: Kenya's heterogeneous epidemic will require regional and gender-specific prevention approaches. PMID: 22253668 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
Readiness in HIV Treatment Adherence: A Matter of Confidence. An Exploratory Study.
Authors: Sylvain H, Delmas P Abstract Adherence to treatment is recognized as the essence of a successful HIV combination therapy. Optimal adherence implies a readiness to begin the treatment on the part of the patient. A better understanding of the "readiness phenomenon" will become an asset for optimizing HIV treatment. However, few studies have focused on understanding the process underlying the choice to adhere. The aim of this study is to understand the readiness process that leads to adhering to the HIV treatment, from both patient and professional perspectives. Twenty-seven in-depth interviews, with a qualitative exploratory design, were the source of our data. Participants were recruited in two hospitals in Paris. Throughout the data-collection process, analysed data were s...
Trends in the Treatment of Anemia Using Recombinant Human Erythropoietin in Patients with HIV Infection.
CONCLUSIONS: Through 2006, EPO prescription increased over time for patients with moderate or severe anemia. Many patients treated with EPO had post-treatment Hb&gt;12 g/dL. Based on 2011 FDA recommendations, changes in previous prescription practices will be needed. PMID: 22253666 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
Sustainability of an HIV PEP Program for Sexual Assault Survivors: "Lessons Learned" from Health Care Providers.
This study explored challenges to continuing an HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) program of care provided to sexual assault survivors in the province of Ontario, Canada. Data were collected as part of an implementation and evaluation of a universal offering of HIV PEP (known as the HIV PEP Program) at 24 of 34 provincial hospital-based sexual assault treatment centres. Experienced health care providers were surveyed (n = 132) and interviewed in four focus groups (n = 26) about their perceptions of what, if any, factors threatened their ability to maintain the HIV PEP Program. All focus groups were audio-recorded and the recordings transcribed. The transcriptions and open-ended survey responses were analyzed using content analysis. Administrator, nurse, physician, social worker, and phar...
HIV Screening and Awareness Survey for Pregnant Women in a Remote Area in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China.
CONCLUSION: The results suggested that HIV infection had not become a significant problem among the pregnant women in this remote area of Xinjiang, but continued efforts to improve the awareness of HIV, especially the knowledge about mother-to-child transmission of HIV, in pregnant women were needed. PMID: 22207891 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Immune Responses of HIV-1 Tat Transgenic Mice to Mycobacterium Tuberculosis W-Beijing SA161.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data show quantitative differences in the inflammatory response to the SA161 clinical isolate of M. tuberculosis W-Beijing between Tat transgenic and non-transgenic mice, suggesting Tat contributes to the pathogenesis of tuberculosis. PMID: 22046211 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
HIV Testing among Adolescents and Youth in the United States: Update from the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.
CONCLUSIONS: The low prevalence of adolescents who tested for HIV and the low proportion of those offered rapid HIV testing after the 2006 CDC's new guidelines about HIV testing raise serious concerns about the effectiveness of HIV prevention efforts particularly among adolescents. More innovative strategies are needed to increase the number of adolescents and youth who become aware of their HIV serostatus. PMID: 21915233 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
Normal Range of CD4 Cell Counts and Temporal Changes in Two HIVNegative Malawian Populations.
Authors: Crampin AC, Mwaungulu FD, Ambrose LR, Longwe H, French N Abstract Longitudinal studies were carried out to determine trends in CD4 cell counts over a four year period in healthy HIV-negative adults in a rural (134 individuals) and an urban (80 individuals) site in Malawi, using TruCountTM and FACScountTM platforms. At baseline, median counts and 95% ranges were 890 (359-1954) cells per microlitre (?l) and 725 (114-1074) cells/?l respectively. 1.5% and 6% respectively had baseline counts below 350 cells/?l and 1.5% and 2.5% below 250 cells per ?l. Transient dips to below 250 cells/?l were observed in seven individuals, with two individuals having persistently low CD4 counts over more than one year. Women and individuals from the urban site were significantly more likel...
Impact of HIV/AIDS on Social Relationships in Rural China.
This study compares the characteristics of those who report that HIV/AIDS had a substantial impact versus a modest impact on their social relationships. We obtained data from a survey of 866 PLWHA in rural China, which was conducted in 2006-2007 in the three Chinese provinces with the highest prevalence of HIV/AIDS. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression were performed. The analysis shows that PLWHA who had full-blown AIDS (OR= 1.53; 95% CI=1.09-2.13) and those who were poor (OR=2.19; 95% CI=1.52-3.16) reported greater impact on their social relationships. The results lay a solid foundation for designing effective policy initiatives and intervention programs aimed at alleviating the impact of HIV/AIDS on social relationships and improving the quality of life of PLWHA. PMID: 2...
Recurrent Meningitis and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Due to Salmonella in an HIV+ Patient: Case Report and Mini-Review of the Literature.
We report a case of a patient with &gt;300 CD4+ cells/mm3 who presented with five episodes of recurrent meningitis, focal subarachnoid hemorrhage and cerebral vasculitis ultimately attributed to Salmonella choleraesuis infection. Even within the cART era invasive salmonellosis can occur in unusual ways in HIV-infected patients. PMID: 21772932 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Non-cirrhotic portal hypertension in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients: a new challenge in antiretroviral therapy era.
We describe herein two HIV-infected patients with clinical picture suggestive of NCPH. Besides the case reports, we briefly address questions to apply to patient care in clinical practice. PMID: 21760875 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
Realities and Challenges of a Five Year Follow Up of Mother and Child Pairs on a PMTCT Program in Zimbabwe.
CONCLUSION: HIV infected mothers and their children succumbed to mortality whereas the HIV negatives were LTFU. Mortality rates and LTFU are high within PMTCT program. PMID: 21760874 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
Knowledge of Pregnant Women on Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV in Yaoundé.
CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that women have some good knowledge on the Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission (PMTCT) of HIV. Nevertheless, improving the formal educational level of these women may contribute to a further reduction of HIV transmission. PMID: 21643423 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
A Multicenter, Open Labeled, Randomized, Phase III Study Comparing Lopinavir/Ritonavir Plus Atazanavir to Lopinavir/Ritonavir Plus Zidovudine and Lamivudine in Naive HIV-1-Infected Patients: 48-Week Analysis of the LORAN Trial.
CONCLUSIONS: ATV/LPV/r had less virologic efficacy than the conventional RTI-based regimen and resulted in a high virological failure rate with low level replication. PMID: 21643422 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
HIV Prevalence Comparison Between Antenatal Sentinel Surveillance and Demographic and Health Survey in Rwanda.
CONCLUSIONS: HIV prevalence in the antenatal survey overestimated that among women of the general population in Rwanda in 2005. This overestimation could be corrected by standardization of antenatal prevalence according to the distribution of age, geographical area, marital status, parity, and education, in the general population. PMID: 21643421 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Learning from Interviews with HIV-Discordant Couples (Male Positive, Female Negative): The Challenges and Successes.
This article examines the challenges and successes of recruiting participants and maintaining momentum in a small qualitative study on the experiences of HIV-discordant couples (where the male is HIV-positive and the female is HIV-negative) undergoing fertility assessment and/or treatment in Ontario, Canada, to reduce the risk of HIV transmission to the woman and fetus. The purpose of this article is to identify barriers and successes encountered in our study, consider how these are addressed in the literature, and highlight specific factors that need to be considered when studying a unique population similar to ours. PMID: 21629505 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
Multiple ART Programs Create a Dilemma for Providers to Monitor ARV Adherence in Uganda.
CONCLUSION: Organizational duality at facilities is a major factor in poor adherence monitoring. The different ART programs in Uganda need to be coordinated and integrated into a single well resourced program to improve ART services and adherence monitoring. The focus on long-term care of patients on ART requires that the limitations to providers' capacity for monitoring adherence become central during the planning and implementation of ART programs. PMID: 21629504 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
HIV/AIDS Clinical Manifestations and their Implication for Patient Clinical Staging in Resource Limited Settings in Tanzania.
CONCLUSIONS: HIV/AIDS clinics managing large cohorts should develop validated site specific guidelines based on local experiences. Simplified guidelines are useful for resource constrained settings without CD4 counting facilities. PMID: 21629503 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
A quarter of a century with AIDS.
This report compiles data on patients who were diagnosed with AIDS in NWS between 1984 and 2008. From 1981, when the first case of AIDS was described, until December 31, 2008, a total of 3,766 AIDS cases were registered in NWS. Of these, 2,085 cases (55.4%) resulted in death. Examining data from individual provinces revealed that the highest number of cases was in A Coruña (1,548 cases) followed by Pontevedra (1,485 cases).For almost half of the new cases of AIDS diagnosed between 2003 and 2008 (44%), less than six months passed between the diagnosis of infection and manifestations of the disease. Thus, the number of patients that do not receive early diagnosis of HIV infection has remained high.With regard to the transmission mechanism, 64% of the cases occurring during these years resul...
Effect of Maternal HIV-1 Status and Antiretroviral Drugs on Haematological Profiles of South African Infants in Early Life.
Authors: Schramm DB, Anthony F, Mathebula B, Sherman G, Coovadia A, Gray GE, Kuhn L, Tiemessen CT Abstract Maternal HIV-1 status and antiretroviral drug exposure may influence the haematological profiles of infants. We recruited infants from 118 uninfected control women and from 483 HIV-1 infected women who received no antiretroviral drugs (n=28), or received single-dose Nevirapine (sdNVP) (n=424) or triple-drug combination therapy (n=31) to reduce HIV-1 transmission. Blood was drawn from infants within 24 hours of delivery or 6-12 weeks post-delivery and full blood counts performed using a fully automated AcT-5-diff haematology analyser and reference controls. Exposed uninfected (EU; no NVP) differed from control infants only in having lower basophil counts and percentages. In all...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Validation of Microcapillary Flow Cytometry for Community-Based CD4+ T Lymphocyte Enumeration in Remote Burkina Faso.
CONCLUSION: Use of the EasyCD4 system was feasible and highly accurate in the harsh conditions of this remote city in Sub-Saharan Africa, demonstrating acceptable sensitivity and specificity compared to a standard operating system. Microcapillary flow cytometry offers a cost-effective alternative for community-based, point-of-care CD4+ testing and could play a substantial role in scaling up HIV care in remote, resource-limited settings. PMID: 21253463 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
Efficacy and Safety of Abacavir/Lamivudine/Zidovudine Plus Tenofovir in HBV/HIV-1 Coinfected Adults: 48-Week Data.
Authors: Rodriguez AE, Dejesus E, Williams V, Irlbeck D, Ross L, Ha B, Lancaster CT Abstract In HBV/HIV-coinfected patients, the risk of end-stage liver disease and death is increased. This open-label, prospective, pilot study evaluated abacavir/lamivudine/zidovudine twice daily plus tenofovir once daily in HBV/HIV-coinfected antiretroviral-naïve subjects. Nine adults (8 males) enrolled, with baseline mean HIV-1 RNA = 4.5 log(10) copies/mL, HBV DNA = 9.0 log(10) copies/mL, and median CD4 count =158 cells/mm(3). No subject had baseline ALT &gt;5x ULN.SIX SUBJECTS COMPLETED THE STUDY: 1 withdrew due to non-treatment-related toxoplasmosis and 2 were lost-to-follow-up. At week 48, 100% (6/6) of remaining subjects had ?2 log(10) decrease in HBV DNA, and 100% (6/6) and 83% (5/6) had H...
HIV Patient Characteristics that Affect Adherence to Exercise Programmes: An Observational Study.
CONCLUSION: Perceived well-being appears to differentiate between adherent and non-adherent patients. Further studies are required to investigate other psychological characteristics and barriers to maintaining exercise. PMID: 20871752 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
Formative Assessment of ARM-U: A Modular Intervention for Decreasing Risk Behaviors Among HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Methamphetamine-Using MSM.
We present results of formative research used to evaluate the content and to assess feasibility and acceptability of this individual-level HIV risk-reduction intervention. SETTING: HIV research clinic in a high MSM and methamphetamine prevalence neighborhood. PROJECT: Avoiding Risks from Methamphetamine-Use (ARM-U) is a brief toolbox intervention that allows counselors to select modules that suit a client's individual risk profile and intervention needs employing motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioral theory. We evaluated the format and content of the intervention through focus groups and pre-testing of the entire intervention using volunteers from the target population stratified into four groups (HIV+/IDU, HIV-/IDU, HIV+/non-IDU, HIV-/non-IDU). Four individuals in eac...
Measuring the Quality of Data Collection in a Large Observational Cohort of HIV and AIDS.
This study shows that a high proportion of data was correctly collected. However, the collection of start-stop dates was not optimal, and the collected data included surplus and missing data. Data collectors should be more knowledgeable about HIV disease and trained in the use of difficult protocols, so that they can better recognize what data to collect and how it should be collected. Among physicians, there should be more agreement about what information to record in the charts, to facilitate data extraction for data collectors. PMID: 20657828 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Developing a Text Messaging Risk Reduction Intervention for Methamphetamine-Using MSM: Research Note.
Authors: Reback CJ, Ling D, Shoptaw S, Rohde J Abstract Men who have sex with men (MSM) who use methamphetamine experience high risks for HIV infection due to sexual transmission behaviors often engaged in when under the influence of methamphetamine. Methamphetamine-using MSM use various forms of information technology (IT) communication such as instant messaging, social networking sites, and websites to facilitate a sexual and/or drug "hook up." Given the acceptability of IT communication in their daily lives, an IT intervention represents an appropriate strategy to reach and intervene with out-of-treatment, methamphetamine-using MSM. The aim of this study was to conduct formative work to develop a text messaging intervention to reduce methamphetamine use and high-risk sexual beha...
Adaptation of a Couple-Based HIV Intervention for Methamphetamine-Involved African American Men who have Sex with Men.
Authors: Wu E, El-Bassel N, Donald McVinney L, Fontaine YM, Hess L Abstract In the U.S., incidence of HIV infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) has steadily increased since the 1990s. This points to a need for innovation to address both emerging trends as well as longer-standing disparities in HIV risk and transmission among MSM, such as the elevated rates of HIV/STIs among African American MSM and methamphetamine users. While couple-based sexual risk reduction interventions are a promising avenue to reduce HIV/STI transmission, prior research has been almost exclusively with heterosexual couples. We sought to adapt an existing, evidence-based intervention-originally developed and tested with heterosexual couples-for a new target population consisting of African American ...
Toward a Better Understanding of Non-Addicted, Methamphetamine-Using, Men who Have Sex with Men (MSM) in Atlanta.
In this study, focus groups and in-depth interviews were conducted in order to understand the motives, context, and other facilitators and barriers of methamphetamine use among non-addicted MSM residing in Atlanta. Participants included 30 non-addicted, methamphetamine-using MSM and 16 local mental and public health officials. Findings from the first of this two-phase formative research project will result in the initial development of a community-tested, culturally-specific social marketing campaign and an individual-based intervention based in HIV-testing facilities. PMID: 20657718 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
Using a modified intervention mapping approach to develop and refine a single-session motivational intervention for methamphetamine-using men who have sex with men.
Authors: Zule WA, Coomes CM, Karg R, Harris JL, Orr A, Wechsberg WM Abstract There is an ongoing need for the development and adaptation of behavioral interventions to address behaviors related to acquisition and transmission of infectious diseases and for preventing the onset of chronic diseases. This paper describes the application of an established systematic approach to the development of a behavioral intervention to reduce sexual risk behaviors for HIV among men who have sex with men and who use methamphetamine. The approach includes six steps: (1) a needs assessment; (2) preparing matrices of proximal program objectives; (3) selecting theory-based methods and practical strategies; (4) producing program components and materials; (5) planning for program adoption, implementatio...
Socio-Demographic Determinants of Condom Use Among Sexually Active Young Adults in Rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
CONCLUSIONS: In this rural South African setting, condom use remains low, especially among females and with an older partner, situations commonly associated with increased HIV acquisition. Targeted supportive interventions to increase condom use need to be developed if HIV prevention programmes are to be successful. PMID: 20648225 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Developing innovative intervention approaches for methamphetamine-using men who have sex with men not currently in drug treatment.
Authors: Mansergh G, Charania MR, Purcell D PMID: 20648218 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
A typology of intellectual property management for public health innovation and access: design considerations for policymakers.
Authors: Taubman A Abstract This paper seeks to set the practical discipline of public interest intellectual property (IP) management in public health into its broader policy context. The most immediate and direct impact of IP systems on public welfare results not from international standards nor from national legislation - though these norms are fundamentally important - but rather from the accumulated impact of numerous practical choices whether or not to seek IP protection; where and where not; and how any exclusive rights are deployed, by whom, and to what end. IP management is the essentially practical exercise of limited exclusive rights over protected subject matter, the judicious use of those rights to leverage outcomes that advance an institution's or a firm's objectives. ...
Feasibility of a Population Based Survey on HIV Prevalence in Barbados, and Population Preference for Sample Identification Method.
CONCLUSION: The HIV prevalence estimated by a linked survey would have a reasonable response rate and be valid, as likelihood of participation is not related to infection risk. PMID: 20448809 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
The Development and Implementation of an Outreach Program to Identify Acute and Recent HIV Infections in New York City.
CONCLUSION: Community education of at-risk groups, with the goal of increased self-diagnosis of possible acute HIV infection, may be a useful addition to traditional efforts to identify such individuals. PMID: 20386719 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
The UNITAID Patent Pool Initiative: Bringing Patents Together for the Common Good.
Authors: Bermudez J, 't Hoen E Abstract Developing and delivering appropriate, affordable, well-adapted medicines for HIV/AIDS remains an urgent challenge: as first-line therapies fail, increasing numbers of people require costly second-line therapy; one-third of ARVs are not available in pediatric formulations; and certain key first- and second-line triple fixed-dose combinations do not exist or sufficient suppliers are lacking. UNITAID aims to help solve these problems through an innovative initiative for the collective management of intellectual property (IP) rights - a patent pool for HIV medicines. The idea behind a patent pool is that patent holders - companies, governments, researchers or universities - voluntarily offer, under certain conditions, the IP related to their inv...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Technology Development Through Pooling ARV Drug Patents: A Vision from China.
Authors: Liu L, Lu H Abstract Unaffordable prices still bar the end-users in China from accessing ARV drugs. Patent protection of ARV drugs has dramatically limited the availability of these lifesaving drugs to AIDS patients in China.The way Chinese government can go to breakthrough the ARV drug patents are suggested as:Make more generic drugs available through compulsory licensing, impartment from other countries or building ARVs plants by partnerships between governments or generic drug companies.Do a thorough and detailed research on the patent application of ARV drugs to find out the loophole.Try patent pool to make AIDS medicines more affordable and appropriate for patients. PMID: 20224635 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
Patent pools: intellectual property rights and competition.
Authors: Rodriguez V Abstract Patent pools do not correct all problems associated with patent thickets. In this respect, patent pools might not stop the outsider problem from striking pools. Moreover, patent pools can be expensive to negotiate, can exclude patent holders with smaller numbers of patents or enable a group of major players to form a cartel that excludes new competitors. For all the above reasons, patent pools are subject to regulatory clearance because they could result in a monopoly. The aim of this article is to present the relationship between patents and competition in a broad context. PMID: 20200607 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
Implications of patent pools on innovation regarding antiretrovirals.
Authors: Noehrenberg E Abstract Patent pools have been promoted as an innovative means of promoting the production of fixed-dose combination antiretroviral medicines (ARVs), which can be particularly appropriate for resource-poor settings. An important question, however, is what are the implications of patent pools on innovation for creating new and improved antiretrovirals. Indeed, given the continuing mutation of HIV and growing resistance to existing treatments, continued innovation in ARV development is vital for addressing these challenges. Would patent pools be a hindrance or rather a stimulus for further innovation? This question is particularly relevant in light of UNITAID's initiative to create a patent pool for ARV development, focusing on pediatric formulations and new c...
Designing ARVs Patent Pool Up to Trade & Policy Evolutionary Dynamics.
Authors: Dionisio D, Racalbuto V, Messeri D Abstract Patent pools for second and third-line Fixed Dose Combination (FDC) antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) should not be delayed as they are instrumental to urgent public health needs in the under-served markets.Nonetheless, multinational originator companies still seem to perceive patent pooling for ARVs as a minefield that would offer the generic competitors lots of deeply exploitable opportunities, to the detriment of patent owner's rights.This paper analyses the brand industry concerns, while looking for a strategy up to a really equitable and free world market, without any discrimination between end-users in wealthy and resource-limited countries.This strategy would urge partnerships between originator companies first to make newer FDC...
Pooling ARV Drug Patents: A Pro-Access Fitting Strategy?
Authors: Dionisio D PMID: 20161762 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Patent Pools for ARVs: Industry Perspectives from ASPEN.
Authors: Nicolaou S Abstract AFFORDABILITY THROUGH REDUCED PRICING IS ONLY ONE PART OF ENHANCING ACCESS TO TREATMENT IN PUBLIC HEALTH EMERGENCIES: Supply Security and the guarantee of supply consistency is the other. To the extent that Patent Pooling is able to create Regional African Manufacturing capability, Africans will support the concept. However, to the extent that if further decentralises manufacture away from the continent and increases Africa's dependence on imports, Patent Pooling can potentially weaken supply security and will continue to relegate Africa a Continent of dependency, rather than one that invests in its own capability. Patent Pooling, should be viewed guardedly on the African Continent and will only be embraced, provided it is consistent with the AU Heads o...
Patent Pooling for Promoting Access to Antiretroviral Drugs (ARVs) - A Strategic Option for India.
Authors: Satyanarayana K, Srivastava S Abstract The current HIV/AIDS scenario in India is quite grim with an estimated 2.4 million people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) in 2008, just behind South Africa and Nigeria. The anti-retroviral drugs (ARVs) remain the main stay of global HIV/AIDS treatment. Over 30 ARVs (single and FDCs) available under six categories viz., NRTIs (nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors), NNRTIs (non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors), Protease inhibitors, the new Fusion inhibitors, Entry inhibitors-CCR5 co-receptor antagonists and HIV integrase strand transfer inhibitors. The major originator companies for these ARVs are: Abbott, Boehringer Ingelheim (BI), Bristol-Myers Squibb (BMS), Gilead, GlaxoSmithKline (GSK), Merck, Pfizer, Roche, and Tibot...
Towards a Patent Pool for HIV Medicines: The Background.
Authors: Childs M Abstract Recent WHO guidelines for antiretroviral therapy recommend switching to less toxic, but more expensive medicines for first-line and second-line ART, raising questions about the financial sustainability of many AIDS treatment programmes. At the same time, many key generic producing countries such as India now grant pharmaceutical product patents so competition between multiple manufacturers will not be able to play the role it has in bringing down the price of newer drugs.Overcoming these patent barriers will require a range of solutions, such as restricting patentability criteria, or compulsory licensing. One additional systematic solution is provided by the patent pool, a collective solution to the management of patent rights, initially presented by Méd...
Antiretroviral (ARV) Therapy in Resource Poor Countries: What do we Need in Real Life?
Authors: Castelli F, Pietra V, Diallo I, Schumacher RF, Simpore J Abstract Significant progresses have been made in the last 5 years towards the ultimate goal to provide universal access to care for all HIV/AIDS patients needing antiretroviral treatment in resource-poor countries. However, many barriers are still to be overcome, including () cost of care for the individual, () stigma, () lack of qualified human resources and infrastructure, especially in the rural setting, () rescue drugs for failing patients and () pediatric formulations. Priority actions to be promoted if the fight against HIV/AIDS is to be successful include: (i) promoting access to care in the rural areas, (ii) strengthening of basic health infrastructures, (iii) waiving of users' fee to get ARV, (iv) a larger ...
Achieving a dream: meeting policy goals related to improving drug access.
This article highlights that drug access even for relatively cheap medicines is out of reach for the vast numbers of global poor. This badly affects people living with HIV/AIDS who face serious obstacles in accessing ARVs. The same concerns are attributed to neglected diseases. Despite international meetings, promises from the pharmaceutical industry and a lot of media attention little has changed in the past 20 years. The accessibility gap to life-saving drugs could be reduced by the UNITAID initiative to pool patents for the many different ARVs, but the reality is that UNITAID is still a promise. To surmount this global problem of inequity requires a rethinking of traditional models of drug access and health objectives that should not be compromised by commercial interests. PMID: 201...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Short and Long-Term Incidence of Tuberculosis and CD4-Cell Count Dynamic on HAART in Senegal.
CONCLUSIONS: This study provides an estimate of TB incidence among patients on HAART in Senegal and supports two underlying mechanisms. PMID: 20148061 [PubMed] (Source: Open AIDS Journal)
Correlates of Inconsistent Refusal of Unprotected Sex among Armenian Female Sex Workers.
Authors: Markosyan K, Lang DL, DiClemente RJ Abstract This cross-sectional study assessed the prevalence and correlates of inconsistent refusal of unprotected sex among female sex workers (FSWs) in Armenia. One hundred and eighteen street-based FSWs between the ages of 20 and 52 completed a questionnaire assessing FSWs' demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics. A total of 52.5% (n = 62) of FSWs reported inconsistent refusal of unprotected sex with clients in the past 3 months. Logistic regression analysis controlling for participants' age and education revealed that perceiving more barriers toward condom use (AOR = 1.1; P &lt; 0.01), reporting more types of abuse (AOR = 2.1; P &lt; 0.01), and setting lower fees for service (AOR = 0.9; P = 0.02) significantly predic...
Evaluation of a Smoking Cessation Program for HIV Infected Individuals in an Urban HIV Clinic: Challenges and Lessons Learned.
Conclusions. A low-intensity smoking cessation intervention in an HIV treatment setting is effective in a minority of participants. Further research is needed to better address barriers to smoking cessation such as substance use. PMID: 25349726 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Antiretroviral Therapy Helps HIV-Positive Women Navigate Social Expectations for and Clinical Recommendations against Childbearing in Uganda.
Authors: Kastner J, Matthews LT, Flavia N, Bajunirwe F, Erikson S, Berry NS, Kaida A Abstract Understanding factors that influence pregnancy decision-making and experiences among HIV-positive women is important for developing integrated reproductive health and HIV services. Few studies have examined HIV-positive women's navigation through the social and clinical factors that shape experiences of pregnancy in the context of access to antiretroviral therapy (ART). We conducted 25 semistructured interviews with HIV-positive, pregnant women receiving ART in Mbarara, Uganda in 2011 to explore how access to ART shapes pregnancy experiences. Main themes included: (1) clinical counselling about pregnancy is often dissuasive but focuses on the importance of ART adherence once pregnant; (2) ...
Factors Associated with HIV Testing History among Pregnant Women and Their Partners in Georgia: The ANRS 12127 Prenahtest Trial.
In conclusion, HIV testing history among women at reproductive age was poor in Georgia. Women mostly received HIV testing at prenatal centers. Efforts should be made to promote HIV testing in primary care settings, which would increase its acceptability and overall testing rate in the population. PMID: 25328692 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
The Effect on Treatment Adherence of Administering Drugs as Fixed-Dose Combinations versus as Separate Pills: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
Authors: van Galen KA, Nellen JF, Nieuwkerk PT Abstract Administering drugs as fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) versus the same active drugs administered as separate pills is assumed to enhance treatment adherence. We synthesized evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) about the effect of FDCs versus separate pills on adherence. We searched PubMed for RCTs comparing a FDC with the same active drugs administered as separate pills, including a quantitative estimate of treatment adherence, without restriction to medical condition. The odds ratio (OR) of optimal adherence with FDCs versus separate pills was used as common effect size and aggregated into a pooled effect estimate using a random effect model with inverse variance weights. Out of 1258 articles screened, only six st...
Oral Health Status and Oromucosal Lesions in Patients Living with HIV/AIDS in India: A Comparative Study.
In conclusion HIV positive individuals have poor oral health status and poor periodontal status compared to control group. Effective policies need to be drafted to take care of the oral health of this high risk group. PMID: 25215229 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Serum Micronutrient Status of Haart-Naïve, HIV Infected Children in South Western Nigeria: A Case Controlled Study.
Conclusion. Deficiency of these key micronutrients is widely prevalent in HAART naïve HIV infected children irrespective of social class. This suggests that supplementation trial studies may be indicated in this population. PMID: 25180086 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Determinants of Mortality among Adult HIV-Infected Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy in a Rural Hospital in Southeastern Nigeria: A 5-Year Cohort Study.
Conclusion. Study showed lower mortality than most studies in Nigeria and Africa, with mortality higher among males and patients with CD4 count &lt;200. Further studies are recommended to further compare treatment outcomes between Combivir- and Truvada-based regimens in resource-limited settings using clinical indicators. PMID: 25165579 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Exploration of the Effect of Tobacco Smoking on Metabolic Measures in Young People Living with HIV.
Authors: Rubinstein ML, Harris DR, Rudy BJ, Kapogiannis BG, Aldrovandi GM, Mulligan K Abstract We conducted cross-sectional, multicenter studies in HIV-positive young women and men to assess metabolic and morphologic complications from tobacco smoking in 372 behaviorally infected HIV-positive youth, aged 14-25 years. Measurements included self-reported tobacco use, fasting lipids, glucose, fat distribution, and bone mineral density (BMD; dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans). Overall, 144 (38.7%) self-reported smoking tobacco and 69 (47.9%) of these reported smoking greater than five cigarettes per day. Smokers versus nonsmokers had lower mean total cholesterol (146.0 versus 156.1?mg/dL; P &lt; 0.01) and lower mean total body fat percent (24.1% versus 27.2%, P = 0.03). There wa...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Cost of Care for HIV-Infected Patients with Co-Occurring Substance Use Disorder or Psychiatric Disease: Report from a Large, Integrated Health Plan.
Conclusions. Given these higher expenditures in the care of HIV+ patients with comorbid SU disorder and/or PD, greater efforts to facilitate SU disorder or PD treatment initiation and persistence could provide substantial savings. PMID: 25045533 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Treatment outcomes in a decentralized antiretroviral therapy program: a comparison of two levels of care in north central Nigeria.
Conclusion. ART decentralization is feasible in resource-limited settings, but efforts have to be intensified to maintain good quality of care. PMID: 25028610 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Point-of-Care Tests for HIV, Related Coinfections, and Blood-Borne Infections.
Authors: Pant Pai N, Peeling RW, Smith BD, Dowdy D PMID: 24895531 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
HIV Prevention Messages Targeting Young Latino Immigrant MSM.
Authors: Solorio R, Norton-Shelpuk P, Forehand M, Martinez M, Aguirre J Abstract Young Latino immigrant men who have sex with men (MSM) are at risk for HIV and for delayed diagnosis. A need exists to raise awareness about HIV prevention in this population, including the benefits of timely HIV testing. This project was developed through collaboration between University of WA researchers and Entre Hermanos, a community-based organization serving Latinos. Building from a community-based participatory research approach, the researchers developed a campaign that was executed by Activate Brands, based in Denver, Colorado. The authors (a) describe the development of HIV prevention messages through the integration of previously collected formative data; (b) describe the process of translat...
Engagement with Care, Substance Use, and Adherence to Therapy in HIV/AIDS.
This study is a secondary data analysis using a cross-sectional design from a larger randomized controlled trial (n = 775) that investigated the efficacy of a self-care symptom management manual for participants living with HIV. Participants were recruited from countries of Africa and the US. This study provides evidence that substance use is linked with lower self-reported engagement with care and adherence to therapy. Data on substance use and engagement are presented. Clinical implications of the study address the importance of utilizing health care system and policy factors to improve engagement with care. PMID: 24800065 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Poor Reporting of Outcomes Beyond Accuracy in Point-of-Care Tests for Syphilis: A Call for a Framework.
Conclusion. Although POC screening tests for syphilis were generally favourably evaluated across a range of outcomes, the quality of evidence was compromised by inconsistent definitions, poor methodology, and documentation of outcomes. A framework for standardized reporting of outcomes beyond accuracy was proposed and considered a necessary first step towards an effective implementation of these metrics in POC diagnostics research. PMID: 24795821 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Etravirine as a Switching Option for Patients with HIV RNA Suppression: A Review of Recent Trials.
Authors: Nelson M, Hill A, van Delft Y, Moecklinghoff C Abstract Unlike other nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, etravirine is only approved for use in treatment-experienced patients. In the DUET 1 and 2 trials, 1203 highly treatment-experienced patients were randomized to etravirine or placebo, in combination with darunavir/ritonavir and optimized background treatment. In these trials, etravirine showed significantly higher rates of HIV RNA suppression when compared with placebo (61% versus 40% at Week 48). There was no significant rise of lipids or neuropsychiatric adverse events, but there was an increase in the risk of rash with etravirine treatment. In the SENSE trial, which evaluated etravirine and efavirenz in 157 treatment-naïve patients in combination with 2 ...
Resource Utilization and Costs of Care prior to ART Initiation for Pediatric Patients in Zambia.
Conclusions. Zambian pediatric patients initiating ART ?6 months after presenting to care do so quickly, utilize fewer resources than mandated by national guidelines, and accrue low costs. PMID: 24711925 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
HIV Testing and Counselling in Colombia: Local Experience on Two Different Recruitment Strategies to Better Reach Low Socioeconomic Status Communities.
In this report, we describe the experience of CLS at reaching populations from low socioeconomic backgrounds in 2008-2009. Two different approaches were used: one led by CLS and local health care providers (BAFI-1) and the other by CLS and community leaders (BAFI-2). Both approaches included the following: consented HIV screening test, a demographic questionnaire, self-reported HIV knowledge and behaviour questionnaires, pre- and posttest counselling, confirmatory HIV tests, clinical follow-up, access to comprehensive care and antiretroviral treatment. A total of 2085 individuals were enrolled in BAFI-1 and 363 in BAFI-2. The effectiveness indicators for BAFI-1 and BAFI-2, respectively, were HIV positive-confirmed prevalence = 0.29% and 3.86%, return rate for confirmatory results = 62.5% a...
Point of Care Technologies for HIV.
Authors: Haleyur Giri Setty MK, Hewlett IK Abstract Effective prevention of HIV/AIDS requires early diagnosis, initiation of therapy, and regular plasma viral load monitoring of the infected individual. In addition, incidence estimation using accurate and sensitive assays is needed to facilitate HIV prevention efforts in the public health setting. Therefore, more affordable and accessible point-of-care (POC) technologies capable of providing early diagnosis, HIV viral load measurements, and CD4 counts in settings where HIV is most prevalent are needed to enable appropriate intervention strategies and ultimately stop transmission of the virus within these populations to achieve the future goal of an AIDS-free generation. This review discusses the available and emerging POC technolog...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Feasibility and Field Performance of a Simultaneous Syphilis and HIV Point-of-Care Test Based Screening Strategy in at Risk Populations in Edmonton, Canada.
The objectives of the study were to evaluate the feasibility and diagnostic performance of performing both HIV and syphilis POC testing in outreach settings and to document new cases identified in the study population. 1,265 outreach testing visits were offered syphilis and HIV POC testing and 81.5% (n = 1,031) consented to testing. In our population, the SD Bioline 3.0 Syphilis Test had a sensitivity of 85.3% [CI (68.9-95.0)], specificity of 100.0% [CI (99.6-100.0)], positive predictive value (PPV) of 100.0% [CI (88.1-100.0)], and negative predictive value (NPV) of 99.5% [CI (98.9-99.8)]. Test characteristics for the INSTI HIV-1/HIV-2 Antibody Test had a 100.0% sensitivity [CI (39.8-100.00], 99.8 specificity [CI (99.3-100)], 66.7% PPV [CI (22.3-95.7)], and 100.0% NPV [CI (99.6-100.0)]. Fo...
Will an unsupervised self-testing strategy be feasible to operationalize in Canada? Results from a pilot study in students of a large canadian university.
Conclusion. An unsupervised self-testing strategy was found to be feasible in Canadian students. Findings call for studies in at-risk populations to inform Canadian policy. PMID: 24511392 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Differences in Salivary Flow Level, Xerostomia, and Flavor Alteration in Mexican HIV Patients Who Did or Did Not Receive Antiretroviral Therapy.
Conclusion. The study results suggest that antiretroviral therapy can cause cumulative damage that affects the amount of salivary flow. PMID: 24455222 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Attitudes towards and Beliefs about HIV Testing among Latino Immigrant MSM: A Comparison of Testers and Nontesters.
Authors: Solorio R, Forehand M, Simoni J Abstract Latino immigrant men who have sex with men (MSM) are at risk for HIV and delayed diagnosis. An exploratory study using qualitative interviews that assess the beliefs and attitudes of 54 Latino immigrant MSM in Seattle, Washington, is presented. The goal of this research is to determine whether attitudinal differences exist between participants who had and had not been tested and to use any insight into the development of a media campaign to promote testing. Over one-third of the men have never been tested for HIV. Nontesters are more likely to be men who have sex with men and women, have less knowledge about HIV risks, perceive their sexual behaviors as less risky, and deflect HIV-related stigma. Testers are more likely to be self-i...
Successful Integration of Hepatitis C Virus Point-of-Care Tests into the Denver Metro Health Clinic.
Conclusion. DMHC successfully integrated HCV POC testing and piloted a HCV linkage-to-care program. Providing testing opportunities at STD clinics could increase identification of persons with HCV infection. PMID: 24455220 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Did Universal Access to ARVT in Mexico Impact Suboptimal Antiretroviral Prescriptions?
Conclusions. Universal ARVT access in Mexico was associated with changes in ARVT-prescription patterns over time. Health providers' performance improved, but not homogeneously. Training of personnel and guidelines updating is essential to improve prescription. PMID: 24396592 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Using Mobile Health Technology to Improve HIV Care for Persons Living with HIV and Substance Abuse.
Authors: Kirk GD, Himelhoch SS, Westergaard RP, Beckwith CG PMID: 24381751 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Intersection of HIV and Reproductive Health.
Authors: Cohen CR, Bukusi E, Rees H, Blanchard K PMID: 24349767 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
The exposure assessment in current time study: implementation, feasibility, and acceptability of real-time data collection in a community cohort of illicit drug users.
Conclusion. Near real-time EMA data collection in the field is feasible and acceptable among community-dwelling illicit drug users. These data provide the basis for future studies of EMA-informed interventions to prevent drug relapse and improve HIV treatment outcomes in this population. PMID: 24307943 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Determinants of Tuberculosis Infection among Adult HIV Positives Attending Clinical Care in Western Ethiopia: A Case-Control Study.
This study aimed to assess the determinants of TB/HIV coinfection among adult HIV positives attending clinical care at two public health facilities in Nekemte, western Ethiopia. Unmatched case-control study was conducted from December 26, 2011, to February 29, 2012. Cases were 123?TB infected HIV positives, and controls were 246 non-TB infected HIV positives. Being divorced/widowed AOR = 3.02, 95% CI (1.70, 7.88), not attending formal education AOR = 4.32, 95% CI (2.20, 14.15), being underweight (BMI &lt; 18.5?kg/m(2)) AOR = 3.87, 95% CI (2.18, 6.87), having history of diabetic mellitus AOR = 3.63, 95% CI (1.33, 9.94), and being in advanced WHO HIV/AIDS clinical staging AOR = 2.29, 95% CI (1.32, 3.98), were determinant factors associated with TB/HIV co-infection. Having a separate kitc...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Ethical issues in mHealth research involving persons living with HIV/AIDS and substance abuse.
Authors: Labrique AB, Kirk GD, Westergaard RP, Merritt MW Abstract We aim to raise awareness and stimulate dialogue among investigators and research ethics committees regarding ethical issues that arise specifically in the design and conduct of mHealth research involving persons living with HIV/AIDS and substance abuse. Following a brief background discussion of mHealth research in general, we offer a case example to illustrate the characteristics of mHealth research involving people living with HIV/AIDS and substance abuse. With reference to a well-established systematic general ethical framework for biomedical research with human participants, we identify a range of ethical issues that have particular salience for the protection of participants in mHealth research on HIV/AIDS and...
Point-of-Care HIV Testing and Linkage in an Urban Cohort in the Southern US.
Authors: Zinski A, Dougherty SM, Tamhane A, Ross-Davis KL, Raper JL Abstract The Southern states experience the highest rates of HIV and AIDS in the US, and point-of-care (POC) testing outside of primary care may contribute to status awareness in medically underserved populations in this region. To evaluate POC screening and linkage to care at an urban south site, analyses were performed on a dataset of 3,651 individuals from an integrated rapid-result HIV testing and linkage program to describe this test-seeking cohort and determine trends associated with screening, results, and linkage to care. Four percent of the population had positive results. We observed significant differences by test result for age, race and gender, reported risk behaviors, test location, and motivation for...
Smartphone Delivery of Mobile HIV Risk Reduction Education.
Authors: Phillips KA, Epstein DH, Mezghanni M, Vahabzadeh M, Reamer D, Agage D, Preston KL Abstract We sought to develop and deploy a video-based smartphone-delivered mobile HIV Risk Reduction (mHIVRR) intervention to individuals in an addiction treatment clinic. We developed 3 video modules that consisted of a 10-minute HIVRR video, 11 acceptability questions, and 3 knowledge questions and deployed them as a secondary study within a larger study of ecological momentary and geographical momentary assessments. All 24 individuals who remained in the main study long enough completed the mHIVRR secondary study. All 3 videos met our a priori criteria for acceptability "as is" in the population: they achieved median scores of ?2.5 on a 5-point Likert scale; ?20% of the individuals ga...
Preliminary Evidence for Feasibility, Use, and Acceptability of Individualized Texting for Adherence Building for Antiretroviral Adherence and Substance Use Assessment among HIV-Infected Methamphetamine Users.
Authors: Moore DJ, Montoya JL, Blackstone K, Rooney A, Gouaux B, Georges S, Depp CA, Atkinson JH, Tmarc Group T Abstract The feasibility, use, and acceptability of text messages to track methamphetamine use and promote antiretroviral treatment (ART) adherence among HIV-infected methamphetamine users was examined. From an ongoing randomized controlled trial, 30-day text response rates of participants assigned to the intervention (individualized texting for adherence building (iTAB), n = 20) were compared to those in the active comparison condition (n = 9). Both groups received daily texts assessing methamphetamine use, and the iTAB group additionally received personalized daily ART adherence reminder texts. Response rate for methamphetamine use texts was 72.9% with methamphetamine u...
Acceptability of Mobile Phone Technology for Medication Adherence Interventions among HIV-Positive Patients at an Urban Clinic.
Authors: Miller CW, Himelhoch S Abstract Mobile phone technology is increasingly used to overcome traditional barriers limiting access to care. The goal of this study was to evaluate access and willingness to use smart and mobile phone technology for promoting adherence among people attending an urban HIV clinic. One hundred consecutive HIV-positive patients attending an urban HIV outpatient clinic were surveyed. The questionnaire evaluated access to and utilization of mobile phones and willingness to use them to enhance adherence to HIV medication. The survey also included the CASE adherence index as a measure of adherence. The average age was 46.4 (SD = 9.2). The majority of participants were males (63%), black (93%), and Hispanic (11.4%) and reported earning less than $10,000 pe...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Information and Communication Technology to Link Criminal Justice Reentrants to HIV Care in the Community.
In this report, we describe the development of this ICT/mHealth intervention, outline the study procedures used to evaluate this intervention, and summarize the implications for the mHealth knowledge base. PMID: 23984054 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Feasibility and Acceptability of a Real-Time Adherence Device among HIV-Positive IDU Patients in China.
Authors: Bachman Desilva M, Gifford AL, Keyi X, Li Z, Feng C, Brooks M, Harrold M, Yueying H, Gill CJ, Wubin X, Vian T, Haberer J, Bangsberg D, Sabin L Abstract We collected data on feasibility and acceptability of a real-time web-linked adherence monitoring container among HIV-positive injection drug users (IDU) in China. "Wisepill" uses wireless technology to track on-time medication dosing. Ten patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) at the Guangxi CDC HIV clinic in Nanning, China, used Wisepill for one ART medication for one month. We monitored device use and adherence and explored acceptability of the device among patients. Mean adherence was 89.2% (SD 10.6%). Half of the subjects reported a positive overall experience with Wisepill. Seven said that it was inconvenient, suppo...
Same-Day CD4 Testing to Improve Uptake of HIV Care and Treatment in South Africa: Point-of-Care Is Not Enough.
Conclusions. Offering CD4 testing using a point-of-care, but not rapid, technology and without other health system changes had minor impacts on the uptake of HIV care and treatment. Point-of-care technologies alone may not be enough to improve linkage to care and treatment after HIV testing. PMID: 23956850 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Utilization of and Barriers to HIV and MCH Services among Community ART Group Members and Their Families in Tete, Mozambique.
Authors: Geelhoed D, Decroo T, Dezembro S, Matias H, Lessitala F, Muzila F, Brumana L, Capobianco E Abstract Mozambique continues to face many challenges in HIV and maternal and child health care (MCH). Community-based antiretroviral treatment groups (CAG) enhance retention to care among members, but whether such benefits extend to their families and to MCH remains unclear. In 2011 we studied utilization of HIV and MCH services among CAG members and their family aggregates in Changara, Mozambique, through a mixed-method assessment. We systematically revised all patient-held health cards from CAG members and their non-CAG family aggregate members and conducted semistructured group discussions on MCH topics. Quantitative data were analysed in EPI-Info. Qualitative data were manually ...
Comparative Effectiveness of Darunavir 1,200?mg Daily and Approved Dosing Strategies for Protease Inhibitor-Experienced Patients.
Conclusions. Darunavir 1,200?mg daily should be investigated for use in protease inhibitor-experienced patients. PMID: 23956848 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Engagement in HIV Medical Care and Technology Use among Stimulant-Using and Nonstimulant-Using Men who have Sex with Men.
Authors: Horvath KJ, Carrico AW, Simoni J, Boyer EW, Amico KR, Petroll AE Abstract Aims of this study were to assess the associations between stimulant use and attitudes toward and engagement in HIV medical care and to examine technology use among stimulant-using and nonstimulant-using men who have sex with men (MSM). HIV-positive MSM (n = 276; mean age = 42 years; 71% white, non-Hispanic; 43% with college degree) completed an online survey in 2009. Most men (69%) had not missed any scheduled HIV medical appointments in the past year, while 23% had missed at least one, and 9% had not attended any appointments. Stimulant use was significantly associated with not attending any HIV medical appointments in the unadjusted model (relative risk ratio (RRR) = 2.84, 95% CI [1.07, 7.58]), as...
Providers' Perspectives on Provision of Family Planning to HIV-Positive Individuals in HIV Care in Nyanza Province, Kenya.
Conclusions. These findings suggest the importance of considering issues such as patient flow, provider burden, commodity supply, gender and cultural issues affecting FP use, and provider training in FP/HIV when designing integrated FP/HIV services in high HIV prevalence areas. PMID: 23738058 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Overcoming Barriers to Family Planning through Integration: Perspectives of HIV-Positive Men in Nyanza Province, Kenya.
This study explored barriers to and facilitators of using family planning services among HIV-positive men in Nyanza Province, Kenya. From May to June 2010, in-depth interviews were conducted with 30 men receiving care at 15 HIV clinics. The key barriers to the use of family planning included concerns about side effects of contraceptives, lack of knowledge about contraceptive methods, myths and misconceptions including fear of infertility, structural barriers such as staffing shortages at HIV clinics, and a lack of male focus in family planning methods and service delivery. The integration of family planning into HIV clinics including family planning counseling and education was cited as an important strategy to improve family planning receptivity among men. Integrating family planning into...
A Community-Supported Clinic-Based Program for Prevention of Violence against Pregnant Women in Rural Kenya.
Conclusion. Integrating GBV programs into rural antenatal clinics has potential to contribute to both primary and secondary GBV prevention. Following further evaluation, this model may be deemed applicable for rural communities in Kenya and elsewhere in East Africa. PMID: 23738056 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Integration of HIV Care with Primary Health Care Services: Effect on Patient Satisfaction and Stigma in Rural Kenya.
Authors: Odeny TA, Penner J, Lewis-Kulzer J, Leslie HH, Shade SB, Adero W, Kioko J, Cohen CR, Bukusi EA Abstract HIV departments within Kenyan health facilities are usually better staffed and equipped than departments offering non-HIV services. Integration of HIV services into primary care may address this issue of skewed resource allocation. Between 2008 and 2010, we piloted a system of integrating HIV services into primary care in rural Kenya. Before integration, we conducted a survey among returning adults ?18-year old attending the HIV clinic. We then integrated HIV and primary care services. Three and twelve months after integration, we administered the same questionnaires to a sample of returning adults attending the integrated clinic. Changes in patient responses were asse...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Social Support Network among People Living with HIV/AIDS in Iran.
This study considers social network interactions as a potential source of support for individuals living with HIV/AIDS in Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 224 people with HIV/AIDS who refer to behavioral counseling centers. Participants were randomly selected among all people with HIV/AIDS from these centers. Relatives were more reported as sources of support than nonrelatives. They were closer to participants, but there was difference between the closest type among relative and nonrelative supporters (P = 0.01). Mean of functional support with considering the attainable range 0-384 was low (126.74??(SD = 76.97)). Social support of participants has been found to be associated with CD4 cell count (P = 0.000), sex (P = 0.049), and network size (P = 0.000) after adjusted ...
Sources of Information on HIV and Sexual and Reproductive Health for Couples Living with HIV in Rural Southern Malawi.
Authors: Gombachika BC, Chirwa E, Malata A, Maluwa A Abstract WITH WIDER ACCESS TO ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY, PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV ARE RECONSIDERING THEIR REPRODUCTIVE DECISIONS: remarrying and having children. The purpose of the paper is to explore sources of information for reproductive decision used by couples living with HIV in patrilineal and matrilineal districts of Malawi. Data were collected from forty couples from July to December 2010. Our results illuminate five specific issues: some of the informants (1) remarry after divorce/death of a spouse, (2) establish new marriage relationship with spouses living with HIV, and (3) have children hence the need for information to base their decisions. There are (4) shared and interactive couple decisions, and (5) informal networks o...
Current challenges to the United states' AIDS drug assistance program and possible implications of the affordable care act.
Authors: McManus KA, Engelhard CL, Dillingham R Abstract AIDS Drug Assistance Programs, enacted through the Ryan White Comprehensive AIDS Resources Emergency Act of 1990, are the "payer of last resort" for prescription medications for lower income, uninsured, or underinsured people living with HIV/AIDS. ADAPs face declining funding from the federal government. State funding of ADAP is discretionary, but some states increased their contributions to meet the gap in funding. The demand for ADAP support is increasing as people living with HIV are living longer; the antiretroviral therapy (ART) guidelines have been changed to recommend initiation of treatment for all; the United States is increasing HIV testing goals; and the recession continues. In the setting of increased demand and l...
Developing multipurpose reproductive health technologies: an integrated strategy.
Authors: Harrison PF, Hemmerling A, Romano J, Whaley KJ, Young Holt B Abstract WOMEN WORLDWIDE CONFRONT TWO FREQUENTLY CONCURRENT REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH CHALLENGES: the need for contraception and for protection from sexually transmitted infections, importantly HIV/AIDS. While conception and infection share the same anatomical site and mode of transmission, there are no reproductive health technologies to date that simultaneously address that reality. Relevant available technologies are either contraceptive or anti-infective, are limited in number, and require different modes of administration and management. These "single-indication" technologies do not therefore fully respond to what is a substantial reproductive health need intimately linked to pivotal events in many women's lives. ...
HIV-Associated Central Nervous System Disease in Patients Admitted at the Douala General Hospital between 2004 and 2009: A Retrospective Study.
Conclusions. HIV-associated CNS disease is common in Douala. CNS symptoms in HIV patients need urgent investigation because of their association with diseases of high case fatality. PMID: 23533732 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Patterns of Use and Outcomes in Patients Treated with Etravirine in the HIV Research Network.
Authors: Gebo K, Voss C, Mrus J, Hiv Research Network Abstract This observational analysis examined the clinical outcomes of patients receiving etravirine-(ETR-) based therapy, particularly with protease inhibitors (PIs) other than darunavir (DRV) and with raltegravir (RAL). Data included treatment-experienced adults in the HIV Research Network who began ETR-containing antiretroviral regimens in 2008-2010. The primary objective was to assess 6-month outcomes (durability, i.e., still on an ETR-containing regimen; change in CD4+ cell count and HIV-1 RNA &lt;400?copies/mL). The cohort included 587 patients receiving ETR; 42% of ETR use was in patients not on DRV/ritonavir (r). Patients receiving ETR plus DRV/r had longer durability versus those on ETR plus a PI other than DRV/r at m...
Performance of Clinical Criteria for Screening of Possible Antiretroviral Related Mitochondrial Toxicity in HIV-Infected Children in Accra.
Authors: Langs-Barlow A, Renner L, Katz K, Northrup V, Paintsil E Abstract Mitochondrial damage is implicated in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) toxicity. HIV infection also causes mitochondrial toxicity (MT). Differentiating between the two is critical for HIV management. Our objective was to test the utility of the Mitochondrial Disease Criteria (MDC) and the Enquête Périnatale Française (EPF) to screen for possible HAART related MT in HIV-infected children in Ghana. The EPF and MDC are compilations of clinical symptoms, or criteria, of MT: a (+) score indicates possible MT. We applied these criteria retrospectively to 403 charts of HIV-infected children. Of those studied, 331/403 received HAART. Comparing HAART exposed and HAART naïve children, the difference in...
The Association between Noncommercial Partnerships and Risk of HIV among Female Sex Workers: Evidences from a Cross-Sectional Behavioral and Biological Survey in Southern India.
Authors: Somanath RP, Mishra RM, Saggurti N, Parimi P Abstract This paper examines the association between female sex workers' (FSWs) noncommercial partnerships with risk of HIV in Andhra Pradesh, India. Data were drawn from a cross-sectional behavioral and biological survey conducted in 2009 among 3225 FSWs from Andhra Pradesh. Participants were asked about their sexual partnerships, condom use, and vulnerability factors and tested for HIV and sexually transmitted infections. The key independent variables considered were presence of a noncommercial sexual partner (no, yes) and the nature of such partnerships (regular, nonregular). FSWs who reported husband as noncommercial partner were considered to have a regular partner, while the rest were defined as having nonregular partners....
Psychometric Assessment of a Physician-Patient Communication Behaviors Scale: The Perspective of Adult HIV Patients in Kenya.
Discussion. The revised PPCB scale showed acceptable validity and reliability in Kenya. PMID: 23476754 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
The Linked Response: Lessons Emerging from Integration of HIV and Reproductive Health Services in Cambodia.
Authors: White J, Delvaux T, Chhea C, Saramony S, Ouk V, Saphonn V Abstract A qualitative assessment was made of service provider and user perceptions of the quality of integrated reproductive health services established through a pilot intervention in Cambodia. The intervention aimed to promote pregnant women's HIV testing and general utilization of reproductive health facilities as well as improve the follow-up of HIV-positive women and exposed infants through strengthened referral and operational linkages amongst health facilities/services and community-based support interventions for PLHIV. The study was conducted in one operational district where the intervention was piloted and for comparative purposes in a district where integrated services had yet to be implemented. Service...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
The Impact of ART on the Economic Outcomes of People Living with HIV/AIDS.
Conclusions. ART was associated with greater improvement in work status, even after controlling for change in physical health functioning, suggesting other factors associated with ART may influence work. PMID: 23424678 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Effects of a Phone Call Intervention to Promote Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy and Quality of Life of HIV/AIDS Patients in Baoshan, China: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
Conclusion. A mobile phone call intervention to patients could maintain high adherence rates although no statistically significant differences were found. A phone call could improve some domains of QOL among treatment-naive patients. PMID: 23401755 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Risky Behaviors among HIV-Positive Female Sex Workers in Northern Karnataka, India.
Conclusion. This study would help inform programs to target the following particularly vulnerable HIV-positive FSWs: those who are older, those who changed their occupation post-HIV diagnosis, and those who are nonmobile. PMID: 23365728 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
AIDS and HIV Infection after Thirty Years.
Authors: Ippolito G, Levy JA, Sonnerborg A, Mugusi F, Dianzani F PMID: 23365727 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
The Intersection between Sex Work and Reproductive Health in Northern Karnataka, India: Identifying Gaps and Opportunities in the Context of HIV Prevention.
Conclusions. Antenatal HIV testing remains low in the context of ongoing sex work during pregnancy. Existing HIV prevention programs are well positioned to immediately integrate reproductive health care with HIV interventions targeted to FSWs. PMID: 23346390 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
The Female Sex Work Industry in a District of India in the Context of HIV Prevention.
Authors: Buzdugan R, Halli SS, Hiremath JM, Jayanna K, Raghavendra T, Moses S, Blanchard J, Scambler G, Cowan F Abstract HIV prevalence in India remains high among female sex workers. This paper presents the main findings of a qualitative study of the modes of operation of female sex work in Belgaum district, Karnataka, India, incorporating fifty interviews with sex workers. Thirteen sex work settings (distinguished by sex workers' main places of solicitation and sex) are identified. In addition to previously documented brothel, lodge, street, dhaba (highway restaurant), and highway-based sex workers, under-researched or newly emerging sex worker categories are identified, including phone-based sex workers, parlour girls, and agricultural workers. Women working in brothels, lodges,...
Childbearing Decision Making: A Qualitative Study of Women Living with HIV/AIDS in Southwest Nigeria.
Authors: Sofolahan YA, Airhihenbuwa CO Abstract Using the PEN-3 model, the purpose of this qualitative study was to understand the factors responsible for the childbearing decisions of women living with HIV/AIDS (WLHA) in Lagos, Nigeria. Sixty WLHA who sought care at a teaching hospital in Lagos were recruited to participate in in-depth interviews. The average age of the participants was 30 years, and 48 participants were receiving antiretroviral therapy. Healthcare and spiritual practices, healthcare provider-patient communication about childbearing, and husband/partner support emerged as factors that contribute to the childbearing decisions of WLHA. The findings reveal the importance of discussing sexual reproductive health and childbearing issues with WLHA in the healthcare cont...
Tanzanian Couples' Perspectives on Gender Equity, Relationship Power, and Intimate Partner Violence: Findings from the RESPECT Study.
Authors: Krishnan S, Vohra D, de Walque D, Medlin C, Nathan R, Dow WH Abstract Intimate partner violence (IPV) is widely prevalent in Tanzania. Inequitable gender norms manifest in men's and women's attitudes about power and decision making in intimate relationships and are likely to play an important role in determining the prevalence of IPV. We used data from the RESPECT study, a randomized controlled trial that evaluated an intervention to prevent sexually transmitted infections in a cohort of young Tanzanian men and women, to examine the relationship between couples' attitudes about IPV, relationship power, and sexual decision making, concordance on these issues, and women's reports of IPV over 12 months. Women expressed less equitable attitudes than men at baseline. Over time,...
Bolstering the Evidence Base for Integrating Abortion and HIV Care: A Literature Review.
Authors: Manski R, Dennis A, Blanchard K, Lince N, Grossman D Abstract HIV-positive women have abortions at similar rates to their HIV-negative counterparts, yet little is known about clinical outcomes of abortion for HIV-positive women or the best practices for abortion provision. To fill that gap, we conducted a literature review of clinical outcomes of surgical and medication abortion among HIV-positive women. We identified three studies on clinical outcomes of surgical abortion among HIV-positive women; none showed significant differences in infectious complications by HIV status. A review of seven articles on similar gynecological procedures found no differences in complications by HIV status. No studies evaluated medication abortion among HIV-positive women. However, we did f...
Caregivers' Barriers to Disclosing the HIV Diagnosis to Infected Children on Antiretroviral Therapy in a Resource-Limited District in South Africa: A Grounded Theory Study.
Authors: Madiba S, Mokwena K Abstract We used a grounded theory approach to explore how a sample of caregivers of children on antiretroviral treatment (ART) experience HIV disclosure to their infected children. This paper explores caregivers' barriers to disclosing HIV to infected children. Caregivers of children aged 6-13 years who were receiving ART participated in four focus-group interviews. Three main themes, caregiver readiness to tell, right time to tell, and the context of disclosure, emerged. Disclosure was delayed because caregivers had to first deal with personal fears which influenced their readiness to disclose; disclosure was also delayed because caregivers did not know how to tell. Caregivers lacked disclosure skills because they had not been trained on how to tell t...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Differences in the Nonuse of any Contraception and Use of Specific Contraceptive Methods in HIV Positive and HIV Negative Rwandan Women.
We describe factors associated with nonuse of contraception and with use of specific contraceptive methods in HIV positive and HIV negative Rwandan women. Data from 395 HIV-positive and 76 HIV-negative women who desired no pregnancy in the previous 6 months were analyzed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression models to identify clinical and demographic characteristics that predict contraceptive use. Differences in contraceptive methods used were dependent on marital/partner status, partner's knowledge of a woman's HIV status, and age. Overall, condoms, abstinence, and hormonal methods were the most used, though differences existed by HIV status. Less than 10% of women both HIV+ and HIV- used no contraception. Important differences exist between HIV-positive and HIV-negative ...
Women's Health Care Utilization among Harder-to-Reach HIV-Infected Women ever on Antiretroviral Therapy in British Columbia.
Conclusion. A health service gap exists along geographical and social axes for harder-to-reach HIV-infected women in BC. Women-centered WHC and HIV-specific care should be streamlined and integrated to better address women's holistic health. PMID: 23227316 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Effects of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors on Liver Fibrosis in HIV and Hepatitis C Coinfection.
Conclusions. There was not a protective association between angiotensin inhibition and liver fibrosis in coinfection. These noninvasive indices may be useful for ruling out significant fibrosis in coinfection. PMID: 23193466 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Pharmacists' Research Contributions in the Fight against HIV/AIDs.
Authors: Horace AE Abstract Pharmacists have made many contributions to HIV/AIDs research and are still showing their significance as members of the healthcare team through innovative clinical trials. Pharmacists are showing advances in several healthcare settings including inpatient, outpatient, and community pharmacies. Because of the complex regimens of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the increased life span of patients living with HIV, and other concomitant medications taken for comorbid disease states, there is a high risk for health-related complications and the development of adverse events. These adverse events may lead to decreased adherence to HAART, which may cause the development of HIV drug resistance. Pharmacists are providing examples through growing re...
Cost-Effectiveness of Antiretroviral Therapy for Multidrug-Resistant HIV: Past, Present, and Future.
Authors: Harris M, Nosyk B, Harrigan R, Lima VD, Cohen C, Montaner J Abstract In the early years of the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era, HIV with resistance to two or more agents in different antiretroviral classes posed a significant clinical challenge. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) HIV was an important cause of treatment failure, morbidity, and mortality. Treatment options at the time were limited; multiple drug regimens with or without enfuvirtide were used with some success but proved to be difficult to sustain for reasons of tolerability, toxicity, and cost. Starting in 2006, data began to emerge supporting the use of new drugs from the original antiretroviral classes (tipranavir, darunavir, and etravirine) and drugs from new classes (raltegravir and maraviroc) fo...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Living with uncertainty: acting in the best interests of women.
Authors: Gollub E, Stein Z Abstract A recent multi-country study on hormonal contraceptives (HC) and HIV acquisition and transmission among African HIV-serodiscordant couples reported a statistically significant doubling of risk for HIV acquisition among women as well as transmission from women to men for injectable contraceptives. Together with a prior cohort study on African women seeking health services, these data are the strongest yet to appear on the HC-HIV risk. This paper will briefly review the Heffron study strengths and relevant biological and epidemiologic evidence; address the futility of further trials; and propose instead an alternative framework for next steps. The weight of the evidence calls for a discontinuation of progestin-dominant methods. We propose here five...
Symptom Status Predicts Patient Outcomes in Persons with HIV and Comorbid Liver Disease.
Authors: Henderson WA, Martino AC, Kitamura N, Kim KH, Erlen JA Abstract Persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are living longer; therefore, they are more likely to suffer significant morbidity due to potentially treatable liver diseases. Clinical evidence suggests that the growing number of individuals living with HIV and liver disease may have a poorer health-related quality of life (HRQOL) than persons living with HIV who do not have comorbid liver disease. Thus, this study examined the multiple components of HRQOL by testing Wilson and Cleary's model in a sample of 532 individuals (305 persons with HIV and 227 persons living with HIV and liver disease) using structural equation modeling. The model components include biological/physiological factors (HIV viral l...
CD4 Count Pattern and Demographic Distribution of Treatment-Naïve HIV Patients in Lagos, Nigeria.
Conclusion. Females account for more than half of registered patients in HIV clinic and have a relatively higher CD4 count than males. About three-quarter of HIV positives require antiretroviral therapy at registration. PMID: 23056931 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Comparison of the Minimental State Examination Scale and the International HIV Dementia Scale in Assessing Cognitive Function in Nigerian HIV Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy.
Conclusion. These findings indicate that the IHDS detects higher rates of HAND and may identify HIV/AIDS patients who require further cognitive assessment using more robust assessment batteries. PMID: 23050130 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Morbidity and Mortality Patterns of Hospitalised Adult HIV/AIDS Patients in the Era of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy: A 4-year Retrospective Review from Zaria, Northern Nigeria.
Conclusion. In the current HAART era, late presentation and tuberculosis continue to fuel the HIV/AIDS pandemic in Africa, with emerging challenges due to ART-related complications. PMID: 23019521 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Oral HIV-Associated Kaposi Sarcoma: A Clinical Study from the Ga-Rankuwa Area, South Africa.
CONCLUSIONS: In Ga-Rankuwa, South Africa where HIV-KS is prevalent, oral KS affects similarly males and females. A low CD4+ T-cell count at the time of oral HIV-KS diagnosis and the development of facial lymphoedema during the course of HIV-KS disease portends a poor prognosis. PMID: 23008762 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infections in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Children and Adolescents.
Conclusions. MRSA occurred at a rate of 11.1 infections/1,000 PY in HIV-infected youth but invasive disease was uncommon. Geographic location, black race, and increased VL, but not immunosuppression, were independently associated with MRSA risk. PMID: 23008761 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Meeting the Contraceptive Needs of Key Populations Affected by HIV in Asia: An Unfinished Agenda.
Authors: Petruney T, Minichiello SN, McDowell M, Wilcher R Abstract Like all women, women living with and at risk of acquiring HIV have the right to determine the number and timing of their pregnancies and to safely achieve their reproductive intentions. Yet, many women in Asia affected by HIV lack access to family planning services and experience disproportionately high rates of unintended pregnancy and abortion. Programs that have succeeded in promoting condom use and providing HIV prevention and treatment services in this region have largely missed the opportunity to address the contraceptive needs of the key populations they serve. The importance of better linkages between family planning and HIV policies and programs is now widely recognized by global health policymakers and d...
Concurrent FDG Avid Nasopharyngeal Lesion and Generalized Lymphadenopathy on PET-CT Imaging Is Indicative of Lymphoma in Patients with HIV Infection.
This study retrospectively evaluated the diagnostic value of concurrent nasopharyngeal lesion and lymphadenopathy on positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG PET-CT) imaging. The eligible cases were from patients with HIV infection and lymphadenopathy and referred for FDG PET-CT to evaluate lymphoma or other malignancies prior to pathological investigation. FDG PET-CT images and interpretation reports were correlated with clinical information and pathological diagnoses. Among 22 eligible patients, FDG avid nasopharyngeal lesions were incidentally noted in 7 on PET-CT imaging, and all had lymphomas diagnosed with subsequent biopsies (6 diffuse large B-cell lymphomas and 1 Hodgkin's lymphoma). In the remaining 15 patients with adenopa...
High Initial HIV/AIDS-Related Mortality and -Its Predictors among Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy in the Kagera Region of Tanzania: A Five-Year Retrospective Cohort Study.
We examined mortality rates and its predictors from a five years retrospective cohort data of HIV/AIDs patients attending care and treatment clinic in Biharamulo Tanzania. Cox regression analysis was used to identify predictors of mortality. Of the 546 patient records retrieved, the mean age was 37 years with median CD4 count of 156 cells. The mortality rate was 4.32/100 person years at risk with males having three times higher mortality compared to females. Starting Antiretroviral treatment with advanced disease state, body weight below 45 kegs, WHO stage 4 disease, and CD4 cells below 50 were main predictors of mortality. Promoting early voluntary counselling and testing should be given a priority to facilitate timely start of treatment. PMID: 22973505 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
A Comparison of Chronic Periodontitis in HIV-Seropositive Subjects and the General Population in the Ga-Rankuwa Area, South Africa.
Authors: Khammissa R, Feller L, Altini M, Fatti P, Lemmer J Abstract The effect of HIV infection on the prevalence and the rate of progression of chronic periodontitis is not clear. The aim of this study was to compare parameters associated with the severity of chronic periodontitis in terms of periodontal probing depths, gingival recession, plaque indexes, and bleeding indexes of HIV-seropositive subjects and healthy age-matched control subjects, and of HIV-seropositive subjects on highly active antiretroviral therapy and those not receiving such treatment. Two cohorts of subjects with chronic periodontitis were recruited for this study over a period of six months. There were 30 HIV-seropositive subjects, and 30 control subjects. Periodontal probing depths, gingival marginal reces...
Thirty years later: pregnancies in females perinatally infected with human immunodeficiency virus-1.
Authors: Badell ML, Lindsay M Abstract The first cases of mother to child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were described more than two decades ago and since then several thousands more have been reported in western countries. In the early 1980s the majority of perinatally acquired HIV children did not survive beyond childhood. However combined antiretroviral therapy (ART) for perinatally HIV-acquired children has prolonged their survival and in the past 2 decades, many have reached adulthood. As the perinatally HIV-infected females become sexually active, they are in turn at risk for pregnancy and of transmitting HIV infection to their children. A considerable proportion of this population appears to engage in unprotected sexual intercourse leading to teenage pre...
The Changing Epidemiology of Oropharyngeal Candidiasis in Patients with HIV/AIDS in the Era of Antiretroviral Therapy.
Authors: Patel PK, Erlandsen JE, Kirkpatrick WR, Berg DK, Westbrook SD, Louden C, Cornell JE, Thompson GR, Vallor AC, Wickes BL, Wiederhold NP, Redding SW, Patterson TF Abstract The impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on opportunistic conditions in HIV patients continues to evolve. We specifically studied the changing epidemiology of oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) in 215?HIV/AIDS patients. Status of yeast colonization was assessed from oral rinse samples, and preliminary yeast identification was made using CHROMagar Candida and confirmed with standard microbiological techniques and/or molecular sequencing. Susceptibility to fluconazole was determined by CHROMagar Candida agar dilution screening and CLSI broth microdilution. 176 (82%) patients were colonized and 59 (27%) patie...
Assessing the Association between Leptin and Bone Mineral Density in HIV-Infected Men.
Authors: Rao MN, Schambelan M, Tai VW, Abrams DI, Khatami H, Havel PJ, Sakkas G, Mulligan K Abstract HIV-infected individuals are at risk for decreased bone mineral density (BMD). The known risk factors for bone loss do not fully explain the increased risk in this population. There is emerging evidence that leptin, a hormone secreted by adipocytes, plays an important role in bone metabolism. Several studies have assessed the relationship between leptin and bone density in healthy adults, but there are few such studies in HIV-infected individuals. Furthermore, HIV infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy are at increased risk for altered fat distribution, which may impact the relationship between leptin and BMD. In a cross-sectional analysis of data in 107 HIV-infected men, we...
Virological Response in Cerebrospinal Fluid to Antiretroviral Therapy in a Large Italian Cohort of HIV-Infected Patients with Neurological Disorders.
Authors: Giancola ML, Lorenzini P, Cingolani A, Baldini F, Bossolasco S, Bini T, Monno L, Picchi G, d'Arminio Monforte A, Cinque P, Tozzi V, Antinori A Abstract The aim of the present study was to analyse the effect of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy and single antiretroviral drugs on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) HIV-RNA burden in HIV-infected patients affected by neurological disorders enrolled in a multicentric Italian cohort. ARVs were considered "neuroactive" from literature reports. Three hundred sixty-three HIV-positive patients with available data from paired plasma and CSF samples, were selected. One hundred twenty patients (33.1%) were taking ARVs at diagnosis of neurological disorder. Mean CSF HIV-RNA was significantly higher in naïve than in experienced patients, and in patie...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Psychosocial Correlates among Adolescents of Responses to HIV Prevention Interventions.
Authors: Stanton B, Rosenthal S, Li X PMID: 22928093 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
The Cancer-Associated Virus Landscape in HIV Patients with Oral Hairy Leukoplakia, Kaposi's Sarcoma, and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma.
Authors: Burbelo PD, Kovacs JA, Wagner J, Bayat A, Rhodes CS, De Souza Y, Greenspan JS, Iadarola MJ Abstract Although HIV-positive patients are at higher risk for developing a variety of infection-related cancers, the prevalence of infections with the seven known cancer-associated viruses has not been studied. Luciferase immunoprecipitation systems were used to evaluate antiviral antibodies in four 23-person groups: healthy blood donors and HIV-infected patients with oral hairy leukoplakia (OLP), Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), or non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Antibody profiling revealed that all HIV-positive individuals were strongly seropositive for anti-gp41 and antireverse transcriptase antibodies. However, anti-p24 HIV antibody levels were highly variable and some OLP and KS patients dem...
Nothing as Practical as a Good Theory? The Theoretical Basis of HIV Prevention Interventions for Young People in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review.
Authors: Michielsen K, Chersich M, Temmerman M, Dooms T, Van Rossem R Abstract This paper assesses the extent to which HIV prevention interventions for young people in sub-Saharan Africa are grounded in theory and if theory-based interventions are more effective. Three databases were searched for evaluation studies of HIV prevention interventions for youth. Additional articles were identified on websites of international organisations and through searching references. 34 interventions were included; 25 mentioned the use of theory. Social Cognitive Theory was most prominent (n = 13), followed by Health Belief Model (n = 7), and Theory of Reasoned Action/Planned Behaviour (n = 6). These cognitive behavioural theories assume that cognitions drive sexual behaviour. Reporting on choice ...
Orthotopic liver transplantation in human-immunodeficiency-virus-positive patients in Germany.
Conclusions. Overall OLT is a feasible approach in HIV-infected patients with acceptable survival rates in Germany. Reinfection with HCV still remains a major clinical challenge in HIV/HCV coinfection after OLT. PMID: 22900154 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Antiretroviral treatment in resource-limited settings 2012.
Authors: Duerr A, Altice FL, Harries AD, Sohn AH PMID: 22888412 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Global HIV/AIDS Clinical and Translational Pharmacology.
Authors: Morse GD, Maartens G, Maponga CC, Ma Q PMID: 22852073 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Age Differences among Female Sex Workers in the Philippines: Sexual Risk Negotiations and Perceived Manager Advice.
Authors: Urada LA, Malow RM, Santos NC, Morisky DE Abstract Consistent condom use among high risk groups such as female sex workers (FSWs) remains low. Adolescent female sex workers are especially at higher risk for HIV/STI infections. However, few published studies have compared the sexual risk negotiations among adolescent, emerging adult, and older age groups or the extent a manager's advice about condom use is associated with an FSW's age. Of 1,388 female bar/spa workers surveyed in the southern Philippines, 791 FSW who traded sex in the past 6 months were included in multivariable logistic regression models. The oldest FSWs (aged 36-48) compared to adolescent FSWs (aged 14-17) were 3.3 times more likely to negotiate condoms when clients refused condom use. However, adolescent ...
A systematic review of clinical diagnostic systems used in the diagnosis of tuberculosis in children.
Conclusions. Though scoring systems and diagnostic criteria remain widely used in the diagnosis of tuberculosis in children, validation has been difficult due to lack of an established and accessible gold standard. Estimates of sensitivity and specificity vary widely, especially in populations with high HIV co-infection. PMID: 22848799 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
TB and HIV Therapeutics: Pharmacology Research Priorities.
Authors: Dooley KE, Kim PS, Williams SD, Hafner R Abstract An unprecedented number of investigational drugs are in the development pipeline for the treatment of tuberculosis. Among patients with tuberculosis, co-infection with HIV is common, and concurrent treatment of tuberculosis and HIV is now the standard of care. To ensure that combinations of anti-tuberculosis drugs and antiretrovirals are safe and are tested at doses most likely to be effective, selected pharmacokinetic studies based on knowledge of their metabolic pathways and their capacity to induce or inhibit metabolizing enzymes of companion drugs must be conducted. Drug interaction studies should be followed up by evaluations in larger populations to evaluate safety and pharmacodynamics more fully. Involving patients w...
Examination of the Relationship between Psychosocial Mediators and Intervention Effects in It's Your Game: An Effective HIV/STI/Pregnancy Prevention Intervention for Middle School Students.
This study suggests that the underlying causal mechanisms of action of these interventions are complex and warrant further analyses. PMID: 22811892 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Adolescents Living with HIV: An Indian Profile.
Conclusion. These findings highlight the profile of adolescents in India and their equation with HIV on demographic and psychosocial levels. PMID: 22778924 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
A Qualitative Exploration of the Economic and Social Effects of Microcredit among People Living with HIV/AIDS in Uganda.
Authors: Wagner G, Rana Y, Linnemayr S, Balya J, Buzaalirwa L Abstract HIV medical care, including antiretroviral therapy (ART), is often successful in restoring physical health and functioning. But in developing countries, HIV medical care is often insufficient to achieve social and economic health, and hence innovative economic support programs are much needed. We conducted semistructured interviews with 30 adults receiving ART and microcredit loans operated by Uganda Cares. Using content analysis, we explored the impact of the microcredit loans on the economic, social, and psychological well-being of respondents. Most respondents indicated that the microcredit loans played a positive role in their lives, helped them to keep their children in school and sustain their families, an...
But I trust my teen: parents' attitudes and response to a parental monitoring intervention.
Authors: Metzger A, Ice C, Cottrell L Abstract Parental knowledge gained from monitoring activities protects against adolescent risk involvement. Parental monitoring approaches are varied and may be modified with successful interventions but not all parents or adolescents respond to monitoring programs the same way. 339 parent-adolescent dyads randomized to receive a parental monitoring intervention and 169 parent-adolescent dyads in the control group were followed for one year over four measurement periods. Parent attitudes about the usefulness of monitoring, the importance of trust and respecting their teens' privacy, and the appropriateness of adolescent risk-taking behavior and experimentation were examined as predictors of longitudinal change in parental monitoring and open co...
Decision Processes about Condom Use among Shelter-Homeless LGBT Youth in Manhattan.
Authors: Ream GL, Barnhart KF, Lotz KV Abstract Health behavior interventions based on Theory of Planned Behavior address participants' personally-held beliefs, perceived social norms, and control over the behavior. New data are always needed to "member check" participants' decision processes and inform interventions. This qualitative study investigates decision processes around condom use among 81 homeless LGBT youth ages 18-26. Findings indicated considerable endorsement of the conventional policy of always using condoms, promulgated in HIV prevention education targeting this population. Although some participants reported risk behavior in contexts of sex work, survival sex, casual encounters, open relationships, and substance use, most were aware of these risks and consistently ...
Thirty Years with HIV Infection-Nonprogression Is Still Puzzling: Lessons to Be Learned from Controllers and Long-Term Nonprogressors.
Authors: Gaardbo JC, Hartling HJ, Gerstoft J, Nielsen SD Abstract In the early days of the HIV epidemic, it was observed that a minority of the infected patients did not progress to AIDS or death and maintained stable CD4+ cell counts. As the technique for measuring viral load became available it was evident that some of these nonprogressors in addition to preserved CD4+ cell counts had very low or even undetectable viral replication. They were therefore termed controllers, while those with viral replication were termed long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs). Genetics and virology play a role in nonprogression, but does not provide a full explanation. Therefore, host differences in the immunological response have been proposed. Moreover, the immunological response can be divided into an ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Short-Term Rationing of Combination Antiretroviral Therapy: Impact on Morbidity, Mortality, and Loss to Follow-Up in a Large HIV Treatment Program in Western Kenya.
Conclusions. Rationing of cART, even for a relatively short period of six months, led to clinically adverse outcomes. PMID: 22690332 [PubMed] (Source: AIDS Research and Treatment)
Salivary gland adaptations: modification of the glands for novel uses.
Authors: Tucker AS Abstract Salivary glands across the animal kingdom show a huge array of shapes, sizes and variations in number within the oral cavity. Some are branched, others elongated and unbranched, some are small and numerous, while others are greatly enlarged. In most species the salivary glands are used to produce saliva, which lubricates the oral cavity, aids digestion and protects the oral mucosa and dentition. In some species, however, the glands have been modified so that they function in new and diverse ways. Examples include the ability to create thread from the salivary glands to create hides and cocoons, as shown by some arthropods, the ability to create nests out of saliva, as shown by the Aerodramus swiftlets, or the ability to produce venom from modified saliva...
Focus on: ethnicity and the social and health harms from drinking.
This article examines the relationship of ethnicity and drinking to (1) unintentional injuries, (2) intentional injuries, (3) fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), (4) gastrointestinal diseases, (5) cardiovascular diseases, (6) cancers, (7) diabetes, and (8) infectious diseases. Reviewed evidence shows that Native Americans have a disproportionate risk for alcohol-related motor vehicle fatalities, suicides and violence, FAS, and liver disease mortality. Hispanics are at increased risk for alcohol-related motor vehicle fatalities, suicide, liver disease, and cirrhosis mortality; and Blacks have increased risk for alcohol-related relationship violence, FAS, heart disease, and some cancers. However, the scientific evidence is incomplete for each of these harms. More research is needed on the relation...
Determinants of Common Mental Disorder, Alcohol Use Disorder and cognitive morbidity among people coming for HIV testing in Goa, India
ConclusionsAmong people coming for testing for HIV/AIDS in Goa, India, we found that CMD occurred in the context of social and economic stressors (violence, symptoms of STI, poor education and food insecurity) and AUD was associated with violence and risky sexual behaviour. Further research is necessary to understand the role of gender, stigma and social norms in determining the relationship between sexual and mental health. Understanding associations between these background characteristics and psychological morbidity may help inform the design of appropriate early interventions for depression among people newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Tropical Medicine and International Health)
Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare Brain Abscesses in an HIV-Infected Patient
We present a case of a multiple MAC brain abscesses, confirmed by brain biopsy and culture, in a patient with AIDS. The patient's initial symptoms were weakness, confusion and headaches. The patient was initially treated for toxoplasmosis and pyogenic bacterial brain abscesses with no resolution. Following treatment for MAC the patient's abscesses resolved. (Source: IDCases)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Current Practices of Screening for Incident Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection Among HIV-Infected, HCV-Uninfected Individuals in Primary Care
Conclusions.&nbsp;Although most HIV-infected patients were screened for prevalent HCV infection at enrollment in care, only half who were HCV uninfected were screened again. Screening varied between sites, even when controlling for demographics and risk behaviors. Patients with new ALT elevations to &gt;100 IU/L were seldom assessed for incident HCV infection. Guidelines are needed to help HIV providers know whom to screen, how frequently to screen, and which screening test to use. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Telaprevir for HIV/Hepatitis C Virus-Coinfected Patients Failing Treatment With Pegylated Interferon/Ribavirin (ANRS HC26 TelapreVIH): An Open-Label, Single-Arm, Phase 2 Trial
Conclusions.&nbsp;Despite a high discontinuation rate related to toxicity, a substantial proportion of treatment-experienced HIV-coinfected patients achieved SVR24 with a telaprevir-based regimen. Clinical Trials Registration.&nbsp;NCT01332955. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Editorial Commentary: Does HIV Remain a Risk Factor for Achieving Sustained Virologic Response Under Direct Acting Antiviral-Based Modern Hepatitis C Virus Therapy?
(Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Increased Coronary Vessel Wall Thickness in HIV-Infected Young Adults
Conclusions.&nbsp;This investigation provides evidence of subclinical coronary vascular disease among individuals infected with HIV in early life. Increased duration of ART, hyperlipidemia, and smoking contributed to proximal RCA thickening, independent of atherosclerotic plaque quantified by CT. These modifiable risk factors appear to influence early atherogenesis as measured by coronary wall thickness and may be important targets for CVD risk reduction. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Cross-sectional Comparison of the Prevalence of Age-Associated Comorbidities and Their Risk Factors Between HIV-Infected and Uninfected Individuals: The AGEhIV Cohort Study
Conclusions.&nbsp;All AANCCs were numerically more prevalent, with peripheral arterial, cardiovascular disease, and impaired renal function significantly so, among HIV-infected participants compared with HIV-uninfected controls. Besides recognized cardiovascular risk factors, HIV infection and longer time spent with severe immunodeficiency increased the risk of a higher composite AANCC burden. There was a less pronounced contribution from residual inflammation, immune activation, and prior high-dose ritonavir use. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Acquired Rifampicin Resistance in Thrice-Weekly Antituberculosis Therapy: Impact of HIV and Antiretroviral Therapy
Conclusions.&nbsp;HIV-infected patients with tuberculosis treated with a thrice-weekly antituberculosis regimen are at a higher risk of ARR, compared with HIV-uninfected patients, in the presence of baseline isoniazid resistance. HAART reduces but does not eliminate the risk of ARR. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Radiology of HIV/AIDS: A Practical Approach
(Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)
Experiences with an integrative approach to treating HIV/AIDS in East Africa
Abstract HIV/AIDS is a multifaceted condition affecting the whole person and family, which requires an individualized and holistic approach, as defined by Person Centered Health Care. In East Africa, Homoeopathy for Health in Africa offers patients an integrative, holistic method to supplement standard medical treatment and mitigate the side effects of anti-retroviral (ARV) drugs that often interfere with patient adherence to treatment and lead to drug resistance. Patients who have homoeopathy treatment as a supplement to ARVs report amelioration of side effect symptoms, increased energy and enhanced well-being, allowing them to work and care for their families. Results of an audit give demographic information. AIDS medical practitioners support homoeopathy, an approved form of me...
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in Miliary Tuberculosis and AIDS: A Case Report
Conclusion?Even though the use of such extensive and expensive treatment can be questioned, this example encourages an aggressive approach in a young patient, even in situations of multiple diagnosis of individually limited prognosis.[...]Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New YorkArticle in Thieme eJournals:Table of contents  |  Abstract  |  open access Full text (Source: The Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon Reports)
"How am I going to work?" barriers to employment for immigrant Latinos and Latinas living with HIV in Toronto.
CONCLUSIONS: Due to their intersectional identities as immigrants/refugees and HIV positive individuals, participants face compounded barriers to employment: Language difficulties, lack of migrant status and Canadian work experience, anti-immigrant sentiments in the labor market, ageism, HIV related stigma and side effects of medications among other barriers related with an HIV positive condition. Such barriers locate participants in a marginalized position in Canadian society. PMID: 25425593 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Work)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Assessment of Patient Health Literacy: A National Survey of Plastic Surgeons
Conclusions: Formal assessment of health literacy is rarely performed, as most plastic surgeons use a general impression. Although plastic surgeons devote significant time to patient counseling, evidence-based communication methods, such as the teach-back method, are underused. Simple, directed questions can identify patients with low literacy skills, to accommodate their communication needs. (Source: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery)
Top UN health officials take joint mission to Mali in support of Ebola response
The Executive Director of Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), Michel Sidibé and the Director-General of the World Health Organization, Dr. Margaret Chan, have visited Mali in a joint mission to support the country in its efforts to curb the spread of Ebola, as authorities there announced one new case and that two more suspected patients were being tested. (Source: UN News Centre - Health, Poverty, Food Security)
?When Pirates Feast ? Who Pays?? Condoms, Advertising, and the Visibility Paradox, 1920s and 1930s
Abstract For most of the 20th century, the condom in the United States was a cheap, useful, but largely unmentionable product. Federal and state statutes prohibited the advertising and open display of condoms, their distribution by mail and across state lines, and their sale for the purpose of birth control; in some states, even owning or using condoms was illegal. By the end of World War I, condoms were increasingly acceptable for the prevention of sexually transmitted disease, but their unique dual function?for disease prevention and contraception?created ongoing ambiguities for sellers, consumers, and distributors as well as for legal, political, health, and moral leaders. Not until the 1970s did condoms emerge from the shadows and join other personal hygiene products on op...
CDC-Funded HIV Testing, United States, Puerto Rico, and U.S. Virgin Islands, 2012
This report summarizes the test event-level National HIV Prevention Program Monitoring and Evaluation data for CDC-funded testing events in the United States and dependent areas (Puerto Rico and U.S. Virgin Islands). (Source: CDC HIV/AIDS Prevention)
Gambia: AAITG Sensitises Local Authorities, Others On HIV/Aids Stigma, Discrimination
[Daily Observer]Action-Aid International the Gambia (AAITG) in collaboration with the National Aids Secretariat (NAS) office, Thursday held a three-day sensitization forum on issues of stigma and discrimination perpetuated by some members of society against people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIDs) in the Gambia. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Zimbabwe: HIV Test and Treat Campaign Targets Men, Children
[The Herald]Government has embarked on a family test and treat HIV and Aids campaign aimed at increasing the number of men and children accessing anti-retroviral drugs.Officially launching the campaign, expected to see over 120 000 people getting tested in the next 10 days in Harare alone, Minister of State for Harare Province Miriam Chikukwa said voluntary medical male circumcision would also be carried out at all health institutions. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Zimbabwe: 70 000 Pregnant Women Test HIV+
[The Herald]Seventy thousand pregnant women tested positive to HIV this year, a Government official has revealed. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: Dealing With the HIV/Aids Menace
[This Day]A fortnight ago today, hundreds of people living with HIV picketed the National Agency for Control of AIDS (NACA) to protest the neglect and inadequate funding that has led to the death of thousands of their colleagues in recent months. In the course of the protest, the headquarters of NACA was barricaded and sealed off by the Network of People Living with HIV/AIDS in Nigeria (NEPWHAN). What gave the protest greater significance was the timing: It came at a period when international donor agencies have sta (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: New Approach At the OIG Means Fewer Country Audits and More Audits of Secretariat Processes
[GFO]In 2015, OIG will evaluate the allocations methodology and the effectiveness of CCMs (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Botswana: Behavioral Change Remains Challenge
[Botswana Daily News]Gaborone -The decline in the use of condoms among the general population and an increase in the multiple sexual partnerships still remain a challenge. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Zimbabwe: UK - HIV+ Rapist Escapes to Zimbabwe
[New Zimbabwe]A CONVICTED rapist who knowingly infected a woman with HIV in the UK is believed to have absconded to Zimbabwe. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Kenya: HIV High in Young Girls
[The Star]HIV prevalence is highest among women and men aged 25 and 44, statistics from the National Aids Control Council have shown. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Narrow time window exists to start HIV therapy, study shows
(University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio) HIV-1 infected US military members and beneficiaries treated with antiretroviral therapy soon after infection were half as likely to develop AIDS and were more likely to reconstitute their immune-fighting CD4+ T-cells to normal levels, researchers reported Nov. 24 in JAMA Internal Medicine. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)
Rwanda: World Aids Day - How Effective Is PMTCT?
[New Times]A research article published last year titled "Prevention of mother-to-child (PMTCT) transmission of HIV: cost-effectiveness of antiretroviral regimens and feeding options in Rwanda" summarizes the progress the country has made in that direction. According to the research, Rwanda's national PMTCT programme aims to achieve elimination of new HIV infections in children by 2015. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Heartbeat: Highlights from this issue
Clinical cardiovascular research primarily is conducted in high-income countries where highly sophisticated medical care is widely available. We have little data on disease patterns and outcomes in low and middle-income countries (LMIC) where medical resources often are limited. In the Editor's choice in this issue of Heart, Professor Sliwa and colleagues (see page 1967) present a prospective cohort study of 225 pregnant women with cardiovascular disease seen at a single center in South Africa. In high risk women, 32% had congenital heart disease, 26% valvular disease and 27% had a cardiomyopathy. In contrast to higher-income countries where congenital heart disease is the primary concern, in this cohort rheumatic valve disease, hypertensive heart disease and cardiomyopathy were more commo...
Rigorous Methodology Is Needed to Analyze and Interpret Observational Data on the Use and Effectiveness of Smoking Cessation Aids
(Source: Nicotine and Tobacco Research)
"Pictures Don't Lie, Seeing Is Believing": Exploring Attitudes to the Introduction of Pictorial Warnings on Cigarette Packs in Ghana
Conclusions: Warning labels combining pictures and text have the potential to reduce smoking uptake, increase quit attempts, and reduce smoking appeal among smokers and nonsmokers in Ghana. Measures to prevent single stick sales, or to promote health messages to purchasers of single sticks, are required. (Source: Nicotine and Tobacco Research)
Expression of activating receptors on natural killer cells from AIDS-related lymphoma patients
Conclusions: We show a more pronounced defect in NK activating molecule when HIV infection is associated with lymphoma than when only one condition (HIV positivity or lymphoma) is present. Defective NK phenotype, in addition to CD4+ depletion and dysfunction, may participate to the increased incidence of lymphoma in HIV patients. (Source: AIDS Research and Therapy)
Influence of the Timing of Antiretroviral Therapy on the Potential for Normalization of Immune Status in Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1?Infected Individuals
ImportanceIn individuals with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infection who are receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART), factors that promote full immune recovery are not well characterized. ObjectiveTo investigate the influence of the timing of ART relative to HIV-1 infection on normalization of CD4+ T-cell counts, AIDS risk, and immune function.Design, Setting, and ParticipantsParticipants in the observational US Military HIV Natural History Study with documented estimated dates of seroconversion (EDS) who achieved virologic suppression with ART were evaluated. Markers indicative of immune activation, dysfunction, and responsiveness were determined. Responses to hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine, an indicator of in vivo immune function, were also assessed. The timing of ART was index...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Dyspareunia in HIV-positive and HIV-negative middle-aged women: a cross-sectional study
Conclusions Dyspareunia was common in this group of HIV-positive women and was associated principally with vaginal dryness and urinary incontinence. The importance of treating dyspareunia within the context of sexual health in this group of women should be emphasised and appropriate management of this issue may reduce the likelihood of lesions on the vaginal wall, which may act as a portal of entry for other infections. (Source: BMJ Open)
Gym exercising patterns, lifestyle and high-risk sexual behaviour in men who have sex with men and in heterosexual men
Conclusions MSM practised more IAT than heterosexual men, and their interaction between IAT and sexual risk was multiplicative. The MSM community could benefit from a holistic approach to sexual health and its association with body image and IAT. The gym MSM culture demonstrates how internal dynamics and social norms are possible factors driving MSM to high-risk behaviour for HIV/STI. Study registration The study was approved by the Wolfson Hospital Review Board, Holon, Israel (WOMC-0058-09). (Source: BMJ Open)
HIV diversity and drug resistance from plasma and non-plasma analytes in a large treatment programme in western Kenya.
CONCLUSIONS: In a large treatment programme in western Kenya, we report high HIV-1 subtype diversity; low plasma transmitted resistance, increasing when multiple analytes were combined; and high-acquired resistance with unique mutation patterns. Resistance surveillance may be augmented by using non-plasma analytes for lower-cost genotyping in resource-limited settings. PMID: 25413893 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Low adverse event rates following voluntary medical male circumcision in a high HIV disease burden public sector prevention programme in South Africa.
CONCLUSIONS: VMMC can be delivered safely at resource-limited settings. The intensive three-visit post-operative review practice may be unfeasible due to high attrition rates over time, particularly amongst older men. PMID: 25406951 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
The disproportionate burden of HIV and STIs among male sex workers in Mexico City and the rationale for economic incentives to reduce risks.
CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that economic incentives are a relevant approach for HIV prevention among MSWs, given the market-based inducements for unprotected sex. This type of targeted intervention seems to be justified and should continue to be explored in the context of combination prevention efforts. PMID: 25399543 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
The future of novel diagnostics in medical mycology.
Authors: Teles F, Seixas J Abstract Several fungal diseases have become serious threats to human health and life, especially upon the advent of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS epidemics and of other typical immunosuppressive conditions of modern life. Accordingly, the burden posed by these diseases and, concurrently, by intensive therapeutic regimens against these diseases has increased worldwide. When existing and available, rapid tests for point-of-care (POC) diagnosis of important fungal diseases enable surpassing the limitations of current laboratory methods for detection and identification of medically-important fungi, both in low-income countries and for first-line diagnosis (screening) in richer countries. As with conventional diagnostic methods and devices, former i...
Liberia: Ebola Hampers HIV/Aids Care
[IRIN]Monrovia/Dakar -Ebola has crippled the provision of treatment and care to people living with HIV/AIDS in Liberia, according to health workers and patients. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Index
Note: Page numbers of article titles are in boldface type. AIDS (Source: Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics)
Noninfectious Pulmonary Complications of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection
Abstract:Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is the retrovirus responsible for the development of AIDS. Its profound impact on the immune system leaves the host vulnerable to a wide range of opportunistic infections not seen in individuals with a competent immune system. Pulmonary infections dominated the presentations in the early years of the epidemic, and infectious and noninfectious lung diseases remain the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in persons living with HIV despite the development of effective antiretroviral therapy. In addition to the long known immunosuppression and infection risks, it is becoming increasingly recognized that HIV promotes the risk of noninfectious pulmonary diseases through a number of different mechanisms, including direct tissue toxicity b...
Index
Note: Page numbers of article titles are in boldface type. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). See AIDS (Source: Infectious Diseases Clinics of North America)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Hiv/aids
The last issue of the Infectious Disease Clinics of North America devoted specifically to HIV/AIDS was published in 1988. Edited by Merle Sande and Paul Volberding, that landmark issue provided a state-of the-art snapshot of the newly defined epidemic, its epidemiology, and the basic principles of treatment and care. Much has happened since then. In 2012, the number of persons living with HIV infection worldwide reached an all-time high of 35.3 million. The medical, social, and economic consequences of this global disaster have reached all continents, presenting society with a health-related challenge unlike any other. (Source: Infectious Diseases Clinics of North America)
Medical Librarians Month ? Making a Difference in Swaziland
Janet Schnall&#8217;s experience as an Invited Lecturer to a newly open nursing school in Swaziland and a return trip to teach  students and faculty preparing to open a medical school is next in our stories about librarians making a difference. By Janet Schnall, MS, AHIP Information Management Librarian University of Washington Seattle, WA Have I as a librarian changed lives? I believe YES! Last year as University of Washington Health Sciences Library liaison to the UW School of Nursing I received an email from a former UW PhD nursing student, Gloria Nam, whom I had previously assisted with her dissertation, asking for book donations for a new nursing school opening in Swaziland. Dr. Nam, PhD, MSN, FNP, RN was to become the Head of Department of Nursing Science and Dean of Student Affair...
2014 Medical Librarians Month ? Making a Difference in Swaziland
Janet Schnall&#8217;s experience as an Invited Lecturer to a newly open nursing school in Swaziland and a return trip to teach  students and faculty preparing to open a medical school is next in our stories about librarians making a difference. By Janet Schnall, MS, AHIP Information Management Librarian University of Washington Seattle, WA Have I as a librarian changed lives? I believe YES! Last year as University of Washington Health Sciences Library liaison to the UW School of Nursing I received an email from a former UW PhD nursing student, Gloria Nam, whom I had previously assisted with her dissertation, asking for book donations for a new nursing school opening in Swaziland. Dr. Nam, PhD, MSN, FNP, RN was to become the Head of Department of Nursing Science and Dean of Student Affair...
Self?transfer and mortality amongst adults lost to follow?up in ART programmes in low and middle?income countries: systematic review and meta?analysis
ConclusionsSubstantial unaccounted for transfers and deaths among patients LTFU confirms that retention and mortality is underestimated where the true outcomes of LTFU patients are not ascertained.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Tropical Medicine and International Health)
Lopinavir/Ritonavir-Based Antiretroviral Treatment (ART) Versus Efavirenz-Based ART for the Prevention of Malaria Among HIV-Infected Pregnant Women
Conclusions Lopinavir/ritonavir-based ART did not reduce the risk of placental or maternal malaria or improve birth outcomes, compared with efavirenz-based ART. Clinical Trials Registration NCT00993031. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Evidence After Imputation for a Role of MICA Variants in Nonprogression and Elite Control of HIV Type 1 Infection
Past genome-wide association studies (GWAS) involving individuals with AIDS have mainly identified associations in the HLA region. Using the latest software, we imputed 7 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)/indels of the 1000 Genomes Project from the GWAS-determined genotypes of individuals in the Genomics of Resistance to Immunodeficiency Virus AIDS nonprogression cohort and compared them with those of control cohorts. The strongest signals were in MICA, the gene encoding major histocompatibility class I polypeptide-related sequence A (P = 3.31 x 10&ndash;12), with a particular exonic deletion (P = 1.59 x 10&ndash;8) in full linkage disequilibrium with the reference HCP5 rs2395029 SNP. Haplotype analysis also revealed an additive effect between HLA-C, HLA-B, and MICA variants. ...
Metabolic abnormalities and cardiovascular risk in HIV-infected cohort of patients treated with protease inhibitors
Conclusion The study confirms differences in CV risk factors between different cART drugs and this should be considered during initiation of the therapy. (Source: HIV and AIDS Review)
Human immunodeficiency virus-negative plasmablastic lymphoma in the neck: a rare case report and literature review
Abstract Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is an aggressive neoplasm exclusively occurring in AIDS patients. Recently, increasing cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative PBL have been reported. No standard therapy protocol is currently available since there is a great difference between PBL with and without HIV infection. Here, we present a rather rare case of HIV-negative PBL in the neck that dramatically responded to radiotherapy alone. Our case highlights the possibility of PBL in the neck and helps to expand our understanding of this separate lymphoma. The related literature review summarized the clinicopathological features and treatment status of HIV-negative PBL. (Source: European Journal of Medical Research)
HIV/AIDS Drugs Could Potentially Be Repurposed to Treat Age-Related Macular Degeneration
(Source: News from NIGMS Funded Institutions)
Toward an AIDS-Free Generation: Healthcare Outreach and Enrollment for People Living with HIV
The webinar will feature HIV and viral hepatitis leaders from CDC and HRSA as well as individuals from CMS and the HHS Secretary?s Office who are leading ACA enrollment outreach for communities of color. The speakers will highlight benefits of the healthcare law for people at risk for or living with HIV or viral hepatitis, [&#8230;] (Source: NN/LM Middle Atlantic Region Blog)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Women with HIV: gender violence and suicidal ideation

12 More Mind-Blowing Documentaries You Can Stream On Netflix
In light of World Television Day and the upcoming holiday weekend, it seemed like a good time to review another set of Netflix documentaries. If you've already powered through the first three collections, here are 12 more: "How to Survive a Plague" "How to Survive a Plague" captures the turmoil witnessed in Larry Kramer's semi-autobiographical "The Normal Heart" with depictions of actual events at the onset of HIV/AIDS activism. Telling the story of organizations AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power (ACT UP) and Treatment Action Group (TAG), the film depicts the challenges to change perceptions that AIDS is a death sentence. Director David France tackles an infuriating obstacle to highlight the compelling power of grass-roots movements. "The Waiting Room" An intimate look at the health-care...
AIDS Is No. 1 Killer of African Teenagers
As AIDS becomes the leading cause of death of adolescents in Africa, empowering youth ? especially girls - to make safe life choices and avoid HIV is crucial. Credit: Mercedes SayaguesBy Sam OlukoyaLAGOS, Nigeria, Nov 21 2014 (IPS)Two years ago, Shola* was kicked out of the family house in Abeokuta, in southwestern Nigeria, after testing HIV-positive at age 13. He was living with his father, his stepmother and their seven children.?The stepmother insisted that Shola must go because he is likely to infect her children,? Tayo Akinpelu, programme director of Youth?s Future Savers Initiative, told IPS.SNAPSHOT: ADOLESCENTS WITH HIV IN TANZANIA In Tanzania, alarmingly, HIV prevalence has not decreased among adolescents aged 15-19 between 2007 and 2012. An estimated 165,000 adolescents ...
South Africa: Ekurhuleni Partners With NGOs to Reach HIV, TB Targets
[Health-e]Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality hopes that by partnering with non-governmental organisations (NGOs), it can reach ambitious targets laid out in the country's national HIV and tuberculosis (TB) plan. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: Beyond the Rhetoric - Implement Proven Community Strategies to Fight HIV/Aids
[MSF]Johannesburg -The call by UNAIDS to "close the gap" around access to HIV services will not be met unless the delivery of antiretroviral treatment (ARV) is radically reshaped into community-led approaches that adapt to the realities of those living with HIV, warns the international medical organisation Médecins sans Frontières (MSF) ahead of World Aids day (December 1st). (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
South Africa: Call to Support People Living With HIV, Aids
[SAnews.gov.za]With the commemoration of World Aids Day around the corner, Cabinet has called on all communities to support, care and accept people living with HIV and Aids. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Kenya: First Lady Launches a New Partnership Programme With China
[Capital FM]Nairobi -First Lady Margaret Kenyatta has launched a new partnership programme that aims to support and promote cooperation between Kenya and China. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Research shows anti-HIV medicines can cause damage to fetal hearts
(Wayne State University - Office of the Vice President for Research) Just-published findings in the journal AIDS raise concern about potential long-term harmful impact of 'antiretroviral therapy' on in-utero infants whose mothers are HIV-positive, but who are not infected with HIV themselves. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Viruses, Vol. 6, Pages 4571-4580: Role of Host MicroRNAs in Kaposi?s Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Pathogenesis
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA species that can bind to both untranslated and coding regions of target mRNAs, causing their degradation or post-transcriptional modification. Currently, over 2500 miRNAs have been identified in the human genome. Burgeoning evidence suggests that dysregulation of human miRNAs can play a role in the pathogenesis of a variety of diseases, including cancer. In contrast, only a small subset of human miRNAs has been functionally validated in the pathogenesis of oncogenic viruses, in particular, Kaposi?s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). KSHV is the etiologic agent of several human cancers, such as primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and Kaposi?s sarcoma (KS), which are mostly seen in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients or other im...
Successful use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in a human immunodeficiency virus infected patient with severe acute respiratory distress Syndrome
Conclusion: HIV infected patients with ARDS and MDR bacterial VAP whose HIV replication is controlled by ART could be successfully managed with ECMO. (Source: AIDS Research and Therapy)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
The development of drug resistance mutations K103N Y181C and G190A in long term Nevirapine-containing antiviral therapy
Conclusion: In some patients, first-line ART had the possibility to provide sufficient treatment effect for over than 72 months, but in long-term treatment, the dominant NNRTI drug resistance mutation K103N could reduced, while the proportion of variants with mutation Y181C or G190A may increased. This result was not similar with that in vitro study, which state that variant with K103N or Y181C had an equal viral fitness with wild type. (Source: AIDS Research and Therapy)
Acute hepatitis C infection in HIV?negative men who have sex with men
Summary Acute hepatitis C infection is recognized in HIV?infected men who have sex with men (MSM), but the risk in HIV?negative MSM remains unclear. We evaluated a population of MSM with acute hepatitis C. From January 2010 to May 2014, all cases of HCV antibody positive HIV?negative MSM were identified. European AIDS Network criteria were applied to determine acute infection, and 44 individuals fulfilled the criteria for acute hepatitis C. Ten were RNA negative at baseline and classed as prior spontaneous clearance. 15 (34.1%) had a previously negative HCV antibody within 1 year. 11 (25.0%) had significant elevation in ALT levels, and 18 (40.9%) were clinically diagnosed from risk exposure and history. Median age was 37 years (range 24?75). 41 (93.2%) individuals reported unprot...
NIH-Sponsored Study Identifies Superior Drug Regimen for Preventing Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission
"For HIV-infected women in good immune health, taking a three-drug regimen during pregnancy prevents mother-to-child HIV transmission more effectively than taking one drug during pregnancy, another during labor and two more after giving birth, an international clinical trial has found. &nbsp; "The ongoing PROMISE (Promoting Maternal-Infant Survival Everywhere) study also has found that one triple-drug regimen for preventing mother-to-child transmission may be safer than another for women and their babies." &nbsp; For more information, read the NIH press release. (Source: AIDSinfo At-a-Glance: Offering Information on HIV/AIDS Treatment, Prevention, and Research, A Service of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS))
FDA Publishes Final Guidance for Industry/Vaginal Microbicides: Development for the Prevention of HIV Infection
"The guidance provides the FDA's current thinking for development of vaginal microbicides for the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The final guidance supersedes the 2012 draft guidance and incorporates the FDA&rsquo;s responses to public comments submitted to the Agency. &nbsp; "The guidance addresses issues related to nonclinical development, early phases of clinical development, phase 3 trial considerations, and safety considerations in vaginal microbicide development, including safety considerations in adolescent and pregnant populations." &nbsp; For more information, read the FDA press release or view the&nbsp;guidance. (Source: AIDSinfo At-a-Glance: Offering Information on HIV/AIDS Treatment, Prevention, and Research, A Service of the U.S. Department of Heal...
CDC Releases 2012 HIV Surveillance Report
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recently released the&nbsp;2012&nbsp;HIV Surveillance Report. The report presents data from the National HIV Surveillance System on diagnoses of HIV infection in the United States and 6 dependent areas. The data in this report are used by federal agencies, health departments, and other organizations to help focus prevention efforts, allocate resources, and monitor trends in HIV infection. (Source: AIDSinfo At-a-Glance: Offering Information on HIV/AIDS Treatment, Prevention, and Research, A Service of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS))<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
December 1 is World AIDS Day
The theme of World AIDS Day 2014 is "Focus, Partner, Achieve: An AIDS-free Generation." The theme represents both the progress and the ongoing challenges in the global fight against HIV/AIDS. Successes include the wider availability of life-saving antiretroviral drugs, advances in HIV vaccine research, and declines in mother-to-child transmission of HIV. To meet the challenge of an AIDS-free generation, partners worldwide will continue to focus on eliminating new HIV infections and AIDS-related deaths. Visit our&nbsp;World AIDS Day webpage&nbsp;[en espa&ntilde;ol] to learn more about this annual observance. The page includes links to HIV-related information from AIDSinfo&nbsp;and other sources. (Source: AIDSinfo At-a-Glance: Offering Information on HIV/AIDS Treatment, Prevention, and Rese...
Pap Test Adherence, Cervical Cancer Perceptions, and HPV Knowledge Among HIV-Infected Women in a Community Health Setting
The Health Belief Model (HBM) has been widely used as a framework to explain health behaviors in diverse populations, but little HBM research has focused on HIV-infected women and their increased risks for cervical cancer. We used Champion?s Health Belief Model and Self-Efficacy scales to assess relationships between Pap test adherence and constructs of the HBM among 300 HIV-infected women. In addition, we assessed the relationship between HPV and cervical cancer knowledge and key HBM concepts. Participants reported low levels of knowledge regarding risk for cervical cancer and HPV. (Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)
Effects of disability on pregnancy experiences among women with impaired mobility
ConclusionsIn addition to other pregnancy?associated health risks, women with mobility disabilities appear to experience problems relating to their functional impairments. Pre?conception planning and in?depth discussions during early pregnancy could potentially assist women with mobility disabilities to anticipate and address these difficulties.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica)
Application of the Information-Motivation and Behavioral Skills (IMB) model in risky sexual behaviors amongst male students
As AIDS is not merely a hygienic problem but a disease that creates a great deal of economic, cultural, and social problems, it is necessary for most of the state and nongovernmental organizations and individuals to participate in both controlling AIDS and preventing it. As no effective vaccine or therapy for this disease exists currently, the only method for avoiding being afflicted by this disease is prevention. The present study aims to examine the Information-Motivation and Behavioral Skills (IMB) model in risky sexual behaviors. (Source: Journal of Infection and Public Health)
Incentivizing shared decision making in the USA ? where are we now?
Conclusion Efforts to incentivize shared decision making are at risk of being limited to the promotion of patient decision aids, passing over the opportunity to influence the communication processes between patients and providers. (Source: Healthcare)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
AIDS at 30: A History.
Authors: Nelson KE PMID: 25416594 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Epidemiol)
Lymphocyte subsets in human immunodeficiency virus-unexposed Brazilian individuals from birth to adulthood.
Authors: Moraes-Pinto MI, Ono E, Santos-Valente EC, Almeida LC, Andrade PR, Dinelli MI, Santos AM, Salomão R Abstract Ethnic origin, genetics, gender and environmental factors have been shown to influence some immunologic indices, so that development of reference values for populations of different backgrounds may be necessary. We have determined the distribution of lymphocyte subsets in healthy Brazilian individuals from birth to adulthood. Lymphocyte subsets were determined using four-colour cytometry in a cross-sectional study of 463 human immunodeficiency virus-unexposed children and adults from birth through 49 years of age. Lymphocyte subsets varied according to age, as previously observed in other studies. However, total CD4+ T cell numbers were lower than what was describe...
World AIDS Day Portraits: My Life in My Hands
Voice from the FieldWorld AIDS Day Portraits: My Life in My Hands November 20, 2014 On World AIDS Day 2014, we're sharing stories from some of the hundreds of thousands of people worldwide receiving treatment for HIV/AIDS in Doctors Without Borders/Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) projects. While the right drugs can enable people with HIV to live normal, healthy lives, patients often face challenges in finding treatment and adhering to their prescriptions once they do. To this end, MSF has implemented community models of care to remove obstacles to accessing essential antiretroviral treatment (ART). (Source: MSF News)
HIV/AIDS community mourns loss of its own aboard MH17.
Authors: Dumiak M PMID: 25401195 [PubMed - in process] (Source: IAVI Rep)
We Must Beat Alzheimer's Before It Beats Us! And Here's How!
Alzheimer's Has Become the Scariest Disease of Later Life It's true. In a new Age Wave/Merrill Lynch study titled Health and Retirement: Planning for the Great Unknown, we surveyed a representative sample of over 3,000 Americans to uncover both their hopes and their concerns about health and healthcare expenses. Overwhelmingly, the study respondents said that the most important ingredient for a happy retirement is health. And while all diseases can disrupt both health and wealth in retirement, people of all ages now say the scariest disabling condition in later life is Alzheimer's disease. In fact, Alzheimer's was cited more often than cancer, heart disease, stroke and diabetes combined (see Figure 1). We may have reached a critical "tipping point" with regard to the public recognition ...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
HIV/AIDS drugs could be repurposed to treat AMD, researchers suggest
Drugs that have been used for the past 30 years to treat HIV/AIDS, could be repurposed to treat the dry form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a new study suggests. AMD is a progressive condition that is untreatable in up to 90 percent of patients and is a leading cause of blindness in the elderly worldwide. The two forms of AMD, wet and dry, are classified based on the presence or absence of blood vessels that have invaded the retina. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)
Being Your Purpose in Life: A Chat With Marianne Williamson
I first saw Marianne Williamson speak when she had a profound conversation with Eckhart Tolle about what she called "midwifing the new consciousness," and she talked about all of the ways in which we can connect with presence in our everyday lives. In this interview, I was able to speak with Marianne about discovering our unity with and relatedness to others, and coming to accept the light of our true being so that we can find our true purpose in life. You've spent many years founding and running non-profit and social enterprises. How did you find your own sense of purpose in serving the community around you? I don't think of purpose as something we "find," I think of it as something we "are." Language is a limitation here, tempting us to think that our purpose is something separate fr...
HIV drugs show promise in treating common eye disease
WASHINGTON (Reuters) - A class of drugs used for three decades by people infected with the virus that causes AIDS may be effective in treating a leading cause of blindness among the elderly. (Source: Reuters: Health)
Uganda: Ugandan Government Must Make CD4 Testing Accessible in Rural Areas
[Key Correspondents]People living with HIV in rural areas of Uganda need improved access to vital medical equipment to test their levels of immunity and guide antiretroviral treatment. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Tuberculosis is associated with non-tuberculosis-related deaths among HIV/AIDS patients in Rio de Janeiro
(Source: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
In The Latest Issue
The Price of Genius Alan Turing, the man who pioneered computing, also forced the world to question what it means to be human The 25 Best Inventions of 2014 Welcome to Time&rsquo;s annual round-up of the best inventions making the world better, smarter and&mdash;in some cases&mdash;a little more fun A Constitutional Moment The Founding Fathers were clear about who sets immigration policy Tackling Immigration Alone The President has good reason to bypass Congress. But he&rsquo;ll pay a price GE Makes a Big Bet on Manufacturing The company&rsquo;s plan to make things again is a test for the entire American economy Jorge Ramos Is America&rsquo;s New Anchor He&rsquo;s not just another journalist, and his opinions count with millions Aung San Suu Kyi and Burma&rsquo;s Backward Steps As its poli...
Namibia: IUM in Fake Degree Scandal
[Namibian]A LECTURER at the International University of Management was suspended for questioning the circumstances surrounding the awarding of degrees to three students in the Faculty of HIV-AIDS Management. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
South Africa: Informal Settlements Crucial to Ekurhuleni HIV Response
[Health-e]With more than 100 informal settlements in Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality, taking HIV prevention and care into communities is crucial in addressing the metro's high HIV prevalence rate, says local government. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Cannabinoids: novel medicines for the treatment of Huntington's disease.
Authors: Sagredo O, Pazos MR, Valdeolivas S, Fernandez-Ruiz J Abstract Cannabinoid pharmacology has experienced a notable increase in the last 3 decades which is allowing the development of novel cannabinoid-based medicines for the treatment of different human pathologies, for example, Cesamet® (nabilone) or Marinol® (synthetic ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol for oral administration) that were approved in 80s for the treatment of nausea and vomiting associated with chemotherapy treatment in cancer patients and in 90s for anorexiacachexia associated with AIDS therapy. Recently, the british company GW Pharmaceuticals plc has developed an oromucosal spray called Sativex®, which is constituted by an equimolecular combination of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol- and cannabidiol- enriched botanical ...
Naturally occurring and related synthetic cannabinoids and their potential therapeutic applications.
This article reviews patents (2003-2007) that describe methods for isolation of cannabinoids from cannabis, chemical and chromatographic methods for their purification, synthesis, and potential therapeutic applications of these compounds. PMID: 19519560 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Recent Patents on CNS Drug Discovery)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Nigeria: Eliminating Mother to Child HIV Transmission in Nigeria
[Guardian]The Presidency has taken the lead in efforts geared towards eliminating mother to child transmission of Human Immuno-deficiency Virus (HIV) with the launch of new National Operational Plan for the Elimination of Mother to Child Transmission of HIV in Nigeria (2015-2016), last week Thursday, in Abuja. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: Superstars Raise Awareness on HIV Pandemic
[This Day]Ahead of this year's World AIDS Day, Friends Africa and the National Agency for the Control of AIDS (NACA) in collaboration with Coca-Cola have unveiled the 3rd edition of World AIDS Day 'Superstars Play for Life' anti-stigma and discrimination campaign, which will hold on Saturday December 6 by 11am at the Campos mini stadium, Onikan, Lagos. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: How I Gave Birth to Five HIV-Free Children
[Vanguard]"No Nigerian child should be born with HIV." This is the new cliché in Nigeria following the launch of the National Elimination of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV (eMTCT) Plan 2015-2016 by President Goodluck Jonathan in Abuja last week. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Zimbabwe: 15 Years for Infecting Girl With HIV
[The Herald]A Zesa employee here has been sentenced to 15 years in jail for deliberately infecting a 17-year-old with HIV. Nyengedzai Bheka (39) met the teenager on December 22, 2013 and took her to Zvimba on the pretext that he intended to introduce her to his aunt and slept with her. Bheka stayed with the girl for six months in Chinhoyi. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
University of Kentucky reports HIV/AIDS drugs could be repurposed to treat AMD
(University of Kentucky) A new study released by the University of Kentucky today reports that drugs that have been used for the past 30 years to treat HIV/AIDS, could be repurposed to treat the dry form of age-related macular degeneration. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Androgen receptor?interacting protein HSPBAP1 facilitates growth of prostate cancer cells in androgen?deficient conditions
In conclusion, we suggest that HSPBAP1 aids in sustaining cell viability by maintaining AR signaling during androgen?deprived conditions. (Source: International Journal of Cancer)
Classification of the Aging Lips: A Foundation for an Integrated Approach to Perioral Rejuvenation
Conclusion A better understanding of perioral aging leads to a simple classification for the aging lips. Using the classification helps to tailor an appropriate treatment to the individual patient and aids to achieve a natural rejuvenation result. Level of Evidence IV This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266. (Source: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery)
Sleep aids: Understand over-the-counter options
(Source: MayoClinic.com Full Feed)
Barriers to uptake and use of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among communities most affected by HIV in the UK: findings from a qualitative study in Scotland
Conclusions PrEP implementation needs to identify appropriate communication methods in the context of diverse HIV literacy; address risk-reduction concerns and; demonstrate how PrEP can be part of a safe and comprehensive risk management strategy. (Source: BMJ Open)
Tenofovir-Related Nephropathies in HIV-Infected Patients.
CONCLUSION: This study highlights that TDF nephrotoxicity is a widely frequent but reversible form of renal damage with preferentially proximal tubular dysfunction. We suggest that all patients at the time of HIV diagnosis should carry out a screening for kidney disease with eGFR assessment, proteinuria, and urine analysis. PMID: 25412689 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Delayed auditory pathway maturation and prematurity.
Conclusions We present here for the first time a fully documented preterm patient with delayed auditory pathway maturation and normalization of hearing within 14 months of birth. Although rare, postpartum development of the auditory system should, therefore, be considered in the initial stages for treating preterm hearing impaired patients. PMID: 25409950 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift)
Perspectives for the treatment of sensorineural hearing loss by cellular regeneration of the inner ear.
Authors: Almeida-Branco MS, Cabrera S, Lopez-Escamez JA Abstract Sensorineural hearing loss is a caused by the loss of the cochlear hair cells with the consequent deafferentation of spiral ganglion neurons. Humans do not show endogenous cellular regeneration in the inner ear and there is no exogenous therapy that allows the replacement of the damaged hair cells. Currently, treatment is based on the use of hearing aids and cochlear implants that present different outcomes, some difficulties in auditory discrimination and a limited useful life. More advanced technology is hindered by the functional capacity of the remaining spiral ganglion neurons. The latest advances with stem cell therapy and cellular reprogramming have developed several possibilities to induce endogenous regenerat...
Prevalence and Correlates of Cryptococcal Antigen Positivity Among AIDS Patients?United States, 1986?2012
No abstract available (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
Interruption of cART in Clinical Practice Is Associated With an Increase in the Long-Term Risk of Subsequent Immunosuppression in HIV-1-Infected Children
Conclusions:The risk of TI in clinical practice has decreased but remains high. In intent-to-treat analysis, TI was associated with a greater risk of subsequent immunosuppression, even after cART resumption. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)
In Zimbabwe Adolescents Lack Access to Essential Reproductive Health Information and Services
Significant numbers of adolescents in Zimbabwe do not have access to the essential sexual and reproductive health information and services they need to protect themselves from HIV and prevent pregnancy. A new report released today, ?Sexual and Reproductive Health Needs of Adolescents in Zimbabwe,? by the Centre for Population Studies at the University of Zimbabwe and the New York?based Guttmacher Institute, finds that fewer than half of all 15?19-year-olds have comprehensive knowledge about HIV and AIDS, and one-third of all births to adolescents are unplanned. (Source: The Guttmacher Institute)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Africa: UNAIDS Reports That Reaching Fast-Track Targets Will Avert Nearly 28 Million New HIV Infections and End the Aids Epidemic As a Global Health Threat By 2030
[UNAIDS]Geneva/Los Angeles -If the world does not rapidly scale up in the next five years, the epidemic is likely to spring back with a higher rate of new HIV infections than today (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: Report - Fast-Track - Ending the Aids Epidemic By 2030
[Health-e]Released on 18 November ahead of World AIDS Day, the UNAIDS report outlines new targets for the five-year window UNAIDS says is crucial to ending the global threat of HIV. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: World Has Five Years to Secure Victory in HIV Fight
[Health-e]The world has five years to increase access to HIV treatment and prevention to end HIV as a global health threat - and prevent the pandemic from resurging, according to the latest global HIV report released last night. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
South Africa: Study Shows How HIV+ Women Can Reduce Risk to Their Babies
[GroundUp]Pregnant women with HIV can take three anti-HIV medicines instead of one to reduce the risk of their infants contracting the virus, according to results of a study released yesterday. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Africa: UN Urges 'Fast-Track' Approach to End HIV/Aids
[UN News]Taking a fast-track approach in the battle against AIDS over the next five years will avert 21 million deaths and allow the world to end the epidemic by 2030, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) said in a new report published today. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Tanzania: Aspiring for Zero HIV/Aids Infection 'Is Viable Strategy'
[Daily News]FOR many years Dr Cleopas Sila Msuya (73), a retired US trained Medical Officer worked with the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) as regional health consultant, with 14 different national societies (countries) under his supervision. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
The landscape of metastatic progression patterns across major human cancers.
Authors: Budczies J, von Winterfeld M, Klauschen F, Bockmayr M, Lennerz JK, Denkert C, Wolf T, Warth A, Dietel M, Anagnostopoulos I, Weichert W, Wittschieber D, Stenzinger A Abstract The majority of patients with solid malignancies die from metastatic burden. However, our current understanding of the mechanisms and resulting patterns of dissemination is limited. Here, we analyzed patterns of metastatic progression across 16 major cancer types in a cohort of 1008 patients with metastatic cancer autopsied between 2000 and 2013 to assess cancer specific progression patterns of disease and related risk predictions. The frequency and location of metastases were evaluated in and across 1) 16 major cancers, 2) smoking- and non-smoking-related cancers and 3) adeno- and squamous cell carcin...
Angola: Alto-Hama Records Over Thirty New Cases of HIV/Aids
[ANGOP]Londuimbali -At least 36 new cases of HIV/AIDS were diagnosed from January until the first half of November this year, in the commune of Alto-Hama Hospital, 66 kilometers north off Huambo city, compared to 15 recorded in the same previous period. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Malignant syphilis in an AIDS patient
This study reports the case of a 27-year-old man who has been HIV positive for 6 years, uses antiretroviral therapy incorrectly, has a TCD4+ cell count of 340 cells/mm3, a VDRL of 1:128 and itchy disseminated hyperchromic maculopapular lesions with rupioid crusts compatible with malignant syphilis. (Source: Infection)
Temporal trends in prognostic markers of HIV-1 virulence and transmissibility: an observational cohort study
Publication date: Available online 18 November 2014 Source:The Lancet HIV Author(s): Nikos Pantazis , Kholoud Porter , Dominique Costagliola , Andrea De Luca , Jade Ghosn , Marguerite Guiguet , Anne M Johnson , Anthony D Kelleher , Charles Morrison , Rodolphe Thiebaut , Linda Wittkop , Giota Touloumi Background Measures of CD4 T-cell count and HIV-1 plasma viral load before antiretroviral therapy are proxies for virulence. Whether these proxies are changing over time has implications for prevention and treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate those trends. Methods Data were derived from the Concerted Action on SeroConversion to AIDS and Death in Europe (CASCADE) collaboration of mainly European seroconverter cohorts. Longitudinal CD4 cell counts and plasma viral load measurem...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Maternal HIV, Substance Use Role-Modeling, and Adolescent Girls? Alcohol Use
Parental role modeling has a major influence on adolescent alcohol use. Our study examined maternal factors associated with daughters? alcohol use among inner-city racial minority adolescents of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected mothers. A nonprobability sample of 176 mothers (37% with HIV) and their adolescent daughters completed self-administered surveys. Between- and within-group analyses were conducted using hierarchical multivariate logistic regressions. Findings showed that in the full sample, difficulty talking with daughters about alcohol was positively associated with alcohol use among daughters, whereas maternal report of importance of religion was negatively associated with alcohol use among daughters. (Source: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care)
HIV-infected women?s perspectives on the use of the Internet for social support: A potential role for online group-based interventions
While the development and implementation of HIV-related online interventions has expanded, few have been tailored for women or have leveraged Web 2.0?s capabilities to provide social support. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 27 women with HIV at an urban community health center to understand their perspectives on the potential role of the Internet and the use of an online group format to provide social support. Data were analyzed using the constant comparative method. We identified six themes: a need for groups and increased sense of connectedness, convenience and accessibility, trust as a precondition for participating, online groups as a potential facilitator or barrier to expression, limited digital access and literacy, and privacy concerns. (Source: Journal of the Associa...
Fertility desire among HIV-positive women in Tigray region, Ethiopia: implications for the provision of reproductive health and prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission services
Conclusions: Age, HIV disclosure status to husband/sexual partner, and relatively few live children were all found to influence HIV-positive women?s fertility desire. Programmers and policy makers should consider the effects of these factors for HIV-positive women as they develop HIV/AIDS interventions. (Source: BMC Women's Health)
The impact of concomitant pulmonary infection on immune dysregulation in Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia
Conclusions: In summary, concurrent pulmonary infection might enhance immune dysregulation of PJP in non-AIDS immunocompromised patients, but did not affect the outcome as evidenced by morbidity and mortality. Because of limited number of cases studied, further studies with larger populations are needed to verify these issues. (Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine)
Korean Public Opinion on Alcohol Control Policy: A Cross-Sectional International Alcohol Control Study
Alcohol consumption has been known to have a serious negative impact on public health and to cause many social problems. According to WHO global health risk report, alcohol use is the 3rdrisk factor (1st in middle-income countries) for global burden of diseases contributing to 4.5% of global DALYs (Disability-Adjusted Life Years) and 4% of global deaths, greater than deaths attributable to HIV/AIDS. Moreover, alcohol-related problems are not restricted only to drinkers:Consequences of alcohol use, especially episodic heavy drinking, are related toviolence, traffic accidents, child abuse and workplace productivity, affecting people around the drinkers. (Source: Health Policy)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Criminalising contagion
This special issue is the third in a series published by the BMJ Group.1 2 The papers published here arose from a call for papers linked to a project funded by the Economic and Social Research Council: &lsquo;Criminalising Contagion: Legal and Ethical Challenges of Disease Transmission and the Criminal Law&rsquo;, undertaken by David Gurnham, Hannah Quirk and myself. Since January 2013, we have held four seminars, which have brought together academics, healthcare professionals, representatives from charities, the Crown Prosecution Service, the Law Commission and the media. While the focus of these seminars was largely on the sexual transmission of disease (ie, HIV and herpes), the recent Ebola outbreak has highlighted the importance of addressing the broader questions as to whether, and if...
Non-culpable ignorance and HIV criminalisation
In this essay, I argue that any legal framework that addresses sexual transmission of HIV should be sensitive to the way that culpability can be mitigated by moral and factual ignorance. Though it is wrong to transmit HIV, public officials should be wary of criminalising transmission because people with HIV may be excused if they suffer from blameless moral or factual ignorance. I begin with the widely shared premise that blameless ignorance about one's HIV status is an excuse for sexual transmission of infections. I then extend this premise to other kinds of non-moral ignorance about HIV. Next, I argue that blameless moral ignorance also excuses transmission of HIV. There is some evidence of significant blameless non-moral and moral ignorance about HIV transmission. In these cases, transm...
Human semen contains exosomes with potent anti-HIV-1 activity
Conclusions: These illuminating findings i) improved our knowledge of the cargo of semen exosomes, ii) revealed that semen exosomes possess anti-retroviral activity, and iii) suggest that semen exosome-mediated inhibition of HIV-1 replication may provide novel opportunities for the development of new therapeutics for HIV-1. (Source: Retrovirology)
State of the Art Science addressing Injecting Drug Use, HIV and Harm Reduction
Unsafe injecting drug use continues to drive the HIV epidemics in many countries around the world. The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), Joint United Nations Programme on AIDS (UNAIDS), World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Bank estimate that there are 12.7 million (range: 8.9 million-22.4 million) people who inject drugs (PWID), globally. Among them, 13.1 per cent or 1.7 million people (range: 0.9-4.8 million) are living with HIV, with wide variations between regions and countries. (Source: International Journal of Drug Policy)
Short answer question case series: a case of total body pain
A middle-aged male with sickle &beta; thalassaemia presents to the emergency department with increasing joint, abdominal and back pain with fatigue and intermittent fevers, nausea and vomiting for 1&nbsp;week. Vital signs included a pulse of 99 beats/min, BP of 144/82&nbsp;mm&nbsp;Hg, RR of 16&nbsp;times/min, a pulse oximetry of 100% on room air, and temperature of 37.0. On physical exam, he had mild, diffuse abdominal pain with a normal motor-sensory exam of the lower extremities but increased left hip pain on extension of left leg. He kept his knees and hips in a flexed position. Labs revealed a normal leukocyte count, haemoglobin and reticulocyte count. Key questions What are the concerning historical and physical exam findings? What imaging should be considered? What does the CT (figur...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Inconsistent condom use by male clients during anal intercourse with occasional and regular female sex workers (FSWs): survey findings from southern states of India
Conclusions The results suggest that sex workers and their clients commonly practice anal intercourse, but a relatively high proportion of clients do not consistently use condoms, leading to a greater risk of acquiring HIV and its further transmission to other male and female sexual partners. Given the multidirectional risk, safer sex communication on heterosexual anal intercourse must be incorporated into HIV prevention programmes. (Source: BMJ Open)
Africa: Churches Have a Special Role to Play in HIV Response
[WCC]In Africa, where up to 40% of the health care facilities are provided by faith based organizations, Dr Mirfin Mpundu, executive director of the Ecumenical Pharmaceutical Network (EPN), says that due to their unique position churches can play a special role in eliminating HIV and AIDS and bringing improvements in the lives of people living with the virus. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
UN urges ?fast-track? approach to end AIDS epidemic by 2030
Taking a fast-track approach in the battle against AIDS over the next five years will avert 21 million deaths and allow the world to end the epidemic by 2030, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) said in a new report published today. (Source: UN News Centre - Health, Poverty, Food Security)
From Hypnos to the Heavenly Bed: A Brief History of Sleep
Sleep is having its moment in the sun -- or, more appropriately, its moment in a darkened room, with blackout shades drawn, the temperature somewhere between 60 and 67 degrees Fahrenheit, all smartphones and tablets banished from the room and maybe a white noise machine softly whirring in the corner. You'd have to be severely sleep-deprived not to see evidence of the new sleep revolution. Everywhere you look there are articles about the benefits of sleep and the downsides of lack of sleep, tips on how to get more sleep and new devices and apps to help us disconnect and drift off to sleep and then monitor and track different stages of our sleep. Of course, those of us at HuffPost have been eager participants in this revolution, having passionately promoted the importance of sleep for over ...
Africa: Iapac, HIV Advocates, and Abbvie Launch Tools in Advance of World Aids Day to Strengthen Dialogue Between Women Living With HIV and Their Healthcare Providers
[PR Newswire]Washington, DC -Women take a stand to improve HIV care outcomes globally (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Comparison of pregnancies between perinatally and sexually HIV-infected women: an observational study at an urban hospital.
Authors: Badell ML, Kachikis A, Haddad LB, Nguyen ML, Lindsay M Abstract As perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV) women reach reproductive age, there is an increasing number who become pregnant. This is a retrospective cohort study of HIV-infected women who delivered from June 2007 to July 2012 at our institution. Maternal demographics, HIV characteristics, and obstetric and neonatal outcomes were compared. 20 PHIV and 80 SHIV pregnancies were reviewed. The groups had similar CD4+ counts, prevalence of AIDS, and use of antiretrovirals (ARV) at initiation of obstetrical care. PHIV women were significantly more likely to be younger, have a detectable viral load (35% versus 74%, P &lt; 0.01), and have HIV-genotype resistance (40% versus 12%, P &lt; 0.01) than the SHIV women. The median gest...
A Comparative Systematic Review of the Optimal CD4 Cell Count Threshold for HIV Treatment Initiation.
Authors: Olubajo B, Mitchell-Fearon K, Ogunmoroti O Abstract HIV infection is no longer characterized by high morbidity, rapid progression to AIDS, and death as when the infection was first identified. While anti-retroviral drugs have improved the outcome of AIDS patients, clinical research on the appropriate time to initiate therapy continues to evolve. Optimal therapy initiation would maximize the benefits of these drugs, while minimizing side effects and drug resistance. Recent 2013 WHO guidelines changed HIV therapy initiation from 350?cells/ ? L to 500?cells/ ? L. This systematic review provides an evidence-based comparison of starting treatment at &gt;500?cells/ ? L with starting treatment at the range between 350?cells/ ? L and 500?cells/ ? L. An 11% increase ...
Etiology and Outcome of Patients with HIV Infection and Respiratory Failure Admitted to the Intensive Care Unit.
Conclusions. Noninfectious etiologies of respiratory failure account for majority of HIV-infected patients admitted to ICU. Increased mortality was observed among patients with sepsis as etiology of respiratory failure (HIV related and non-AIDS related), in those receiving mechanical ventilation, and in patients with decreased CD4 cell count. Survival was not associated with the use of HAART. Complementary studies are warranted to address the impact of HAART on outcomes of HIV-infected patients with respiratory failure admitted to ICU. PMID: 24065988 [PubMed] (Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases)
Intensive Care Usage by HIV-Positive Patients in the HAART Era.
Authors: Turtle L, Vyakernam R, Menon-Johansson A, Nelson MR, Soni N Abstract In the 1980s the outlook for patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and critical illness was poor. Since then several studies of outcome of HIV+ patients on ICU have shown improving prognosis, with anti-retroviral therapy playing a large part. We retrospectively examined intensive care (ICU) admissions in a large HIV unit in London. Between April 2001 and April 2006 43 patients were admitted to the ICU. The mean age of patients was 44 years and 74% were male. Fifty-six percent of admissions were receiving anti-retroviral therapy and 44% had an AIDS defining diagnosis. The median CD4 count was 128?cells/mL and the median APACHE II score was 21. The commonest diagnostic ICU admission ...
Immune Modulation as Adjunctive Therapy for Pneumocystis pneumonia.
Authors: Wang J, Wright TW, Gigliotti F Abstract Pneumocystis is an opportunistic fungal respiratory pathogen that causes life-threatening pneumonia (Pcp) in patients suffering from defects in cell-mediated immunity, including those with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and immunosuppression secondary to chemotherapy or organ transplantation. Despite major advances in health care, the mortality associated with Pcp has changed little over the past 25? years. Pcp remains a leading cause of death among HIV infected patients, with mortality rates of 50% or higher for patients developing severe Pcp. In addition, as more potent immunosuppressive therapies are developed for chronic inflammatory diseases, more cases of Pcp are occurring in non-HIV patients and in previously unre...<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
[Media Watch] No shame, only pride
In 1984, the HIV virus was isolated and tests became available in the UK. 2 years later the world's first major government-sponsored national AIDS awareness campaign darkened British television screens??There is now a danger that has become a threat to us all. It is a deadly disease and there is no known cure?. Controversial for its unambiguous and stark message, it seems to have paved the way for a popular genre?films about infectious diseases and viral outbreaks. Pride, directed by Matthew Warchus, is not a scaremongering film about heroic individuals saving humanity from impending doomsday, but it does suggest a foreboding of sorts. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
[Correspondence] Antiretroviral treatment initiation ? Authors' reply
We thank Arild Maeland and Samir Gupta for their interest in our Comment. Traditionally, concerns about cost, sustainability, and potential toxicities of long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART) have led to recommendations to defer ART initiation. The development, however, of more efficacious, convenient, and better-tolerated ART regimens has markedly reversed this trend. Furthermore, results from the HPTN 052 substudy show a range of individual benefits of early ART initiation, including a significant reduction in AIDS-related opportunistic infections and tuberculosis incidence. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Kenya: Murang'a Residents Get Free Aids Care
[The Star]The Murang'a county government has partnered with a health NGO to give residents free HIV-Aids services, including testing, care and treatment. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
Nigeria: Pregnant Women Demand HIV Testing Centres At Antenatal Clinics
[Leadership]Abuja -Over 64 per cent of respondents at the latest nationwide poll wants pregnant women tested for HIV at the antenatal clinic so that they don't infect their baby. (Source: AllAfrica News: HIV-Aids and STDs)
South Africa to Spend USD 2.2 bln on HIV Drugs in Next 2 YearsSouth Africa to Spend USD 2.2 bln on HIV Drugs in Next 2 Years
South Africa plans to spend $2.2 billion over two years to buy HIV/AIDS drugs for public hospitals, a government minister said on Monday, as a study shows the prevalence of the virus is rising. Reuters Health Information (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
A simplified approach to the minimally invasive antral membrane elevation technique utilizing a viscoelastic medium for hydraulic sinus floor elevation
Conclusions This simplified technique may make the minimally invasive antral membrane elevation technique more accessible to implant surgeons as it eliminates the need for purchase of specialized equipment and aids in further decrease of intra-operative time accomplished with the original technique. (Source: Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery)
Adherence to standards of quality HIV/AIDS care and antiretroviral therapy in the West Nile Region of Uganda
Conclusions: Adherence to standards of HIV/AIDS care at facilities was inadequate. Performance was better at the start of ART but declined during the follow up period. Higher level facilities were more likely to adhere to standards like CD4 monitoring and maintaining HIV clients on standard ARV regimen. Efforts geared towards strengthening the health system, including support supervision and provision of care guidelines and job aides are needed, especially for lower level facilities. (Source: BMC Health Services Research)
Analysis of the bacterial community in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease sputum samples by denaturing gradient Gel electrophoresis and real-time PCR
Conclusion: This study revealed strong relationship between alterations of sputum microbiota and COPD. By determining the content of several types of bacteria, we can provide evidence to aid in the diagnosis and treatment of COPD. (Source: BMC Pulmonary Medicine)
Commercial plasma donation and individual health in impoverished rural China
Discussion Results indicate an urgent need of more comprehensive and effective interventions on hepatitis screening, diagnosis, and treatment among plasma donors in less developed contexts to eliminate cross-infection of infectious diseases and possible widespread epidemic in the future. Besides, we should encourage voluntary plasma donation to gradually crowd out paid donation. (Source: Health Economics Review)
Costs of Health Resource Utilization Among HIV-Positive Individuals in British Columbia, Canada: Results From a Population-Level Study
Conclusion Non-HAART direct medical costs were substantially lower for individuals during periods of sustained virologic suppression and high CD4 count. HIV treatment and prevention evaluations require detailed health resource use data to inform funding allocation decisions. (Source: PharmacoEconomics)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Impact of armed conflicts and warfare on opioid substitution treatment in Ukraine: responding to emergency needs
Ukraine has one of the highest HIV prevalences in the Eastern Europe (Vitek et al., 2014; Corsi et al., 2014; Mazhnaya et al., 2014; Degenhardt et al., 2014; Kiriazova, Postnov, Perehinets, & Neduzhko, 2013; Bojko, Dvoriak, & Altice, 2013; Simmons et al., 2014). Injection drug use contributes to the HIV epidemic and is one of the key public health priorities for those working in HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment in Ukraine (Vitek et al., 2014; Corsi et al., 2014; Degenhardt et al., 2014; Simmons et al., 2014; Smyrnov, Broadhead, Datsenko, & Matiyash, 2012; Des Jarlais et al., 2012). (Source: International Journal of Drug Policy)
HIV and aging: insights from the Asia Pacific HIV Observational Database (APHOD)
ConclusionsThe associations between older age and typical patient outcomes in HIV?positive patients from the Asia Pacific region are similar in AHOD and TAHOD. Our data indicate that ?age effects? traverse the resource?rich and resource?limited divide and that future ageing?related findings might be applicable to each setting. (Source: HIV Medicine)
Using a Geolocation Social Networking Application to Calculate the Population Density of Sex-Seeking Gay Men for Research and Prevention Services
Conclusions: Using a limited number of sampled points, we developed a geospatial density map of MSM using a social-networking sex-seeking app. This approach provides a simple method to describe the density of specific MSM subpopulations (users of a particular app) for future HIV behavioral surveillance and allow targeting of prevention resources such as HIV testing to populations and areas of highest need. (Source: Journal of Medical Internet Research)
Grief-processing-based psychological intervention for children orphaned by AIDS in central China: A pilot study
A group of 124 children orphaned by AIDS (COA), who resided in two orphanages funded by the Chinese government, participated in a study investigating the efficacy of a grief-processing-based psychological group intervention. This psychological intervention program was designed to specifically help COA process their grief and reduce their psychological distress. Six sessions of group intervention focused on processing grief, reducing traumatic symptoms and psychological distress, and fostering hope about the future. At the three-month post-test, children in both groups (intervention group and control group) reported significant reduction in trauma symptoms and demonstrated similar levels of hope. However, the intervention group reported significantly increased levels of grief processing and...
Commercial plasma donation and individual health in impoverished rural China
DiscussionResults indicate an urgent need of more comprehensive and effective interventions on hepatitis screening, diagnosis, and treatment among plasma donors in less developed contexts to eliminate cross-infection of infectious diseases and possible widespread epidemic in the future. Besides, we should encourage voluntary plasma donation to gradually crowd out paid donation. (Source: Health Economics Review)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Healthcare Costs Associated with Antiretroviral Adherence Among Medicaid Patients
Conclusion The results show that the relationship of ART adherence to healthcare costs is more complex than previously reported. (Source: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy)
South Africa to spend $2.2 billion on HIV drugs in next two years
PORT ELIZABETH South Africa (Reuters) - South Africa plans to spend $2.2 billion over two years to buy HIV/AIDS drugs for public hospitals, a government minister said on Monday, as a study shows the prevalence of the virus is rising. (Source: Reuters: Health)
South Africa to Spend $2.2 billion on HIV Drugs in Next 2 Years
South Africa plans to spend $2.2 billion over two years to buy HIV/AIDS drugs for public hospitals, a government minister said on Monday, as a study shows the prevalence of the virus is rising -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com (Source: Scientific American - Official RSS Feed)
Action Cycling board adds President-elect position, ensuring...
Action Cycling Atlanta adds Scott Drinkard as President-elect and continues planning its 13th AIDS Vaccine 200, slated for May 16-17, 2015(PRWeb November 16, 2014)Read the full story at http://www.prweb.com/releases/Drinkard/President-elect/prweb12330215.htm (Source: PRWeb: Medical Pharmaceuticals)
Cryptococcal Antigen Screening Among HIV-Infected WomenCryptococcal Antigen Screening Among HIV-Infected Women
Cryptococcal meningitis is an important HIV-associated opportunistic infection. Does cryptococcal antigen screening adequately identify those at risk? Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)<div id="medworm"><p><b><i>MedWorm Sponsor Message:</i></b> Directory of the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">January Sales</a> in the UK. Find the best <a href="http://www.thejanuarysales.com/">Christmas presents</a> too.</p></div>
Botswana: Government Committed to Zero New HIV Infections
[Botswana Daily News]Gaborone -President Lt Gen. Seretse Khama Ian Khama says the nation remains resolute in the commitment to getting to Zero New HIV infections, Zero Discrimination and Zero AIDS related deaths by 2016. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)
Preconception antiretroviral therapy and birth defects: what is needed?
No abstract available (Source: AIDS)
Role of education and differentiation in determining the potential of natural killer cells to respond to antibody-dependent stimulation
Antibody-dependent activation of natural killer (NK) cells might facilitate protective outcomes in the context of HIV exposure or infection. Antibody-dependent activation is heightened in NK cells educated by interactions between killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) and their major histocompatibility complex class I ligands during ontogeny. Differentiated NK cells, defined as CD57+, also exhibit enhanced antibody-dependent responsiveness. Although KIRs are more frequently expressed on CD57+ NK cells, the presented data suggest education and differentiation make independent contributions to NK cell anti-HIV envelope antibody-dependent activation. (Source: AIDS)
Successful treatment of aplastic anaemia associated with HIV infection with eltrombopag: implications for a possible immunomodulatory role
We report the first successful treatment with the thrombopoietin receptor mimetic eltrombopag in a patient with severe aplastic anaemia (SAA) associated with HIV infection, thereby avoiding the use of standard immunosuppressive agents for treatment of SAA. Eltrombopag induced a trilineage haematological response. We also show that eltrombopag had an immunomodulatory role with a decrease in proinflammatory T helpers (Th1 and Th17 cells) with increased T-regulatory cell/T-helper ratio, thus contributing to recovery of haemopoiesis. (Source: AIDS)

 

 


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